Science.gov

Sample records for prescription transfer system

  1. Diagnostic Prescriptive Reading System (DPRS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinskas, Gloria

    The purpose of this diagnostic-prescriptive reading system (DPRS), proposed by Palm Beach County and the Florida Atlantic University and sponsored by the Florida Department of Education, was to provide classroom teachers with resources which would enable them to more effectively meet the individual reading needs of their students. This report…

  2. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  3. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pharmacist must do the following: (i) Write the word “VOID” on the face of the invalidated prescription; for... write the word “transfer” on the face of the transferred prescription and reduce to writing...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... purpose of refill dispensing is permissible between pharmacies on a one-time basis only....

  5. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... between pharmacies on a one time basis only. However, pharmacies electronically sharing a real-time,...

  6. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors.

  7. Prescription errors and the impact of computerized prescription order entry system in a community-based hospital.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Pal, Sethi Ajith; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Cucco, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adverse drug events occur often in hospitals. They can be prevented to a large extent by minimizing the human errors of prescription writing. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) system with the help of ancillary support in minimizing prescription errors. Retrospective study carried out in a community-based urban teaching hospital in south Brooklyn, NY from January 2004 to January 2005. Errors were categorized into inappropriate dosage adjustment for creatinine clearance, duplication, incorrect orders, allergy verification, and incomplete orders. The pharmacists identified the type of error, the severity of error, the class of drug involved, and the department that made the error. A total of 466,311 prescriptions were entered in the period of 1 year. There were 3513 errors during this period (7.53 errors per 1000 prescriptions). More than half of these errors were made by the internal medicine specialty. In our study, 50% of the errors were severe errors (overdosing medications with narrow therapeutic index or over-riding allergies), 46.28% were moderate errors (overdosing, wrong dosing, duplicate orders, or prescribing multiple antibiotics), and 3.71% were not harmful errors (wrong dosing or incomplete orders). The errors were also categorized according to the class of medication. Errors in antibiotic prescription accounted for 53.9% of all errors. The pharmacist detected all these prescription errors as the prescriptions were reviewed in the CPOE system. Prescription errors are common medical errors seen in hospitals. The CPOE system has prevented and alerted the prescriber and pharmacist to dosage errors and allergies. Involvement of the pharmacist in reviewing the prescription and alerting the physician has minimized prescription errors to a great degree in our hospital setting. The incidence of prescription errors before the CPOE has been reported to range from 3 to 99 per 1000 prescriptions. The disparity could be due to

  8. Prediction and Prescription in Systems Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    17 COSATI CODES 18 SUSjECT TERMS (Continue on retverse if niecessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Modelling complex systems; non...exponentially increasing forcing functions , population and energy use among them. Now one does not have to run such a model very many hours on a large... function of the superposition of these estimated values. In the modeling, some effort was exerted, quite creditably, to examine the robustness of the

  9. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  10. A Copmarative Review of Electronic Prescription Systems: Lessons Learned from Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Garavand, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This review study aimed to compare the electronic prescription systems in five selected countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, England, and the United States). Compared developed countries were selected by the identified selection process from the countries that have electronic prescription systems. Required data were collected by searching the valid databases, most widely used search engines, and visiting websites related to the national electronic prescription system of each country and also sending E-mails to the related organizations using specifically designed data collection forms. The findings showed that the electronic prescription system was used at the national, state, local, and area levels in the studied countries and covered the whole prescription process or part of it. There were capabilities of creating electronic prescription, decision support, electronically transmitting prescriptions from prescriber systems to the pharmacies, retrieving the electronic prescription at the pharmacy, electronic refilling prescriptions in all studied countries. The patient, prescriber, and dispenser were main human actors, as well as the prescribing and dispensing providers were main system actors of the Electronic Prescription Service. The selected countries have accurate, regular, and systematic plans to use electronic prescription system, and health ministry of these countries was responsible for coordinating and leading the electronic health. It is suggested to use experiences and programs of the leading countries to design and develop the electronic prescription systems. PMID:28331859

  11. Decision Support for Medical Treatment: A TPN Prescription System on a Central Hospital Computer

    PubMed Central

    Moliver, Nina; Coates, Allan L.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system for the prescription of total or partial parenteral nutrition (TPN) is described. The system is applicable to all sizes and ages of patients, from premature infants to adults. Both the physician and the pharmacist are users of the system, with the physician using rule-based safety checks and branching algorithms to make decisions in the prescription process, and the pharmacist receiving the prescription totals electronically in order to complete further calculations needed. Since its introduction, the system appears to have increased the safety of the TPN prescription, saved time, and improved the quality and appropriateness of TPN prescriptions.

  12. Methodology for security development of an electronic prescription system.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, J; Savolainen, M; Forsström, J J

    1998-01-01

    Data security is an essential requirement in all health care applications. Developers of medical information systems should utilize the existing security development and evaluation methods to foresee as many of the technical and human factors that may endanger data security as possible and apply appropriate precautions. Modern smart card technology facilitates the building of robust security framework for interorganizational shared care systems. In this article, we describe the way we utilized the existing security evaluation criteria in developing the security concept of our electronic prescription system.

  13. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.

  14. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  15. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  16. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed.

  17. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  18. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  19. The role of the Pharmacist in the design, development and implementation of Medication Prescription Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Sola Bonada, Nuria; Álvarez Díaz, Ana María; Codina Jané, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) are computerized tools designed to help healthcare professionals to make clinical and therapeutic decisions, with the objective of improving patient care. Prescription-targeted CDSS have the highest impact in improving patient safety. Although there are different designs and functionalities, all these systems will combine clinical knowledge and patient information in a smart manner, in order to improve the prescription process. With the emergence of new technologies and advances in smart decision systems, the implementation of said systems can achieve an important improvement in terms of the prescription process and patient safety. The design and implementation of these systems should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of professionals, where Pharmacists will play an important role due to their technical knowledge about medications and the technologies associated to their use. This article aims to provide basic guidelines for the design and adequate implementation, monitoring and follow-up of Clinical Decision Support Systems within the setting of pharmacological prescription.

  20. tPA Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, Lucy Dana; Grantz, Matthew Ryan; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Background IV tPA utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Methods Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010–11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and analyzed for association with outcomes. Results We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at CSC, 68% at CH (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, p<0.001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, p<0.001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, mRS) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Conclusion Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. PMID:26698642

  1. Automating prescription map building for VRI systems using plant feedback

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescription maps for commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) equipment direct the irrigation rates for each sprinkler zone on a sprinkler lateral as the lateral moves across the field. Typically, these maps are manually uploaded at the beginning of the irrigation season; and the maps are based on...

  2. A security and privacy preserving e-prescription system based on smart cards.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lu, Chung-Fu

    2012-12-01

    In 2002, Ateniese and Medeiros proposed an e-prescription system, in which the patient can store e-prescription and related information using smart card. Latter, Yang et al. proposed a novel smart-card based e-prescription system based on Ateniese and Medeiros's system in 2004. Yang et al. considered the privacy issues of prescription data and adopted the concept of a group signature to provide patient's privacy protection. To make the e-prescription system more realistic, they further applied a proxy signature to allow a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people. This paper proposed a novel security and privacy preserving e-prescription system model based on smart cards. A new role, chemist, is included in the system model for settling the medicine dispute. We further presented a concrete identity-based (ID-based) group signature scheme and an ID-based proxy signature scheme to realize the proposed model. Main property of an ID-based system is that public key is simple user's identity and can be verified without extra public key certificates. Our ID-based group signature scheme can allow doctors to sign e-prescription anonymously. In a case of a medical dispute, identities of the doctors can be identified. The proposed ID-based proxy signature scheme can improve signing delegation and allows a delegation chain. The proposed e-prescription system based on our proposed two cryptographic schemes is more practical and efficient than Yang et al.'s system in terms of security, communication overheads, computational costs, practical considerations.

  3. E-prescription as a tool for improving services and the financial viability of healthcare systems: the case of the Greek national e-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G; Sfyroeras, V; Pagkalos, I

    2014-01-01

    E-prescription systems can help improve patient service, safety and quality of care. They can also help achieve better compliance for the patients and better alignment with the guidelines for the practitioners. The recently implemented national e-prescription system in Greece already covers approximately 85% of all prescriptions prescribed in Greece today (approximately 5.5 million per month). The system has not only contributed already in significant changes towards improving services and better monitoring and planning of public health, but also substantially helped to contain unnecessary expenditure related to medication use and improve transparency and administrative control. Such issues have gained increasing importance not only for Greece but also for many other national healthcare systems that have to cope with the continuous rise of medication expenditure. Our implementation has, therefore, shown that besides their importance for improving services, national e-prescription systems can also provide a valuable tool for better utilisation of resources and for containing unnecessary healthcare costs, thus contributing to the improvement of the financial stability and viability of the overall healthcare system.

  4. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  6. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  7. Development of clinical application for a nutritional prescription support system for total parenteral/enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Syuzo; Oka, Ryusho; Uwai, Koji; Matsuda, Yumi; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshito; Shoji, Tohru; Mihara, Chie; Takeshita, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    One of the important roles of pharmacists as members of a nutrition support team is nutritional prescription support. We developed a nutritional prescription support system (NPSS) that facilitates prescription support and analysis and evaluated its usefulness in nutritional therapy. An NPSS for prescription support and the management of patient information was created. With this NPSS, the nutritional status was assessed, and, on the basis of the results, such variables as the total energy expenditure were calculated. This system allows prescription support for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, enteral nutrition (EN) therapy, and the transition period between them. This system was used for 2 representative patients and evaluated. In a malnourished patient receiving oral warfarin, EN solutions were compared by means of the NPSS, and an appropriate EN solution was selected. In addition, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was monitored, and favorable results were obtained regarding the adjustment of the warfarin dose and nutritional management. In a patient with aspiration pneumonia, continuous nutritional management to EN from PN therapy was straightforwardly performed with the NPSS. This NPSS allows rapid, comprehensive nutritional management during the transition period to EN from PN therapy, despite these therapies being considered separately in conventional nutritional management. The NPSS is useful for simplifying prescription support and facilitating information sharing among members of a nutrition support team.

  8. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  9. Intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Liu, Hsiao-Man; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the era of global high-tech industry and commerce and its associated sedentary lifestyle, opportunities for physical activity are reduced. People's physical fitness and health is deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that can enhance people's physical fitness and health. However, it is difficult for general physical fitness and healthcare systems to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop a method of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. The proposed system records all processes of the physical fitness and healthcare system via a wireless sensor network and the results of the diagnosis and prescription will be generated by fuzzy logic inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

  10. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  11. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  12. A generic system for critiquing physicians' prescriptions: usability, satisfaction and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Seroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques; Simon, Christia; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Venot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems have been developed to help physicians to take clinical guidelines into account during consultations. The ASTI critiquing module is one such systems; it provides the physician with automatic criticisms when a drug prescription does not follow the guidelines. It was initially developed for hypertension and type 2 diabetes, but is designed to be generic enough for application to all chronic diseases. We present here the results of usability and satisfaction evaluations for the ASTI critiquing module, obtained with GPs for a newly implemented guideline concerning dyslipaemia, and we discuss the lessons learnt and the difficulties encountered when building a generic DSS for critiquing physicians' prescriptions.

  13. A computer-assisted drug prescription system: the model and its implementation in the ATM knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Riou, C; Pouliquen, B; Le Beux, P

    1999-03-01

    Informatisation of drug prescription is an important topic in medical informatics. For several years now, computerized drug databases have been implemented. Usually only a small part of the prescriptions can be stored in prescription systems because of the format of the included information; prescriptions contain essentially free text without any structure and homogeneity of the used vocabulary. In this article a model is presented for knowledge representation in a computerized drug prescription system. The model should be applicable to clinical practice and be didactic for medical students. The problem of standardization of terminology had to be solved. A computer-assisted drug prescription program has been developed. The next step is its validation by clinicians. The program can also be used in a consultation mode.

  14. Simple prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy for D-dimensional gravity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-02-01

    A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude ({{M}NR}), a trivial expression for computing {{M}NR} is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus.

  15. 76 FR 1182 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... supply chain. On September 27, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) (Pub... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  16. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  17. Occurrence of Medication Errors and Comparison of Manual and Computerized Prescription Systems in Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%–60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21–30 years (21%–24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber’s signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%–19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and

  18. Occurrence of medication errors and comparison of manual and computerized prescription systems in public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic

  19. [A community electronic prescription system connecting physicians, pharmacists, and patients, and utilization of clinical information].

    PubMed

    Iihara, Naomi; Kirino, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We tested a community electronic prescription system (K-CHOPS/PPISS) that we developed in Kagawa, Japan, which connects the prescribing physicians, pharmacists at community pharmacies, and patients through a community data center server. Physicians can send prescriptions, diagnoses, and laboratory data to the datacenter. Pharmacists in community pharmacies can access their patients' information through the datacenter and can return corrected prescriptions and reports containing guidance and adverse events to the hospital or clinic where the prescription was issued. Patients can then see their dispensed medications on their PCs, cellular phones, and smart phones. Additionally, patients can input medication-taking records, allergy and adverse drug reactions (ADR), any over-the-counter drug and supplements that they take, and their physical condition through the devices. The system enables pharmacists to appropriately advise and monitor ADR based on patient clinical data and enables physicians to accurately know the medications handed to patients and advisories issued by the pharmacists. Further, physicians and pharmacists can see the patients' condition which they entered on their devices if the patients agree. These would be helpful for avoiding ADR. The information accumulated in the data center can be potentially utilized for evaluation of the effectiveness and ADR of medications and for development of innovative medication. Discussion of the pros and cons for such utilization is needed.

  20. [Factors associated with the understanding of medical prescriptions in the Unified Health System in a city in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cruzeta, Alana Patrício Stols; Dourado, Ana Claudia Lawless; Monteiro, Maria Tereza Mattos; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Calegario, Talita Aparecida; Galato, Dayani

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study via interviews was conducted in the city of Tubarão in the state of Santa Catarina in order to identify the association between prescription indicators and the profile of the healthcare users and their understanding of medical prescriptions among patients attended by the Unified Health System. Information was collected on the profile of the healthcare users, the prescription indicators recommended by the World Health Organization and the understanding of drug prescriptions. Three hundred subjects were interviewed and the associated factors were identified using the Chi-square test. Of the respondents, 59.3% were able to read the prescription or knew the drug names, 80.7% knew the drug indication, 73.7% knew the dosage, 72.3% knew the dosage intervals and 72.7% knew the duration of treatment. However, only 46.3% of the respondents fully understood the prescription. Between the prescriptions indicators only the number of drugs in prescriptions was significantly associated with understanding. On the other hand, having up to eight years of schooling, belonging to socioeconomic class C1, being under 49 years of age and being female were significantly associated with the understanding of the drug prescription.

  1. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  2. Computerized physician order entry systems: the right prescription?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ross

    2005-03-01

    Policymakers increasingly urge the use of information technology to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. In particular, computerized physician order entry (CPOE) is emphasized for its ability to reduce prescribing errors inherent in paper-based systems. This Issue Brief summarizes research that sounds a cautionary note about the potential for computerized systems to facilitate medication errors, as well as reduce them.

  3. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  4. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  5. On the designing of a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Safkhani, Masoumeh; Bagheri, Nasour; Naderi, Majid

    2012-12-01

    Recently, Chen et al. have proposed a novel tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system, published in the Journal of Medical Systems. In this paper we consider the security of the proposed protocol and identify some existing weaknesses. The main attack is a reader impersonation attack which allows an active adversary to impersonate a legitimate doctor, e.g. the patient's doctor, to access the patient's tag and change the patient prescription. The presented attack is quite efficient. To impersonate a doctor, the adversary should eavesdrop one session between the doctor and the patient's tag and then she can impersonate the doctor with the success probability of '1'. In addition, we present efficient reader-tag to back-end database impersonation, de-synchronization and traceability attacks against the protocol. Finally, we propose an improved version of protocol which is more efficient compared to the original protocol while provides the desired security against the presented attacks.

  6. A multi-agent system approach for monitoring the prescription of restricted use antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Godo, L; Puyol-Gruart, J; Sabater, J; Torra, V; Barrufet, P; Fàbregas, X

    2003-03-01

    Hospitals have a specified set of antibiotics for restricted use (ARU), very expensive, which are only recommended for special pathologies. The pharmacy department daily checks the prescription of this kind of antibiotics since it is often the case that, after a careful analysis, one can get the same therapeutic effects by using normal antibiotics which are much cheaper and usually less aggressive. In this paper, we describe a multi-agent system to help in the revision of medical prescriptions containing antibiotics of restricted use. The proposed approach attaches an agent to each patient which is responsible of checking different medical aspects related to his/her prescribed therapy. A pharmacy agent is responsible for analyzing it and suggesting alternative antibiotic treatments. All these agents are integrated in a hospital distributed scenario composed by many different kinds of software and human agents. This patient-centered multi-agent scenario is specified using the design methodology of Electronic Institutions.

  7. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  8. Design of a RESTful web information system for drug prescription and administration.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Paganelli, Federica; Pettenati, Maria Chiara; Turchi, Stefano; Ciofi, Lucia; Iadanza, Ernesto; Giuli, Dino

    2014-05-01

    Drug prescription and administration processes strongly impact on the occurrence of risks in medical settings for they can be sources of adverse drug events (ADEs). A properly engineered use of information and communication technologies has proven to be a promising approach to reduce these risks. In this study, we propose PHARMA, a web information system which supports healthcare staff in the secure cooperative execution of drug prescription, transcription and registration tasks. PHARMA allows the easy sharing and management of documents containing drug-related information (i.e., drug prescriptions, medical reports, screening), which is often inconsistent and scattered across different information systems and heterogeneous organization domains (e.g., departments, other hospital facilities). PHARMA enables users to access such information in a consistent and secure way, through the adoption of REST and web-oriented design paradigms and protocols. We describe the implementation of the PHARMA prototype, and we discuss the results of the usability evaluation that we carried out with the staff of a hospital in Florence, Italy.

  9. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-23

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  10. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  11. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  12. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  13. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  14. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  15. Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz, Czesław

    2000-05-01

    Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.

  16. A computerized system for tracking practice and prescriptive patterns of family nurse practitioner students.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A; Kelber, S T; Devine, E C

    2001-03-01

    Decisions about the fit between advanced practice nursing curricula and the real world of primary care practice should be based on data and not on intuition. The purpose of this article is to describe a computerized database system that can be used to: 1) track practice (including prescribing) patterns of nurse practitioner (NP) students; 2) address data issues that commonly arise; and 3) describe NP students' practice during their education to prospective employers. The database system uses both the Family Nurse Practitioners Log (FNPLOG), a faculty-developed software program, and Epi Info, a companion public domain software program. Variables are categorized as being related to sociodemographic, diagnostic, or prescriptive components of primary care. The system provides a simple, efficient, and feasible way of computerizing, analyzing, and evaluating students' clinical experience and practice patterns. The implications for advanced practice nursing education will be illustrated along with other potential uses of the database system.

  17. Off-label indications for antidepressants in primary care: descriptive study of prescriptions from an indication based electronic prescribing system

    PubMed Central

    Motulsky, Aude; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Eguale, Tewodros; Buckeridge, David L; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine off-label indications for antidepressants in primary care and determine the level of scientific support for off-label prescribing. Design Descriptive study of antidepressant prescriptions written by primary care physicians using an indication based electronic prescribing system. Setting Primary care practices in and around two major urban centres in Quebec, Canada. Participants Patients aged 18 years or older who visited a study physician between 1 January 2003 and 30 September 2015 and were prescribed an antidepressant through the electronic prescribing system. Main outcome measures Prevalence of off-label indications for antidepressant prescriptions by class and by individual drug. Among off-label antidepressant prescriptions, the proportion of prescriptions in each of the following categories was measured: strong evidence supporting use of the prescribed drug for the respective indication; no strong evidence for the prescribed drug but strong evidence supporting use of another drug in the same class for the indication; or no strong evidence supporting use of the prescribed drug and all other drugs in the same class for the indication. Results 106 850 antidepressant prescriptions were written by 174 physicians for 20 920 adults. By class, tricyclic antidepressants had the highest prevalence of off-label indications (81.4%, 95% confidence interval, 77.3% to 85.5%), largely due to a high off-label prescribing rate for amitriptyline (93%, 89.6% to 95.7%). Trazodone use for insomnia was the most common off-label use for antidepressants, accounting for 26.2% (21.9% to 30.4%) of all off-label prescriptions. For only 15.9% (13.0% to 19.3%) of all off-label prescriptions, the prescribed drug had strong scientific evidence for the respective indication. For 39.6% (35.7% to 43.2%) of off-label prescriptions, the prescribed drug did not have strong evidence but another antidepressant in the same class had strong evidence for the respective

  18. Safety implications of transferring the oral contraceptive from prescription-only to over-the-counter status.

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Denny, C

    1995-12-01

    The idea of making oral contraceptives available without prescription has a long history, and has been recently revived in the US and the UK. High dose oral contraceptives have generally been replaced by low dose formulations and, subsequently, most cardiovascular risks have been reduced and a protection against ovarian and uterine cancers has been consistently demonstrated. Oral contraceptive compliance, however, continues to be a problem, but there is no reason to assume that wise practice would be any more or less if oral contraceptives were available over-the-counter (OTC). Some countries have introduced alternatives to prescription-only oral contraceptives, whereby nurses, midwives, social workers and/or pharmacists are incorporated into the distribution process. This article concludes that the balance of risks and benefits is in favour of OTC access for oral contraceptives.

  19. A Low-Cost Audio Prescription Labeling System Using RFID for Thai Visually-Impaired People.

    PubMed

    Lertwiriyaprapa, Titipong; Fakkheow, Pirapong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to develop a low-cost audio prescription labeling (APL) system for visually-impaired people by using the RFID system. The developed APL system includes the APL machine and APL software. The APL machine is for visually-impaired people while APL software allows caregivers to record all important information into the APL machine. The main objective of the development of the APL machine is to reduce costs and size by designing all of the electronic devices to fit into one print circuit board. Also, it is designed so that it is easy to use and can become an electronic aid for daily living. The developed APL software is based on Java and MySQL, both of which can operate on various operating platforms and are easy to develop as commercial software. The developed APL system was first evaluated by 5 experts. The APL system was also evaluated by 50 actual visually-impaired people (30 elders and 20 blind individuals) and 20 caregivers, pharmacists and nurses. After using the APL system, evaluations were carried out, and it can be concluded from the evaluation results that this proposed APL system can be effectively used for helping visually-impaired people in terms of self-medication.

  20. Optical fiber data transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  2. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  3. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  4. An Update on the Learning Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Myungweon; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Learning transfer in organizations is a central issue in HRD. Much of the research of the 1980-1990's informed the development of the learning transfer system inventory (Holton, Bates, & Ruona, 2000). However, it's vitally important to continually enhance our understanding of the learning transfer system. In this paper, we reviewed the new…

  5. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  6. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  7. Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts / Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids) Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids) Print What is prescription opioid misuse? Also ... Hillbilly Heroin, OC, or Vikes Prescription opioids are medications that are chemically similar to endorphins – opioids that ...

  8. Granisetron Transdermal System for Treatment of Symptoms of Gastroparesis: A Prescription Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Midani, Deena; Parkman, Henry P

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Serotonin receptor (eg, 5-HT3) antagonists are used to treat nausea and vomiting from a variety of causes. Granisetron transdermal system (GTS) is an appealing delivery system for patients with gastroparesis. To assess if GTS improves nausea and vomiting and other gastroparesis symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Methods Patients with gastroparesis and symptoms of nausea and vomiting refractory to conventional treatment were treated with GTS. Symptoms of gastroparesis were assessed using a modified Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients were asked to assess their symptoms and indicate their therapeutic response using the Clinical Patient Grading Assessment Scale (CPGAS) reporting if symptoms of nausea and vomiting improved on a scale: 0 = no change to +7 = completely better. Results Fifty-one patients received GTS by prescription: average age was 40 ± 17 years, 44 female, 11 diabetics, 23 ± 20% retention at 4 hours on gastric emptying scintigraphy. Thirty-nine of the 51 (76%) patients stated improvement with GTS. There was significant improvement in nausea and vomiting as assessed with CPGAS at 2 weeks (2.28 ± 2.53; P < 0.05). Symptoms of nausea and vomiting significantly improved. Other symptoms including postprandial fullness, loss of appetite, upper abdominal pain, and early satiety improved. Side effects reported included redness at the site of the patch in 7 patients, pruritus in 5, and constipation in 5. Conclusions GTS was moderately effective in reducing nausea and/or vomiting in 76% of gastroparesis patients. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of postprandial fullness, loss of appetite, upper abdominal pain, and early satiety also improved. PMID:27400689

  9. Visualizing Patterns of Drug Prescriptions with EventFlow: A Pilot Study of Asthma Medications in the Military Health System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    asthmatics within the Military Health System (MHS). Visualizing the patterns of asthma medication use surrounding a LABA prescription is a quick way to...display and summarize time- point and interval data. EventFlow groups individuals that share the same sequence of medications and displays the... sequence patterns in the dataset, and on the right a scrollable timeline browser shows all the individual records. The top sequence in the overview

  10. [Co-payment on prescription drugs in the Spanish public health system: Certainty, risk and selection of risks].

    PubMed

    Simó Miñana, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The model of co-payment on prescription drugs in the Spanish National Health System (NHS) changed on 1 July 2012. For more than three decades that it was not modified. This article provides a brief historical reminder of the evolution of this model of co-payment. The basic characteristics of this model are compared with the model of copayment on prescription drugs of the Administrative Mutualism (Civil Servants). The document provides detailed information on the percentage of effective copayment, fundraising effects, the economic participation of the patient, among others, in both models. Finally, listed pending improvements not addressed by 2012 changes such as the concentration of the co-payment in the active patient population and risk selection promoted by the differences in the financial contribution between the two models of co-payment (NHS and Mutualist).

  11. Development of a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Drug Prescription: Non-Interventional Naturalistic Description of the Antipsychotic Prescription Patterns in 4345 Outpatients and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A.; Ovejero-García, Santiago; Álvarez-García, Raquel; Carballo, Juan Jose; Lenca, Philippe; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. Method A web application (www.MEmind.net) was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014. The web-application reported average daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics, prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to defined daily dose (DDD) ratio. Results The MEmind web-application reported that antipsychotics were used in 1116 patients out of the total sample, mostly in 486 (44%) patients with schizophrenia related disorders but also in other diagnoses. Second generation antipsychotics (quetiapine, aripiprazole and long-acting paliperidone) were preferably employed. Low doses were more frequently used than high doses. Long acting paliperidone and ziprasidone however, were the only two antipsychotics used at excessive dosing. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was used in 287 (26%) patients with classic depot drugs, clotiapine, amisulpride and clozapine. Conclusions In this study we describe the first step of the development of a web application that is able to make polypharmacy, high dose usage and off label usage of antipsychotics visible to clinicians. Current development of the MEmind web application may help to improve prescription security via momentary feedback of prescription and clinical decision support system. PMID:27764107

  12. Lunox storage and transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This semester, efforts were concentrated on the design of the Lunox transfer line from the storage area to the launch site. Emphasis was placed on flow and heat transfer problems and their remedies by reducing the effect of radiation by selecting materials for storage tanks, transfer lines and insulation. The design for the storage tank was based on a medium sized Lunox production facility of 6,000 metric tons per year and the frequency of transportation of Lunox from lunar launch site to lower lunar orbit of four launches per month. The design included the selection of materials for cryogenic storage, insulation and radiation shielding. Lunox was pumped to the storage area near the launch site through a piping network designed for maximum mass flow rate with a minimum boil off. The entire network incorporated specially designed radiation shields made of material which was lightweight and low in secondary radiation.

  13. A prescription fraud detection model.

    PubMed

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs.

  14. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector M.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  15. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  16. Electron transfer and energy transfer through bridged systems. I. Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, J. R.; Hush, N. S.

    1989-07-01

    A time-dependent formalism is developed for reactions in which energy (vibrational or electronic excitation, electron or hole transfer, etc.) is transferred coherently between centres through a bridge. This approach is inspired by the Robinson and Frosch model of energy transfer within two-level systems. This formalism yields a completely general algorithm which, in particular limits, reduces to a generalised form of both Fermi's golden rule and Rabi's rate equation, and, in so doing, unifies many existing theories. It is shown that, only in the limit of the bridge states being non-resonant with the initial and final states, can the full problem be represented by an effective two-level model. Existing methods based upon Löwdin diagonalization are shown to be appropriate only when this limit applies, and ambiguities which arise from the ad hoc nature of these methods are resolved. Also, it is typically only in this limit that the transfer of energy proceeds exponentially in time and can be described by a simple single-parameter rate constant. Only problems which can be modelled using a single set of quantum numbers are treated in this paper. Applications and more general problems are treated in subsequent papers.

  17. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription filled; Drugs - how to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... paper prescription that you take to a local pharmacy Calling or e-mailing a pharmacy to order ...

  18. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  19. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  20. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  1. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

  2. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems.

    PubMed

    Windows-Yule, C R K; Rosato, A D; Parker, D J; Thornton, A R

    2015-05-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.

  3. The prescription drug abuse epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

  4. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  5. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  6. Orbital transfer systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Obersteiner, Michael

    For future Lunar mission operations basically two types of transfer systems can be conceived (a) the conventional direct-injection expendable vehicle approach, and (b) the re-usable orbit-to-orbit (LEO-LLO-LEO round-trip system. The second solution has been studied in Europe in the SPACE TUG Phase A Study in 1971/72 for NASA as a fully reusable system and this is compared to a more recent NASA-MSFC transfer vehicle concept with expendable propellant tanks and aerobraking. The results of an analysis on mission opportunities for LEO-LLO transfers is presented. A European option is also shown for mode (a), using the ARIANE 5 for lunar missions with an optimized cryogenic transfer vehicle, derived from the H.10 Stage (ARIANE 4) plus a lunar vehicle derived from the MMII-CRAF propulsion module using the 27.5 kN engine from the ARIANE L.9 Stage which could land a 3.4 ton vehicle on the lunar surface. Finally a completely new option (c) is discussed: the use of a ballistic SSTO vehicle for lunar landing missions after refuelling in LEO. This seems to be a highly effective single transportation element approach compared to the seven elements SATURN V-APOLLO-LM system of the 60ies.

  7. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  8. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  9. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966), Machel (1975-1986), and Chissano (1986-2005) administrations. The…

  10. Acquisition systems for heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    De Witt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Practical heat transfer data acquisition systems are normally characterized by the need for high-resolution, low-drift, low-speed recording devices. Analog devices such as strip chart or circular recorders and FM analog magnetic tape have excellent resolution and work well when data will be presented in temperature versus time format only and need not be processed further. Digital systems are more complex and require an understanding of the following components: digitizing devices, interface bus types, processor requirements, and software design. This paper discusses all the above components of analog and digital data acquisition, as they are used in current practice. Additional information on thermocouple system analysis will aid the user in developing accurate heat transfer measuring systems.

  11. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  12. Block Transfer: A Private Career College Student's Ladder into the BC Transfer System. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Raili

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008 the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) approved a new policy to publish in the BC Transfer Guide block transfer agreements (BTAs) between BC Transfer System member institutions and private post-secondary institutions accredited by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA). This new policy was…

  13. Visualizing Patterns of Drug Prescriptions with EventFlow: A Pilot Study of Asthma Medications in the Military Health System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    patterns of asthma medication use surrounding a LABA prescription is a quick way to detect possible sub-optimal use for further evaluation. Analysis of 100...MHS). Visualizing the patterns of asthma medication use surrounding a LABA prescription is a quick way to detect possible sub-optimal use for...visualization of temporal sequences of point events (i.e., events with a single timestamp) LifeLines2 1 and LifeFlow 1 . While those tools have

  14. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  15. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  16. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  17. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  18. Prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the VA healthcare system: implications for national prosthetic parity.

    PubMed

    Etter, Katherine; Borgia, Matthew; Resnik, Linda

    2014-05-22

    Abstract Purpose: To quantify prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and explore differences by level, type, and age. Methods: Veterans (N = 32 440) with an initial prosthetic prescription between 2000 and 2010 were classified by amputation level and type. Annual rates of prescription and repair were calculated using person-time and compared by group. Results: Veterans with upper limb amputation had lower annual prescription and repair rates (0.28 and 0.21) compared with those with lower limb amputation (0.40 and 0.56). Myoelectric devices users had higher prescription rates. However, body-powered users had higher repair rates. Prescription and repair rates for microprocessor knee joints were higher than for fluid and friction devices. Veterans under 65 had 0.07 and 0.16 higher rates of prescription and repair than those over 65 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps in most insurance plans. In states without prosthetic parity laws, such costs likely limit access to needed devices. Implications for Rehabilitation For the almost 2 million people in the United States living with an amputation or congenital limb loss, purchasing and maintaining a prosthetic limb can be costly, with insurances often imposing annual or lifetime caps. Data on prosthetic purchasing and repair is limited and reliant on self-reported information. Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, claims data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps

  19. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  20. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  1. System-focused environmental flow regime prescription, monitoring and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David; Lexartza Artza, Irantzu

    2016-04-01

    The definition of appropriate environmental flow regimes through hydropower schemes and water storage reservoirs is key part of mitigation. Insufficient (magnitude and variability) environmental flows can result in much environmental harm with negative impacts being encountered by morphological, ecological and societal systems. Conventionally, environmental flow regimes have been determined by using generic protocols and guidance such as the Tennant method of environmental flow estimation. It is generally accepted that such approaches to minimum environmental flow definition, although being a useful starting point, are not universally applicable across catchment typologies and climatic regions. Such approaches will not always produce conditions that would be associated with 'Good Ecological Status' under the Water framework Directive (or equivalent). Other similar approaches to minimum environmental flow estimation are used that are specific to geographies, yet still the associated guidance rarely thoroughly covers appropriate definition for healthy holistic systems across the flow regime. This paper draws on experience of system-focused environmental flow regime determination in the UK and the Georgian Caucasus Mountains, which allowed for a critical analysis of more conventional methods to be undertaken. The paper describes a recommended approach for determining appropriate environmental flow regimes based on analysis of the impacted geomorphological, ecological and societal systems in a way which is sensitive to the local holistic environment and associated complexities and interactions. The paper suggests that a strong understanding of the local geomorphology in key in predicting how flows will manifest habitat differently across the flow regime, and be spatially dynamic. Additionally, an understanding of the geomorphological system allows the flow of course and fine sediment to be factored into the initial suggested environmental flow regime. It is suggested

  2. Prescription Drugs: HCFA’s Proposed Drug Utilization Review System Ignores Quality of Care Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-13

    Page 39 GAO/PEMD-W26ZBR HCFA’s Proposed Drug Utilization Review System Appendix I Major Contributors to This Report Program Evaluation Sushil K... Sharma , Project Manager Bruce Thompson, Project Staff and Methodology Gerald Dillingham, Advisor Division, Washington, Morgan Shulman, Intern D.C. Patrick

  3. Satellite services system analysis study: Propellant transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    General servicing requirements, a servicing mission concept and scenario, overall servicing needs, basic servicing equipment, and a general servicing mission configuration layout are addressed. Servicing needs, equipment concepts, system requirements equipment specifications, preliminary designs, and resource requirements for flight hardware for the propellant transfer system are also addressed.

  4. The Army’s Penny-Wise, Pound-Foolish Publications System: A Prescription for Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-07

    typographical and layout design concept for use in the computer maintained system. (The Internal Revenue Service has invested heavily over the years in...obtaining the best design advice. Before seeking more costly design consultant advice, the IRS experience should be thoroughly considered.) 12. One...abandoned. For the benefit of those who ask: "Why not put all of the regulations in a computer?" the answer is that use of computer-assisted typography auto

  5. Factors associated with the prescription of "traditional" or "biological" systemic treatment in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Tabolli, Stefano; Paradisi, Andrea; Giannantoni, Patrizia; Gubinelli, Emanuela; Abeni, Damiano

    2015-02-01

    Abstract The choice of an adequate psoriasis treatment is critical to good disease management and to overall patient health. It is estimated that about 20-30% of patients requires systemic treatment: "traditional" (methotrexate, acitretina and cyclosporin) or "biological" (etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab). Clinical records of 784 outpatients with psoriasis were analyzed. 51.5% received traditional treatments and 48.5% a biological treatment. Males were 67.8% of patients. Psoriatic arthritis was observed in 37.3%. Females and younger patients were more likely to receive biological treatments. No differences were observed for Body Mass Index or for presence of comorbidities. Patients with psoriatic arthritis were also more frequently prescribed biological drug treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression model, only the older age-group (≥60 years) had a statistically significant OR (p=0.001) with a reduction of about 80% the likelihood of receiving biological treatment compared to the younger age-group (<40 years). Patients with a PASI score ≥20 and patients with arthritis have a probability to be prescribed biologics about five times higher than the other patients. In conclusion, younger age, psoriatic arthritis and the previous use of systemic drugs are factors associated with the use of biological treatment rather than the traditional systemic drugs.

  6. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  7. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  8. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  9. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Approved Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation entitled Recalibrating the BC Transfer System with the institutional members of the BC Transfer System and other interested parties. This consultation was motivated in large part by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade, and…

  10. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Transfer systems. 63.689....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from transfer systems for which § 63.683(b)(1)(i) of this subpart references the use of...

  11. Proton transfer in some periodic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Henryk

    2007-07-01

    The electronic structure of representative hydrogen bonded systems: hydrogen cyanide, imidazole and malonic acid have been studied at the non-empirical level. The role of the dimensionality on the potential barrier for the proton transfer has been examined. It was shown that it depends on the crystal structure and only in some cases like hydrogen cyanide or imidazole the relevant crystals may be considered as one-dimensional. However, for more complicated crystallographic structures, e.g. malonic acid, the evaluated barrier is strongly dependent on the dimensionality taken into account in our calculations.

  12. Implementation hurdles of an interactive, integrated, point-of-care computerised decision support system for hospital antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed

    Chow, A L; Ang, A; Chow, C Z; Ng, T M; Teng, C; Ling, L M; Ang, B S; Lye, D C

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is used to combat antimicrobial resistance. In Singapore, a tertiary hospital has integrated a computerised decision support system, called Antibiotic Resistance Utilisation and Surveillance-Control (ARUSC), into the electronic inpatient prescribing system. ARUSC is launched either by the physician to seek guidance for an infectious disease condition or via auto-trigger when restricted antibiotics are prescribed. This paper describes the implementation of ARUSC over three phases from 1 May 2011 to 30 April 2013, compared factors between ARUSC launches via auto-trigger and for guidance, examined factors associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations, and assessed user acceptability. During the study period, a monthly average of 9072 antibiotic prescriptions was made, of which 2370 (26.1%) involved ARUSC launches. Launches via auto-trigger comprised 48.1% of ARUSC launches. In phase 1, 23% of ARUSC launches were completed. This rose to 38% in phase 2, then 87% in phase 3, as escapes from the ARUSC programme were sequentially disabled. Amongst completed launches for guidance, 89% of ARUSC recommendations were accepted versus 40% amongst completed launches via auto-trigger. Amongst ARUSC launches for guidance, being from a medical department [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37] and ARUSC launch during on-call (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.61-2.05) were independently associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations. Junior physicians found ARUSC useful. Senior physicians found ARUSC reliable but admitted to having preferences for antibiotics that may conflict with ARUSC. Hospital-wide implementation of ARUSC encountered hurdles from physicians. With modifications, the completion rate improved.

  13. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  14. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in

  15. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  16. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  17. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  18. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  19. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  20. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  1. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  2. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  3. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  4. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  6. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  7. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  8. [Good prescription practice for out-patients-quality requirements of prescriptions in Germany].

    PubMed

    Faller, Christine K; Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-06-01

    Because the written prescription is a central communication medium between the prescribing physician and the dispensing pharmacist measures to improve the prescription quality are top priorities. While most primary care physicians in Germany use electronic systems, in outpatient clinics and nursing homes and on special occasions such as emergency services and home visits, many prescriptions are still handwritten. Incorrectly and illegibly issued prescriptions impair the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship and thus represent a risk factor in the context of medication safety. Well issued prescriptions expedite the dispensing and thus the continuity of treatment of the patients and spare human resources by avoiding queries and unnecessary steps in the care process. At the same time, legible and unequivocal prescriptions facilitate measures for quality assurance by the dispensing pharmacists and are essential preconditions needed for insurance reimbursement. Probably the most important step to high quality prescriptions is the consistent use of suitable electronic prescription software. This is only possible if physicians are willing to cooperate and understand the significance and benefits of an electronic prescription system.

  9. Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2003-09-30

    The Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software (BTS DAS) was developed by SRTC to replace a strip chart recorder that has been in place since the design of the BTS. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TID welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The BTS DAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. Also, the data files are now stored digitally as well as a hard copy printout, so they can be reanalyzed if needed. The BTS DAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the BTS Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. The welder DAS is a passive device and does not control the welder. The BTS control system interfaces directly with the welder and the BTS DAS. Digital handshaking is used between the BTS DAS and the BTS control system to ensure that the DAS is ready to weld prior to allowing the operator to initiate the welding process.

  10. Canister Transfer System Event Sequence Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Morissette

    2001-08-16

    The ''Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister, Transportation, and Monitored Geologic Repository Systems, Structures, and Components Performance Allocation Study'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) allocated performance to both the canisters received at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) and the MGR Canister Transfer System (CTS). The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate an assumed range of canister and CTS performance allocation failure probabilities and determine the effect of these failure probabilities on the frequency of a radionuclide release. Five canister types are addressed in this calculation; high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters containing vitrified borosilicate glass, HLW canisters containing immobilized plutonium surrounded by borosilicate glass (Pu/HLW canisters), Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canisters (4 sizes), DSNF multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) for N-reactor fuel and other selected DSNF, and naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters (2 sizes). The quality assurance program applies to this calculation, and the work is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations''. The work done for this calculation was evaluated according to AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'' that determined this activity to be subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000a). This work was performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) for this activity.

  11. Space Biosensor Systems: Implications for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.; Somps, C. J.; Madou, M.; Imprescia, Clifford C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To meet the need for continuous, automated monitoring of animal subjects, including; humans, during space flight, NASA is developing advanced physiologic sensor and biotelemetry system technologies. The ability to continuously track basic physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pH, and body temperature, in untethered subjects in space is a challenging task. At NASA's Ames Research Center, where a key focus is gravitational biology research, engineers have teamed with life scientists to develop wireless sensor systems for automated physiologic monitoring of animal models as small as the rat. This technology is also being adapted, in collaboration with medical professionals, to meet human clinical monitoring needs both in space and on the ground. Thus, these advanced monitoring technologies have important dual-use functions; they meet space flight data collection requirements and constraints, while concurrently addressing a number of monitoring and data acquisition challenges on the ground in areas of clinical monitoring and biomedical research. Additional applications for these and related technologies are being sought and additional partnerships established that enhance development efforts, reduce costs and facilitate technology infusion between the public and private sectors. This paper describes technology transfer and co-development projects that have evolved out of NASA's miniaturized, implantable chemical sensor development efforts.

  12. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  13. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air... section for such air emission control. (b) For each transfer system that is subject to this section and is an individual drain system, the owner or operator shall control air emissions in accordance with...

  14. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....689 Standards: Transfer systems. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air... section for such air emission control. (b) For each transfer system that is subject to this section and is an individual drain system, the owner or operator shall control air emissions in accordance with...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  16. Prescription Drug Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment & Support Finding and Paying for Treatment Understanding Health Insurance If You Have Trouble Paying a Bill Prescription ... income and no drug coverage If you have health insurance If your income is low: Look into Medicaid ...

  17. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... the high cost of prescription medicines, most insurance companies and employers are trying to control drug costs. ... is a list of medications that your insurance company will help you pay for. This list is ...

  18. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  19. An Examination of Learning Transfer System Characteristics across Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    No previous research in the United States has compared and contrasted learning transfer systems across organizations and training types, primarily because no standard instruments were used in previous research. This study, based on a subset of responses in the Learning Transfer System Inventory response database, is the first to conduct such a…

  20. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  1. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  2. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer: Applications to Black-Hole Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2007-01-01

    We present general relativistic radiation transfer formulations which include opacity effects due to absorption, emission and scattering explicitly. We consider a moment expansions for the transfer in the presence of scattering. The formulation is applied to calculation emissions from accretion and outflows in black-hole systems. Cases with thin accretion disks and accretion tori are considered. Effects, such as emission anisotropy, non-stationary flows and geometrical self-occultation are investigated. Polarisation transfer in curved space-time is discussed qualitatively.

  3. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  4. Introduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    STANDARtDS- 1963-A R-3021-AF Intoduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems 00 • CO Lf. Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero ...34Prepared for the United States Air Force." Bibliography: p. • "R-3021-AF." 1. Subjective transfer function method. 2. System analysis. I. Callero , Monti...to Analyzing Systems T, Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero , Barbara J. Rose July 1984 A Project AIR FORCE report prepared for the - United States Air

  5. Provincial Postsecondary Systems and Arrangements for Credit Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document describes the structure of the postsecondary education system, the mechanisms to facilitate transfer and articulation, and the major instruments used to facilitate transfer and articulation for postsecondary institutions in the Canadian Provinces. According to this document, the British Columbia postsecondary educational school…

  6. Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.

  7. Transfer Learning in Integrated Cognitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    with the research on MLNs lead by Pedro Domingos at the University of Washington (UW). All of the software developed was integrated with UW’s Alchemy ...learning methods. We refer to the structure-learning method developed by Kok and Domingos (2005) as Alchemy . We ran Alchemy “from scratch” without...transfer learning ( Alchemy Scratch); as well as using it to revise the MLN learned in the source domain and then automatically mapped to the target

  8. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10[sup 4] R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10[sup 7] R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  9. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10{sup 4} R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10{sup 7} R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  10. A pneumatic transfer system for special form {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form {sup 252}Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of {sup 252}Cf with masses up to 150 {micro}g by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the {sup 252}Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those {sup 252}Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole.

  11. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. Methods On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling’s more accuracy for the actual application. Results The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. Conclusions The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system’s further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application. PMID:24428906

  12. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  13. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  14. Opioid Basics: Prescription Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Fentanyl Encounters Data CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain For Patients For Providers Guideline Resources Clinical Tools ... Green CJ, Merrill JO, Sullivan MD, et al. Opioid prescriptions for chronic pain and overdose: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. ...

  15. Criticality Evaluation - Cask Unloading Using the Shielded Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Nadeau, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    This evaluation reviewed the criticality aspects of Shielded Transfer System (STS) operation. The existing Nuclear Safety Control (NSC) elements were examined and new NSC elements were developed, as needed.

  16. 40 CFR 63.689 - Standards: Transfer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the transfer system; the effects of outdoor exposure to wind, moisture, and sunlight; and the... suitable materials that will minimize exposure of the off-site material to the atmosphere, to the...

  17. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  19. Plasmid transfer systems in the rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Hynes, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Agricultural application of rhizobial inoculants can play an important role in increasing leguminous crop yields. In temperate rhizobia, genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation are usually located on one or more large plasmids (pSyms) or on symbiotic islands. In addition, other large plasmids of rhizobia carry genes that are beneficial for survival and competition of rhizobia in the rhizosphere. Conjugative transfer of these large plasmids thus plays an important role in the evolution of rhizobia. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of conjugative transfer of large rhizobial plasmids provides foundations for maintaining, monitoring, and predicting the behaviour of these plasmids during field release events. In this minireview, we summarize two types of known rhizobial conjugative plasmids, including quorum sensing regulated plasmids and RctA-repressed plasmids. We provide evidence for the existence of a third type of conjugative plasmid, including pRleVF39c in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain VF39SM, and we provide a comparison of the different types of conjugation genes found in members of the rhizobia that have had their genomes sequenced so far.

  20. Efficient methods for finding transfer function zeros of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, N.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. ); Lima, L.T.G. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper is probably the first to describe algorithms suited to the efficient calculation of both proper and non-proper transfer function zeros of linearized dynamic models for large interconnected power systems. The paper also describes an improvement to the well known AESOPS algorithm, formulating it as an exact transfer function zero finding problem which is efficiently solved by a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Large power system results are presented in this paper.

  1. Design of auto-tuning capacitive power transfer system for wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of capacitive wireless power transfer systems based on a Class-E inverter approach. The main reason for adopting the Class-E inverter approach is because of its high efficiency, theoretically 100%. However, the operation of a Class-E inverter is highly sensitive to its circuit's parameters. In a typical capacitive wireless power transfer application, the capacitive coupling distance between plates is subject to changes, and hence its power transfer efficiency is greatly affected if the Class-E inverter is properly tuned. This drawback motivates us to develop an auto frequency tuning algorithm for a Class-E inverter which maintains its power transfer efficiency in spite of the variations of capacitive coupling distances between plates and circuit's parameters. Finally, simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the auto frequency tuning algorithm.

  2. Ecological Assessment of Clinicians’ Antipsychotic Prescription Habits in Psychiatric Inpatients: A Novel Web- and Mobile Phone–Based Prototype for a Dynamic Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A; Nitzburg, George C; Ovejero, Santiago; Alvarez-Garcia, Raquel; Carballo, Juan; Walter, Michel; Billot, Romain; Lenca, Philippe; Delgado-Gomez, David; Ropars, Juliette; de la Calle Gonzalez, Ivan; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold the potential to significantly improve pharmacological treatment management. Objective The aim of our study was to develop a novel Web- and mobile phone–based application to provide a dynamic CDSS by monitoring and analyzing practitioners’ antipsychotic prescription habits and simultaneously linking these data to inpatients’ symptom changes. Methods We recruited 353 psychiatric inpatients whose symptom levels and prescribed medications were inputted into the MEmind application. We standardized all medications in the MEmind database using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and the defined daily dose (DDD). For each patient, MEmind calculated an average for the daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics (using the N05A ATC code), prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to DDD ratio. Results MEmind results found that antipsychotics were used by 61.5% (217/353) of inpatients, with the largest proportion being patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (33.4%, 118/353). Of the 217 patients, 137 (63.2%, 137/217) were administered pharmacological monotherapy and 80 (36.8%, 80/217) were administered polytherapy. Antipsychotics were used mostly in schizophrenia spectrum and related psychotic disorders, but they were also prescribed in other nonpsychotic diagnoses. Notably, we observed polypharmacy going against current antipsychotics guidelines. Conclusions MEmind data indicated that antipsychotic polypharmacy and off-label use in inpatient units is commonly practiced. MEmind holds the potential to create a dynamic CDSS that provides real-time tracking of prescription practices and symptom change. Such feedback can help practitioners determine a maximally therapeutic drug treatment while avoiding unproductive overprescription and off-label use. PMID:28126703

  3. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  4. Novel gene transfer systems: intelligent gene transfer vectors for gene medicines.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery systems for gene transfer are called 'vectors'. These systems were originally invented as a delivery system for the transfection in vitro or in vivo. Several vectors are then developed for clinical use of gene medicines and currently some of them are approved as animal drugs. Conventional drug delivery system generally consists of approved (existing) materials to avoid additional pre-clinical or clinical studies. However, current vectors contain novel materials to improve an efficacy of gene medicines. Thus, these vectors have functions more than a mere delivery of active ingredients. For example some vectors have immunological functions such as adjuvants in vaccines. These new types of vectors are called 'intelligent' or 'innovative' vector system', since the concept or strategy for the development is completely different from conventional drug delivery systems. In this article, we described a current status of 'intelligent gene transfer vectors and discussed on the potentials of them.

  5. Plug-to-plug gas transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1978-01-01

    A system for conducting a fluid from one component to another component of a nuclear reactor wherein at least one such component is a rotatable closure head plug capable of movement relative to the other component. The conducting system utilizes the annulus located between the components as a connecting passageway for the fluid.

  6. Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David

    2013-03-01

    Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  7. Engineered Resilient Systems: Knowledge Capture and Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-29

    lly those made by semiconductor manufacturers , in order to achieve drastic reductions in schedule and cost of development for complex DoD-class...flexibility” in a system. Robust design has been traditionally applied to the manufacturing of systems, but also increasingly upstream to the concept design... additional interest in involving the AF/A9 organization in incorporating TSE-based approaches as they are responsible for integrating and coordinating

  8. Enhanced heat transfer in partially-saturated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The role of capillarity is potentially important for determining heat transfer in hydrothermal regions. Capillarity allows mixing of phases in liquid/vapor systems and results in enhanced two-phase convection. Comparisons involving a numerical model with capillarity and analytical models without indicate that heat transfer can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude. Whether capillarity can be important for a particular hydrothermal region will depend on the nature of mineral precipitation as well as pore and fracture size distributions.

  9. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  10. Control System and Flexible Satellite Interaction During Orbit Transfer Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Adenilson Roberto; GadelhadeSouza, Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between the attitude control system and the flexible structure of an artificial satellite during orbit transfer maneuver has been investigated. The satellite was modeled by a rigid central body with one or more flexible appendages. The dynamics equations were obtained by Lagrangean approach. The flexible appendages were treated as clamped-free beam and its displacement was discretized by assumed- mode method. In order to transfer the satellite, a typical Hohmann transfer and a burn-coast-burn strategy were used and the attitude was controlled by an on-off controller. During transfer procedure a global analysis of satellite has been done, such as: performance of control system, influence of elastic response in control system, thruster firing frequency, fuel consumption and variation of orbital elements. In order to avoid the interaction with structure motion, a control system with bandwidth of one decade bellow the fundamental frequency was used. In the simulations the firing frequency was evaluated in an approximately way but kept below the fundamental frequency of the structure. The control system has kept the attitude below the specifications. As a result, the orbit transfer maneuvering has been done correctly without excessive excitation of flexible appendage.

  11. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  12. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  13. A Brief History of the Transfer System in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…

  14. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  15. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  16. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  17. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  18. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  19. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forms. 753.270 Section 753.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter...

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  1. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  2. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  3. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion. 17 refs.

  4. Methods for Gene Transfer to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; Bailey, Rachel M.; Wimberly, Keon; Kalburgi, Sahana N.; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer is an increasingly utilized approach for research and clinical applications involving the central nervous system (CNS). Vectors for gene transfer can be as simple as an unmodified plasmid, but more commonly involve complex modifications to viruses to make them suitable gene delivery vehicles. This chapter will explain how tools for CNS gene transfer have been derived from naturally occurring viruses. The current capabilities of plasmid, retroviral, adeno-associated virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus vectors for CNS gene delivery will be described. These include both focal and global CNS gene transfer strategies, with short- or long-term gene expression. As is described in this chapter, an important aspect of any vector is the cis-acting regulatory elements incorporated into the vector genome that control when, where, and how the transgene is expressed. PMID:25311922

  5. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  6. Advanced two-phase heat transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1992-01-01

    Future large spacecraft, such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms, will require a significantly more capable thermal control system than is possible with current 'passive' technology. Temperatures must be controlled much more tightly over a larger surface area. Numerous heat load sources will often be located inside the body of the spacecraft without a good view to space. Power levels and flux densities may be higher than can be accommodated with traditional technology. Integration and ground testing will almost certainly be much more difficult with such larger, more complex spacecraft. For these and similar reasons, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing a new, more capable thermal control technology called capillary pumped loops (CPL's). CPL's represent an evolutionary improvement over heat pipes; they can transport much greater quantities of heat over much longer distances and can serve numerous heat load sources. In addition, CPL's can be fabricated into large cold plates that can be held to tight thermal gradients. Development of this technology began in the early 1980's and is now reaching maturity. CPL's have recently been baselined for the EOS-AM platform (1997 launch) and the COMET spacecraft (1992 launch). This presentation describes this new technology and its applications. Most of the viewgraphs are self descriptive. For those that are less clear additional comments are provided.

  7. The Internet- and Digital Signature-Based Prescription Order Communication System Using Synchronized Smart Cards in the 2-Way Type Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    smart card tinder the network- and...and using their individually master smart cards are applied to all contents of the prescription stored on a patient’s slave smart card at the synchronized status in the 2-way type

  8. Polaron assisted charge transfer in model biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Movaghar, Bijan

    2016-11-01

    We use a tight binding Hamiltonian to simulate the electron transfer from an initial charge-separating exciton to a final target state through a two-arm transfer model. The structure is copied from the model frequently used to describe electron harvesting in photosynthesis (photosystems I). We use this network to provide proof of principle for dynamics, in quantum system/bath networks, especially those involving interference pathways, and use these results to make predictions on artificially realizable systems. Each site is coupled to the phonon bath via several electron-phonon couplings. The assumed large energy gaps and weak tunneling integrals linking the last 3 sites give rise to"Stark Wannier like" quantum localization; electron transfer to the target cluster becomes impossible without bath coupling. As a result of the electron-phonon coupling, local electronic energies relax when the site is occupied, and transient polaronic states are formed as photo-generated electrons traverse the system. For a symmetric constructively interfering two pathway network, the population is shared equally between two sets of equivalent sites and therefore the polaron energy shift is smaller. The smaller energy shift however makes the tunnel transfer to the last site slower or blocks it altogether. Slight disorder (or thermal noise) can break the symmetry, permitting essentially a "one path", and correspondingly more efficient transfer.

  9. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  10. Transfer number in fine bubble diffused aeration systems.

    PubMed

    Capela, S; Roustan, M; Héduit, A

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of full-scale data from 58 clean water tests performed in 26 activated sludge tanks equipped with fine bubble diffusers and of a theoretical approach, it can be stated that fine bubble aeration systems with total floor coverage arrangement provide higher kLa values and the lowest spiral liquid circulation. An efficiency criterion for oxygen transfer (NT) was defined on the basis of the dimensional analysis. The transfer number NT allows us to take account of the impact of vertical liquid circulation movements on oxygen transfer. The values of NT calculated from the results of full scale nonsteady-state clean water tests vary from 5.3 x 10(-5) to 9.1 x 10(-5) and are directly dependent upon the arrangement of air diffusers. It has been shown that the highest transfer numbers corresponded to the total floor coverage arrangement and the average calculated NT values is 7.7 x 10(-5), independently of the diffuser density and of the gas velocity, over the ranges studied. The lowest transfer numbers are obtained when the diffusers are located in separate grids, and the transfer number is reduced with increasing air flow rate.

  11. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang

    2015-08-20

    Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  12. Heat and mass transfer in volcano-hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems re-distribute heat and mass derived from subsurface magma bodies over large temporal and spatial scales. Numerical models of fluid flow and heat transfer provide a quantitative basis for understanding the thermo-hydrological structure and transient behavior of volcano-hydrothermal systems. At the brittle-ductile transition around a magma body, the rate of conductive heat transfer from the impermeable intrusion is balanced by the rate of advective heat transfer by the fluid. Using the Complex Systems Modeling Platform (CSMP++) to model fluid flow up to near-magmatic conditions, we examine the effect of geologic factors such as host rock permeability, magma emplacement depth, the temperature conditions of the brittle-ductile transition, and rock/magma thermal conductivity on the rates of heat and mass transfer around magma bodies. Additionally, we investigate the role of these factors on the thermo-hydrological structure of the hydrothermal system, including patterns of phase separation, gravity-driven phase segregation, and fluid mixing. Passive tracers are included in the fluid flow models to simulate the input of magmatic volatiles into hydrothermal fluids and their fractionation between the liquid and vapor phases. Ultimately, we compare our model results against measured heat and gas fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal systems to help inform the interpreation of these measurements.

  13. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Sciences - Basic Discoveries for Better Health Site Map Staff Search My Order ... > Science Education > Inside Life Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All ...

  14. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks.

  15. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-10

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  16. Production and Transfer of Energy and Information in Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Chris G.; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an “experimental” implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented. PMID:24586891

  17. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Chris G; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  18. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  19. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is “prescription metabolism.” The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  20. Low heat-gain cryogenic-liquid transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hows, G. E.; Wright, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    Cryogenic-liquid transfer system, containing a ring structure with tensioned small diameter, high strength wires, provides adequate physical support for the piping, minimizes the conductive heat paths between the piping and jacket, and allows for thermal expansion and contraction of the piping.

  1. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  2. Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

  3. Information Systems and Networks for Technology Transfer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, John; Szentivanyi, Tibor

    Results of a survey of the information resources available in industrialized countries which might be used in a United Nations technology transfer program for developing countries are presented. Information systems and networks, organized information collections of a scientific and technical character, and the machinery used to disseminate this…

  4. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  5. An Introduction to Register Transfer Level Simulation of Digital Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, Cliff; Smith R. J., II

    Register transfer level (RTL) descriptions of digital systems have certain advantages over other descriptive techniques, especially during early phases of the design effort. There are at least three identifiable major uses for RTL-type descriptions. First, RTL can serve as documentation of digital processor behavior, recording in a concise fashion…

  6. The Transfer of Abstract Principles Governing Complex Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Sakamoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the…

  7. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  8. Quartz microbalance device for transfer into ultrahigh vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavale, F.; Achete, C. A.; Niehus, H.

    2008-10-15

    An uncomplicated quartz microbalance device has been developed which is transferable into ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) systems. The device is extremely useful for flux calibration of different kinds of material evaporators. Mounted on a commercial specimen holder, the device allows fast quartz microbalance transfer into the UHV and subsequent positioning exactly to the sample location where subsequent thin film deposition experiments shall be carried out. After backtransfer into an UHV sample stage, the manipulator may be loaded in situ with the specimen suited for the experiment. The microbalance device capability is demonstrated for monolayer and submonolayer vanadium depositions with an achieved calibration sensitivity of less the 0.001 ML coverage.

  9. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  10. Treatment of continuum in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound systems. A simple model to test different prescriptions describing the coupling to continuum states

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C. H.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-03-04

    We exploit a model describing the break-up of weakly-bound nuclei that can be used as a laboratory for testing different prescriptions that have been advanced in the literature to take into account the near-by presence of continuum states. In the model we follow the evolution of a single particle wave function in one dimension, initially bound by a Woods-Saxon type potential and then perturbed by a time- and position-dependent external field. Proper choices of this potential can simulate the effect of the interaction between reaction partners in a nuclear collision. These processes generate inelastic excitation probabilities that--distributed over the bound and continuum states of the system--lead to either a partial or a total fragmentation of the final wave function. The comparison with the exact calculations shows that standard coupled channel descriptions based on discretization of the continuum can be accurate only when a proper choice is made of the number of discrete states, of the energy mesh and of the energy cutoff. This may imply, even in simplified cases, the use of a rather large (and unpracticable) number of channels. The use of a more restricted number of channels may lead to misleading results.

  11. Transfer Functions for Nonlinear Systems via Fourier-Borel Transforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fourier series or integral expansions of response functions of linear systems. The shuffle product which is the characteristic of the noncommutative ... noncommutative algebra on a computer in any of the currently available symbolic programming languages such as Macsyma, Reduce, PL1, and Lisp...gives the transform of the response of the nonlinear system as a Cauchy product of its transfer function which is introduced for the first time here

  12. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  13. Modelling heat transfer in a bone-cement-prosthesis system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eskil

    2003-06-01

    The heat transfer in a general bone-cement-prosthesis system was modelled. A quantitative understanding of the heat transfer and the polymerization kinetics in the system is necessary because injury of the bone tissue and the mechanical properties of the cement have been suggested to be effected by the thermal and chemical history of the system. The mathematical model of the heat transfer was based on first principles from polymerization kinetics and heat transfer, rather than certain in vitro observed properties, which has been the common approach. Our model was valid for general three-dimensional geometries and an arbitrary bone cement consisting of an initiator and monomer. The model was simulated for a cross-section of a hip with a potential femoral stem prosthesis and for a cement similar to Palacos R. The simulations were conducted by using the finite element method. These simulations showed that this general model described an auto accelerating heat production and a residual monomer concentration, which are two phenomena suggested to cause bone tissue damage and effect the mechanical properties of the cement.

  14. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  15. Documentation requirements for Applications Systems Verification and Transfer projects (ASVTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Application Systems Verification and Transfer Projects (ASVTs) are deliberate efforts to facilitate the transfer of applications of NASA-developed space technology to users such as federal agencies, state and local governments, regional planning groups, public service institutions, and private industry. This study focused on the role of documentation in facilitating technology transfer both to primary users identified during project planning and to others with similar information needs. It was understood that documentation can be used effectively when it is combined with informal (primarily verbal) communication within each user community and with other formal techniques such as organized demonstrations and training programs. Documentation examples from eight ASVT projects and one potential project were examined to give scope to the investigation.

  16. Calibration of a resonance energy transfer imaging system.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, M; Hensel, N F; Hartzman, R J

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the nondestructive visualization of nanometer scale intermolecular separations in a living system is described. A calibration procedure for the acquisition and analysis of resonance energy transfer (RET) image data is outlined. The factors limiting RET imaging of biological samples are discussed. Measurements required for the calibration include: (a) the spectral sensitivity of the image intensifier (or camera); (b) the transmission spectra of the emission filters; and (c) the quantum distribution functions of the energy transfer pair measured in situ. Resonance energy transfer imaging is demonstrated for two DNA specific dyes. The Förster critical distance for energy transfer between Hoechst 33342 (HO) and acridine orange (AO) is 4.5 +/- 0.7 nm. This distance is slightly greater than the distance of a single turn of the DNA helix (3.5 nm or approximately 10 base pairs), and is well below the optical diffraction limit. Timed sequences of intracellular energy transfer reveal nuclear structure, strikingly similar to that observed with confocal and electron microscopy, and may show the spatial distribution of eu- and hetero- chromatin in the interphase nuclei. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:1581499

  17. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  18. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  19. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  20. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  1. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  2. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  3. Test report for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-03-04

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. Transport of the system will typically be north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The samples are intended to conform to the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 1 73.4, ``Exceptions for small quantities.`` The regulations require prototype testing of the package to demonstrate the effectiveness of the packaging system. The test procedure consisted of one 24-hour compression test and five drop tests of various orientations onto an unyielding drop pad. The testing of the Sample Transfer Canister System was performed between February 16, 1998 and February 25, 1998. The results of the testing concluded that the Sample Transfer Canister System successfully met the testing requirements with certain modifications to the original system. The modifications included replacing the original eight flange screws which were cold rolled 316 stainless steel with greater strength grade 8 high carbon-carbon steel screws, replacing the initial two glass receptacles with a better performing single glass receptacle which proved not to leak during testing, and adding more bubble wrap as extra padding.

  4. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  5. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    PubMed

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  6. A consistent prescription of stratospheric aerosol for both radiation and chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds Neely, Ryan, III; Conley, Andrew J.; Vitt, Francis; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterization is motivated by the poor response of the CESM1 (formerly referred to as the Community Climate System Model, version 4, CCSM4) simulations contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global mean surface temperature decrease that was inconsistent with the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, and the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office (HADCRUT4). The new parameterization takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for variations in both the mass loading and size of the prescribed aerosol. An ensemble of simulations utilizing the old and new schemes shows CESM1's improved response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Most significantly, the new scheme more accurately simulates the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating. Results also indicate that the new scheme decreases the global mean temperature response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption by half of the observed temperature change, and modelled climate variability precludes statements as to the significance of this change.

  7. A Consistent Prescription of Stratospheric Aerosol for Both Radiation and Chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R. R., III; Conley, A.; Vitt, F.; Lamarque, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterisation is motivated by the poor global response of most models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global temperature decrease by a factor 2 larger than was observed. The new parameterisation takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for varying both the mass loading and effective radius of the prescribed aerosol. Simulations utilizing the new scheme are shown to now reproduce the observed global mean temperature response as well as the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption.

  8. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  9. Multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mǎrginean, N.; Milin, M.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system at an energy close to the Coulomb barrier, by employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. We extracted differential and total cross sections of the different transfer channels, with a careful investigation of the total kinetic energy loss distributions. Comparisons between different systems having the same 208Pb target and with projectiles going from neutron-poor to neutron-rich nuclei, i.e., 40Ca, 58Ni, and 40Ar, as well as between the data and GRAZING calculations have been carried out. The neutron-rich (stable) 40Ar beam allowed us to get access to the channels involving proton pickup, whose behavior in connection with the production of neutron-rich heavy partner has been outlined.

  10. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  11. Emergency flight control system using one engine and fuel transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Jr., Frank W. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Le, Jeanette (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for emergency aircraft control uses at least one engine and lateral fuel transfer that allows a pilot to regain control over an aircraft under emergency conditions. Where aircraft propulsion is available only through engines on one side of the aircraft, lateral fuel transfer provides means by which the center of gravity of the aircraft can be moved over to the wing associated with the operating engine, thus inducing a moment that balances the moment from the remaining engine, allowing the pilot to regain control over the aircraft. By implementing the present invention in flight control programming associated with a flight control computer (FCC), control of the aircraft under emergency conditions can be linked to the yoke or autopilot knob of the aircraft. Additionally, the center of gravity of the aircraft can be shifted in order to effect maneuvers and turns by spacing such center of gravity either closer to or farther away from the propelling engine or engines. In an alternative embodiment, aircraft having a third engine associated with the tail section or otherwise are accommodated and implemented by the present invention by appropriately shifting the center of gravity of the aircraft. Alternatively, where a four-engine aircraft has suffered loss of engine control on one side of the plane, the lateral fuel transfer may deliver the center of gravity closer to the two remaining engines. Differential thrust between the two can then control the pitch and roll of the aircraft in conjunction with lateral fuel transfer.

  12. E-Beam—a new transfer system for isolator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Huber, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    In every aseptic filling application, the sterile transfer of goods into the aseptic area is a challenge, and there are many different ways to do it. With isolator technology a higher sterility assurance level (SAL) is achieved. This SAL is only as good as the weakest segment in the chain of manufacturing. The transfer of goods into and out of the isolator is one of these critical segments. Today different techniques, some already well established, others still very new, are available on the market like: dry heat tunnel, autoclave, pulsed light, rapid transfer systems (RTP), H 2O 2 tunnel, UV light, etc. all these systems are either not applicable for continuous transfer, only good for heat-compatible materials like glass, or do not guarantee a 6 log spore reduction. E-Beam opens new perspectives in this field. With E-beam technology it is possible to transfer heat-sensitive (plastic), pre-sterilised materials at high speed, continuously into an aseptic area. E-Beam unifies three different technologies, that result in a very efficient and high-speed decontamination machine designed for the pharmaceutical industry. First, there is the electron beam that decontaminates the goods and an accurate shielding that protects the surrounding from this beam. Second, there is the conveyor system that guarantees the output and the correct exposure time underneath the beam. And third, there is the isolator interface to provide correct differential pressure and clean air inside the tunnel as well as the decontamination of the tunnel with H 2O 2 prior to production. The E-beam is a low-energy electron beam, capable of decontaminating any kind of surface. It penetrates only a few micrometers into the material and therefore does not deform the packaging media. Currently, machines are being built to transfer pre-sterilised syringes, packed in plastic tubs with a Tyvek cover into an aseptic filling isolator with the following data: decontamination efficiency of 10 6 (6 log spore

  13. Arms Transfers: A System Dynamics Analysis Focusing on Regional Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    73 IS OSOLET E . .. JILASSIIE]L.. SECURITY C14 A :PIrATInN (.S TWIM 04rc.- .- l° AFIT/GOR/OS/83D-8 ARMS TRANSFERS: A SYSTEM DYNA’ICS ALYSIS FOCUSING...regional stability. 5. Provide guidance and instructions on how to use and alter the model for specific policy analysis. Scot e This research is...a system, and that not all societal groups are the same. Durkheim insisted that his theory of anowia must be interpreted frorr a contingency point of

  14. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  15. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  16. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  17. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  18. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  19. Time and frequency transfer system using GNSS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Lun; Huang, Shi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Shu

    2014-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time and frequency transfer is one of the most useful ways for the comparison of remote clocks, and the comparison results are very important for the calculation of International Atomic Time and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For the timing laboratories, it is necessary to calibrate and periodically evaluate their time transfer system to ensure the accuracy and long-term stability of their time and frequency comparison results. Once the calibration is achieved, it can be used as a standard for traceable time and frequency measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate Global Navigation Satellite System receiver calibration campaign between the National Time and Frequency Standard Laboratory of Telecommunication Laboratories in Taiwan and the Measurement Standards Laboratory in New Zealand. Two calibration strategies, receiver calibration and the link calibration, are adopted in this work. The receiver calibration is used for evaluating the performance of the proposed system in domestic traceability network in Taiwan. The link calibration is used for minimizing the total uncertainty budget in calculating UTC. Experimental results indicate that the expanded time and frequency uncertainty of the proposed system (with a coverage factor of k = 2) are less than 25 ns and 1.1 × 10-13, respectively, after 1 day of averaging. The accuracy of GPS time link is reported to be better than 2 ns in long-baseline link (10,000 km) in Asia-Pacific Zone.

  20. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  1. System and method for transferring data on a data link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert M. (Inventor); Bishop, James E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for transferring a packet across a data link. The packet may include a stream of data symbols which is delimited by one or more framing symbols. Corruptions of the framing symbol which result in valid data symbols may be mapped to invalid symbols. If it is desired to transfer one of the valid data symbols that has been mapped to an invalid symbol, the data symbol may be replaced with an unused symbol. At the receiving end, these unused symbols are replaced with the corresponding valid data symbols. The data stream of the packet may be encoded with forward error correction information to detect and correct errors in the data stream.

  2. Modeling coherent excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei

    2011-12-01

    Recent non-linear spectroscopy experiments suggest the excitation energy transfer in some biological light harvesting systems initially occurs coherently. Treating such processes brings significant challenge for conventional theoretical tools that usually involve different approximations. In this dissertation, the recently developed Iterative Linearized Density Matrix (ILDM) propagation scheme, which is non-perturbative and non-Markovian is extended to study coherent excitation energy transfer in various light harvesting complexes. It is demonstrated that the ILDM approach can successfully describe the coherent beating of the site populations on model systems and gives quantitative agreement with both experimental results and the results of other theoretical methods have been developed recently to going beyond the usual approximations, thus providing a new reliable theoretical tool to study this phenomenon. This approach is used to investigate the excited energy transfer dynamics in various experimentally studied bacteria light harvesting complexes, such as Fenna-Matthews-Olsen (FMO) complex, Phycocyanin 645 (PC645). In these model calculations, quantitative agreement is found between computed de-coherence times and quantum beating pattens observed in the non-linear spectroscopy. As a result of these studies, it is concluded that the stochastic resonance behavior is important in determining the optimal throughput. To begin addressing possible mechanics for observed long de-coherence time, various models which include correlation between site energy fluctuations as well as correlation between site energy and inter-site coupling are developed. The influence of both types of correlation on the coherence and transfer rate is explored using with a two state system-bath hamiltonian parametrized to model the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteria. To overcome the disadvantages of a fully reduced approach or a full propagation method, a brownian dynamics

  3. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are, after marijuana (and alcohol), the most commonly abused substances by ...

  4. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  5. Methadone and prescription drug overdose.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hansen, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    (1) Methadone accounted for 2 percent of painkiller prescriptions and more than 30 percent of prescription painkiller deaths in 2009. (2) Data suggest that the rise in deaths from methadone overdose is not related to its use in treating drug abuse but, rather, to its use for pain management. (3) Preferred drug lists in most Medicaid programs identify methadone as a preferred drug for managing chronic pain, but most experts do no recommend it as a first choice.

  6. Energy transfer in mesoscopic vibrational systems enabled by eigenfrequency fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalaya, Juan

    Energy transfer between low-frequency vibrational modes can be achieved by means of nonlinear coupling if their eigenfrequencies fulfill certain nonlinear resonance conditions. Because of the discreteness of the vibrational spectrum at low frequencies, such conditions may be difficult to satisfy for most low-frequency modes in typical mesoscopic vibrational systems. Fluctuations of the vibrational eigenfrequencies can also be relatively strong in such systems. We show that energy transfer between modes can occur in the absence of nonlinear resonance if frequency fluctuations are allowed. The case of three modes with cubic nonlinear coupling and no damping is particularly interesting. It is found that the system has a non-thermal equilibrium state which depends only on the initial conditions. The rate at which the system approaches to such state is determined by the parameters such as the noise strength and correlation time, the nonlinearity strength and the detuning from exact nonlinear resonance. We also discuss the case of many weakly coupled modes. Our results shed light on the problem of energy relaxation of low-frequency vibrational modes into the continuum of high-frequency vibrational modes. The results have been obtained with Mark Dykman. Alternative email: jatalaya2012@gmail.com.

  7. Enhacements to the TTS-502 time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Hua, Q. D.

    1985-04-01

    Two years ago STI introduced an affordable, relatively compact time transfer system on the market -- the TTS-502, and described that system at the 1981 PTTI conference. Over the past few months, that system has been improved, and new features have been added. In addition, new options have been made available to further enhance the capabilities of the system. These enhancements include the addition of a positioning algorithm and new options providing a corrected 5 MHz output that is phase coherent with the 1 pps output, and providing an internal Rubidium Oscillator. The Positioning Algorithm was developed because not all time transfer users had the luxury of the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) services for determining their position in WGS-72 coordinates. The enhanced TTS-502 determines the GPS position anywhere in the world, independent of how many GPS satellites are concurrently visible. However, convergence time to a solution is inversely proportional to the number of satellites concurrently visible and the quality of frequency standard used in conjunction with the TTS-502. Real World solution results will be presented for a variety of cases and satellite scheduling scenarios. Typically, positioning accuracies were achieved better than 5 to 10 meters r.s.s. using the C/A code only at Sunnyvale, California.

  8. Charge-Transfer Emitting Triarylborane π-Electron Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Zuo-Bang; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2017-02-06

    Triarylboranes have attracted significantly increasing research interest as a remarkable class of photoelectronic π-electron materials. Because of the presence of vacant p orbital on the B center, the boryl group is a very unique electron acceptor that exhibits not only electron-accepting ability through p-π* conjugation but also high Lewis acidity to coordinate with Lewis bases and steric bulk arising from the aryl substituent on the B center to get enough kinetic stability. Thus, the incorporation of a trivalent B element into π-conjugated systems is an efficient strategy to tune the electronic and stereo structures and thus the photoelectronic properties of π-electron systems. When an electron-donating group, such as amino, is present, triarylboranes would likely display intramolecular charge-transfer transitions. These kinds of molecules are often highly emissive. In addition, the geometry of the molecules has a great impact on the emission properties. In this Forum Article, we herein describe our recent progress on the charge-transfer emitting triarylborane π-electron systems with novel geometries, which include the lateral boryl-substituted π-system with amino groups at the terminal positions, the o,o'-substituted biaryl π-system with boryl and amino groups at the o,o'-positions, a triarylborane-based BODIPY system, and a B,N/S-bridged ladder-type π-system. We mainly put the emphasis on the molecular design concept, structure-property relationships, intriguing emission properties and great applications of the corresponding triarylborane π-systems.

  9. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  10. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  11. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher B; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K; Ringbauer, Joseph A; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  12. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  13. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Ringbauer, Joseph; HE, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  14. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  15. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  16. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  17. Radiative interactions in transient energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in transient energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. The nongray radiative formulations are based on the wide-band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux are developed; these are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The methods presented in this study can be extended easily to investigate the radiative interactions in realistic flows of hydrogen-air species in the scramjet engine.

  18. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  19. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  20. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  1. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  2. A comparison of potential electric propulsion systems for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Electric propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.

  3. A technology transfer tracking system for NREL: Overview and results

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL) technology, transfer--both the activities and the system, with the objective of developing a system to track the benefits of NREL-sponsored or conducted research. There were two factors which facilitated this study and which were important in the ability to make a detailed analysis and series of recommendations. First, was the nature of the lab, being one which, from its beginning, has worked closely with industry and, therefore has been directed toward research which would be of value to industry and hopefully commercialized. Second, the size of the laboratory made it relatively more easy to address issues and to become familiar with the organization and with the scientists themselves.

  4. Dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.M.S.; Gahbauer, R.A. ); Blue, T.E. ); Wambersie, A. )

    1994-03-30

    The purpose of this paper is to address some aspects of the many considerations that need to go into a dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for brain tumors; and to describe some methods to incorporate knowledge from animal studies and other experiments into the process of dose prescription. Previously, an algorithm to estimate the normal tissue tolerance to mixed high and low linear energy transfer radiations in BNCT was proposed. The authors have developed mathematical formulations and computational methods to represent this algorithm. Generalized models to fit the central axis dose rate components for an epithermal neutron field were also developed. These formulations and beam fitting models were programmed into spreadsheets to simulate two treatment techniques which are expected to be used in BNCT: a two-field bilateral scheme and a single-field treatment scheme. Parameters in these spreadsheets can be varied to represent the fractionation scheme used, the [sup 10]B microdistribution in normal tissue, and the ratio of [sup 10]B in tumor to normal tissue. Most of these factors have to be determined for a given neutron field and [sup 10]B compound combination from large animal studies. The spreadsheets have been programmed to integrate all of the treatment-related information and calculate the location along the central axis where the normal tissue tolerance is exceeded first. This information is then used to compute the maximum treatment time allowable and the maximum tumor dose that may be delivered for a given BNCT treatment. The effect of different treatment variables on the treatment time and tumor dose has been shown to be very significant. It has also been shown that the location of D[sub max] shifts significantly, depending on some of the treatment variables-mainly the fractionation scheme used. These results further emphasize the fact that dose prescription in BNCT is very complicated and nonintuitive. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Transfer printing and micro-scale hybrid materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Matthew Alexander

    Micro- and nano-scale engineering, especially as it applies to integrated circuits, has impacted society in revolutionary ways. These integrated circuits are characterized by huge numbers of small electronic devices manufactured on semiconductor wafers. Some emerging technologies will require assemblies of these micro/nano-devices on substrates that are very different from semiconductor wafers in terms of processing schemes and properties. Integration of high quality semiconductors and devices onto large, low-cost, mechanically- deformable, polymeric (plastic or elastomer), and/or functional substrates for unconventional electronics applications (displays, systems-on-a-chip) are a few examples. This dissertation presents methods for assembling small-scale (˜nm to ˜mm) materials elements and devices on many classes of substrate (planar or simply-curved with nearly arbitrary composition) via transfer printing, a form of soft lithography. The approach uses rubber stamps to manipulate arrays of small-scale objects including but not limited to carbon nanotubes, metal thin films, single-crystal silicon and III-V semiconductor microstructures and devices, few-layer graphene, and silica microspheres. Presented here are the techniques for preparing printable materials elements and devices from solution (e.g. surfactant stabilized aqueous carbon nanotube solutions) and from donor/source substrates (e.g. semiconductor wafers) as well as the mechanical phenomena that govern the transfer of materials to and from the stamp. Among these are kinetically-switchable adhesion to a viscoelastic stamp and stress focusing via sharp geometries for controlling fracture. Also presented here are thin-film transistors, photodiodes, and inorganic light-emitting diodes on plastic substrates as well as semiconductor woodpile structures and silicon-III-V heterogeneous integration, examples of the capabilities of the transfer printing approach.

  6. Apparatus and Method for Effecting Data Transfer Between Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Joey V. (Inventor); Grosz, Francis B., Jr. (Inventor); Lannes, Kenny (Inventor); Maniscalco, David G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting data transfer between data systems comprising a first transceiver and a second transceiver. The first transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for converting digital data received at the input into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the data output. The second transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from another one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to the another one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for serially converting digital data received at the input of the second transceiver into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the output of the second transceiver. The apparatus further comprises an optical link connecting the first and second transceivers. The optical link comprising a pair of optical fibers. One of the optical fibers optically links the transmitter of the first transceiver to the receiver of the second transceiver. The other optical fiber optically links the receiver of the first transceiver to the transmitter of the second transceiver.

  7. Communications Alternatives for Transparent Data Transfer in Civil Works Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    file transfer, distributive systems must be able to be updated . One solution to this problem is a transparent communications system. Such a system...properly, and (3) providing a communications system that the user can operate. One way to avoid these problems is to use transparent communications...ECONPACK Communications System allows data transfer of single files to or from the mainframe. File updating and transfer via transparent communications

  8. The burden of the nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M; Kreis, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    An increase in the prescribing of opioids over the past several years often has been perceived as the primary reason for the increase in the nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Determining the prevalence of this illicit use has been difficult, because of varied methodologies and terminologies that are used to estimate the number of people directly contributing to or affected by this burden. Despite these discrepancies, the findings from several nationally recognized surveys have demonstrated that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use is indeed significant and has been increasing in recent years. The considerable burden on society imposed by misuse and abuse of these drugs is largely due to the monetary costs associated with nonmedical use (e.g., strategies implemented to prevent or deter abuse, treatment programs for misusers, etc.), decreased economic productivity, and the indirect effect on access to appropriate health care. However, using various nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to treat patients who use prescription opioids illicitly can decrease its overall prevalence and associated impact, with the development of novel opioid formulations designed to reduce nonmedical use providing valuable clinical tools as part of an overall risk management program. In addition, prescription monitoring programs are a prevalent drug control system designed to identify and address abuse and diversion of prescription medications, including opioids. Such resources, along with an accurate understanding of the problem, extend greater hope that the public health challenge of nonmedical prescription opioid use can be effectively mitigated.

  9. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate Prescriptions): Development of a Tool to Identify Inappropriate Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045

  10. Orbital Transfer Vehicle: Concept definition and system analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Findings and recommendations from the second extension of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept definition and system analysis study are outlined. The extension study opens the scope of potential recommendations by introducing a variety of ambitious programs, and by making the large cargo vehicle recommended by the Space Transportation Architecture Studies available at no acquisition cost to the OTV program. It is a further objective of the extension study to evaluate the sensitivity of OTV program recommendations to scenario variations such as different mission models, different launch vehicle availability, and different space station availability. Program/mission issues are addressed including safety considerations for the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) OTV. Design issues related to the development of a near-term expendable OTV, engine configuration tradeoffs, lunar missions, and program evolution are discussed. Finally, aeroassist considerations for a manned Mars mission and high speed entries are presented.

  11. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  12. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  13. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  14. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  15. Prescription Tracking and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Monitoring and modifying physicians’ prescribing behavior through prescription tracking is integral to pharmaceutical marketing. Health information organizations (HIOs) combine prescription information purchased from pharmacies with anonymized patient medical records purchased from health insurance companies to determine which drugs individual physicians prefer for specific diagnoses and patient populations. This information is used to tailor marketing strategies to individual physicians and to assess the effect of promotions on prescribing behavior. DISCUSSION The American Medical Association (AMA) created the Prescription Data Restriction Plan in an attempt to address both the privacy concerns of physicians and industry concerns that legislation could compromise the availability of prescribing data. However, the PDRP only prohibits sales representatives and their immediate supervisors from accessing the most detailed reports. Less than 2% of US physicians have registered for the PDRP, and those who have signed up are not the physicians who are targeted for marketing. CONCLUSION Although it has been argued that prescription tracking benefits public health, data gathered by HIOs is designed for marketing drugs. These data are sequestered by industry and are not generally available for genuine public health purposes. PMID:18473146

  16. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  17. Verification measurements of the Karoo Array timing system: a laser radar based time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebrits, R.; Bauermeister, E.; Gamatham, R.; Adams, G.; Malan, J. A.; Burger, J. P.; Kapp, F.; Gibbon, T.; Kriel, H.; Abbott, T.

    2016-02-01

    An optical fiber based laser radar time transfer system has been developed for the 64-dish MeerKAT radiointerferometer telescope project to provide accurate atomic time to the receivers of the telescope system. This time transfer system is called the Karoo Array Timing System (KATS). Calibration of the time transfer system is essential to ensure that time is accurately transferred to the digitisers that form part of the receivers. Frequency domain reflectometry via vector network analysers is also used to verify measurements taken using time interval counters. This paper details the progress that is made in the verification measurements of the system in order to ensure that time, accurate to within a few nanoseconds of the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC, is available at the point where radio signals from astronomical sources are received. This capability enables world class transient and timing studies with a compact radio interferometer, which has inherent advantages over large single dish radio-telescopes, in observing the transient sky.

  18. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  19. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  20. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  1. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  2. Demonstration of the smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over an hour for some missile systems. Recent US Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current development of SCATS is being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. This paper summarizes the current status of the SCATS project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additional information on project background and requirements has been described previously (Bradley, et al., 1995).

  3. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  4. Time-Transfer System for Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William; Wu, Seen-Chong; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Dunn, Charles; Romans, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the time-transfer system of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which information on the distribution of Earth mass is extracted from position and time measurements for two spacecraft about 200 km apart in a circular, nearly polar orbit. Each spacecraft carriers a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a K/Ka-band ranging (KBR) instrument, and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO) that serves as a clock for the GPS and KBR units. The long-term errors of the USOs are cancelled by use of a technique, called dual-one-way phase measurements, in which the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft A as measured at spacecraft B are added to the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft B as measured at spacecraft A. GPS data are used to synchronize time between the USOs to within approximately 150 ps as needed to enable the dual-one-way phase measurements: For each spacecraft, the GPS data are used to solve for orbital positions, and the difference between the onboard clocks and a ground clock every 5 minutes. The relative clock rate between the spacecraft is then determined from the difference between the two solutions.

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  6. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  7. 76 FR 51245 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 51 and 602 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue... manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient... certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  8. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  9. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface

  10. Exploring the limits of polarization transfer efficiency in homonuclear three spin systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L; Heitmann, Björn; Reiss, Timo O; Schor, Heloiza H R; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2006-07-01

    The limits of polarization transfer efficiency are explored for systems consisting of three isotropically coupled spins 1/2 in the absence of relaxation. An idealized free evolution and control Hamiltonian is studied, which provides an upper limit of transfer efficiency (in terms of transfer amplitude and transfer time) for realistic homonuclear spin systems with arbitrary Heisenberg-type coupling constants J12, J13, and J23. It is shown that optimal control based pulse sequences have significantly improved transfer efficiencies compared to conventional transfer schemes. An experimental demonstration of optimal polarization transfer is given for the case of the carbon spin system of fully 13C labelled alanine at 62.5 MHz Larmor frequency.

  11. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  12. A SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORD SYSTEM FOR FARM MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANEY, GEORGE E.

    THE LACK OF SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORDS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRANT FARMWORKERS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM IN PROVIDING CONTINUITY IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF THESE YOUNGSTERS. IN AN ATTEMPT TO COORDINATE THE TRANSFER OF MIGRANT FARM CHILDREN, THIS BULLETIN OF PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS AND SAMPLE FORMS HAS BEEN PREPARED. THE SUGGESTED FORMS FOR USE WITH MIGRANT…

  13. Reconceptualizing the Learning Transfer Conceptual Framework: Empirical Validation of a New Systemic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a new systemic model of learning transfer and thus determine if a more holistic approach to training transfer could better explain the phenomenon. In all, this study confirmed the validity of the new systemic model and suggested that a high performance work system could indeed serve as…

  14. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  15. Relationship between E-Prescriptions and Community Pharmacy Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979

  16. Satellite lines at the ionization threshold in charge transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardermann, W.; von Niessen, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the possibility of low-energy ionizations of reduced intensity for larger organic molecules. Possible mechanisms which may lead to this phenomenon are outlined and the necessary structural features are discussed. The lowest ionization energies of some organic unsaturated nitro and nitroso compounds are calculated by the ADC(3) ab initio many-body Green's function method. The π-electron system consists either of fused five- and six-membered rings or of two fused five-membered rings with a variable number of heteroatoms. Some of the molecules contain exocylic double bonds and some are substituted with the donor groups -NH 2, -OH and -NHOH. The strongest many-body effects are found for the nitroso compounds, where in one case the spectral line at the ionization threshold has lost more than 40% of its intensity to satellites. We study the many-body effects at or close to the ionization threshold for these compounds. A particular mechanism which involves the screening of localized valence holes by charge transfer excitations appears to be capable of influencing the profile and intensities of the ionization spectrum already at the ionization threshold. The effect leads to strongly reduced relative intensities of the bands and may cause the appearance of satellite bands nearly at the ionization threshold. The spectral changes in the outermost valence region are discussed by using a simple model calculation in terms of ground-state electronic properties of the molecules.

  17. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    steering for microwave power transmission (the ability to accurately track a moving receiver) has been demonstrated at Texas A&M. It is proposed that the next step in development of this concept is a modest scale up from 25 elements to 435 followed by a further scale up using such 435 element arrays as subarrays for a still larger retrodirective system. Ultimately, transmit antenna sizes on the order of 100 meters are envisioned permitting transfer levels on the order of 30 kW to aerial vehicles up to 20 km.

  18. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Emilie; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive systems for surveilling prescription opioid–related harms provide clear evidence that deaths from prescription opioids have increased dramatically in the United States. However, these harms are not systematically monitored in Canada. In light of a growing public health crisis, accessible, nationwide data sources to examine prescription opioid–related harms in Canada are needed. We sought to examine the performance of 5 algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics data against data abstracted from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario as a gold standard. Methods: We identified all prescription opioid–related deaths from Ontario coroners’ data that occurred between Jan. 31, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2010. We then used 5 different algorithms to identify prescription opioid–related deaths from vital statistics death data in 2010. We selected the algorithm with the highest sensitivity and a positive predictive value of more than 80% as the optimal algorithm for identifying prescription opioid–related deaths. Results: Four of the 5 algorithms had positive predictive values of more than 80%. The algorithm with the highest sensitivity (75%) in 2010 improved slightly in its predictive performance from 2003 to 2010. Interpretation: In the absence of specific systems for monitoring prescription opioid–related deaths in Canada, readily available national vital statistics data can be used to study prescription opioid–related mortality with considerable accuracy. Despite some limitations, these data may facilitate the implementation of national surveillance and monitoring strategies. PMID:26622006

  20. A Design Study Of A Wireless Power Transfer System For Use To Transfer Energy From A Vibration Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.

  1. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing.

  2. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. M.; Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  3. Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Bhanu; Nadig, Prathiba; Nayak, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in dermatological therapy is to use the safest and least number of drugs in order to obtain the best possible effect in the shortest period and at reasonable cost. Rational drug use (RDU) is conventionally defined as the use of an appropriate, efficacious, safe and cost-effective drug given for the right indications in the right dose and formulation, at right time intervals. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly as prescribed by the doctor. The process of Rational prescription for a Dermatologist (RPD) involves a series of steps such as defining the patient's illness, specifying the treatment objectives, using the principle of P-treatment, starting the treatment, providing appropriate information and monitoring the treatment. Reasons for irrational prescription could be physician related, patient related, industry related, regulations related. Practicing medicine irrationally can lead to disastrous events like increased morbidity and mortality, drain of resources, drug resistance etc. Principles to enhance the RDU in our practice and minimize errors of prescription are discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26955092

  4. Laboratory testing for prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Milone, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Opioid analgesic misuse has risen significantly over the past two decades, and these drugs now represent the most commonly abused class of prescription medications. They are a major cause of poisoning deaths in the USA exceeding heroin and cocaine. Laboratory testing plays a role in the detection of opioid misuse and the evaluation of patients with opioid intoxication. Laboratories use both immunoassay and chromatographic methods (e.g., liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection), often in combination, to yield high detection sensitivity and drug specificity. Testing methods for opioids originated in the workplace-testing arena and focused on detection of illicit heroin use. Analysis for a wide range of opioids is now required in the context of the prescription opioid epidemic. Testing methods have also been primarily based upon urine screening; however, methods for analyzing alternative samples such as saliva, sweat, and hair are available. Application of testing to monitor prescription opioid drug therapy is an increasingly important use of drug testing, and this area of testing introduces new interpretative challenges. In particular, drug metabolism may transform one clinically available opioid into another. The sensitivity of testing methods also varies considerably across the spectrum of opioid drugs. An understanding of opioid metabolism and method sensitivity towards different opioid drugs is therefore essential to effective use of these tests. Improved testing algorithms and more research into the effective use of drug testing in the clinical setting, particularly in pain medicine and substance abuse, are needed.

  5. [Inappropriate prescription in elderly inpatients].

    PubMed

    Fajreldines, Ana V; Insua, Jorge T; Schnitzler, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    One of the causes of preventable adverse drug events (EAM) in the older adult population is the inappropriate prescription (PIM), i.e. that prescription where risks outweigh clinical benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of PIM with Beers criteria and Screening Tool of older person's prescriptions (STOPP), Potentially Prescribing Omissions (PPO) with Screening Tool to alert doctors to Right Treatments (START), and the average costs of hospitalization. This is an incidence study on a sample of patients over 64 years hospitalized, from January to July 2014 at a university hospital. According to Beers criteria, PIM incidence was 61.4%, 65.4% with STOPP and 27.6% PPO with START. The EAM rate calculated was 15.2/100 admissions and 18.6 EAM / 1000 patient days. The OR of EAM with PIM according to Beers and STOPP was 1.49 (IC95% 1.68-4.66) and 1.17 (IC95% 0.62-2.24) respectively. The average cost of hospitalization in patients with EAM were higher than without EAM (p = 0.020). PIM results are in line with most of the studies cited, but slightly higher for Beers and STOPP and lower for START, and the rate of EAM is lower than the data found by Kanaan (18.7% vs. 15.2%). PIM contributes to the appearance of EAM. The costs of hospitalizations with EAM are higher than those without EAM, achieving level of significance.

  6. Transfer of training on manual control systems differing in short period frequency and damping characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Each of four groups of 16 subjects was trained on one of four compensatory tracking tasks that differed with regard to short period natural frequency and damping characteristics. After completion of the training sessions, the members of each group either transferred to a task on which they had not been trained or continued with their original task. Analysis of the training data indicated that relative task difficulty was largely determined by system damping which, however, had little effect on the amount of transfer during the transfer trials. The effect of system frequency was essentially reversed, and a marked interaction between training and transfer frequencies was observed in the transfer data. Similar results were obtained both with relative error scores and transinformation scores. Positive transfer was exhibited by most of the groups when they transferred to tasks on which they had not been trained.

  7. The Design and Transfer of Advanced Command and Control (C2) Computer-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    TECHNICAL REPORT 80-02 QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT: THE DESIGN AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL (C 2 ) COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS ARPA...The Tasks/Objectives and/or Purposes of the overall project are connected with the design , development, demonstration and transfer of advanced...command and control (C2 ) computer-based systems; this report covers work in the computer-based design and transfer areas only. The Technical Problems thus

  8. Method of Relaxation Moments for Studying Nonlinear Locally Nonequilibrium Processes of Transfer of Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A method for simulating the processes of transfer of thermodynamic systems with polymeric microstructure is considered. The method is based on the classical locally equilibrium medium-state entropy concept expanded by the introduction of a structural tensor parameter whose evolution characterizes the nonlinear anisotropic relaxation properties of a thermodynamic system and the associated transfer phenomena. The dynamic, thermal, and mass transfer characteristics of macrotransfer are determined by corresponding integrals of relaxation moments.

  9. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  10. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  11. INCENTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME PURE AND MIXED TRANSFER SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Direct income transfers to the poor are considered by many a necessary, if insufficient, weapon in the war on poverty . The most widely discussed...instrument for implementing such a transfer is the negative income tax. A promising competitor, which is just beginning to receive the attention it...deserves, is the wage subsidy. Since most of the discussion on income maintenance has turned on the labor supply effects of various alternatives, the document considers it as an important feature. (Author)

  12. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Nicola; Rossi, Federica; Del Signore, Federica; Bertazzoni, Paolo; Bellazzi, Roberto; Sandrini, Giorgio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Liccione, Davide; Pascale, Alessia; Govoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Correct drug prescription in the elderly is a difficult task that requires careful survey of the current pharmacological therapies. In this article, we reviewed the drug prescriptions provided to 860 persons aged 65 years or over, residing in a small city of Lombardy, Italy. Methods Subjects were recruited from a local nursing home, the Pavia and Vigevano Neuropsychological Center for Alzheimer’s Disease, general practitioners’ offices, and the local University of the Third Age. For each patient, the amount of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs), sedative and anticholinergic load (SL and AL, respectively), and drug–drug interactions were evaluated. Results Widespread polypharmacy, giving rise to 10.06% of PIPs in the whole collection of prescriptions, was observed. In particular, PIPs mainly concern drugs acting at the central nervous system level, mostly benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Moreover, approximately one-fourth of the subjects had an elevated SL and approximately one-tenth a high AL. Drug–drug interactions were frequent (266 requiring medical attention), up to five for each single patient. Of concern was the underuse of antidementia drugs: only 20 patients received a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine, although 183 patients were potentially suitable for this treatment. Conclusion These results demonstrate the need to develop novel strategies aimed at improving the quality of drug prescription. PMID:28228653

  13. Prescription Opioid Abuse: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Nathaniel P.; Birnbaum, Howard; Brennan, Michael J.; Freedman, John D.; Gilmore, Gary P.; Jay, Dennis; Kenna, George A.; Madras, Bertha K.; McElhaney, Lisa; Weiss, Roger D.; White, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prescription opioid abuse and addiction are serious problems with growing societal and medical costs, resulting in billions of dollars of excess costs to private and governmental health insurers annually. Though difficult to accurately assess, prescription opioid abuse also leads to increased insurance costs in the form of property and liability claims, and costs to state and local governments for judicial, emergency, and social services. This manuscript’s objective is to provide payers with strategies to control these costs, while supporting safe use of prescription opioid medications for patients with chronic pain. Method A Tufts Health Care Institute Program on Opioid Risk Management meeting was convened in June 2010 with private and public payer representatives, public health and law enforcement officials, pain specialists, and other stakeholders to present research, and develop recommendations on solutions that payers might implement to combat this problem. Results While protecting access to prescription opioids for patients with pain, private and public payers can implement strategies to mitigate financial risks associated with opioid abuse, using internal strategies, such as formulary controls, claims data surveillance, and claims matching; and external policies and procedures that support and educate physicians on reducing opioid risks among patients with chronic pain. Conclusion Reimbursement policies, incentives, and health technology systems that encourage physicians to use universal precautions, to consult prescription monitoring program (PMP) data, and to implement Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to6Treatment protocols, have a high potential to reduce insurer risks while addressing a serious public health problem. PMID:23725361

  14. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  15. Americans' access to prescription drugs stabilizes, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Boukus, Ellyn R; Carrier, Emily R

    2011-12-01

    Despite the weak economy and more people lacking health insurance, the proportion of Americans reporting problems affording prescription drugs remained level between 2007 and 2010, with more than one in eight going without a prescribed drug in 2010, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While remaining stable overall, access to prescription drugs improved for working-age, uninsured people, likely reflecting a decline in visits to health care providers, as well as changes in the composition of the uninsured population. Likewise, elderly people eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid saw a sharp drop in prescription drug access problems. The most vulnerable people--the uninsured, those with low incomes, people in fair or poor health, and those with multiple chronic conditions--continued to face the most unmet prescription needs. For example, 48 percent of uninsured people in fair or poor health went without a prescription drug because of cost concerns in 2010, almost double the rate of insured people with the same reported health status.

  16. Optimal Trajectories For Orbital Transfers Using Low And Medium Thrust Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1992-01-01

    For many problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well-known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs which will require more revolutions, thus making the low thrust transfer computational intensive. Here, we consider optimal low and medium thrust orbital transfers.

  17. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care: a 1-yearpopulation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. Design and setting A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Main outcome measures Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Results Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). Conclusion About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTSAs the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important.General practitioners (GPs) are

  18. Instability of mass transfer in a planet-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shi; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the angular momentum exchange mechanism governing the evolution of mass-transferring binary stars does not apply to Roche lobe filling planets, because most of the angular momentum of the mass-transferring stream is absorbed by the host star. Apart from a correction for the difference in specific angular momentum of the stream and the centre of mass of the planet, the orbit does not expand much on Roche lobe overflow. We explore the conditions for dynamically unstable Roche lobe overflow as a function of planetary mass and mass and radius (age) of host star and equation of state of planet. For a Sun-like host, gas giant planets in a range of mass and entropy can undergo dynamical mass transfer. Examples of the evolution of the mass transfer process are given. Dynamic mass transfer of rocky planets depends somewhat sensitively on equation of state used. Silicate planets in the range 1 < Mp < 10 M⊕ typically go through a phase of dynamical mass transfer before settling to slow overflow when their mass drops to less than 1 M⊕.

  19. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  20. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  1. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, V.; Aberle, O.; Bracco, C.; Fraser, M.; Galleazzi, F.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Maciariello, F.; Meddahi, M.; Nuiry, F. X.; Steele, G.; Velotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  2. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  3. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  4. Linearized transfer between coplanar circular orbits using blow down propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    A closed form solution is presented for the coplanar transfer between nearby circular orbits for spacecraft using their own blow down propulsion system. The decaying thrust is applied along the local horizontal and the linearized equation of motion in the orbital elements formulation are used to describe the transfer which consists of a thrust-coast-relight program. Sensitivity partials are also presented analytically in order to study the effect of maneuver execution errors and various other parameters affecting the blow down propulsion system characteristics on the transfer. This strategy is applied to study the transfer of the TOPEX spacecraft from the Shuttle parking orbit to its final operational orbit.

  5. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  6. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  7. Onsets of hierarchy truncation and self-consistent Born approximation with quantum mechanics prescriptions invariance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2015-12-07

    The issue of efficient hierarchy truncation is related to many approximate theories. In this paper, we revisit this issue from both the numerical efficiency and quantum mechanics prescription invariance aspects. The latter requires that the truncation approximation made in Schrödinger picture, such as the quantum master equations and their self-consistent-Born-approximation improvements, should be transferable to their Heisenberg-picture correspondences, without further approximations. We address this issue with the dissipaton equation of motion (DEOM), which is a unique theory for the dynamics of not only reduced systems but also hybrid bath environments. We also highlight the DEOM theory is not only about how its dynamical variables evolve in time, but also the underlying dissipaton algebra. We demonstrate this unique feature of DEOM with model systems and report some intriguing nonlinear Fano interferences characteristics that are experimentally measurable.

  8. Onsets of hierarchy truncation and self–consistent Born approximation with quantum mechanics prescriptions invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2015-12-07

    The issue of efficient hierarchy truncation is related to many approximate theories. In this paper, we revisit this issue from both the numerical efficiency and quantum mechanics prescription invariance aspects. The latter requires that the truncation approximation made in Schrödinger picture, such as the quantum master equations and their self–consistent–Born–approximation improvements, should be transferable to their Heisenberg–picture correspondences, without further approximations. We address this issue with the dissipaton equation of motion (DEOM), which is a unique theory for the dynamics of not only reduced systems but also hybrid bath environments. We also highlight the DEOM theory is not only about how its dynamical variables evolve in time, but also the underlying dissipaton algebra. We demonstrate this unique feature of DEOM with model systems and report some intriguing nonlinear Fano interferences characteristics that are experimentally measurable.

  9. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  10. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pharmacy for a period of two years from the dispensing date. This printout of the day's controlled substance prescription order refill data must be provided to each pharmacy using such a computerized system... pharmacist who is involved with such dispensing. In lieu of such a printout, the pharmacy shall maintain...

  11. [Erroneous prescription of rumalon to rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    PubMed

    Erov, N K

    1984-01-01

    The author describes 2 cases of erroneous prescription of rumalon to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as a result of which in one of the patients oligoarthritis arthritis while in the other one the typical seropositive slow-progressing rheumatoid arthritis transformed to RA with systemic manifestations.

  12. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  13. Diagnostic/Prescriptive Instruction: A Reconsideration of Some Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Norma; Brecht, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing numbers of educators have used diagnostic/prescriptive instruction as a remedial system when working with problem learners. A basic philosophical controversy exists regarding two fundamentally different models--task analysis and ability training--which popularly serve to undergird diagnostic/prescriptive…

  14. [Adverse drug reactions reporting is helping "non substituable" prescription!].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Julien; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In August 2012, general practitioners of Haute- Garonne received a letter from Health insurance system, informing that prescriptions could be endorsed by "not substituable" after reporting an adverse drug reactions (ADR). Compared to an equivalent period before this letter, we observed an increase of ADRs reports for generics, mainly concerning gastrointestinal ADR and lack of efficacy.

  15. Transient fluid flow and heat transfer in petroleum production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongqing

    Heat transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil production. In this work, two kinds of co-production, production fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the production string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas production, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the

  16. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, M. S.; Seon, C. R.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Bertalot, L.

    2012-10-01

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  17. Determination of continuous system transfer functions from sampled pulse response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jay B.

    1993-09-01

    A method for determining the transfer function of a continuous system from sampled responses to single and multiple pulse excitation is presented. The method is an extension of the sampled edge response method pioneered by the theoretical work of A. Papoulis in 1962 and the application of the theory to optical systems by B. Tatian in 1965. Occasions arise when pulse rather than step function stimuli are available for system excitations. In such cases, the method presented is practical for determining the system transfer function. The use of anti- aliasing filters and estimation of non-bandwidth limited transfer functions are also discussed.

  18. Prescription pricing across Canada (Part II).

    PubMed

    Archer, F

    1984-09-01

    The first of a two part article entitled "Prescription Pricing Across Canada" appeared in the June issue of CPJ. The article was prompted by recent press reports of a prescription drug study commissioned by the Saskatchewan government, and the consequent attention-getting headlines. The first article dealt with the Western provinces. The second part discusses prescription pricing in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories.

  19. Correlating electronic and vibrational motions in charge transfer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  20. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  1. A Plan for Course and Credit Transfer between Oregon Community Colleges and Oregon University System Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    This document presents a plan for course and credit transfer between Oregon community colleges and Oregon University System (OUS) institutions. It outlines the current and proposed policies, practices, and procedures for providing effective course and credit transfer in the state. The document also provides a summary of intersector communication…

  2. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eder, D.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

  3. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  4. Identification of boiler inlet transfer functions and estimation of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function of the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  5. Conjugated-polymer-based energy-transfer systems for antimicrobial and anticancer applications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huanxiang; Wang, Bing; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2014-10-29

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) attract a lot of attention in sensing, imaging, and biomedical applications because of recent achievements that are highlighted in this Research News article. A brief review of recent progress in the application of CP-based energy-transfer systems in antimicrobial and anticancer treatments is provided. The transfer of excitation energy from CPs to photosensitizers leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are able to efficiently kill pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells in the surroundings. Both fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET) modes are discussed.

  6. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  7. TIS (Technology Information System) A Focal Point for Technology Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    3 2.1 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Inovation Act of 1980 .................................... 3 2.2 Technical Information Centers...passwords is required since none were disclosed. The DIAL command provides an equally powerful , but user-controlled, method for accessing other...a local file from TIS to a remote machine. This has particular importance when downloaded and saved information is to be transferred to more powerful

  8. Nucleon Transfer Reactions in Few-Body Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltuva, A.

    2017-03-01

    Three- and four-body scattering is described solving Faddeev-Yakubovsky or equivalent Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas integral equations for transition operators in momentum-space. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used; the Coulomb force between charged particles is taken into account via the screening and renormalization method. Differential cross sections and spin observables for various nucleon transfer reactions are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  9. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  10. Prescription drug abuse as a public health problem in Ohio: a case report.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Erin L; Gay, Joe; Roberts, Lisa; Moseley, Judi; Hall, Orman; Beeghly, B Christine; Winhusen, Theresa; Somoza, Eugene

    2012-11-01

    Prescription drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in Ohio, as well as in 16 other states. Responding to the prescription drug epidemic is particularly challenging given the fragmentation of the health care system and that the consequences of addiction span across systems that have not historically collaborated. This case study reports on how Ohio is responding to the prescription drug epidemic by developing cross-system collaboration from local public health nurses to the Governor's office. In summary, legal and regulatory policies can be implemented relatively quickly whereas changing the substance abuse treatment infrastructure requires significant financial investments.

  11. Determination of continuous system transfer functions from sampled pulse response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jay B.; Watkins, Wendell R.; Palacios, Fernando R.; Billingsley, Daniel R.

    1994-12-01

    A method for determining the transfer function of a continuous system from sampled responses to single- and multiple-pulse excitation is presented. The method is an extension of the sampled-edge-response method pioneered by the theoretical work of A. Papoulis in 1962 and the application of the theory to optical systems by B. Tatian in 1965. Occasions arise when pulse rather than step-function stimuli are available for system excitations. In such cases, the method presented is useful for determining the system transfer function. The use of antialiasing filters and estimation of non-bandwidth-limited transfer functions are discussed. Practical application of the method to characterizing the system transfer function of a commercial 8- to 12-micrometers infrared imager is also presented.

  12. Risk factors for medication errors in the electronic and manual prescription 1

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; de Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães; de Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. Method: descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. Results: compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. Conclusion: generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. PMID:27508913

  13. Investigating the exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda; Reaburn, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nurses working in mental health are well positioned to prescribe exercise to people with mental illness. However, little is known regarding their exercise-prescription practices. We examined the self-reported physical activity and exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health facilities. Thirty-four nurses completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire - Health Practitioner Version. Non-parametric bivariate statistics revealed no relationship between nurses' self-reported physical activity participation and the frequency of exercise prescription for people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used by nurses are consistent with those recommended for both the general population and for people with mental illness. A substantial number of barriers to effective exercise prescription, including lack of training, systemic issues (such as prioritization and lack of time), and lack of consumer motivation, impact on the prescription of exercise for people with mental illness. Addressing the barriers to exercise prescription could improve the proportion of nurses who routinely prescribe exercise. Collaboration with exercise professionals, such as accredited exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might improve knowledge of evidence-based exercise-prescription practices for people with mental illness, thereby improving both physical and mental health outcomes for this vulnerable population.

  14. Bridge-mediated hopping or superexchange electron-transfer processes in bis(triarylamine) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Christoph; Nöll, Gilbert; Schelter, Jürgen

    2002-09-01

    Hopping and superexchange are generally considered to be alternative electron-transfer mechanisms in molecular systems. In this work we used mixed-valence radical cations as model systems for the investigation of electron-transfer pathways. We show that substituents attached to a conjugated bridge connecting two triarylamine redox centres have a marked influence on the near-infrared absorption spectra of the corresponding cations. Spectral analysis, followed by evaluation of the electron-transfer parameters using the Generalized Mulliken-Hush theory and simulation of the potential energy surfaces, indicate that hopping and superexchange are not alternatives, but are both present in the radical cation with a dimethoxybenzene bridge. We found that the type of electron-transfer mechanism depends on the bridge-reorganization energy as well as on the bridge-state energy. Because superexchange and hopping follow different distance laws, our findings have implications for the design of new molecular and polymeric electron-transfer materials.

  15. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  16. Prescription-Writing by Pediatric House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walson, Philip D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    An examination to evaluate prescription writing was administered to a group of pediatric house officers and faculty at the University of Arizona. The data indicate that prescription writing should be taught to house officers, and that the therapeutic knowledge of beginning pediatric interns cannot be assumed to be adequate. (Author/MLW)

  17. Exercise Prescription and the Kinesiological Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent trends in physical education programs show a diverse spectrum of clients and an increasing amount of health-related litigation. These developments call for increased emphasis on exercise prescription. The sit-up is used in an example of a step-by-step guide to prescriptive technique. (JN)

  18. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in the manufacture, transportation, storage, or wholesale or retail distribution of such device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A...

  19. Prescriptive Authority and Psychology: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…

  20. Code System to Predict LWR Reflood Heat Transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRCHNER, WALTER L.

    1999-04-27

    Version: 00 REFLUX calculates the temperature-time history of a representative fuel rod during the reflood stage of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The logic used fo selection of the appropriate flow regime for analysis of the cladding temperature transient is based on the axial position with regard to the continuous liquid level (based on a mass balance), a liquid carry-over criterion (derived from a force balance on a drop suspended in a vapor stream), and the local cladding surface temperature. A generalized boiling curve is constructed, and the local flow and clad conditions determine the applicable heat transfer coefficient.

  1. Rapid laser induced energy transfer in atomic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the rapid transfer of stored populations from metastable states to selected target states of a different species are reported. Both laser-induced or laser-switched collision and laser-induced two-photon spontaneous emission are described. It is shown that the laser-induced collision method is particularly useful in the visible and UV spectral regions. It has applications in photochemistry, gas-phase kinetics, and in high-power, high-energy gas-phase lasers. The anti-Stokes source is useful in the VUV and soft X-ray spectral regions.

  2. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  3. The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Charles E

    1958-01-01

    "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.

  4. WTCS Transfers to the University of Wisconsin System. Information on: Enrollment, Demographics, Outcomes, Conclusions. Joint Administrative Committee on Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This document reports on enrollment, demographics, and outcomes for Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) transfers to the University of Wisconsin (UW) System. Enrollment Information presents findings on transfers within and into the UW System by year (1994-95 to 1997-98), illustrates the proportion of transfers within and into the UW System…

  5. Development of bagless transfer system for standard waste boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Presgrove, S.B.; Patel, K.

    1991-12-31

    At several DOE site, substantial volumes of Transuranic (TRU) waste has been handled on a daily basis. Usually, the waste has been transferred from the facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or to an on site storage facility using the ``bag-out`` technique. This process begins in the most contaminated area by placing the waste in a strong plastic bag, twisting closed the neck of the bag, then taping the closed neck. This reduces the exposed TRU waste and the resulting contamination. However, even though that the contamination is reduced, it remains high enough to prevent direct transfer into the environment. In order to reduce the contamination to acceptable levels, the ``bag-out`` process is repeated until the outside contamination on the plastic bag is acceptable. This procedure has been affective, however, it also generates organic waste in the process. During the design of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) at the Savannah River Site, a conceptual alternative was developed using the Standard Waste Box (SWB).

  6. Development of bagless transfer system for standard waste boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Presgrove, S.B.; Patel, K. )

    1991-01-01

    At several DOE site, substantial volumes of Transuranic (TRU) waste has been handled on a daily basis. Usually, the waste has been transferred from the facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or to an on site storage facility using the bag-out'' technique. This process begins in the most contaminated area by placing the waste in a strong plastic bag, twisting closed the neck of the bag, then taping the closed neck. This reduces the exposed TRU waste and the resulting contamination. However, even though that the contamination is reduced, it remains high enough to prevent direct transfer into the environment. In order to reduce the contamination to acceptable levels, the bag-out'' process is repeated until the outside contamination on the plastic bag is acceptable. This procedure has been affective, however, it also generates organic waste in the process. During the design of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) at the Savannah River Site, a conceptual alternative was developed using the Standard Waste Box (SWB).

  7. Electron transfer in systems of well-defined geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Overfield, R.E.; Kaufmann, K.J.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Two mesopyropheophorbide macrocycles can be joined via two covalent linkages to produce a cyclophane. It is possible to insert one or two Mg atoms into the cyclophane. The Qy transitions of the macrocycles are nearly orthogonal. The visible absorption spectrum of the monometal cyclophane is nearly a superposition of the spectra of the monomers. Emission from the monometal cyclophane arises primarily from the red most absorbing chromophore. The excited state difference spectrum shows that both macrocycles are excited. Fluorescence lifetimes of the monometal cyclophane decrease with increasing dielectric strength. Changes in the fluorescence and the triplet yield parallel the shortening of the singlet lifetime. Thus the radiative rate is solvent independent. This is in contrast to what one would expect if the emitting state had charge transfer character. Since the fluorescence lifetime is dependent on dielectric, the nonradiative relaxation from the singlet state is due to formation of a radical pair. The decay rate of the postulated radical pair was monitored by observing the kinetics of ground state repopulation. For the geometry of this cyclophane, electron transfer proceeds relatively slowly (k = 3 x 10/sup 9/ sec/sup -1/) in the forward direction. Modeling calculations indicate that the rate of annihilation of the radical pair may decrease as the solvent dielectric decreases.

  8. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  9. Enhancement of oxygen transfer efficiency in diffused aeration systems using liquid-film-forming apparatus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Imai, T; Tani, K; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Higuchi, T; Zhang, Z J

    2007-05-01

    Surface transfer and bubble transfer both contribute significantly to oxygen transfer in a diffused aeration system. In the present study, liquid-film-forming apparatus is successfully developed on a laboratory scale to improve considerably the surface transfer via the unique liquid film transfer technique. The experimental results show that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for liquid-film-forming apparatus alone is found to be as much as 5.3 times higher than that for water surface and that the total volumetric mass transfer coefficient for liquid film aeration system increases by 37 % in comparison with conventional aeration system. Additionally, by tuning finely the structural parameters of the liquid-film-forming apparatus, it can also lead to high dissolved oxygen water with the dissolved oxygen percent saturation greater than 90 %. More importantly, this result is accomplished by simply offering a single-pass aeration at the depth as shallow as 26 cm. As a result, the objective of economical energy consumption in diffused aeration systems can be realized by lowering the aeration depth without sacrificing the aeration efficiency.

  10. Numerical calculations of mass transfer flow in semi-detached binary systems. [of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. A.; Pringle, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    The details of the mass transfer flow near the inner Lagrangian point in a semidetached binary system are numerically calculated. A polytropic equation of state with n = 3/2 is used. The dependence of the mass transfer rate on the degree to which the star overfills its Roche lobe is calculated, and good agreement with previous analytic estimates is found. The variation of mass transfer rate which occurs if the binary system has a small eccentricity is calculated and is used to cast doubt on the model for superhumps in dwarf novae proposed by Papaloizou and Pringle (1979).

  11. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  12. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  13. Gas stream in Algol. [mass transfer in binary star systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cugier, H.; Chen, K.-Y.

    1977-01-01

    Additional absorption features in the red wings of the Mg II resonance lines near 2800 A are found in observations of Algol made from the Copernicus satellite. The absorption features were clearly seen only during a part of the primary eclipse, in the phase interval 0.90-0.03. The observations are interpreted as being produced by a stream of matter flowing from Algol B in the direction of Algol A. The measured Doppler shifts of the features give the value of 150 km/s as the characteristic velocity of matter in the stream. The mass transfer connected with the stream is estimated to be of the order of 10 to the -13th power solar mass per year.

  14. Population transfer in a Lambda system induced by detunings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, P. G.; Paladino, E.; D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we propose a protocol to achieve coherent population transfer between two states in a three-level atom by using two ac fields. It is based on the physics of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), but it is implemented with the constraint of a reduced control, namely, one of the fields cannot be switched off. A combination of frequency chirps is used with resonant fields, allowing us to achieve approximate destructive interference, despite the fact that an exact dark state does not exist. This chirped STIRAP protocol is tailored for applications to artificial atoms, where architectures with several elementary units can be strongly coupled but where the possibility of switching on and off such couplings is often very limited. Demonstration of this protocol would be a benchmark for the implementation of a class of multilevel advanced control procedures for quantum computation and microwave quantum photonics in artificial atoms.

  15. Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid

    2003-09-30

    A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.

  16. Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid

    2003-05-27

    A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.

  17. Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.

  18. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  19. Heat transfer in space power and propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Dunning, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's planned Space Station has projected power requirements in the 75-300 kW range; attention is presently given to the range of power system configurations thus far proposed. These are a silicon solar cell system incorporating regenerative fuel cell or battery storage, with a 10-year lifetime, a solar-dynamic power system with phase-change or regenerative fuel cell energy storage, and a combination of these two alternatives. A development status evaluation is also given for the propulsion systems that may be used by next-generation boosters. These include such novel airbreathing systems as turboramjets, air liquefaction cycle rockets, airturboramjet/rockets, and supersonic combustion ramjets.

  20. 48 CFR 52.232-33 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-System for Award Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contained in the System for Award Management (SAM) database. In the event that the EFT information changes... Funds Transfer-System for Award Management. 52.232-33 Section 52.232-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—System for Award Management (JUL 2013) (a) Method of payment. (1) All payments by the Government...

  1. 48 CFR 52.232-33 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-System for Award Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contained in the System for Award Management (SAM) database. In the event that the EFT information changes... Funds Transfer-System for Award Management. 52.232-33 Section 52.232-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—System for Award Management (Jul 2013) (a) Method of payment. (1) All payments by the Government...

  2. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  3. One-two step transfer observed in 16O+11B nuclear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    The angular distribution measurements for 16O ion beam elastically scattered from 11B target of thickness 32.9μg/cm2 at energy 22.4 MeV had been performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. The previous measurements for 16O+11B nuclear system at energies 27, 30, 32.5 and 35 MeV showed an increase in the differential cross-section at backward angles due to the contribution of cluster transfer. Such transfer process could not be described in terms of optical model (OM); it could be described within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation method implemented in FRESCO code. Both one (5Li) and two-step transfer (proton transfer followed by Alpha transfer) were taken into considerations. We have extracted the spectroscopic amplitude (SA) for the configuration 16O→11B+5Li.

  4. Sequential energy and electron transfer in a three-component system aligned on a clay nanosheet.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takuya; Ramasamy, Elamparuthi; Ishida, Yohei; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan

    2016-02-21

    To achieve the goal of energy transfer and subsequent electron transfer across three molecules, a phenomenon often utilized in artificial light harvesting systems, we have assembled a light absorber (that also serves as an energy donor), an energy acceptor (that also serves as an electron donor) and an electron acceptor on the surface of an anionic clay nanosheet. Since neutral organic molecules have no tendency to adsorb onto the anionic surface of clay, a positively charged water-soluble organic capsule was used to hold neutral light absorbers on the above surface. A three-component assembly was prepared by the co-adsorption of a cationic bipyridinium derivative, cationic zinc porphyrin and cationic octaamine encapsulated 2-acetylanthracene on an exfoliated anionic clay surface in water. Energy and electron transfer phenomena were monitored by steady state fluorescence and picosecond time resolved fluorescence decay. The excitation of 2-acetylanthracene in the three-component system resulted in energy transfer from 2-acetylanthracene to zinc porphyrin with 71% efficiency. Very little loss due to electron transfer from 2-acetylanthracene in the cavitand to the bipyridinium derivative was noticed. Energy transfer was followed by electron transfer from the zinc porphyrin to the cationic bipyridinium derivative with 81% efficiency. Analyses of fluorescence decay profiles confirmed the occurrence of energy transfer and subsequent electron transfer. Merging the concepts of supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry we realized sequential energy and electron transfer between three hydrophobic molecules in water. Exfoliated transparent saponite clay served as a matrix to align the three photoactive molecules at a close distance in aqueous solutions.

  5. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer water flush system (POTP-001)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, G.L.

    1998-02-20

    This report documents the results of the testing performed per POTP-001, for the Cross-Site Transfer Water Flush System. (HNF-1552, Rev. 0) The Flush System consists of a 47,000 gallon tank (302C), a 20 hp pump, two 498kW heaters, a caustic addition pump, various valves, instruments, and piping. The purpose of this system is to provide flush water at 140 F, 140gpm, and pH 11-12 for the Cross-Site Transfer System operation.

  6. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  7. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  8. Concepts to Automate Fluid Transfer Capability of Low Impact Docking System (LIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Lukens, Scott; Robertson, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The capability to transfer mass between spacecraft is necessary for many mission scenarios. Docking and berthing operations have enabled fluid, electrical, crew and equipment transfers to some degree on all manned space operations since the Gemini program. The Apollo program performed some sophisticated docking maneuvers to land men on the moon and return them safely to Earth. These programs primarily transferred crew, equipment, and pressurized atmosphere between docked spacecraft. The International Space Station (ISS) U.S. modules are connected by Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) portals. They provide many feed-through ports for electrical, and fluid transfer between modules, as well as a large diameter crew and equipment tunnel. Fluid and electrical jumpers are manually installed after the CBM sealing surfaces have been securely mated to maintain the pressurized cabin environment. CBM berthing and subsequent fluid transfer capability requires a lengthy manual process involving an active interface that mates with a passive half. The Androgynous Peripheral Attach System (MAS) a Russian technology that docked the Russian Zarya module to Unity, or Node 1, is a more complex system that also is capable of fuel transfer, enabling refueling of the Russian re-boost engines on ISS. For several years, a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) has been under development at Johnson Space Center (JSC). This docking technology has a requirement to be androgynous in order to allow the fabrication of a single configuration that can dock with all other LIDS units. It is desired to make electrical and fluid coupling mating an automated process to enable routine docking and undocking operations to support future exploration missions. It is envisioned that modular design and vehicle assembly will require an efficient LIDS for fuel, electrical, crew, and equipment transfer. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has joined the LIDS development effort and plans to employ fluid transfer concepts

  9. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  10. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  11. Energy transfer in hybrid systems quantum dot-plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplik, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Radiationless relaxation in hybrid systems quantum dot (QD)-plasmonic nanostructure is considered. For the system QD-2D plasma the relaxation rate extremely steeply depends on the radius of quantum dot while in the pair QD-cylindrical wire contacting each other this dependence is logarithmic weak.

  12. Orbit Transfer Systems with Emphasis on Shuttle Applications, 1986-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A systems study is presented for a transportation system which will follow the interim upper stage and spinning solid upper stage. Included are concepts, concept comparisons, trends, parametric data, etc. associated with the future system. Relevant technical and programmatic information is developed. This information is intended to focus future activity to identify attractive options and to summarize the major issues associated with the future development of the system. To establish a common basis for identifying current transportation concepts, an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) is defined as a propulsive (velocity producing) rocket or stage. When used with a crew transfer module, a manned sortie module or other payloads, the combination becomes an orbit transfer system (OTS). Standardization of OTV's and OTS's is required.

  13. Effective transfer of geographic information system (GIS) technology: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Glenn; Scharfen, Greg

    1993-08-01

    Despite the remarkable growth and dissemination of GIS technology in the past decate, barriers yet remain to the full and effective application of the technology by scientific entities. This paper will broadly survey the literature and comment on issues germane to the transfer of GIS technology within and among governmental agencies, universities, and other research organizations. An intellectual framework established by formal education in geography has aided in identifying potential uses for GIS. More widespread inclusion of geographic principles into higher education curricula, using GIS as a tool for demonstration and experimentation, will be suggested. Seminars and demonstrations are useful to spark interest in GIS, but unless material learned can be directly applied to current work, they are not of lasting value. Graphical user interfaces lift GIS from the realm of programmers and put analysis capabilities into the hands of researchers and decision makers. Factors relating to cost must always be dealt with. We have found that an appropriate pilot project is a means by which risks can be minimized while capabilities of the technology can be proven in an operational setting. Technology is not an end in itself, but a means to engender human productivity and creativity; GIS provides a unified mechanism by which to visualize and manage information on the various processes within the earth's environment. Assimilation of GIS technology by the international earth science community will undoubtedly encourage multidisciplinary cooperation.

  14. Information Transfer Efficiency of X-Ray Image Intensifier-Based Imaging Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tao-Yi.

    The information transfer efficiency of any quantum detection imaging system can be described by a unique measure: the detective quantum efficiency {DQE(f)}, which is a function of the statistically independent frequency channels. The DQE(f) is a combined descriptor which takes into account the signal transfer as well as noise transfer properties of a complete system. For a complicated multistage imaging system, each system component contributes noise. In this dissertation, physical and mathematical models for noise analysis are developed and verified experimentally with an x-ray image intensifier (XRII)-based imaging system. In such a system, the DQE at low frequency range is primarily determined by the x-ray detection and scintillation processes at the CsI layer of the XRII. The effects of x-ray photon energy and sensor layer thickness on DQE are measured in detail. Numerical calculations based on a physical model of x-ray interactions show a general agreement with the experimental data. At higher frequencies, the DQE behavior becomes more complicated. A mathematical model which combines the micro-image properties and noise statistics is formulated to analyze the noise power spectrum (NPS) of a linear n-stage imaging system. Measurement of NPS components of an XRII system verifies the validity of this analytical prediction. The associated image transfer properties are also measured with emphasis on the effect of signal-induced background on the image information transfer. The low frequency data derived from these image property measurements show further agreement with the numerical calculations based on the physical model. As a result of this predictability of information transfer efficiency, system gain and recording capacity are emphasized in the design consideration of a projected high performance XRII radiographic system.

  15. A Versatile High-Vacuum Cryo-transfer System for Cryo-microscopy and Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sebastian; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nüsse, Harald; Wepf, Roger Albert; Klingauf, Jürgen; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic microscopy methods have gained increasing popularity, as they offer an unaltered view on the architecture of biological specimens. As a prerequisite, samples must be handled under cryogenic conditions below their recrystallization temperature, and contamination during sample transfer and handling must be prevented. We present a high-vacuum cryo-transfer system that streamlines the entire handling of frozen-hydrated samples from the vitrification process to low temperature imaging for scanning transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A template for cryo-electron microscopy and multimodal cryo-imaging approaches with numerous sample transfer steps is presented. PMID:26910419

  16. No Vent Tank Fill and Transfer Line Chilldown Analysis by Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.

  17. Immigration and the public transfer system: some empirical evidence for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "Do immigrants subsidize the native population or vice versa? Is immigration a cost factor or a net benefit for the public transfer system? On the basis of the 1990 Swiss Consumer Survey, an attempt is made to answer these questions empirically.... The degree of participation of foreigners in the Swiss welfare state is estimated.... To this end, the public transfer balance (difference between government revenue and government expenditure) is empirically estimated for both native and foreign households. The method chosen covers public monetary transfers as well as the supply of goods and services by the government (real transfers). Social security insurance, redistribution through taxes, infrastructure investment (club goods) and immaterial goods such as the legal system (public goods) are thus covered."

  18. Fluorinated aminoanthranilamides: non-native amino acids for bringing proteomic approaches to charge-transfer systems.

    PubMed

    Larsen-Clinton, Jillian M; Espinoza, Eli M; F Mayther, Maximillian; Clark, John; Tao, Christina; Bao, Duoduo; Larino, Christa M; Wurch, Michelle; Lara, Stephanie; Vullev, Valentine I

    2017-03-15

    The ability to control charge transfer at molecular and nanometer scales represents the ultimate level of electronic mastery, and its impacts cannot be overstated. As electrostatic analogues of magnets, electrets possess ordered electric dipoles that present key paradigms for directing transduction of electrons and holes. Herein we describe the design and development of fluorinated aminoanthranilamides, derivatives of non-native aromatic beta-amino acids, as building blocks for hole-transfer molecular electrets. A highly regio-selective nucleophilic aromatic substitution of difluorinated nitrobenzoic acid provides the underpinnings for an array of unprecedented anthranilamide structures. Spin density distribution and electrochemical analyses reveal that fluorine induces about 200 mV positive shifts in reduction potentials without compromising the stability of the oxidized residues, making them invaluable building blocks for hole-transfer systems. These findings open unexplored routes to novel amino-acid structures, setting a foundation for bringing principles of proteomics to designs of charge-transfer systems.

  19. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  20. Energy transfer enhancement by oxygen perturbation of spin-forbidden electronic transitions in aromatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguzzi, A.; Tubino, R.; Salamone, M. M.; Meinardi, F.

    2010-09-01

    Triplet-triplet energy transfer in multicomponent organic systems is usually entirely ascribed to a Dexter-type mechanism involving only short-range donor/acceptor interactions. We demonstrate that the presence of molecular oxygen introduces a perturbation to the electronic structure of one of the involved moieties which can induce a large increase in the spin-forbidden transition oscillator strength so that the otherwise negligible Förster contribution dominates the overall energy transfer rate.

  1. An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.

    2014-09-15

    We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.

  2. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  3. System design description for the 200 east area Double Shell Tank (DST) waste transfer system (DST Based)

    SciTech Connect

    REED, R.W.

    2003-05-30

    The 200 East Area Double-Shell Tank (DST) Waste Transfer System (WTS) consists of a network of buried transfer pipelines, operating equipment, and transfer structures (diversion boxes, valve pits, and pump pits) used to transfer high-level, radioactive waste between tank farm facilities. The primary purpose of the 200 East Area DST WTS is to support the overall mission of the River Protection Project (RPP) to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive waste from Hanford Site tanks in an environmentally safe, sound, and cost-effective manner. This system design description (SDD) describes the functions of the 200 East Area DST WTS, identifies the requirements and their bases to support the system functions, and discusses how the 200 East Area DST WTS, as designed, fulfills those requirements. This system design description of the 200 East Area Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer System is intended to be a living compendium of design requirements, design bases, and system descriptions. The system design description includes references to relevant procedures, drawings, calculations, and supporting documents.

  4. Energy transfer between degrees of freedom of a dusty plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Dust particles under certain conditions can acquire kinetic energy of the order of 10 eV and higher, far above the temperature of gas and temperatures of ions and electrons in the discharge. Such heating can be explained by the energy transfer between degrees of freedom of a dusty plasma system. One of the mechanisms of such energy transfer is based on parametric resonance. A model of dust particles system in gas discharge plasma including fluctuations of dust particles charge and features of near-electrode layer is presented. Molecular dynamics simulation of the dust particles system is performed. Conditions of the resonance occurrence are obtained for a wide range of parameters.

  5. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called a drug-drug interaction. Vitamins and herbal supplements can affect the way your body processes drugs, ... over-the-counter and prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements that you are taking. Also, talk to your ...

  6. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...

  7. Prescription drug abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-12-01

    The increased use of prescription drugs has brought pain relief too many and often improved the quality of life of elderly patients. But the increase in use and availability of prescription medications-especially controlled substances-brings with it an increased potential for abuse. Studies have shown that intentional abuse of prescription drugs is increasing among all age groups. As the number of persons 65 years of age and older skyrockets with the aging of the baby boomers, experts predict that prescription drug abuse among the elderly also will rise significantly. Efforts to increase awareness of drug abuse among elderly patients, caregivers, and health care practitioners, as well as research into how best to prevent and treat the elderly drug abuser, will be necessary to thwart what could become a significant public health problem.

  8. Are You Shopping Smart for Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... best known for its ratings of cars, appliances, computers, and TVs, recently launched Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . The project compares prescription drugs based on their effectiveness, safety, side effects, and cost. The results are offered free at ...

  9. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... coverage gap discount work for brand-name drugs? Companies that make brand-name prescription drugs must sign ... Coverage Gap Discount Program. This program requires the companies to offer discounts on brand-name drugs to ...

  10. Sneak circuit analysis of instrumentation and control systems. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. P.; Williams, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The evolvement and implementation is presented of a systematic means for detecting the sneak prone designs of an electrical system which could result in such unplanned modes so that they can be prevented prior to occurrence. Sneak circuit analysis is shown to be a formalized approach based upon topological techniques. The trees employed are produced from manufacturing detail data processed by a computer to orderly completion. The analysis techniques applied on a variety of NASA programs are shown to be particularly applicable to industrial instrumentation and control systems.

  11. National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): balancing substance abuse and medical necessity.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Brown, Keith R; Singh, Vijay

    2002-07-01

    The National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act, or NASPER, is a bill proposed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians to provide and improve patient access with quality care, and protect patients and physicians from deleterious effects of controlled substance misuse, abuse and trafficking. Controlled prescription drugs, including narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, anti-depressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics play a significant and legitimate role in interventional pain management practices in managing chronic pain and related disorders. Based on the 1997 household survey on drug abuse it is estimated that 76.9 million Americans had used an illicit drug at least once in their life. In 1997, 4.2 million people used analgesics, 2.1 million used tranquillizers, and an additional 2.3 million people used various other drugs, including sedatives, tranquillizers, etc. The non-medical use of prescription drugs exceeds that of all illicit substances except for marijuana and hashish. The report on epidemiology trends in drug abuse, based on community epidemiology work group analysis showed continued increase of abuse of prescription drugs in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The most commonly abused drugs include oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, codeine, clonazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, diazepam and carisoprodol. The diversion of prescription controlled substances to illicit channels is a public health and safety issue. This review describes the role of controlled substances in chronic pain management, prevalence and economic impact of controlled substance abuse, prescription accountability, effectiveness of prescription monitoring programs, and rationale for national controlled substance electronic reporting system.

  12. Protoplast Transformation as a Plant-Transferable Transient Expression System.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Patrícia; Ribeiro, Diana; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Bettencourt, Sara; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    The direct uptake of DNA by naked plant cells (protoplasts) provides an expression system of exception for the quickly growing research in non-model plants, fuelled by the power of next-generation sequencing to identify novel candidate genes. Here, we describe a simple and effective method for isolation and transformation of protoplasts, and illustrate its application to several plant materials.

  13. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  14. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  15. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use. PMID:20401276

  16. Prescription Stimulant Misuse in a Military Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    This corresponded to an increased abuse rate of 76% for such drugs , an increase greater than any other form of substance abuse (56%).1 Studies on...stimulant drug use in the general population have shown an increasing trend toward abuse . A 2012 survey of a large urban community by Stein showed that as...survey was not designed to examine prescription drug abuse , a secondary analysis of the data did focus on four dif- ferent prescription drug categories

  17. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  18. Children of the Four Winds: The Migrant Student Record Transfer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Maxwell

    A discussion of the computerized Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) is presented. The author first describes it as a functional automated system, headquartered in the Arkansas Department of Education, which serves the record transferral needs of seasonal farm migrant children as they move throughout the contiguous 48 states.…

  19. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  20. On the transfer of remote sensing technology to an operational data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbet, J. D.; Bradford, L. H., Jr.; White, T. T.; Purnell, R. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Data processing techniques for the transfer of remote sensing technology to an operational data system are evaluated. The study is aimed at developing a scheme for the improvement of the quantifying cost/performance ratio, noting the timeliness of the results, the ease of system development, system operating costs, and accuracy. The method is applicable to the Production Area and Yield Estimation System (PAYES) and the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE).

  1. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  2. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  3. [Drug prescriptions: Adherence and understanding in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Raharinjatovo, L; Ralandison, S

    2015-01-01

    Frequently ignored or neglected, poor adherence is an important cause of treatment failure and a major public health problem. We assessed the factors involved in adherence in a hospital in Madagascar. This long-term study evaluated two groups of variables: patients' level of understanding of their disease and drug prescriptions, and the information on the prescription written by the doctor. We interviewed 93 in-patients (mean age: 50 years) and found that 16% were illiterate. Overall, 27% did not know the name of their illness, 34% were unaware of the treatment objectives, and 14% did not understand the drug prescription. On 20% of the prescriptions, the patients' name was not included, and the daily dose information and schedule was omitted from 16%. A day after receiving the prescription, only 64% had purchased the medication and only 53% of all patients had taken any. A correlation was observed between illiteracy, knowledge of the disease/treatment goals, and non-purchase of drugs. The poor quality of information contained in the prescriptions and patients' poor understanding of what they were supposed to do are obvious. Using pre-completed health forms and text messages might improve adherence.

  4. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  5. 76 FR 26232 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language... number. Explain why you agree or disagree, suggest alternatives, and substitute language for your... prescription for 1511.011-74. Accordingly, the revised language incorporated into EPAAR prescription...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.03 - Persons entitled to issue prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. 1306.03 Section 1306.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.03 Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. (a) A prescription for a...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.06 - Persons entitled to fill prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to fill prescriptions. 1306.06 Section 1306.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.06 Persons entitled to fill prescriptions. A prescription for a...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of issue of prescription. 1306.04 Section 1306.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.04 Purpose of issue of prescription. (a) A prescription for a controlled substance to...

  9. Empirical Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration with Self-Regenerative Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and large-scale distribution of applications. State capture focused on capturing the state of a platform for quick detection of changes that may...NCES platforms . The GIG depends on reliable communication protocols, including publish-subscribe. Systems need low latency, dependable message...shipping, ecommerce , energy, rail and mass transit, pipelines, the chemical industry and water and sewer services. Cornell technologies can help

  10. Transfer functions of the conjugative integrating element pSAM2 from Streptomyces ambofaciens: characterization of a kil-kor system associated with transfer.

    PubMed

    Hagège, J; Pernodet, J L; Sezonov, G; Gerbaud, C; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1993-09-01

    pSAM2 is an 11-kb integrating element from Streptomyces ambofaciens. During matings, pSAM2 can be transferred at high frequency, forming pocks, which are zones of growth inhibition of the recipient strain. The nucleotide sequences of the regions involved in pSAM2 transfer, pock formation, and maintenance have been determined. Seven putative open reading frames with the codon usage typical of Streptomyces genes have been identified: traSA (306 amino acids [aa]), orf84 (84 aa), spdA (224 aa), spdB (58 aa), spdC (51 aa), spdD (104 aa), and korSA (259 aa). traSA is essential for pSAM2 intermycelial transfer and pock formation. It could encode a protein with similarities to the major transfer protein, Tra, of pIJ101. TraSA protein contains a possible nucleotide-binding sequence and a transmembrane segment. spdA, spdB, spdC, and spdD influence pock size and transfer efficiency and may be required for intramycelial transfer. A kil-kor system similar to that of pIJ101 is associated with pSAM2 transfer: the korSA (kil-override) gene product could control the expression of the traSA gene, which has lethal effects when unregulated (Kil phenotype). The KorSA protein resembles KorA of pIJ101 and repressor proteins belonging to the GntR family. Thus, the integrating element pSAM2 possesses for transfer general features of nonintegrating Streptomyces plasmids: different genes are involved in the different steps of the intermycelial and intramycelial transfer, and a kil-kor system is associated with transfer. However, some differences in the functional properties, organization, and sizes of the transfer genes compared with those of other Streptomyces plasmids have been found.

  11. Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, André; Fischer, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Accurate radiative transfer models are the key tools for the understanding of radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and ocean, and for the development of remote sensing algorithms. The widely used scalar approximation of radiative transfer can lead to errors in calculated top of atmosphere radiances. We show results with errors in the order of±8% for atmosphere ocean systems with case one waters. Variations in sea water salinity and temperature can lead to variations in the signal of similar magnitude. Therefore, we enhanced our scalar radiative transfer model MOMO, which is in use at Freie Universität Berlin, to treat these effects as accurately as possible. We describe our one-dimensional vector radiative transfer model for an atmosphere ocean system with a rough interface. We describe the matrix operator scheme and the bio-optical model for case one waters. We discuss some effects of neglecting polarization in radiative transfer calculations and effects of salinity changes for top of atmosphere radiances. Results are shown for the channels of the satellite instruments MERIS and OLCI from 412.5 nm to 900 nm.

  12. Heat transfer study in oil channels of a transformer ODAF cooling system based on numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Sina; Noasrolahzadeh, M. Reza; Parsimoghadam, Azadeh; Khalilikhah, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    As misperformance of cooling systems in the electrical transformers, could cause damages to the transformers and in the more serious situations devices that use transformer output, it is so important to design these systems reliable and robust, which is depends extremely on knowledge of heat transfer mechanism in the system. This study has been done to understand heat transfer coefficient relations to the bobbin geometry and flow rates in the ODAF cooling systems, which uses forced convection mechanism, and oil as cooling fluid. Considered bobbins have below 1000mm diameter and 2000mm height, which are used in the low voltage side in the power transformers (Voltage < 132Kv). Oil flow has been numerically simulated to model heat transfer in the fluid and the bobbin. Results have been validated by experimental tests, which show about 10 percent error, for 3D modeling. Temperature difference procedure between oil and solid along the bobbin height, and relation between heat transfer coefficient and flow rate have been obtained. Besides three different geometry, axial channels, axial and radial channels with and without baffles where evaluated from heat transfer viewpoint.

  13. Numerical and experimental comparison of the energy transfer in a parametrically excited system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtinger, Andreas; Ecker, Horst

    2016-09-01

    This study is based on experimental results obtained from a test rig for a 2-DOF vibrational system. The main feature of this test rig is an electromechanical actuator which enables the variation of a mechanical stiffness parameter. The vibrational system is excited by this device, resulting in a parametrically excited system. In this study, the test rig is operated such that an initial deflection is applied to the masses, but no external excitation acts on the system. The actuator coils are driven by a current following a harmonic function defined by amplitude and frequency. The latter defines the parametric excitation frequency (PEF). When the mechanical system performs free vibrations, the parametric excitation may initiate an energy transfer between the two vibrational modes of the system. This transfer depends primarily on the PEF. For certain values of the PEF only one of the vibrational modes is affected. At other frequencies both modes are influenced and a continuous intermodal energy transfer is observed. A numerical model for the test rig was established and allows a comparison of experimental and numerical results. The total system energy as well as the modal energies are calculated from the measured and from the simulated signals. Interesting experimental observations are reported concerning the transfer of energy, and are in good agreement with simulated results.

  14. Electronic coherence and the kinetics of energy transfer in light-harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David; Miller, Thomas

    Recent 2D-spectroscopy experiments have observed transient electronic coherence in natural and artificial light harvesting systems, which raises questions about the role of electronic coherence in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) processes. In this talk, we introduce the recently developed partial linearized path-integral (PLPI) method, which can accurately simulate exciton transfer dynamics across multiple reaction regimes, as well as reliably describe the electronic coherence among excitonic states. Further, we develop a strategy that enables the analysis of the relative impact of static and dynamic electronic coherence. With PLPI simulations, we find that energy transfer dynamics are almost entirely dominated by static coherence effects; dynamic coherence is found to cause only minor effects. These conclusions are consistent with the historical view that emphasizes the importance of energy-level alignment for efficient incoherent energy transfer,while suggesting a less important role for more exotic electronic coherence effects that have been recently emphasized.

  15. Development of a liquid hydrogen transfer pump system with MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Kuga, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Takuro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Uchida, Yushi; Nakamura, Taketsune; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hongo, Motoyuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Wakuda, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhide

    An electric pump composed of an MgB2 motor is combined with superconducting level sensors using thin CuNi-sheathed MgB2 wires to transfer liquid hydrogen. An impeller is attached to the lower end of a rotating shaft on the MgB2 motor and covered with an outer casing to form a centrifugal pump. Then, the MgB2 motor and impeller are placed vertically inside a cryostat with an infill of liquid hydrogen. A glass Dewar vessel is prepared to receive the liquid hydrogen transferred from the cryostat containing the MgB2 motor. The MgB2 sensors are used not only to detect the level of liquid hydrogen but also to control the electric pump on the basis of their pre-estimated calibration curves. By using the assembled pump system, the liquid hydrogen is successfully transferred from the cryostat to the glass Dewar vessel via a transfer tube.

  16. Resonant electronic excitation energy transfer by Dexter mechanism in the quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samosvat, D. M.; Chikalova-Luzina, O. P.; Vyatkin, V. M.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2016-11-01

    In present work the energy transfer between quantum dots by the exchange (Dexter) mechanism is analysed. The interdot Coulomb interaction is taken into consideration. It is assumed that the quantum dot-donor and the quantum dot-acceptor are made from the same compound A3B5 and embedded in the matrix of other material creating potential barriers for electron and holes. The dependences of the energy transfer rate on the quantum-dot system parameters are found using the Kane model that provides the most adequate description spectra of semiconductors A3B5. Numerical calculations show that the rate of the energy transfer by Dexter mechanism is comparable to the rate of the energy transfer by electrostatic mechanism at the distances approaching to the contact ones.

  17. Heat transfer characteristics of current primary packaging systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Hibler, Susanne; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-11-01

    In the field of freeze-drying, the primary packaging material plays an essential role. Here, the packaging system not only contains and protects the drug product during storage and shipping, but it is also directly involved in the freeze-drying process itself. The heat transfer characteristics of the actual container system influence product temperature and therefore product homogeneity and quality as well as process performance. Consequently, knowledge of the container heat transfer characteristics is of vital importance for process optimization. It is the objective of this review article to provide a summary of research focused on heat transfer characteristics of different container systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Besides the common tubing and molded glass vials and metal trays, more recent packaging solutions like polymer vials, LYOGUARD® trays, syringes, and blister packs are discussed. Recent developments in vial manufacturing are also taken into account.

  18. Linearization of a heat-transfer system model with approximation of transport time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilin, A. A.; Bukreev, V. G.

    2014-10-01

    A method is proposed for linearizing the nonlinear model of a heat-transfer facility the state variables of which at equilibrium points are determined by numerically solving the initial bilinear system of differential equations for a stationary position of the control valve equipped with a constant-speed electric drive. The considerable transport time delay resulting from the distributed design of the heat-transfer system secondary circuit is approximated by a limited number of first-order inertial sections for obtaining a mathematical model in the Cauchy form. The proposed linearization method is tested on an operating hot-water supply heat-transfer system, and the study results are presented in the form of transient curves.

  19. Optimal state transfer of a single dissipative two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirari, Hamza; Wu, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Optimal state transfer of a single two-level system (TLS) coupled to an Ohmic boson bath via off-diagonal TLS-bath coupling is studied by using optimal control theory. In the weak system-bath coupling regime where the time-dependent Bloch-Redfield formalism is applicable, we obtain the Bloch equation to probe the evolution of the dissipative TLS in the presence of a time-dependent external control field. By using the automatic differentiation technique to compute the gradient for the cost functional, we calculate the optimal transfer integral profile that can achieve an ideal transfer within a dimer system in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) model. The robustness of the control profile against temperature variation is also analyzed.

  20. Chonopeltis australis (Crustacea) male reproductive system morphology; sperm transfer and review of reproduction in Branchiura.

    PubMed

    Neethling, Lourelle Alicia Martins; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of the male reproductive system as well as sperm transfer in Branchiura has been described for Dolops ranarum and Argulus japonicus. In this study, the reproductive system and accessory structures are described for male Chonopeltis australis using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For the first time, we describe sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore in this genus. The internal and external morphology and mechanism of sperm transfer is compared with other Branchiura, where it has been described. The morphology of the reproductive system of C. australis is similar to that of D. ranarum while the accessory structures and the spermatophore produced are similar to that of A. japonicus. A revision of the definition of Branchiura with respect to reproduction is provided.

  1. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  2. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

    1980-10-29

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  3. Displacement transfer system linking the Furnace Creek and Walker Lane fault systems, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, G.; Oldow, J.S.; Sisson, V.B.; Donelick, R.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic (10 Ma to recent) strike-slip displacements on the northwest-striking Walker Lane fault system (WLF) and Furnace Creek fault (FCF) are kinematically linked by east-northeast high-angle and low-angle extensional faults in west-central Nevada. At least 35 km of right-slip is accommodated by the northwest-striking FCF which stretches 250 km from eastern California to its northern terminus in Fish Lake Valley of western Nevada. High-angle fault trajectories at the northern end of the FCF swing easterly forming a broad belt of east-northeast striking faults. The apexes of the curved faults are the locus of greatest extension and correspond to deep, prismatic basins of the Mina deflection. Within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain extensional complex (SPLM), a widespread detachment fault separates deformed late Miocene clastic and relatively unmetamorphosed lower Paleozoic rocks from an underlying assemblage of amphibolite facies metamorphic tectonites formed during earlier episode of regional deformation. The detachment is warped in northwest domes and basins but when active dipped shallowly to the northwest. Displacement began in the mid-Miocene and continued into the late Miocene to early Pliocene. Fission-track length analysis of apatite from the lower-plate metamorphic rocks indicate cooling through 100--120 C at about 5 Ma. Strike-slip transfer resulted in northwesterly extension on the SPLM. Northwest-trending warps in the SPLM detachment fault formed during transpressional deformation of the transfer zone during northwest-directed simple shear.

  4. Technology needs for lunar and Mars space transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Cothran, Bradley C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Mcghee, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    The determination of appropriate space transportation technologies and operating modes is discussed with respect to both lunar and Mars missions. Three levels of activity are set forth to examine the sensitivity of transportation preferences including 'minimum,' 'full science,' and 'industrialization and settlement' categories. High-thrust-profile missions for lunar and Mars transportation are considered in terms of their relative advantages, and transportation options are defined in terms of propulsion and braking technologies. Costs and life-cycle cost estimates are prepared for the transportation preferences by using a parametric cost model, and a return-on-investment summary is given. Major technological needs for the programs are listed and include storable propulsion systems; cryogenic engines and fluids management; aerobraking; and nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, electric, and solar electric propulsion technologies.

  5. Molecular orbital assistance in the design of intramolecular and photoinduced electron transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2012-02-01

    A theoretical approach is described for the design of donor-acceptor intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) systems and for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) hybrids of fullerene, based on orbital level diagrams of the separate donor and acceptor moieties. Minimization of the HOMO-LUMO (highest occupied-lowest unoccupied orbital) gap in ICT systems, translates to a requirement for near degeneracy of the HOMO of the donor and LUMO of the acceptor, determined separately for the two moieties by density functional theory calculations. Similarly, near degeneracy of the LUMO of the donor and LUMO of the acceptor moieties would indicate the possibility of PET in the combined hybrid.

  6. Quantifying through-space charge transfer dynamics in π-coupled molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Batra, Arunabh; Kladnik, Gregor; Vázquez, Héctor; Meisner, Jeffrey S; Floreano, Luca; Nuckolls, Colin; Cvetko, Dean; Morgante, Alberto; Venkataraman, Latha

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the role of intermolecular interaction on through-space charge transfer characteristics in π-stacked molecular systems is central to the rational design of electronic materials. However, a quantitative study of charge transfer in such systems is often difficult because of poor control over molecular morphology. Here we use the core-hole clock implementation of resonant photoemission spectroscopy to study the femtosecond charge-transfer dynamics in cyclophanes, which consist of two precisely stacked π-systems held together by aliphatic chains. We study two systems, [2,2]paracyclophane (22PCP) and [4,4]paracyclophane (44PCP), with inter-ring separations of 3.0 and 4.0 Å, respectively. We find that charge transfer across the π-coupled system of 44PCP is 20 times slower than in 22PCP. We attribute this difference to the decreased inter-ring electronic coupling in 44PCP. These measurements illustrate the use of core-hole clock spectroscopy as a general tool for quantifying through-space coupling in π-stacked systems.

  7. High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong; Yin, Zhang-qi; Wang, Z D; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2014-08-29

    Hybrid quantum systems usually consist of two or more subsystems, which may take the advantages of the different systems. Recently, the hybrid system consisting of circuit electromechanical subsystems have attracted great attention due to its advanced fabrication and scalable integrated photonic circuit techniques. Here, we propose a scheme for high fidelity quantum state transfer between a superconducting qubit and a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, which are coupled to a superconducting transmission-line resonator with coupling strength g1 and a nanomechanical resonator with coupling strength g2, respectively. Meanwhile, the two resonators are parametrically coupled with coupling strength J. The system dynamics, including the decoherence effects, is numerical investigated. It is found that both the small (J<{g1,g2}) and large (J>{g1,g2}) coupling regimes of this hybrid system can not support high fidelity quantum state transfer before significant technique advances. However, in the intermediate coupling regime (J ~ g1 ~ g2), in contrast to a conventional wisdom, high fidelity quantum information transfer can be implemented, providing a promising route towards high fidelity quantum state transfer in similar coupled resonators systems.

  8. A New and Improved Host-Independent Plasmid System for RK2-Based Conjugal Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Trine Aakvik; Lale, Rahmi; Degnes, Kristin Fløgstad; Lando, Malin; Valla, Svein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is a process that is mediated either by a direct cell-to-cell junction or by formation of a bridge between the cells. It is often used to transfer DNA constructs designed in Escherichia coli to recipient bacteria, yeast, plants and mammalian cells. Plasmids bearing the RK2/RP4 origin of transfer (oriT) are mostly mobilized using the E. coli S17-1/SM10 donor strains, in which transfer helper functions are provided from a chromosomally integrated RP4::Mu. We have observed that large plasmids were occasionally modified after conjugal transfer when using E. coli S17-1 as a donor. All modified plasmids had increased in size, which most probably was a result of co-transfer of DNA from the chromosomally located oriT. It has earlier also been demonstrated that the bacteriophage Mu is silently transferred to recipient cells by these donor strains, and both occurrences are very likely to lead to mutations within the recipient DNA. Here we report the construction of a new biological system addressing both the above mentioned problems in which the transfer helper functions are provided by a plasmid lacking a functional oriT. This system is compatible with all other replicons commonly used in conjugation experiments and further enables the use of diverse bacterial strains as donors. Plasmids containing large inserts were successfully conjugated and the plasmid modifications observed when E. coli S17-1 was used as donor were eliminated by the use of the new host-independent vector system. PMID:24595202

  9. Dose distribution transfer from CyberKnife to Varian treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osewski, W.; Ślosarek, K.; Karaszewska, B.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to introduce one of the options of the locally developed DDcon.exe which gives the possibility to transfer the dose distribution from CyberKnife (Accuray) treatment planning system (CK TPS) to Varian treatment planning system (Eclipse TPS, Varian). DICOM format is known as a universal format for medical data. The dose distribution is stored as RTdose file in DICOM format, so there should be a possibility to transfer it between different treatment planning systems. Trying to transfer RTdose file from CK TPS to Eclipse TPS the error message occurs. That's because the RTdose file in CK TPS is connected with Structure_Set_Sequence against Eclipse TPS where it's connected with RT_Plan_Sequence. To make it transferable RTdose file from CK TPS have to be 'disconnected' from Structure_Set_Sequence and 'connected' with RT_Plan_Sequence. This is possible thanks DDcon software which creates new RTdose file by changing proper DICOM tags in original RTdose file. New homemade software gives us an opportunity to transfer dose distribution from CyberKnife TPS to TPS Eclipse. This method opens new possibilities to combine or compare different treatment techniques in Varian TPS.

  10. Volume of Courses Students Carry among Central Data Warehouse (CDW) Institutions: Implications for Recalibration of the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has undertaken, in the last couple of years, a review of the BC Transfer System. Preliminary findings indicate that the current structure of the BC Transfer Guide (BCTG), which designates institutions as either "sending" institutions or "receiving"…

  11. Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army - Innovative or Dysfunctional?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    TRANSFER PROCESS FROM MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY TO THE ARMY– INNOVATIVE OR DYSFUNCTIONAL? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL SCOTT C. ARMSTRONG United States Army...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army – Innovative or...TRANSITION AND TRANSFER PROCESS FROM MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY TO THE ARMY— INNOVATIVE OR DYSFUNCTIONAL? by Lieutenant Colonel Scott C. Armstrong

  12. Development of a miniaturised drug delivery system with wireless power transfer and communication.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Tang, T B; Terry, J G; Stevenson, J T M; Flynn, B W; Reekie, H M; Murray, A F; Gundlach, A M; Renshaw, D; Dhillon, B; Ohtori, A; Inoue, Y; Walton, A J

    2007-10-01

    The development of an implantable system designed to deliver drug doses in a controlled manner over an extended time period is reported. Key performance parameters are the physical size, the power consumption and also the ability to perform wireless communications to enable the system to be externally controlled and interrogated. The system has been designed to facilitate wireless power transfer, which is very important for miniaturisation as it removes the need for a battery.

  13. Paediatric drug use with focus on off-label prescriptions in Lombardy and implications for therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Carnovale, Carla; Conti, Valentino; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Pozzi, Marco; Merlino, Luca; Venegoni, Mauro; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia

    2013-12-01

    The persistent lack of information on the paediatric use of most medicinal products is a major hindrance towards an optimal treatment of paediatric patients. Several studies have documented the high prevalence of off-label use in paediatric population. No comprehensive studies, however, exist that analyse in full all prescriptions for all dispensed drugs, especially in view of the recent intervention by the European Medicine Agency to tackle this issue. We have assessed the drug prescription pattern in the paediatric outpatient population of Lombardy, which has a reliable record of such prescriptions focusing on off-label drug use. We analysed all dispensed outpatient prescriptions to children aged 0-18 years and the proportion of off-label drug use in 2011, using data from the regional administrative prescriptions database. A total of 4,027,119 prescriptions were dispensed, of which 133,619 (3.3 %) were off-label. The anatomical therapeutic chemical classes most involved in off-label prescriptions were antibiotics for systemic use (33,629), alimentary tract and metabolism (31,739) and respiratory tract (31,458). The highest rate (8 %) of off-label drug prescriptions was observed in the age range 0-1. The study revealed also an inappropriate prescription pattern for fluoroquinolones and drugs targeting the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. We identified inappropriate prescriptions for specific drug classes, highlighting the need of increasing pharmacological studies in the paediatric patients and specific critical drugs/drug classes in which such studies are particularly urgent. Depending on the region, inappropriate paediatric drug prescriptions may affect different drug classes, indicating the need of tailoring specific programmes of information.

  14. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  17. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…

  18. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... patient to receive a total of up to a 90-day supply of a Schedule II controlled substance provided the following conditions are met: (i) Each separate prescription is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by... providing the patient with multiple prescriptions in this manner does not create an undue risk of...

  19. Development of ink transfer monitoring system for roll-to-plate gravure offset printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Lee, Seungwoo

    2010-11-01

    The gravure offset printing process is very cost-effective for printed electronics, such as printed solar cell, printed battery, printed TFT, printed RFID tag and so on. In gravure offset printing, there are two kinds of ink transfer processes -- off and set processes. At the off process, an elastic blanket cylinder picks up the ink from patterned plate or patterned cylinder. At the set process, ink on the elastic blanket cylinder is transferred onto the target substrate. These two ink transfer processes determine printing quality, therefore understanding of ink transfer mechanism during off and set processes are very important to control printing quality. In this study, we developed ink transfer monitoring system for roll-to-plate gravure printing. We visualized ink transfer from pattern plate to rolling blanket cylinder (off process) and from rolling blanket cylinder to plate substrate (set process) by using high-speed camera and long range microscope. We investigated the effects of pattern size, printing speed, rotational effect of blanket cylinder, contact angle and rheological property of ink to understanding gravure offset printing mechanism.

  20. Numerical simulation of the convective heat transfer on high-performance computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S. P.; Vasilyeva, M. V.; Vasilyev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we consider a coupled system of equations for the convective heat transfer and flow problems, which describes the processes of the natural or forced convection in some bounded area. Mathematical model include the Navier-Stokes equation for flow and the heat transfer equation for the heat transfer. Numerical implementation is based on the finite element method, which allows to take into account the complex geometry of the modeled objects. For numerical stabilization of the convective heat transfer equation for high Peclet numbers, we use streamline upwinding Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method. The results of the numerical simulations are presented for the 2D formulation. As the test problems, we consider the flow and heat transfer problems in technical construction under the conditions of heat sources and influence of air temperature. We couple this formulation with heat transfer problem in the surrounding grounds and investigate the influence of the technical construction to the ground in condition of the permafrost and the influence of the grounds to the temperature distribution in the construction. Numerical computation are performed on the computational cluster of the North-Eastern Federal University.

  1. Linker proteins enable ultrafast excitation energy transfer in the phycobilisome antenna system of Thermosynechococcus vulcanus.

    PubMed

    Nganou, C; David, L; Adir, N; Mkandawire, M

    2016-01-01

    We applied a femtosecond flash method, using induced transient absorption changes, to obtain a time-resolved view of excitation energy transfer in intact phycobilisomes of Thermosynechococcus vulcanus at room temperature. Our measurement of an excitation energy transfer rate of 888 fs in phycobilisomes shows the existence of ultrafast kinetics along the phycocyanin rod subcomplex to the allophycocyanin core that is faster than expected for previous excitation energy transfer based on Förster theory in phycobilisomes. Allophycocyanin in the core further transfers energy to the terminal emitter(s) in 17 ps. In the phycobilisome, rod doublets composed of hexameric phycocyanin discs and internal linker proteins are arranged in a parallel fashion, facilitating direct rod-rod interactions. Excitonic splitting likely drives rod absorption at 635 nm as a result of strong coupling between β84 chromophores (20 ± 1 Å) in adjacent hexamers. In comparison to the absorbance of the phycobilisome antenna system of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina, which possesses a single rod structure, the linkers in T. vulcanus rods induce a 17 nm red shift in the absorbance spectrum. Furthermore, the kinetics of 888 fs indicates that the presence of the linker protein induces ultrafast excitation energy transfer between phycocyanin and allophycocyanin inside the phycobilisome, which is faster than all previous excitation energy transfer in phycobilisome subunits or sub-complexes reported to date.

  2. Can a poverty-reducing and progressive tax and transfer system hurt the poor?

    PubMed

    Higgins, Sean; Lustig, Nora

    2016-09-01

    To analyze anti-poverty policies in tandem with the taxes used to pay for them, comparisons of poverty before and after taxes and transfers are often used. We show that these comparisons, as well as measures of horizontal equity and progressivity, can fail to capture an important aspect: that a substantial proportion of the poor are made poorer (or non-poor made poor) by the tax and transfer system. We illustrate with data from seventeen developing countries: in fifteen, the fiscal system is poverty-reducing and progressive, but in ten of these at least one-quarter of the poor pay more in taxes than they receive in transfers. We call this fiscal impoverishment, and axiomatically derive a measure of its extent. An analogous measure of fiscal gains of the poor is also derived, and we show that changes in the poverty gap can be decomposed into our axiomatic measures of fiscal impoverishment and gains.

  3. Electronic Couplings for Resonance Energy Transfer from CCSD Calculations: From Isolated to Solvated Systems.

    PubMed

    Caricato, Marco; Curutchet, Carles; Mennucci, Benedetta; Scalmani, Giovanni

    2015-11-10

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations of electronic couplings provide great insights for the study of resonance energy transfer (RET). However, most of these calculations rely on approximate QM methods due to the computational limitations imposed by the size of typical donor-acceptor systems. In this work, we present a novel implementation that allows computing electronic couplings at the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level of theory. Solvent effects are also taken into account through the polarizable continuum model (PCM). As a test case, we use a dimer of indole, a common model system for tryptophan, which is routinely used as an intrinsic fluorophore in Förster resonance energy transfer studies. We consider two bright π → π* states, one of which has charge transfer character. Lastly, the results are compared with those obtained by applying TD-DFT in combination with one of the most popular density functionals, B3LYP.

  4. Laser-induced forward transfer direct-write of miniature sensor and microbattery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pique, Alberto; Arnold, Craig B.; Wartena, Ryan C.; Weir, David W.; Pratap, Bhanu; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.; Kant, Richard A.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2003-02-01

    Direct-Write techniques have the potential to revolutionize the way miniature sensor devices and microbattery systems are designed and fabricated. The Naval Research Laboratory has developed an advanced laser-based forward transfer process for direct writing novel structures and devices comprising of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites under ambient conditions on both ceramic and plastic substrates. Using this forward transfer technique, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly prototype various types of physical and chemical sensor devices, and microbatteries. The laser forward transfer process is computer controlled which allows the design of the devices to be easily modified and adapted to any specific application. Furthermore, the same process enables the fabrication of complete sensor or power-source systems by incorporating the passive electronic components required for sensor readout or power management. Examples are provided of various types of miniature sensors, and prototype alkaline and Li-ion microbatteries fabricated using this technique.

  5. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Background The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. Methods The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26–30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Results Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD ± 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. Conclusion The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the

  6. Laboratory transferability of optimally shaped laser pulses for quantum control

    SciTech Connect

    Moore Tibbetts, Katharine; Xing, Xi; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-21

    Optimal control experiments can readily identify effective shaped laser pulses, or “photonic reagents,” that achieve a wide variety of objectives. An important additional practical desire is for photonic reagent prescriptions to produce good, if not optimal, objective yields when transferred to a different system or laboratory. Building on general experience in chemistry, the hope is that transferred photonic reagent prescriptions may remain functional even though all features of a shaped pulse profile at the sample typically cannot be reproduced exactly. As a specific example, we assess the potential for transferring optimal photonic reagents for the objective of optimizing a ratio of photoproduct ions from a family of halomethanes through three related experiments. First, applying the same set of photonic reagents with systematically varying second- and third-order chirp on both laser systems generated similar shapes of the associated control landscape (i.e., relation between the objective yield and the variables describing the photonic reagents). Second, optimal photonic reagents obtained from the first laser system were found to still produce near optimal yields on the second laser system. Third, transferring a collection of photonic reagents optimized on the first laser system to the second laser system reproduced systematic trends in photoproduct yields upon interaction with the homologous chemical family. These three transfers of photonic reagents are demonstrated to be successful upon paying reasonable attention to overall laser system characteristics. The ability to transfer photonic reagents from one laser system to another is analogous to well-established utilitarian operating procedures with traditional chemical reagents. The practical implications of the present results for experimental quantum control are discussed.

  7. The effect of the liquid-solid system properties on the interline heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region of an evaporating meniscus using the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals forces between condensed phases (solid and liquid). The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux model. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number which is evaluated for various systems. The heat transfer characteristics of the decane-steel system are numerically compared with those of the carbon tetrachloride-quartz system.

  8. Effects of cooling system parameters on heat transfer in PAFC stack. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali A.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and experimental study for the effects of cooling system parameters on the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the electrode plates of a phosphoric acid fuel-cell has been conducted. An experimental set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was designed and constructed. The set-up was then used to measure the overall heat transfer coefficient, the thermal contact resistance, and the electrode temperature distribution for two different cooling plate configurations. Two types of cooling plate configurations, serpentine and straight, were tested. Air, water, and oil were used as coolants. Measurements for the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal contact resistance were made for various flow rates ranging from 16 to 88 Kg/hr, and stack clamping pressure ranging from O to 3448 Kpa. The experimental results for the overall heat transfer coefficient were utilized to derive mathematical relations for the overall heat transfer coefficient as a function of stack clamping pressure and Reynolds number for the three coolants. The empirically derived formulas were incorporated in a previously developed computer program to predict electrodes temperature distribution and the performance of the stack cooling system. The results obtained were then compared with those available in the literature. The comparison showed maximum deviation of +/- 11%.

  9. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  10. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  11. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  12. Validity of the Prescriber Information in the Danish National Prescription Registry.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Valentin, Julie; Gesser, Katarina Margareta; Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the validity of the prescriber information recorded in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR). The prescriber information recorded in the pharmacies' electronic dispensing system was considered to represent the prescriber information recorded in the DNPR. Further, the problem of validity of the prescriber information pertains only to non-electronic prescriptions, as these are manually entered into the dispensing system. The recorded prescriber information was thus validated against information from a total of 2000 non-electronic prescriptions at five Danish community pharmacies. The validity of the recorded prescriber information was measured at the level of the individual prescriber and the prescriber type, respectively. The proportion of non-electronic prescriptions with incorrect registrations was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.6-24.3) when considering individual prescriber identifiers and 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1-19.5) when considering prescriber type. When excluding prescriptions specifically registered as 'missing prescriber identifier', the proportions decreased to 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2-11.0) and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.2-5.1), respectively. The positive predictive values for the classification of prescriber types were in the range of 94.0-99.2%, while the sensitivity ranged between 64.6% and 91.8%. With a maximum of 14% non-electronic prescriptions of all prescriptions in the DNPR in 2015, this corresponds to correct classification of prescriber types in the DNPR of at least 97.5%. In conclusion, the prescriber information in the DNPR was found to be valid, especially in recent years. Researchers should be aware of the low sensitivity towards prescriptions from private practicing specialists.

  13. Entanglement transfer from two-mode anti-correlated continuous-variable systems to a pair of localized discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Du; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-04-01

    We address the entanglement transfer from a bipartite continuous-variable(CV) system to a pair of localized discrete systems. The dynamics behavior can be implemented by two two-level atoms flying through spatially separated identical cavities where two quantized modes are injected. We assume each CV mode couples to one atom via the resonant Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The CV systems are initially prepared in a two-mode anti-correlated SU(2) coherent state, while with the initial atomic states of the cases: |g⟩1|g⟩2, |e⟩1|e⟩2 and |g⟩1|e⟩2, respectively. We find that the entanglement transfer for single-photon excitation case is more efficient than that for multi-photon excitation case. Under same conditions, we also note that the entanglement transfer is more efficient for SU(2) coherent state than for twin-bean (TWB) and pair-coherent (TMC) state. Besides, we show that, for a given total photon number of the initial SU(2) coherent state, the efficiency of entanglement transfer depends upon the distribution of photons in the two CV modes. We also consider the influences of the dissipation and the white noise on the entanglement transfer.

  14. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  15. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF THE TANK FARM WASTE TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.

    2006-03-09

    Radioactive supernate, salt, and/or sludge wastes (i.e., high level wastes) are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste is transported between tanks within and between the F and H area tank farms and other facilities on site via underground and a limited number of aboveground transfer lines. The Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) performed a comprehensive assessment of the structural integrity program for the Tank Farm waste transfer system at the SRS. This document addresses the following issues raised during the DOE assessment: (1) Inspections of failed or replaced transfer lines indicated that the wall thickness of some core and jacket piping is less than nominal; (2) No corrosion allowance is utilized in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. No basis for neglecting corrosion was provided in the calculations; (3) Wall loss due to erosion is not addressed in the transfer line structural qualification calculations; and (4) No basis is provided for neglecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. The common theme in most of these issues is the need to assess the potential for occurrence of material degradation of the transfer line piping. The approach used to resolve these issues involved: (1) Review the design and specifications utilized to construct and fabricate the piping system; (2) Review degradation mechanisms for stainless steel and carbon steel and determine their relevance to the transfer line piping; (3) Review the transfer piping inspection data; (4) Life estimation calculations for the transfer lines; and (5) A Fitness-For-Service evaluation for one of the transfer line jackets. The evaluation concluded that the transfer line system piping has performed well for over fifty years. Although there have been instances of failures of the stainless steel core pipe during off-normal service, no significant

  16. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches.

  17. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.

  18. Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. General Education Div.

    The Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a collection of education and health data on more than 750,000 migrant children in grades K-12 in the United States (except Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and the outlying territories of Puerto Rico and the Mariana and Marshall Islands. The active file…

  19. Contesting Childhood in the US Justice System: The Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Criminal Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislative enactments have altered the boundary between US juvenile and criminal justice systems. Youth that were previously adjudicated as juveniles are increasingly being labeled "adults" and tried in the criminal court. This article begins with a review of policy and practice changes in the transfer of children to the criminal…

  20. How to Articulate: Requesting and Assessing Credit in the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a resource for institutions, departments, faculty members, and articulation committees who are engaged in articulating courses and programs for credit within the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. The handbook is based on best practices as observed and recorded by the British Columbia Council on…

  1. Simplifying the model of a complex heat-transfer system for solving the relay control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilin, A. A.; Bukreev, V. G.

    2014-09-01

    A method for approximating the high-dimensionality model of a complex heat-transfer system with time delay by a nonlinear second-order differential equation is proposed. The modeling results confirming adequacy of the nonlinear properties of the reduced and initial models and their correspondence to the controlled plant actual data are presented.

  2. The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Ukraine: The Cross-Cultural Validation of the Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamkovenko, Bogdan V.; Holton, Elwood, III; Bates, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to expand cross-cultural research and validate the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Ukraine. The researchers seek to translate the LTSI into Ukrainian and investigate the internal structure of this translated version of the questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach: The LTSI is translated into…

  3. Building World-Market Competitors: Technology Transfer and the Illinois Community College System. 1990 Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.

    In 1990, the Illinois Council of Public Community College Presidents (ICPCCP) commissioned a survey to document the current capacity and future potential of the Illinois Community College System (ICCS) to provide technology transfer assistance to the commercial marketplace and the public sector. An extensive questionnaire was developed and mailed…

  4. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  5. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  6. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  7. The Laboratory as a Tool for Learning Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Alberto Hernandez; Tribess, Arlindo; Fiorelli, Flavio Augusto Sanzogo

    The consolidation of the theoretical concepts as well as the use and learning of experimental techniques that are compatible with the technological evolution has been the main goals in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer and Thermal Systems Laboratories at Escola Politecnica of University of Sao Paulo. The infra-structure and experimental benches in…

  8. Faculty-Determined Course Equivalency: The Key to Ohio's Transfer Mobility System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Paula K.; Tafel, Jonathan; Law, Joe; Gustafson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    For more than two decades, the vision of a statewide system of student mobility has driven Ohio's articulation and transfer initiatives, which guarantee that specific courses will be applied to degrees and certificates at public two- and four-year postsecondary institutions. This chapter outlines how Ohio developed a comprehensive, guaranteed…

  9. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  10. Initial development of direct interaction for a transfer robotic Arm system for caregivers.

    PubMed

    Jeannis, Hervens; Grindle, Garrett G; Kelleher, Annmarie; Wang, Hongwu; Brewer, Bambi; Cooper, Rory

    2013-06-01

    The most common injuries in healthcare are related to transfers. The Strong Arm system assists caregivers in providing fully dependent transfers from an electric power wheelchair to a bed, shower bench, toilet or other surface. However, this system currently controlled by buttons could be more successful with a more intuitive method during use. This paper presents the initial development of direct interaction for a robotic transfer system called Strong Arm. Direct interaction was used to make a transfer system more intuitive to operate using a three-axis load cell. To move Strong Arm, the user must apply intentional force on any of the given axes by surpassing the axis threshold. Unintentional movement could lead to injury. The results indicate that the thresholds for each axis were at least 3.5 N in X, 16.9 N in Y and 5.3N in Z in order to prevent unintentional forces from a human hand that would cause the robot to move.

  11. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  12. Collaboration for Student Success: A System for Providing Transfer Student Performance Information to Feeder Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan

    Southwest Texas State (SWT) University has developed a system of communication with two-year community colleges that aims to provide information about new student performance and identify student needs. About 60% of the 7,000 new undergraduate students first enrolling in SWT each year are transfer students. In 1992, about 60% of new students at…

  13. University of Wisconsin System Undergraduate Transfer Policy. Academic Information Series 6.0. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This document is a revision of the University of Wisconsin (UW) System Undergraduate Transfer Policy, replacing the document last revised on December 8, 1995, and all other prior versions. It incorporates numerous provisions called for by the Board of Regents in "Planning the Future" and "Statement of Principles on UWS/VTAE Credit…

  14. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? 149.130 Section 149.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,...

  15. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  16. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual device for signaling an alarm,...

  17. Development of an AC/DC transfer system at the INTI

    SciTech Connect

    Laiz, H.; Garcia, R.; Cioffi, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the work done at the INTI in order to improve the AC/DC transfer system. Thermal voltage and current converters were constructed by means of serial and parallel arrangements of Single Junction Thermal Converters. The frequency response of both arrangements are presented as well as a description of the design of the high voltage resistors and shunts.

  18. National drug control policy and prescription drug abuse: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2007-05-01

    In a recent press release Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University called for a major shift in American attitudes about substance abuse and addiction and a top to bottom overhaul in the nation's healthcare, criminal justice, social service, and eduction systems to curtail the rise in illegal drug use and other substance abuse. Califano, in 2005, also noted that while America has been congratulating itself on curbing increases in alcohol and illicit drug use and in the decline in teen smoking, abuse and addition of controlled prescription drugs-opioids, central nervous system depressants and stimulants-have been stealthily, but sharply rising. All the statistics continue to show that prescription drug abuse is escalating with increasing emergency department visits and unintentional deaths due to prescription controlled substances. While the problem of drug prescriptions for controlled substances continues to soar, so are the arguments of undertreatment of pain. The present state of affairs show that there were 6.4 million or 2.6% Americans using prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs nonmedically in the past month. Of these, 4.7 million used pain relievers. Current nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs among young adults aged 18-25 increased from 5.4% in 2002 to 6.3% in 2005. The past year, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs has increased to 6.2% in the population of 12 years or older with 15.172 million persons, second only to marijuana use and three times the use of cocaine. Parallel to opioid supply and nonmedical prescription drug use, the epidemic of medical drug use is also escalating with Americans using 80% of world's supply of all opioids and 99% of hydrocodone. Opioids are used extensively despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness in improving pain or functional status with potential side effects of hyperalgesia, negative hormonal and immune effects

  19. Assessing Locations of Energy Transfer/Deposit in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2014-12-01

    It has long been believed that most of energy transferred from the magnetosphere and deposited in the ionosphere-thermosphere system occurs in the auroral zone, the region of strong field-aligned current density. Recent observations of the Poynting flux to the ionosphere and theoretical investigations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling show that the strongest energy transfer may be in the polar cap proper where the plasma flow speed is high and not where the flow reverses. This implies that the field-aligned current is not the primary agent of the energy transfer into the ionosphere-thermosphere system and that other physical progresses are at play. Recent simulation studies using an inductive-dynamic approach (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the ion momentum equations) on the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling indicate that the energy transfer is through Alfven waves propagating to the ionosphere/thermosphere and the energy deposition is via the frictional heating caused by relative motion between ions and neutrals. In this study we assess the locations of the energy transfer and deposition by employing a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (dawn-dusk meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals including photochemistry and Maxwell's equations. By simulating responses of the ionosphere-thermosphere system to enhanced magnetosphere convection, we show that the strongest energy transfer occurs in the polar cap proper instead of the auroral zone.

  20. The structure of control and data transfer management system for the GAMMA-400 scientific complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bobkov, S. G.; Serdin, O. V.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Topchiev, N. P.

    2016-02-01

    A description of the control and data transfer management system for scientific instrumentation involved in the GAMMA-400 space project is given. The technical capabilities of all specialized equipment to provide the functioning of the scientific instrumentation and satellite support systems are unified in a single structure. Control of the scientific instruments is maintained using one-time pulse radio commands, as well as program commands in the form of 16-bit code words, which are transmitted via onboard control system and scientific data acquisition system. Up to 100 GByte of data per day can be transferred to the ground segment of the project. The correctness of the proposed and implemented structure, engineering solutions and electronic elemental base selection has been verified by the experimental working-off of the prototype of the GAMMA-400 scientific complex in laboratory conditions.