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Sample records for prescription transfer system

  1. Diagnostic Prescriptive Reading System (DPRS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinskas, Gloria

    The purpose of this diagnostic-prescriptive reading system (DPRS), proposed by Palm Beach County and the Florida Atlantic University and sponsored by the Florida Department of Education, was to provide classroom teachers with resources which would enable them to more effectively meet the individual reading needs of their students. This report…

  2. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  3. Transferring Lens Prescriptions Between Lens-Design Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, John E.; Wooley, Laura; Carlin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Optical Lens Prescription Data Formatter computer program enables user to transfer complicated lens prescriptions quickly and easily from one major optical-design program to another and back again. One can take advantage of inherent strength of either program. Programs are ACCOS V from Scientific Calculations, Inc., of Fishers, NY, and CODE V from Optical Research Associates of Pasadena, CA. VAX version written in FORTRAN.

  4. Expanded pharmacy technician roles: Accepting verbal prescriptions and communicating prescription transfers.

    PubMed

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2016-11-29

    As the role of the clinical pharmacist continues to develop and advance, it is critical to ensure pharmacists can operate in a practice environment and workflow that supports the full deployment of their clinical skills. When pharmacy technician roles are optimized, patient safety can be enhanced and pharmacists may dedicate more time to advanced clinical services. Currently, 17 states allow technicians to accept verbal prescriptions called in by a prescriber or prescriber's agent, or transfer a prescription order from one pharmacy to another. States that allow these activities generally put few legal limitations on them, and instead defer to the professional judgment of the supervising pharmacist whether to delegate these tasks or not. These activities were more likely to be seen in states that require technicians to be registered and certified, and in states that have accountability mechanisms (e.g., discipline authority) in place for technicians. There is little evidence to suggest these tasks cannot be performed safely and accurately by appropriately trained technicians, and the track record of success with these tasks spans four decades in some states. Pharmacists can adopt strong practice policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of harm from verbal orders, such as instituting read-back/spell-back techniques, or requiring the indication for each phoned-in medication, among other strategies. Pharmacists may also exercise discretion in deciding to whom to delegate these tasks. As the legal environment becomes more permissive, we foresee investment in more robust education and training of technicians to cover these activities. Thus, with the adoption of robust practice policies and procedures, delegation of verbal orders and prescription transfers can be safe and effective, remove undue stress on pharmacists, and potentially free up pharmacist time for higher-order clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Expert System for Designing Fire Prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    1987-01-01

    Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...

  6. Exploratory study of community pharmacists' perceptions about new or transferred prescription incentives.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Marc; Nemlekar, Poorva; Brown, Carolyn M; Cantu, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of new or transferred prescription incentives on quality of care, pharmacy practice (e.g., workload), and patient base. Cross-sectional study. Texas from March through August 2010. Texas community pharmacists. In-person and online surveys. Pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of new or transferred prescription incentives on pharmacy practice and patient care. 74 usable surveys were analyzed. Most pharmacists (74%) worked for employers who participated in prescription incentive promotions (e.g., $10 gift cards). Regarding quality of care, pharmacists perceived patients as being less likely to receive thorough drug interaction screenings (4.0 ± 1.4 [mean ± SD]) and reported medication-related problems "sometimes to very often" (3.0 ± 0.9) as a result of transferring prescriptions. Pharmacists also reported that patients commonly fill prescriptions regardless of medical necessity in order to receive incentives (4.1 ± 1.0). With respect to pharmacy practice, the majority believed that prescription incentives devalue the profession (4.3 ± 1.1) and should be eliminated (4.4 ± 1.0). Pharmacists were not inclined to believe that incentives were effective in attracting new patients and retaining their business (2.0 ± 1.0). Pharmacists believed that prescription incentives are ineffective tools for increasing patient base and may lead to lower quality of care for patients. Pharmacists view prescription incentives as devaluing the profession of pharmacy and exposing patients to medication-related problems.

  7. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... purpose of refill dispensing is permissible between pharmacies on a one-time basis only....

  8. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... purpose of refill dispensing is permissible between pharmacies on a one-time basis only. However...

  9. Transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  10. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors.

  11. Prescription errors and the impact of computerized prescription order entry system in a community-based hospital.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Eisdorfer, Jacob; Indulkar, Shalaka; Pal, Sethi Ajith; Sooriabalan, Danushan; Cucco, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adverse drug events occur often in hospitals. They can be prevented to a large extent by minimizing the human errors of prescription writing. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) system with the help of ancillary support in minimizing prescription errors. Retrospective study carried out in a community-based urban teaching hospital in south Brooklyn, NY from January 2004 to January 2005. Errors were categorized into inappropriate dosage adjustment for creatinine clearance, duplication, incorrect orders, allergy verification, and incomplete orders. The pharmacists identified the type of error, the severity of error, the class of drug involved, and the department that made the error. A total of 466,311 prescriptions were entered in the period of 1 year. There were 3513 errors during this period (7.53 errors per 1000 prescriptions). More than half of these errors were made by the internal medicine specialty. In our study, 50% of the errors were severe errors (overdosing medications with narrow therapeutic index or over-riding allergies), 46.28% were moderate errors (overdosing, wrong dosing, duplicate orders, or prescribing multiple antibiotics), and 3.71% were not harmful errors (wrong dosing or incomplete orders). The errors were also categorized according to the class of medication. Errors in antibiotic prescription accounted for 53.9% of all errors. The pharmacist detected all these prescription errors as the prescriptions were reviewed in the CPOE system. Prescription errors are common medical errors seen in hospitals. The CPOE system has prevented and alerted the prescriber and pharmacist to dosage errors and allergies. Involvement of the pharmacist in reviewing the prescription and alerting the physician has minimized prescription errors to a great degree in our hospital setting. The incidence of prescription errors before the CPOE has been reported to range from 3 to 99 per 1000 prescriptions. The disparity could be due to

  12. Prediction and Prescription in Systems Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    17 COSATI CODES 18 SUSjECT TERMS (Continue on retverse if niecessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Modelling complex systems; non...exponentially increasing forcing functions , population and energy use among them. Now one does not have to run such a model very many hours on a large... function of the superposition of these estimated values. In the modeling, some effort was exerted, quite creditably, to examine the robustness of the

  13. A Copmarative Review of Electronic Prescription Systems: Lessons Learned from Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Garavand, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This review study aimed to compare the electronic prescription systems in five selected countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, England, and the United States). Compared developed countries were selected by the identified selection process from the countries that have electronic prescription systems. Required data were collected by searching the valid databases, most widely used search engines, and visiting websites related to the national electronic prescription system of each country and also sending E-mails to the related organizations using specifically designed data collection forms. The findings showed that the electronic prescription system was used at the national, state, local, and area levels in the studied countries and covered the whole prescription process or part of it. There were capabilities of creating electronic prescription, decision support, electronically transmitting prescriptions from prescriber systems to the pharmacies, retrieving the electronic prescription at the pharmacy, electronic refilling prescriptions in all studied countries. The patient, prescriber, and dispenser were main human actors, as well as the prescribing and dispensing providers were main system actors of the Electronic Prescription Service. The selected countries have accurate, regular, and systematic plans to use electronic prescription system, and health ministry of these countries was responsible for coordinating and leading the electronic health. It is suggested to use experiences and programs of the leading countries to design and develop the electronic prescription systems. PMID:28331859

  14. Methodology for security development of an electronic prescription system.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, J; Savolainen, M; Forsström, J J

    1998-01-01

    Data security is an essential requirement in all health care applications. Developers of medical information systems should utilize the existing security development and evaluation methods to foresee as many of the technical and human factors that may endanger data security as possible and apply appropriate precautions. Modern smart card technology facilitates the building of robust security framework for interorganizational shared care systems. In this article, we describe the way we utilized the existing security evaluation criteria in developing the security concept of our electronic prescription system.

  15. Decision Support for Medical Treatment: A TPN Prescription System on a Central Hospital Computer

    PubMed Central

    Moliver, Nina; Coates, Allan L.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system for the prescription of total or partial parenteral nutrition (TPN) is described. The system is applicable to all sizes and ages of patients, from premature infants to adults. Both the physician and the pharmacist are users of the system, with the physician using rule-based safety checks and branching algorithms to make decisions in the prescription process, and the pharmacist receiving the prescription totals electronically in order to complete further calculations needed. Since its introduction, the system appears to have increased the safety of the TPN prescription, saved time, and improved the quality and appropriateness of TPN prescriptions.

  16. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  17. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  18. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  19. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  20. Telematics integrated system to perform drugs prescription and administration reducing adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Iadanza, E; Pettenati, M C; Bianchi, L; Turchi, S; Ciofi, L; Pirri, F; Biffi Gentili, G; Giuli, D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present PHARMA 2.0 a telematics integrated system aimed at reducing Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) in the phases of drug prescription, transcription, distribution and administration. The proposed system is grounded on three sub-systems: a CPOE (Computerized Prescription Order Entry), an RFID-based drug container and dispenser and a middleware system. The visualization and management of prescription and administration data are handled through a web application designed to comply with international usability regulation.

  1. [Prescription of drugs of systemic use by dentists].

    PubMed

    Castilho, L S; Paixão, H H; Perini, E

    1999-06-01

    The study of the prescription pattern of antibacterial and analgesic/antiinflammatory systemic medication by dentists. Observational study based in questionnaires answered by a representative, randomly selected sample of 163 general dentists from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil. Some of the topics verified were: the most frequently prescribed drugs in the fortnight prior to the study, the use of generic names of drugs in the prescriptions, attendance at refresher courses on pharmacology, self-assessment of degree of knowledge on pharmacology, the importance given to this subject in the dentist's professional career, and the filling out of the clinical chart and the registration of the drugs prescribed on it. It was observed that the drugs were usually prescribed by their commercial name. There were a trend to prescribe more antiinflamatory than analgesics drugs. A small, but worrying, 13% of dentists didnot fill out the clinical chart for all the patients and 43% of the sample didnot register the drugs prescribed on it. The courses on pharmacology seemed to produce no significant alteration in self valuation as to the degree of knowledge in pharmacology and the use of the generic names of drugs.

  2. Do decision support systems influence variation in prescription?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Judith D; Groenewegen, Peter P; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Westert, Gert P; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2009-01-30

    Translating scientific evidence into daily practice is problematic. All kinds of intervention strategies, using educational and/or directive strategies, aimed at modifying behavior, have evolved, but have been found only partially successful. In this article the focus is on (computerized) decision support systems (DSSs). DSSs intervene in physicians' daily routine, as opposed to interventions that aim at influencing knowledge in order to change behavior. We examined whether general practitioners (GPs) are prescribing in accordance with the advice given by the DSS and whether there is less variation in prescription when the DSS is used. Data were used from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP2), collected in 2001. A total of 82 diagnoses, 749811 contacts, 133 physicians, and 85 practices was included in the analyses. GPs using the DSS daily were compared to GPs who do not use the DSS. Multilevel analyses were used to analyse the data. Two outcome measures were chosen: whether prescription was in accordance with the advice of the DSS or not, and a measure of concentration, the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). GPs who use the DSS daily prescribe more according to the advice given in the DSS than GPs who do not use the DSS. Contradictory to our expectation there was no significant difference between the HHIs for both groups: variation in prescription was comparable. We studied the use of a DSS for drug prescribing in general practice in the Netherlands. The DSS is based on guidelines developed by the Dutch College of General Practitioners and implemented in the Electronic Medical Systems of the GPs. GPs using the DSS more often prescribe in accordance with the advice given in the DSS compared to GPs not using the DSS. This finding, however, did not mean that variation is lower; variation is the same for GPs using and for GPs not using a DSS. Implications of the study are that DSSs can be used to implement guidelines, but that it should not be

  3. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  4. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  5. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  6. [Establishment of prescription research technology system in Chinese medicine secondary exploitation based on "component structure" theory].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Chinese medicine prescriptions are the wisdom outcomes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical treatment determinations which based on differentiation of symptoms and signs. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis of secondary exploitation of TCM. The study on prescription helps to understand the material basis of its efficacy, pharmacological mechanism, which is an important guarantee for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Currently, there is not yet dissertation n the method and technology system of basic research on the prescription of Chinese medicine. This paper focuses on how to build an effective system of prescription research technology. Based on "component structure" theory, a technology system contained four-step method that "prescription analysis, the material basis screening, the material basis of analysis and optimization and verify" was proposed. The technology system analyzes the material basis of the three levels such as Chinese medicine pieces, constituents and the compounds which could respect the overall efficacy of Chinese medicine. Ideas of prescription optimization, remodeling are introduced into the system. The technology system is the combination of the existing research and associates with new techniques and methods, which used for explore the research thought suitable for material basis research and prescription remodeling. The system provides a reference for the secondary development of traditional Chinese medicine, and industrial upgrading.

  7. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed.

  8. Wireless power transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  9. Automated Individual Prescription of Exercise with an XML-based Expert System.

    PubMed

    Jang, S; Park, S R; Jang, Y; Park, J; Yoon, Y; Park, S

    2005-01-01

    Continuously motivating people to exercise regularly is more important than finding a barriers such as lack of time, cost of equipment or gym membership, lack of nearby facilities and poor weather or night-time lighting. Our proposed system presents practicable methods of motivation through a web-based exercise prescription service. Users are instructed to exercise according to their physical ability by means of an automated individual prescription of exercise checked and approved by a personal trainer or exercise specialist after being tested with the HIMS, fitness assessment system. Furthermore, utilizing BIOFIT exercise prescriptions scheduled by an expert system can help users exercise systematically. Automated individual prescriptions are built in XML based documents because the data needs to be flexible, expansible and convertible structures to process diverse exercise templates. Web-based exercise prescription service makes users stay interested in exercise even if they live in many different environments.

  10. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  11. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  12. tPA Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, Lucy Dana; Grantz, Matthew Ryan; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Background IV tPA utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Methods Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010–11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and analyzed for association with outcomes. Results We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at CSC, 68% at CH (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, p<0.001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, p<0.001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, mRS) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Conclusion Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. PMID:26698642

  13. The role of the Pharmacist in the design, development and implementation of Medication Prescription Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Sola Bonada, Nuria; Álvarez Díaz, Ana María; Codina Jané, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) are computerized tools designed to help healthcare professionals to make clinical and therapeutic decisions, with the objective of improving patient care. Prescription-targeted CDSS have the highest impact in improving patient safety. Although there are different designs and functionalities, all these systems will combine clinical knowledge and patient information in a smart manner, in order to improve the prescription process. With the emergence of new technologies and advances in smart decision systems, the implementation of said systems can achieve an important improvement in terms of the prescription process and patient safety. The design and implementation of these systems should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of professionals, where Pharmacists will play an important role due to their technical knowledge about medications and the technologies associated to their use. This article aims to provide basic guidelines for the design and adequate implementation, monitoring and follow-up of Clinical Decision Support Systems within the setting of pharmacological prescription.

  14. Automating prescription map building for VRI systems using plant feedback

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prescription maps for commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) equipment direct the irrigation rates for each sprinkler zone on a sprinkler lateral as the lateral moves across the field. Typically, these maps are manually uploaded at the beginning of the irrigation season; and the maps are based on...

  15. A security and privacy preserving e-prescription system based on smart cards.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lu, Chung-Fu

    2012-12-01

    In 2002, Ateniese and Medeiros proposed an e-prescription system, in which the patient can store e-prescription and related information using smart card. Latter, Yang et al. proposed a novel smart-card based e-prescription system based on Ateniese and Medeiros's system in 2004. Yang et al. considered the privacy issues of prescription data and adopted the concept of a group signature to provide patient's privacy protection. To make the e-prescription system more realistic, they further applied a proxy signature to allow a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people. This paper proposed a novel security and privacy preserving e-prescription system model based on smart cards. A new role, chemist, is included in the system model for settling the medicine dispute. We further presented a concrete identity-based (ID-based) group signature scheme and an ID-based proxy signature scheme to realize the proposed model. Main property of an ID-based system is that public key is simple user's identity and can be verified without extra public key certificates. Our ID-based group signature scheme can allow doctors to sign e-prescription anonymously. In a case of a medical dispute, identities of the doctors can be identified. The proposed ID-based proxy signature scheme can improve signing delegation and allows a delegation chain. The proposed e-prescription system based on our proposed two cryptographic schemes is more practical and efficient than Yang et al.'s system in terms of security, communication overheads, computational costs, practical considerations.

  16. E-prescription as a tool for improving services and the financial viability of healthcare systems: the case of the Greek national e-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G; Sfyroeras, V; Pagkalos, I

    2014-01-01

    E-prescription systems can help improve patient service, safety and quality of care. They can also help achieve better compliance for the patients and better alignment with the guidelines for the practitioners. The recently implemented national e-prescription system in Greece already covers approximately 85% of all prescriptions prescribed in Greece today (approximately 5.5 million per month). The system has not only contributed already in significant changes towards improving services and better monitoring and planning of public health, but also substantially helped to contain unnecessary expenditure related to medication use and improve transparency and administrative control. Such issues have gained increasing importance not only for Greece but also for many other national healthcare systems that have to cope with the continuous rise of medication expenditure. Our implementation has, therefore, shown that besides their importance for improving services, national e-prescription systems can also provide a valuable tool for better utilisation of resources and for containing unnecessary healthcare costs, thus contributing to the improvement of the financial stability and viability of the overall healthcare system.

  17. Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public treatment system

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Rachel; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse has become a focal point of public health policy, prevention, and control efforts. Adolescents represent one of the fastest growing segments of the general population abusing prescription and OTC drugs as represented by national surveys. This article reports on treatment admission data to the California addiction public system for prescription and OTC drugs among two age subgroups: adolescents 12–17 years and adults 18 years and older. Of the 6,841 admissions for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs in California (during 2006–2007), most adolescent admissions (12–17) were for stimulant prescription and OTC drugs (45.3% and 32.1%, respectively), whereas opioid prescription drugs (88.9%) were most common for adults 18 years and older. Differences in psychosocial, treatment, and substance use characteristics between these two age subgroups are described. Results from this study offer useful treatment admission information about prescription and OTC drug abuse within the California public addiction treatment system. PMID:21193282

  18. Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public treatment system.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Rachel; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug abuse has become a focal point of public health policy, prevention, and control efforts. Adolescents represent one of the fastest growing segments of the general population abusing prescription and OTC drugs as represented by national surveys. This article reports on treatment admission data to the California addiction public system for prescription and OTC drugs among two age subgroups: adolescents 12-17 years and adults 18 years and older. Of the 6,841 admissions for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs in California (during 2006-2007), most adolescent admissions (12-17) were for stimulant prescription and OTC drugs (45.3% and 32.1%, respectively), whereas opioid prescription drugs (88.9%) were most common for adults 18 years and older. Differences in psychosocial, treatment, and substance use characteristics between these two age subgroups are described. Results from this study offer useful treatment admission information about prescription and OTC drug abuse within the California public addiction treatment system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  20. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescription record. (ii) Record on the reverse of the invalidated prescription the name, address, and DEA...). (v) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the...) Pharmacy's name, address, DEA registration number, and prescription number from which the prescription...

  1. Development of clinical application for a nutritional prescription support system for total parenteral/enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Syuzo; Oka, Ryusho; Uwai, Koji; Matsuda, Yumi; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshito; Shoji, Tohru; Mihara, Chie; Takeshita, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    One of the important roles of pharmacists as members of a nutrition support team is nutritional prescription support. We developed a nutritional prescription support system (NPSS) that facilitates prescription support and analysis and evaluated its usefulness in nutritional therapy. An NPSS for prescription support and the management of patient information was created. With this NPSS, the nutritional status was assessed, and, on the basis of the results, such variables as the total energy expenditure were calculated. This system allows prescription support for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, enteral nutrition (EN) therapy, and the transition period between them. This system was used for 2 representative patients and evaluated. In a malnourished patient receiving oral warfarin, EN solutions were compared by means of the NPSS, and an appropriate EN solution was selected. In addition, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was monitored, and favorable results were obtained regarding the adjustment of the warfarin dose and nutritional management. In a patient with aspiration pneumonia, continuous nutritional management to EN from PN therapy was straightforwardly performed with the NPSS. This NPSS allows rapid, comprehensive nutritional management during the transition period to EN from PN therapy, despite these therapies being considered separately in conventional nutritional management. The NPSS is useful for simplifying prescription support and facilitating information sharing among members of a nutrition support team.

  2. Intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Liu, Hsiao-Man; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the era of global high-tech industry and commerce and its associated sedentary lifestyle, opportunities for physical activity are reduced. People's physical fitness and health is deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that can enhance people's physical fitness and health. However, it is difficult for general physical fitness and healthcare systems to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop a method of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. The proposed system records all processes of the physical fitness and healthcare system via a wireless sensor network and the results of the diagnosis and prescription will be generated by fuzzy logic inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

  3. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  4. [How do patients evaluate the newly introduced system of substituting prescriptions?].

    PubMed

    Andersen, M L; Laursen, K; Schaumann, M; Rubak, S L; Olesgaard, P; Mainz, J; Lauritzen, T

    2000-11-06

    In 1997 a new prescription system was introduced in Denmark. The pharmacist must now substitute the prescribed drug with a cheaper version either by a generic prescription (G-substitution) or by an original prescription (O-substitution) unless the prescribing doctor indicates that substitution is not allowed in the specific case. The purpose of this study was to obtain the patients' view on the new prescription system and to identify any related problems. The investigation was based on structured interviews. The interview guide was designed as a questionnaire, which was validated and tested before use. The response rate was 82%. The study showed that 84% of the patients were satisfied with the system and 85% of the patients thought that it should continue. Eighty-three percent of the patients had tried another version of the substituted medicine earlier. Out of these, 6% had experienced more side-effects from the substituted medicine, and 10% felt that the substituted medicine had a weaker effect. There was one case of erroneous medical treatment as a consequence of the substitution system. Only few problems such as more side-effects or less effect of the substituted medicine was experienced by the patients. It can be concluded that the patients in general are satisfied with the new prescription system.

  5. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-07-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  6. Heat transfer in aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Aeropropulsion heat transfer is reviewed. A research methodology based on a growing synergism between computations and experiments is examined. The aeropropulsion heat transfer arena is identified as high Reynolds number forced convection in a highly disturbed environment subject to strong gradients, body forces, abrupt geometry changes and high three dimensionality - all in an unsteady flow field. Numerous examples based on heat transfer to the aircraft gas turbine blade are presented to illustrate the types of heat transfer problems which are generic to aeropropulsion systems. The research focus of the near future in aeropropulsion heat transfer is projected.

  7. AN ELECTRONIC PRESCRIPTION ALERTING SYSTEM-IMPROVING THE DISCHARGE MEDICINES PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Amanda; Patel, Niesh

    2016-09-01

    Whilst the prescribing of both in-patient and discharge medicines is electronic, there was no automatic notification to clinical pharmacists when a discharge prescription was ready to be screened. The notification required a member of medical or nursing staff to bleep their pharmacist informing them of a prescription's availability. This manual process led to a delay in pharmacist screening which impacted on discharge. Prescriptions designated for pre-packed or patient's own medicine use were not seen at all by a clinical pharmacist. The initial intention was to develop a text messaging service; however this was not possible due to significant cost implications and its inflexibility. To decrease the time to clinical pharmacist screening for children's discharge prescriptions. A clinical pharmacist prescription alerting system was designed and implemented. The hospital's eDischarge Summaries are created and stored in the Trust's EPR database. A database query is executed that examines documents that have been signed by a prescriber which contain drug orders. The query runs every 15 minutes, Monday to Friday from 0800-2000. The database query exports a HTML data extract which is then packaged and sent using Exchange.Email was preferred as users access hospital WiFi, only receiving notifications on those laptops or smartphones connected to the Trust's email application. The HTML is embedded within the email body. The email is sent to named individuals within a given distribution list. The function is scalable to support all areas using Trust eDischarge Summaries.The system was introduced in April 2015. Data from before (June 2014-January 2015) and after (June 2015) implementation was compared. Prior to the introduction of an electronic alerting system the average time from a prescriber signing a prescription to clinical pharmacist screening was 93 minutes. Three months after starting the new system this time has reduced to 62 minutes, a reduction of 31 minutes or

  8. A generic system for critiquing physicians' prescriptions: usability, satisfaction and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Seroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques; Simon, Christia; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Venot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems have been developed to help physicians to take clinical guidelines into account during consultations. The ASTI critiquing module is one such systems; it provides the physician with automatic criticisms when a drug prescription does not follow the guidelines. It was initially developed for hypertension and type 2 diabetes, but is designed to be generic enough for application to all chronic diseases. We present here the results of usability and satisfaction evaluations for the ASTI critiquing module, obtained with GPs for a newly implemented guideline concerning dyslipaemia, and we discuss the lessons learnt and the difficulties encountered when building a generic DSS for critiquing physicians' prescriptions.

  9. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  10. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-23

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  11. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  12. A computer-assisted drug prescription system: the model and its implementation in the ATM knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Riou, C; Pouliquen, B; Le Beux, P

    1999-03-01

    Informatisation of drug prescription is an important topic in medical informatics. For several years now, computerized drug databases have been implemented. Usually only a small part of the prescriptions can be stored in prescription systems because of the format of the included information; prescriptions contain essentially free text without any structure and homogeneity of the used vocabulary. In this article a model is presented for knowledge representation in a computerized drug prescription system. The model should be applicable to clinical practice and be didactic for medical students. The problem of standardization of terminology had to be solved. A computer-assisted drug prescription program has been developed. The next step is its validation by clinicians. The program can also be used in a consultation mode.

  13. Simple prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy for D-dimensional gravity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F. E.; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-02-01

    A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude ({{M}NR}), a trivial expression for computing {{M}NR} is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus.

  14. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  15. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  16. Power Transfer in Physical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeck, Jack A.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the power transfer using (1) a simple electric circuit consisting of a power source with internal resistance; (2) two different mechanical systems (gravity driven and constant force driven); (3) ecological examples; and (4) a linear motor. (YP)

  17. 76 FR 1182 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... supply chain. On September 27, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) (Pub... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  18. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. ] SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  19. Quantitative comparison of human computer interaction for direct prescription entry systems.

    PubMed

    Endoh, A; Minato, K; Komori, M; Inoue, Y; Nagata, S; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    An objective and quantitative method is described for evaluating human-computer interaction (interface) in a direct prescription entry system. This method is based on a GOMS model and represented by a tree structure. Three different interfaces at university hospitals were compared by this evaluation method, and the differences among them were measured.

  20. Occurrence of Medication Errors and Comparison of Manual and Computerized Prescription Systems in Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%–60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21–30 years (21%–24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber’s signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%–19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and

  1. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Nemkov, Valentin S.

    2017-05-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers and continuous power transfer in technological lines. Only a group of devices working in near magnetic field is considered. This article is devoted to overview of different inductive power transfer (IPT) devices. The review of literature in this area showed that industrial IPT are not much discussed and examined. The authors have experience in design and implementation of several types of IPTs belonging to wireless automotive chargers and to industrial application group. Main attention in the article is paid to principles and design of technological IPTs

  2. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  3. Computerized physician order entry systems: the right prescription?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ross

    2005-03-01

    Policymakers increasingly urge the use of information technology to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. In particular, computerized physician order entry (CPOE) is emphasized for its ability to reduce prescribing errors inherent in paper-based systems. This Issue Brief summarizes research that sounds a cautionary note about the potential for computerized systems to facilitate medication errors, as well as reduce them.

  4. Costs of implementing a computerized prescription system in a public mental health agency.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Eri; Hadley, Trevor R; Rothbard, Aileen B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this case report is to inform decision makers about costs associated with adding a computerized prescription component to an existing information system in specialty mental health agencies. A computerized prescription system was implemented in four not-for-profit mental health agencies in an urban setting as part of a larger study looking at reducing racial disparities. This brief report describes the implementation costs at one agency with ten full-time-equivalent psychiatrists for which information was available on time devoted to implementation by the management information system personnel. The financial costs of the computer network hardware and software were also documented. The total initial cost was $27,607: preimplementation cost, $3,720; technology and system integration cost, $10,148; and training cost, $13,739. Annual ongoing cost was expected to be $14,725. The technology expenditure itself is not prohibitive for initial implementation as well as for ongoing support.

  5. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, W.J.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Ford, W.; Tisinger, R.M.; Meyer, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Systems of donor transfer.

    PubMed

    de Charro, F T; Akveld, H E; Hessing, D J

    1993-10-01

    The development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commercialism is to be opposed. We judge the use of commercial incentives at the supply side less unacceptable in theory but not feasible in western European countries. Since market forces are deemed unacceptable as instruments for coordinating demand and supply of donor organs, donor procurement has to be considered as a collective good, and therefore governments are faced with the responsibility of making sure that alternative interaction and distribution mechanisms function. The role of organ procurement agencies (OPAs) in societal interaction concerning postmortem organ donation is described using a two-dimensional conceptualisation scheme. Medical aspects of living organ donation are described. An international comparative description of legal systems to regulate living organ donation in western European countries completes this survey.

  7. On the designing of a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Safkhani, Masoumeh; Bagheri, Nasour; Naderi, Majid

    2012-12-01

    Recently, Chen et al. have proposed a novel tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system, published in the Journal of Medical Systems. In this paper we consider the security of the proposed protocol and identify some existing weaknesses. The main attack is a reader impersonation attack which allows an active adversary to impersonate a legitimate doctor, e.g. the patient's doctor, to access the patient's tag and change the patient prescription. The presented attack is quite efficient. To impersonate a doctor, the adversary should eavesdrop one session between the doctor and the patient's tag and then she can impersonate the doctor with the success probability of '1'. In addition, we present efficient reader-tag to back-end database impersonation, de-synchronization and traceability attacks against the protocol. Finally, we propose an improved version of protocol which is more efficient compared to the original protocol while provides the desired security against the presented attacks.

  8. A multi-agent system approach for monitoring the prescription of restricted use antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Godo, L; Puyol-Gruart, J; Sabater, J; Torra, V; Barrufet, P; Fàbregas, X

    2003-03-01

    Hospitals have a specified set of antibiotics for restricted use (ARU), very expensive, which are only recommended for special pathologies. The pharmacy department daily checks the prescription of this kind of antibiotics since it is often the case that, after a careful analysis, one can get the same therapeutic effects by using normal antibiotics which are much cheaper and usually less aggressive. In this paper, we describe a multi-agent system to help in the revision of medical prescriptions containing antibiotics of restricted use. The proposed approach attaches an agent to each patient which is responsible of checking different medical aspects related to his/her prescribed therapy. A pharmacy agent is responsible for analyzing it and suggesting alternative antibiotic treatments. All these agents are integrated in a hospital distributed scenario composed by many different kinds of software and human agents. This patient-centered multi-agent scenario is specified using the design methodology of Electronic Institutions.

  9. Information system technologies' role in augmenting dermatologists' knowledge of prescription medication costs.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Paul, Ravi; Kilpatrick, Russell J

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent rising costs of once affordable dermatologic prescription medications, a survey measuring dermatologists' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of the cost of drugs they commonly prescribe has not been conducted. Awareness of drug costs is hindered by a lack of access to data about the prices of medicines. No surveys of physicians have addressed this issue by proposing new information system technologies that augment prescription medication price transparency and measuring how receptive physicians are to using these novel solutions in their daily clinical practice. Our research aims to investigate these topics with a survey of physicians in dermatology. Members of the North Carolina Dermatology Association were contacted through their electronic mailing list and asked to take an online survey. The survey asked several questions about dermatologists' attitudes and beliefs about drug costs. To measure their knowledge of prescription medications, the National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used as an authoritative price that was compared to the survey takers' price estimates of drugs commonly used in dermatology. Physicians' willingness to use four distinct information system technologies that increase drug price transparency was also assessed. Dermatologists believe drug costs are an important factor in patient care and believe access to price information would allow them to provide a higher quality of care. Dermatologists' knowledge of the costs of medicines they commonly prescribe is poor, but they want to utilize information system technologies that increase access to drug pricing information. There is an unmet demand for information system technologies which increase price transparency of medications in dermatology. Physicians and IT professionals have the opportunity to create novel information systems that can be utilized to help guide cost conscious clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pain Catastrophizing Moderates Relationships between Pain Intensity and Opioid Prescription: Nonlinear Sex Differences Revealed Using a Learning Health System.

    PubMed

    Sharifzadeh, Yasamin; Kao, Ming-Chih; Sturgeon, John A; Rico, Thomas J; Mackey, Sean; Darnall, Beth D

    2017-07-01

    Pain catastrophizing is a maladaptive response to pain that amplifies chronic pain intensity and distress. Few studies have examined how pain catastrophizing relates to opioid prescription in outpatients with chronic pain. The authors conducted a retrospective observational study of the relationships between opioid prescription, pain intensity, and pain catastrophizing in 1,794 adults (1,129 women; 63%) presenting for new evaluation at a large tertiary care pain treatment center. Data were sourced primarily from an open-source, learning health system and pain registry and secondarily from manual review of electronic medical records. A binary opioid prescription variable (yes/no) constituted the dependent variable; independent variables were age, sex, pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety. Most patients were prescribed at least one opioid medication (57%; n = 1,020). A significant interaction and main effects of pain intensity and pain catastrophizing on opioid prescription were noted (P < 0.04). Additive modeling revealed sex differences in the relationship between pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, and opioid prescription, such that opioid prescription became more common at lower levels of pain catastrophizing for women than for men. Results supported the conclusion that pain catastrophizing and sex moderate the relationship between pain intensity and opioid prescription. Although men and women patients had similar Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores, historically "subthreshold" levels of pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with opioid prescription only for women patients. These findings suggest that pain intensity and catastrophizing contribute to different patterns of opioid prescription for men and women patients, highlighting a potential need for examination and intervention in future studies.

  11. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  12. Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz, Czesław

    2000-05-01

    Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.

  13. Optical fiber data transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  14. Assessment of clinical outcomes of Roth and MBT bracket prescription using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mahesh; Varghese, Joseph; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Siddarth; Dhakar, Nidhi

    2013-07-01

    There is always a need to assess whether small changes in bracket prescription can lead to visually detectable differences in tooth positions. However, with little clinical evidence to show advantages of any of the popularly used bracket systems, orthodontists are forced to make clinical decisions with little scientific guidance. To compare the orthodontic cases finished with Roth and MBT prescription using American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS). Department of Orthodontics, Post-graduate dental college, retrospective cross-sectional study. Forty patients selected were divided into two groups of 20 patients each finished with straight wire appliance using Roth and MBT prescription, respectively. The examiner ability was assessed and calibrated by one of the ABO certified clinician to grade cases using the OGS. Unpaired student t-test was used and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. MBT bracket group had a lower score of 2.60 points in buccolingual inclination and lower score of 1.10 points in occlusal contact category that was statistically significant when compared with Roth group. The difference in total ABO-OGS score was 2.65 points showing that the outcome for the MBT prescription was better than that of the Roth prescription, which is statistically significant, but with little or no clinical significance. It can be concluded that use of either one of the Roth and MBT bracket prescriptions have no impact to the overall clinical outcome and quality of treatment entirely depends on clinician judgment and experience.

  15. Smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/ munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over 1 h for some missile systems. Recent U.S. Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current requirements for the development of SCATS are being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. The planned development approach will integrate robotic control and sensor technology with a commercially available hydraulic articulated crane. SCATS is being developed with commercially available hardware as much as possible. Development plans include adding a 3-D.F. end effector with a grapple to the articulating crane; closed-loop position control for the crane and end effector; digital microprocessor control of crane functions; simplified operator interface; and operating modes which include rectilinear movement, obstacle avoidance, and partial automated operation. The planned development will include progressive technology demonstrations. Ultimate plans are for this technology to be transferred and utilized in the military fielding process.

  16. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  17. A computerized system for tracking practice and prescriptive patterns of family nurse practitioner students.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A; Kelber, S T; Devine, E C

    2001-03-01

    Decisions about the fit between advanced practice nursing curricula and the real world of primary care practice should be based on data and not on intuition. The purpose of this article is to describe a computerized database system that can be used to: 1) track practice (including prescribing) patterns of nurse practitioner (NP) students; 2) address data issues that commonly arise; and 3) describe NP students' practice during their education to prospective employers. The database system uses both the Family Nurse Practitioners Log (FNPLOG), a faculty-developed software program, and Epi Info, a companion public domain software program. Variables are categorized as being related to sociodemographic, diagnostic, or prescriptive components of primary care. The system provides a simple, efficient, and feasible way of computerizing, analyzing, and evaluating students' clinical experience and practice patterns. The implications for advanced practice nursing education will be illustrated along with other potential uses of the database system.

  18. An Update on the Learning Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Myungweon; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Learning transfer in organizations is a central issue in HRD. Much of the research of the 1980-1990's informed the development of the learning transfer system inventory (Holton, Bates, & Ruona, 2000). However, it's vitally important to continually enhance our understanding of the learning transfer system. In this paper, we reviewed the new…

  19. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  20. Offshore liquified gas transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, R.D.

    1982-02-16

    A hose assembly is described for use in the transference of cooled liquified gas to a vessel, in a system that requires the flexible hose to lie in the water. The hose assembly includes a flexible inner hose forming a central passage through which liquified gas can pass towards the vessel and having walls that are permeable to the bleeding of vapor therethrough, to avoid damage by expanding liquid droplets that find their way into the inner hose wall. The assembly also includes an outer hose with substantially impermeable walls, the outer hose surrounding the inner hose and leaving an annular passage between them which can receive the vapor permeating the inner hose. The annular passage also can be used to carry vapor from the vessel back to a shorebased installation which reliquifies it.

  1. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  2. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  3. Safety implications of transferring the oral contraceptive from prescription-only to over-the-counter status.

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Denny, C

    1995-12-01

    The idea of making oral contraceptives available without prescription has a long history, and has been recently revived in the US and the UK. High dose oral contraceptives have generally been replaced by low dose formulations and, subsequently, most cardiovascular risks have been reduced and a protection against ovarian and uterine cancers has been consistently demonstrated. Oral contraceptive compliance, however, continues to be a problem, but there is no reason to assume that wise practice would be any more or less if oral contraceptives were available over-the-counter (OTC). Some countries have introduced alternatives to prescription-only oral contraceptives, whereby nurses, midwives, social workers and/or pharmacists are incorporated into the distribution process. This article concludes that the balance of risks and benefits is in favour of OTC access for oral contraceptives.

  4. Off-label indications for antidepressants in primary care: descriptive study of prescriptions from an indication based electronic prescribing system

    PubMed Central

    Motulsky, Aude; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Eguale, Tewodros; Buckeridge, David L; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine off-label indications for antidepressants in primary care and determine the level of scientific support for off-label prescribing. Design Descriptive study of antidepressant prescriptions written by primary care physicians using an indication based electronic prescribing system. Setting Primary care practices in and around two major urban centres in Quebec, Canada. Participants Patients aged 18 years or older who visited a study physician between 1 January 2003 and 30 September 2015 and were prescribed an antidepressant through the electronic prescribing system. Main outcome measures Prevalence of off-label indications for antidepressant prescriptions by class and by individual drug. Among off-label antidepressant prescriptions, the proportion of prescriptions in each of the following categories was measured: strong evidence supporting use of the prescribed drug for the respective indication; no strong evidence for the prescribed drug but strong evidence supporting use of another drug in the same class for the indication; or no strong evidence supporting use of the prescribed drug and all other drugs in the same class for the indication. Results 106 850 antidepressant prescriptions were written by 174 physicians for 20 920 adults. By class, tricyclic antidepressants had the highest prevalence of off-label indications (81.4%, 95% confidence interval, 77.3% to 85.5%), largely due to a high off-label prescribing rate for amitriptyline (93%, 89.6% to 95.7%). Trazodone use for insomnia was the most common off-label use for antidepressants, accounting for 26.2% (21.9% to 30.4%) of all off-label prescriptions. For only 15.9% (13.0% to 19.3%) of all off-label prescriptions, the prescribed drug had strong scientific evidence for the respective indication. For 39.6% (35.7% to 43.2%) of off-label prescriptions, the prescribed drug did not have strong evidence but another antidepressant in the same class had strong evidence for the respective

  5. A Low-Cost Audio Prescription Labeling System Using RFID for Thai Visually-Impaired People.

    PubMed

    Lertwiriyaprapa, Titipong; Fakkheow, Pirapong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to develop a low-cost audio prescription labeling (APL) system for visually-impaired people by using the RFID system. The developed APL system includes the APL machine and APL software. The APL machine is for visually-impaired people while APL software allows caregivers to record all important information into the APL machine. The main objective of the development of the APL machine is to reduce costs and size by designing all of the electronic devices to fit into one print circuit board. Also, it is designed so that it is easy to use and can become an electronic aid for daily living. The developed APL software is based on Java and MySQL, both of which can operate on various operating platforms and are easy to develop as commercial software. The developed APL system was first evaluated by 5 experts. The APL system was also evaluated by 50 actual visually-impaired people (30 elders and 20 blind individuals) and 20 caregivers, pharmacists and nurses. After using the APL system, evaluations were carried out, and it can be concluded from the evaluation results that this proposed APL system can be effectively used for helping visually-impaired people in terms of self-medication.

  6. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System

    PubMed Central

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13–19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System. Method Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. Results A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38%were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Conclusions Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. PMID:23357446

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Prescriptive Reading Inventory Reading System in Seattle Public Schools, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Roy M.; Estes, Gary D.

    The adoption by Seattle (Washington) Public Schools of the Prescriptive Reading Inventory Reading System (PRI-RS) was a decision driven by the district's commitment to effective schooling. The PRI-RS is a criterion referenced approach to the instruction and assessment of reading skills, and it consists of five levels, A through E, coordinated with…

  8. The feasibility of QR-code prescription in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-H; Tsai, F-Y; Tsai, W-L; Wen, H-W; Hu, M-L

    2012-12-01

    An ideal Health Care Service is a service system that focuses on patients. Patients in Taiwan have the freedom to fill their prescriptions at any pharmacies contracted with National Health Insurance. Each of these pharmacies uses its own computer system. So far, there are at least ten different systems on the market in Taiwan. To transmit the prescription information from the hospital to the pharmacy accurately and efficiently presents a great issue. This study consisted of two-dimensional applications using a QR-code to capture Patient's identification and prescription information from the hospitals as well as using a webcam to read the QR-code and transfer all data to the pharmacy computer system. Two hospitals and 85 community pharmacies participated in the study. During the trial, all participant pharmacies appraised highly of the accurate transmission of the prescription information. The contents in QR-code prescriptions from Taipei area were picked up efficiently and accurately in pharmacies at Taichung area (middle Taiwan) without software system limit and area limitation. The QR-code device received a patent (No. M376844, March 2010) from Intellectual Property Office Ministry of Economic Affair, China. Our trial has proven that QR-code prescription can provide community pharmacists an efficient, accurate and inexpensive device to digitalize the prescription contents. Consequently, pharmacists can offer better quality of pharmacy service to patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Lunox storage and transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This semester, efforts were concentrated on the design of the Lunox transfer line from the storage area to the launch site. Emphasis was placed on flow and heat transfer problems and their remedies by reducing the effect of radiation by selecting materials for storage tanks, transfer lines and insulation. The design for the storage tank was based on a medium sized Lunox production facility of 6,000 metric tons per year and the frequency of transportation of Lunox from lunar launch site to lower lunar orbit of four launches per month. The design included the selection of materials for cryogenic storage, insulation and radiation shielding. Lunox was pumped to the storage area near the launch site through a piping network designed for maximum mass flow rate with a minimum boil off. The entire network incorporated specially designed radiation shields made of material which was lightweight and low in secondary radiation.

  10. Prescription Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription drug misuse? Also known as: Opioids: Hillbilly Heroin, Oxy, OC, Oxycotton, Percs, Happy Pills, Vikes Depressants: ... opioid receptors—the same receptors that respond to heroin . These receptors are found on nerve cells in ...

  11. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector M.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  12. Analogical transfer from a simulated physical system.

    PubMed

    Day, Samuel B; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt similarities between the cases themselves. Across several studies, we found that participants were able to transfer strategies learned from a perceptually concrete simulation of a physical system to a task with very dissimilar content and appearance. This transfer was reflected in better performance on the transfer task when its underlying dynamics were consistent rather than inconsistent with the preceding training task. Our data indicate that transfer in these tasks relies on the perceptual and spatial nature of the training task but does not depend on direct interaction with the system, with participants performing equally well after simply observing the concrete simulation. We argue that participants generated a spatial, dynamic, and force-based mental model while interacting with the training simulation and tended to spontaneously interpret the transfer task according to this primed model. Unexpectedly, our data consistently show that transfer was independent of reported recognition of the analogy between tasks: Although such recognition was associated with better overall performance, it was not associated with better transfer (in terms of applying an appropriate strategy). Together, these findings suggest that analogical transfer between overtly dissimilar cases may be much more common--and much more relevant to our cognitive processing--than is generally assumed.

  13. Improving electronic oral chemotherapy prescription: can we build a safer system?

    PubMed

    Weingart, Saul N; Mattsson, Thea; Zhu, Junya; Shulman, Lawrence N; Hassett, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To prevent oral chemotherapy prescription errors, we enhanced a prescription-writing module in an ambulatory electronic medical record. We sought to describe the enhancement, examine its performance to date, and identify opportunities for improvement. Enhancements to the oral chemotherapy writing module included weight- and body surface area-based dosing, fields for cancer diagnosis and intent of therapy (curative v palliative), and dose-limit warnings. We studied all prescriptions for 18 oral chemotherapies generated by oncology clinicians during the first 17 months after the safe prescribing enhancements were introduced, from May 1, 2010, to October 1, 2011. We examined the frequency with which clinicians used the new features, the number and type of alerts generated, and clinician actions in response to alerts. Six hundred clinicians generated 6,673 prescriptions for 2,043 patients. Six drugs-temozolomide, capecitabine, lenalidomide, hydroxyurea, imatinib, and erlotinib-accounted for 5,512 of all oral chemotherapy prescriptions (83%). Prescribers indicated the intent of therapy 13% of the time and listed the patient's cancer diagnosis 46% of the time. Prescribers customized their instructions using a free-text field in 64% of prescriptions. Clinicians' 6,673 prescription attempts triggered 395 dose-limit warnings (5%), mostly for temozolomide. Clinicians ignored most (96%) warnings, because current dosing recommendations exceeded the dose-limit warnings for the alerted medications. Oncology clinicians readily accepted features designed to enhance oral chemotherapy safety. Additional enhancements are needed to facilitate prescriptions with complex dosing regimens and to provide dose-limit warnings that reflect current clinical practice.

  14. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  15. [Implementation of a new prescription system. A qualitative survey of organizational barriers].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2002-09-16

    The aim of this study was to identify organisational difficulties faced by physicians and nurses when using drug prescribing sheets for the recording of both drug prescriptions and drug administration. Qualitative interviews with seven physicians and eight nurses from two general internal medicine wards. Main outcome measures were the difficulties explicitly identified during the interviews. The implementation of procedures conflicted with existing structure, culture, and routines. Insufficient competence within the system to use the drug prescribing sheets created resistance and made people create their own solutions to the problems they faced. A total of nine difficulties were identified: 1) insufficient knowledge and uncertainty about procedures, 2) ignorance of sources of error, 3) unclear responsibilities, 4) low community spirit, 5) insufficient communication, 6) clinician autonomy and low acceptance of change, 7) strong professional identity, 8) low priority task, and 9) logistic problems. Unawareness of procedures, insufficient dissemination of knowledge, and insufficient cooperation and skepticism among those who put drug handling into practice is likely to have an impact on the quality of health care. The identification of these obstacles may help managers to improve the quality of the drug handling process and make it possible to select a framework for changing the clinical behavior of doctors and nurses.

  16. Electron transfer and energy transfer through bridged systems. I. Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, J. R.; Hush, N. S.

    1989-07-01

    A time-dependent formalism is developed for reactions in which energy (vibrational or electronic excitation, electron or hole transfer, etc.) is transferred coherently between centres through a bridge. This approach is inspired by the Robinson and Frosch model of energy transfer within two-level systems. This formalism yields a completely general algorithm which, in particular limits, reduces to a generalised form of both Fermi's golden rule and Rabi's rate equation, and, in so doing, unifies many existing theories. It is shown that, only in the limit of the bridge states being non-resonant with the initial and final states, can the full problem be represented by an effective two-level model. Existing methods based upon Löwdin diagonalization are shown to be appropriate only when this limit applies, and ambiguities which arise from the ad hoc nature of these methods are resolved. Also, it is typically only in this limit that the transfer of energy proceeds exponentially in time and can be described by a simple single-parameter rate constant. Only problems which can be modelled using a single set of quantum numbers are treated in this paper. Applications and more general problems are treated in subsequent papers.

  17. [WinDiet. Support decision system for the assessment of nutritional status and diet prescription].

    PubMed

    Esteves, E A; Siqueira, A D; Monteiro, J B; Ludwig, A

    1998-09-01

    A "Sistema de Apoio à Decisão para Avaliação do Estado Nutricional e Prescrição de Dietas" called "WinDiet" was developed. The system was developed on a computer compatible to IBM-PC standard. For system processing procedures through the computer, that is, interpretation, compilation, table generation en others, it was selected the Delphi version 1.0 software, from Borland International, for its using facilities, data basis accomplishment, communication environment and mainly an ample availability of mathematic, impression and programming resources besides allowing for all the programming operations to be accomplished on Windows environment. Knowing the procedures for nutritional evaluation and diet prescription was possible by consulting to text books, periodicals and the area experts. This system allows for individual nutritional assessment applying the anthropometric methods such as weight, height, skinfold thickness measurings, the lab methods such as albumin, transferrin, height/creatinin index and others, the dietary methods by food consumption recall, and the clinical methods that give emphasis to pathological antecedents and indicative sings of nutritional status. The software also turns possible to prescribe and calculate diets from recommendation besides having an actual data basis which may be changed or modified. Yet it maintains the individual description from all evaluation and menus, emitting its complete reports. It was verified that it reduce significantly the working time and increase the precision of estimate and nutritional diagnosis. Thus, the WinDiet may be used in nutritionist's offices, ambulatories, hospitals as well as on nutritional researches and education.

  18. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  19. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  20. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  1. Granisetron Transdermal System for Treatment of Symptoms of Gastroparesis: A Prescription Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Midani, Deena; Parkman, Henry P

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Serotonin receptor (eg, 5-HT3) antagonists are used to treat nausea and vomiting from a variety of causes. Granisetron transdermal system (GTS) is an appealing delivery system for patients with gastroparesis. To assess if GTS improves nausea and vomiting and other gastroparesis symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Methods Patients with gastroparesis and symptoms of nausea and vomiting refractory to conventional treatment were treated with GTS. Symptoms of gastroparesis were assessed using a modified Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients were asked to assess their symptoms and indicate their therapeutic response using the Clinical Patient Grading Assessment Scale (CPGAS) reporting if symptoms of nausea and vomiting improved on a scale: 0 = no change to +7 = completely better. Results Fifty-one patients received GTS by prescription: average age was 40 ± 17 years, 44 female, 11 diabetics, 23 ± 20% retention at 4 hours on gastric emptying scintigraphy. Thirty-nine of the 51 (76%) patients stated improvement with GTS. There was significant improvement in nausea and vomiting as assessed with CPGAS at 2 weeks (2.28 ± 2.53; P < 0.05). Symptoms of nausea and vomiting significantly improved. Other symptoms including postprandial fullness, loss of appetite, upper abdominal pain, and early satiety improved. Side effects reported included redness at the site of the patch in 7 patients, pruritus in 5, and constipation in 5. Conclusions GTS was moderately effective in reducing nausea and/or vomiting in 76% of gastroparesis patients. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of postprandial fullness, loss of appetite, upper abdominal pain, and early satiety also improved. PMID:27400689

  2. Prescription drug misuse.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Benny

    2010-08-01

    Recognising and dealing with patients who seek drugs for nonmedical purposes can be a difficult problem in general practice. 'Prescription shoppers' and patients with chronic nonmalignant pain problems are the main people who constitute this small but problematic group. The main drugs they seek are benzodiazepines and opioids. To provide data on current trends in prescription drug abuse and to discuss different strategies on how to deal with this issue in the clinic setting. Misuse of prescription drugs can take the form of injecting oral drugs, selling them on the street, or simply overusing the prescribed amount so that patients run short before the due date and then request extra prescriptions from the doctor. Currently oxycontin and alprazolam are the most abused drugs in Australia. Adequate prescription monitoring mechanisms at the systems level are lacking so we need to rely on our clinical skills and the patient's behaviour pattern over time to detect problematic prescription drug misuse. Management strategies may include saying 'no' to patients, having a treatment plan, and adopting a universal precaution approach toward all patients prescribed drugs of addiction. Among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain, requests for increasing opioid doses need careful assessment to elucidate any nonmedical factors that may be at play.

  3. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  4. Accuracy of prescription drug expenditure forecasts published in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Hartke, Patricia L.; Vermeulen, Lee C.; Hoffman, James M.; Shah, Nilay D.; Doloresco, Fred; Suda, Katie J.; Li, Edward C.; Matusiak, Linda M.; Hunkler, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the forecast of drug expenditures in nonfederal hospitals and clinics published annually in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) compared to the drug expenditure forecasts produced annually by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Methods The forecasted drug expenditure growth published in AJHP for nonfederal hospitals (for the years 2003 to 2013) and clinics (for the years 2004 to 2013) was compared to the actual growth each year. The actual and forecasted growth published by CMS was analyzed for the years 2003 to 2012. The mean absolute error (MAE) and directional accuracy for the AJHP forecasts for nonfederal hospitals and clinics, and for the CMS forecasts, were determined and compared. Results Actual growth was within the forecasted range in 2 of 11 years for nonfederal hospitals, and in 3 of 10 years for clinics. The forecasts were directionally accurate 27.3% and 60.0% of the time for nonfederal hospitals and clinics, respectively. The MAE for the nonfederal hospital and clinic drug expenditure forecasts were 2.0 and 4.7 percentage points, respectively. The CMS forecasts were directionally accurate 70% of the time, and the MAE was 2.2 percentage points and was not statistically different than the AJHP forecasts. Conclusion The forecasts published annually in AJHP have comparable accuracy that by CMS for predicting prescription expenditure growth. The forecast paper provides an overview of current trends, which must be combined with local information to accurately forecast institutional drug expenditures. PMID:26386105

  5. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  6. [Co-payment on prescription drugs in the Spanish public health system: Certainty, risk and selection of risks].

    PubMed

    Simó Miñana, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The model of co-payment on prescription drugs in the Spanish National Health System (NHS) changed on 1 July 2012. For more than three decades that it was not modified. This article provides a brief historical reminder of the evolution of this model of co-payment. The basic characteristics of this model are compared with the model of copayment on prescription drugs of the Administrative Mutualism (Civil Servants). The document provides detailed information on the percentage of effective copayment, fundraising effects, the economic participation of the patient, among others, in both models. Finally, listed pending improvements not addressed by 2012 changes such as the concentration of the co-payment in the active patient population and risk selection promoted by the differences in the financial contribution between the two models of co-payment (NHS and Mutualist). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  8. Maximizing energy transfer in vibrofluidized granular systems.

    PubMed

    Windows-Yule, C R K; Rosato, A D; Parker, D J; Thornton, A R

    2015-05-01

    Using discrete particle simulations validated by experimental data acquired using the positron emission particle tracking technique, we study the efficiency of energy transfer from a vibrating wall to a system of discrete, macroscopic particles. We demonstrate that even for a fixed input energy from the wall, energy conveyed to the granular system under excitation may vary significantly dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the driving oscillations. We investigate the manner in which the efficiency with which energy is transferred to the system depends on the system variables and determine the key control parameters governing the optimization of this energy transfer. A mechanism capable of explaining our results is proposed, and the implications of our findings in the research field of granular dynamics as well as their possible utilization in industrial applications are discussed.

  9. Development of a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Drug Prescription: Non-Interventional Naturalistic Description of the Antipsychotic Prescription Patterns in 4345 Outpatients and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A; Ovejero-García, Santiago; Álvarez-García, Raquel; Carballo, Juan Jose; Lenca, Philippe; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. A web application (www.MEmind.net) was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014. The web-application reported average daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics, prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to defined daily dose (DDD) ratio. The MEmind web-application reported that antipsychotics were used in 1116 patients out of the total sample, mostly in 486 (44%) patients with schizophrenia related disorders but also in other diagnoses. Second generation antipsychotics (quetiapine, aripiprazole and long-acting paliperidone) were preferably employed. Low doses were more frequently used than high doses. Long acting paliperidone and ziprasidone however, were the only two antipsychotics used at excessive dosing. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was used in 287 (26%) patients with classic depot drugs, clotiapine, amisulpride and clozapine. In this study we describe the first step of the development of a web application that is able to make polypharmacy, high dose usage and off label usage of antipsychotics visible to clinicians. Current development of the MEmind web application may help to improve prescription security via momentary feedback of prescription and clinical decision support system.

  10. Development of a Web-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Drug Prescription: Non-Interventional Naturalistic Description of the Antipsychotic Prescription Patterns in 4345 Outpatients and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A.; Ovejero-García, Santiago; Álvarez-García, Raquel; Carballo, Juan Jose; Lenca, Philippe; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. Method A web application (www.MEmind.net) was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014. The web-application reported average daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics, prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to defined daily dose (DDD) ratio. Results The MEmind web-application reported that antipsychotics were used in 1116 patients out of the total sample, mostly in 486 (44%) patients with schizophrenia related disorders but also in other diagnoses. Second generation antipsychotics (quetiapine, aripiprazole and long-acting paliperidone) were preferably employed. Low doses were more frequently used than high doses. Long acting paliperidone and ziprasidone however, were the only two antipsychotics used at excessive dosing. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was used in 287 (26%) patients with classic depot drugs, clotiapine, amisulpride and clozapine. Conclusions In this study we describe the first step of the development of a web application that is able to make polypharmacy, high dose usage and off label usage of antipsychotics visible to clinicians. Current development of the MEmind web application may help to improve prescription security via momentary feedback of prescription and clinical decision support system. PMID:27764107

  11. Geographic information systems and pharmacoepidemiology: using spatial cluster detection to monitor local patterns of prescription opioid abuse.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, John S; Green, Traci C; Cassidy, Theresa A; Butler, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of opioid abuse at the local level may facilitate public health interventions. Using patient-level data from addiction treatment facilities in New Mexico from ASI-MV Connect, we applied geographic information system (GIS) in combination with a spatial scan statistic to generate risk maps of prescription opioid abuse and identify clusters of product- and compound-specific abuse. Prescribed opioid volume data was used to determine whether identified clusters are beyond geographic differences in availability. Data on 24 452 patients residing in New Mexico were collected. Among those patients, 1779 (7.3%) reported abusing any prescription opioid (past 30 days). According to opioid type, 979 patients (4.0%) reported abuse of any hydrocodone, 1007 (4.1%) for any oxycodone, 108 (0.4%) for morphine, 507 (2.1%) for Vicodin or generic equivalent, 390 (1.6%) for OxyContin, and 63 (0.2%) for MS Contin or generic equivalent. Highest rates of abuse were found in the area surrounding Albuquerque with 8.6 patients indicating abuse per 100 interviewed patients. We found clustering of abuse around Albuquerque (P = 0.001; Relative Risk = 1.35, and a radius of 146 km). At the compound level, we found that drug availability was partly responsible for clustering of prescription opioid abuse. After accounting for drug availability, we identified a second foci of Vicodin abuse in the southern rural portion of the state near Las Cruces, NM and El Paso, Texas and bordering Mexico (RR = 2.1; P = 0.001). A better understanding of local risk distribution may have implications for response strategies to future introductions of prescription opioids.

  12. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  13. Textractor: a hybrid system for medications and reason for their prescription extraction from clinical text documents.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F; South, Brett R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe a new medication information extraction system-Textractor-developed for the 'i2b2 medication extraction challenge'. The development, functionalities, and official evaluation of the system are detailed. Textractor is based on the Apache Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UMIA) framework, and uses methods that are a hybrid between machine learning and pattern matching. Two modules in the system are based on machine learning algorithms, while other modules use regular expressions, rules, and dictionaries, and one module embeds MetaMap Transfer. The official evaluation was based on a reference standard of 251 discharge summaries annotated by all teams participating in the challenge. The metrics used were recall, precision, and the F(1)-measure. They were calculated with exact and inexact matches, and were averaged at the level of systems and documents. The reference metric for this challenge, the system-level overall F(1)-measure, reached about 77% for exact matches, with a recall of 72% and a precision of 83%. Performance was the best with route information (F(1)-measure about 86%), and was good for dosage and frequency information, with F(1)-measures of about 82-85%. Results were not as good for durations, with F(1)-measures of 36-39%, and for reasons, with F(1)-measures of 24-27%. The official evaluation of Textractor for the i2b2 medication extraction challenge demonstrated satisfactory performance. This system was among the 10 best performing systems in this challenge.

  14. The European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool: A digital training and decision support system for optimized exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease. Concept, definitions and construction methodology.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Coninx, Karin; Vanhees, Luc; Piepoli, Massimo F; Niebauer, Josef; Cornelissen, Veronique; Pedretti, Roberto; Geurts, Eva; Ruiz, Gustavo R; Corrà, Ugo; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Greco, Eugenio; Davos, Constantinos H; Edelmann, Frank; Abreu, Ana; Rauch, Bernhard; Ambrosetti, Marco; Braga, Simona S; Barna, Olga; Beckers, Paul; Bussotti, Maurizio; Fagard, Robert; Faggiano, Pompilio; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Kouidi, Evangelia; Lamotte, Michel; Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Reibis, Rona; Spruit, Martijn A; Stettler, Christoph; Takken, Tim; Tonoli, Cajsa; Vigorito, Carlo; Völler, Heinz; Doherty, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Background Exercise rehabilitation is highly recommended by current guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its implementation is still poor. Many clinicians experience difficulties in prescribing exercise in the presence of different concomitant cardiovascular diseases and risk factors within the same patient. It was aimed to develop a digital training and decision support system for exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease patients in clinical practice: the European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool. Methods EXPERT working group members were requested to define (a) diagnostic criteria for specific cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and other chronic non-cardiovascular conditions, (b) primary goals of exercise intervention, (c) disease-specific prescription of exercise training (intensity, frequency, volume, type, session and programme duration), and (d) exercise training safety advices. The impact of exercise tolerance, common cardiovascular medications and adverse events during exercise testing were further taken into account for optimized exercise prescription. Results Exercise training recommendations and safety advices were formulated for 10 cardiovascular diseases, five cardiovascular disease risk factors (type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia), and three common chronic non-cardiovascular conditions (lung and renal failure and sarcopaenia), but also accounted for baseline exercise tolerance, common cardiovascular medications and occurrence of adverse events during exercise testing. An algorithm, supported by an interactive tool, was constructed based on these data. This training and decision support system automatically provides an exercise prescription according to the variables provided. Conclusion This digital training and decision support system may contribute in overcoming barriers in

  15. Prescriptive unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a prescriptive approach to generalized unitarity, resulting in a strictly-diagonal basis of loop integrands with coefficients given by specifically-tailored residues in field theory. We illustrate the power of this strategy in the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM), where we construct closed-form representations of all ( n-point N k MHV) scattering amplitudes through three loops. The prescriptive approach contrasts with the ordinary description of unitarity-based methods by avoiding any need for linear algebra to determine integrand coefficients. We describe this approach in general terms as it should have applications to many quantum field theories, including those without planarity, supersymmetry, or massless spectra defined in any number of dimensions.

  16. Meeting user needs in national healthcare systems: lessons from early adopter community pharmacists using the electronic prescriptions service

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Electronic Prescription Service release Two (EPS2) is a new national healthcare information and communication technology in England that aims to deliver effective prescription writing, dispensing and reimbursement service to benefit patients. The aim of the study was to explore initial user experiences of Community Pharmacists (CPs) using EPS2. Methods We conducted nonparticipant observations and interviews in eight EPS2 early adopter community pharmacies classified as ‘first-of-type’ in midlands and northern regions in England. We interviewed eight pharmacists and two dispensers in addition to 56 hours recorded nonparticipant observations as field notes. Line-by-line coding and thematic analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts and field notes. Results CPs faced two types of challenge. The first was to do with missing electronic prescriptions. This was sometimes very disrupting to work practice, but pharmacists considered it a temporary issue resolvable with minor modifications to the system and user familiarity. The second was to do with long term design-specific issues. Pharmacists could only overcome these by using the system in ways not intended by the developers. Some felt that these issues would not exist had ‘real’ users been involved in the initial development. The issues were: 1) printing out electronic prescriptions (tokens) to dispense from for safe dispensing practices and to free up monitors for other uses, 2) logging all dispensing activities with one user’s Smartcard for convenience and use all human resources in the pharmacy, and, 3) problematic interface causing issues with endorsing prescriptions and claiming reimbursements. Conclusions We question if these unintended uses and barriers would have occurred had a more rigorous user-centric principles been applied at the earlier stages of design and implementation of EPS. We conclude that, since modification can occur at the evaluation stage, there is still scope

  17. Assessment of ePrescription quality: an observational study at three mail-order pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Astrand, Bengt; Montelius, Emelie; Petersson, Göran; Ekedahl, Anders

    2009-01-26

    The introduction of electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP) or ePrescriptions in ambulatory health care has been suggested to have a positive impact on the prescribing and dispensing processes. Thereby, implying that ePrescribing can improve safety, quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. In December 2007, 68% of all new prescriptions were transferred electronically in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of ePrescriptions by comparing the proportions of ePrescriptions and non-electronic prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact (correction, completion or change) with the prescriber at the time of dispensing. A direct observational study was performed at three Swedish mail-order pharmacies which were known to dispense a large proportion of ePrescriptions (38-75%). Data were gathered on all ePrescriptions dispensed at these pharmacies over a three week period in February 2006. All clarification contacts with prescribers were included in the study and were classified and assessed in comparison with all drug prescriptions dispensed at the same pharmacies over the specified period. Of the 31225 prescriptions dispensed during the study period, clarification contacts were made for 2.0% (147/7532) of new ePrescriptions and 1.2% (79/6833) of new non-electronic prescriptions. This represented a relative risk (RR) of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2) for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions. The increased RR was mainly due to 'Dosage and directions for use', which had an RR of 7.6 (95% CI 2.8-20.4) when compared to other clarification contacts. In all, 89.5% of the suggested pharmacist interventions were accepted by the prescriber, 77.7% (192/247) as suggested and an additional 11.7% (29/247) after a modification during contact with the prescriber. The increased proportion of prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions indicates the need for

  18. Transfer Patterns of Students, University of Hawaii System, Fall 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Management Systems Office.

    In fall 1975, 4,702 students transferred into the University of Hawaii (UH) System, representing a 15.5 percent increase over the number of transfers in 1974. Of the total, 56 percent transferred from within the UH System, 6 percent transferred from other Hawaii institutions, and 36 percent transferred from out-of-state institutions. The total…

  19. Orbital transfer systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Obersteiner, Michael

    For future Lunar mission operations basically two types of transfer systems can be conceived (a) the conventional direct-injection expendable vehicle approach, and (b) the re-usable orbit-to-orbit (LEO-LLO-LEO round-trip system. The second solution has been studied in Europe in the SPACE TUG Phase A Study in 1971/72 for NASA as a fully reusable system and this is compared to a more recent NASA-MSFC transfer vehicle concept with expendable propellant tanks and aerobraking. The results of an analysis on mission opportunities for LEO-LLO transfers is presented. A European option is also shown for mode (a), using the ARIANE 5 for lunar missions with an optimized cryogenic transfer vehicle, derived from the H.10 Stage (ARIANE 4) plus a lunar vehicle derived from the MMII-CRAF propulsion module using the 27.5 kN engine from the ARIANE L.9 Stage which could land a 3.4 ton vehicle on the lunar surface. Finally a completely new option (c) is discussed: the use of a ballistic SSTO vehicle for lunar landing missions after refuelling in LEO. This seems to be a highly effective single transportation element approach compared to the seven elements SATURN V-APOLLO-LM system of the 60ies.

  20. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  1. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-03-31

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test.

  2. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-04-03

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions.

  3. Promoting Transfer by Grounding Complex Systems Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Wilensky, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Understanding scientific phenomena in terms of complex systems principles is both scientifically and pedagogically important. Situations from different disciplines of science are often governed by the same principle, and so promoting knowledge transfer across disciplines makes valuable cross-fertilization and scientific unification possible.…

  4. Information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1988-01-01

    An informal overview is given of the work in progress and the planned work in the area of information transfer that specifically addresses human factors issues in National Airspace System (NAS). The issues of how weather information will be displayed on the flight deck, the development of appropriate decision making technology, and digital datalink transmission are also briefly discussed.

  5. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966), Machel (1975-1986), and Chissano (1986-2005) administrations. The…

  6. Acquisition systems for heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    De Witt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Practical heat transfer data acquisition systems are normally characterized by the need for high-resolution, low-drift, low-speed recording devices. Analog devices such as strip chart or circular recorders and FM analog magnetic tape have excellent resolution and work well when data will be presented in temperature versus time format only and need not be processed further. Digital systems are more complex and require an understanding of the following components: digitizing devices, interface bus types, processor requirements, and software design. This paper discusses all the above components of analog and digital data acquisition, as they are used in current practice. Additional information on thermocouple system analysis will aid the user in developing accurate heat transfer measuring systems.

  7. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  8. Deriving dose limits for warnings in electronic prescribing systems: statistical analysis of prescription data at University Hospital Birmingham, UK.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jamie J; Hodson, James; Ferner, Robin E

    2012-04-01

    : Electronic decision support can reduce medication errors, and dose-range checking is one element of that support. : The aim of this study was to design an approach to setting upper dose warning limits in electronic prescribing systems where there are historical data on dosing. : We used historical data on 56 drug-form combinations for which over 100 prescriptions had been issued between 1 June 2009 and 31 May 2010 in a bespoke electronic prescribing system at University Hospital Birmingham, UK. First, two experts derived dose limits for each drug-form combination, then the drugs were randomly divided into a training set and a test set. A variation of the 'Nearest Rank' approach to estimate statistical limits was used to derive the percentile with the optimal sensitivity and specificity. : For the 28 drug-form combinations in the test set, the 86th percentile of dose gave a mean sensitivity of 95.3% and a mean specificity of 97.9% for warning limits, representing the highest reasonable dose; the 96th percentile gave a mean sensitivity of 90.2% and mean specificity of 99.5% for disallow limits, beyond which no dose should be prescribed. : Dosing decision support within electronic prescribing systems can be derived by statistical analysis of historical prescription data. We advocate a combined theoretical and statistical derivation of dose checking rules in order to ensure that prescribers are alerted appropriately to potentially toxic doses.

  9. A prescription fraud detection model.

    PubMed

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs.

  10. Review of Geographic Variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications in Prescription Drug Use Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-01

    Background While understanding geography’s role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. Objective To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Methods Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. Results From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Conclusion Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. PMID:23333430

  11. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    PubMed

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. QuickCash: Secure Transfer Payment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alhothaily, Abdulrahman; Alrawais, Arwa; Song, Tianyi; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users’ needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN). In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties. PMID:28608846

  13. QuickCash: Secure Transfer Payment Systems.

    PubMed

    Alhothaily, Abdulrahman; Alrawais, Arwa; Song, Tianyi; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-06-13

    Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users' needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN). In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties.

  14. Block Transfer: A Private Career College Student's Ladder into the BC Transfer System. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Raili

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008 the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) approved a new policy to publish in the BC Transfer Guide block transfer agreements (BTAs) between BC Transfer System member institutions and private post-secondary institutions accredited by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA). This new policy was…

  15. Nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulant medications among adults in a substance abuse treatment population: early findings from the NAVIPPRO surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Theresa A; McNaughton, Emily C; Varughese, Sajan; Russo, Leo; Zulueta, Mirella; Butler, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    To examine nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription ADHD stimulants among adults evaluated for substance abuse treatment. 147,816 assessments from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) system (10/01/2009 through 03/31/2012) examined NMU prevalence, routes of administration (ROA), and diversion sources. Past 30-day NMU for prescription stimulants (1.29%) was significantly lower than that of prescription opioids (19.79%) or sedatives (10.62%). For stimulant products, NMU for Adderall was 0.62, followed by Adderall XR (0.42), Ritalin (0.16), Vyvanse (0.12), and Concerta (0.08); product differences likely have limited clinical relevance given the low estimates (<1%). Higher NMU per prescriptions was for Adderall (4.92), Ritalin (4.68), and Adderall XR (3.18) compared with newer formulations (Vyvanse 1.26, Concerta 0.89). Diversion source was mainly family/friends with no differences between products; swallowing whole was the most frequent ROA. Prescription stimulant NMU was low compared with other prescription medications among individuals assessed for substance abuse problems, with little difference among specific products. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  16. Control Transfer in Operating System Kernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-13

    the Programming Symposium, pages 181-203, 1974. [Leffler et al. 89] S. Leffler, M. McKusick, M. Karels, and J. Quarterman. The Design and...increased modularity in operating systems only increases the importance of control transfer. My thesis is that a programming language abstraction...continuations provide allows the kernel designer when necessary to choose implementation performance over convenience, without affecting the design of

  17. The prescription pickup lag, an automatic prescription refill program, and community pharmacy operations.

    PubMed

    Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of an automatic prescription refill program on the prescription pickup lag in community pharmacy. A post-only quasi-experimental design comparing automatic and manual refill prescription cohorts for each of the 3 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid medication adherence metrics. A 29-store community pharmacy chain in the Midwest. Community-dwelling patients over the age of 65 years receiving prescription medications included in the statin, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonist, or non-insulin diabetes adherence metrics. An automatic prescription refill program that initiated prescription refills on a standardized, recurrent basis, eliminating the need for patients to phone in or drop off prescription refills. The prescription pickup lag, defined as the number of days between a prescription being adjudicated in the pharmacy and the prescription being picked up by the patient. A total of 37,207 prescription fills were examined. There were 20.5%, 22.4%, and 23.3% of patients enrolled in the automatic prescription refill program for the statin, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonist, and diabetes adherence metrics, respectively. Prescriptions in the automatic prescription refill cohorts experienced a median pickup lag of 7 days compared with 1 day for the manual refill prescriptions. 35.2% of all manual refill prescriptions had a pickup lag of 0 days compared with 13% for automatic refills. However, 15.4% of automatic prescription refills had a pickup lag of greater than 14 days, compared with 4.8% of manual refills. Prescriptions in the automatic prescription refill programs were associated with a significantly longer amount of time in the pharmacy before being picked up by the patient. This increased pickup lag may contribute positively by smoothing out workload demands of pharmacy staff, but may contribute negatively owing to an increased amount of rework and greater inventory requirements. Copyright © 2016 American

  18. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  19. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  20. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  1. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms. PMID:22413926

  2. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  3. Bagless Transfer System Welder Analysis Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2003-10-01

    The Bagless Transfer System Welder Analysis Software (BTS WAS) was developed by SRTC for use with the Bagless Transfer System. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable informaitoin about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, were reviewed by the supervisor using a procedure and criteria to analyze the weld. This hand checking can be tedious and time consuming. To improve this process, another software package developed by SRTC, the BTS DAS, digitizes the weld data and stores the weld data in a file. The BTS WAS automates the weld analysis process by analyzing the data obtained during the weld process against the same weld criteria that the supervisor currently users. Of course with the automated analysis system the supervisor is still provided the same information in the same chart display format so he can also manually review the data as desired. The BTS WAS reads in a data file that was prevously collected using the BTS DAS software. The software will read the file and parse the data. The user is first prompted to enter the file name. The file is then opened and the operator name and Date/Time of Acquisition are read from the file and displayed on the screen. The binary weld data is then read from the file into an array until the end of the file is reached. The shunt and weld current, voltage, RPM, and position data are displayed on the screen in graphical formats on the front panel. The weld power and resistance are calculated and are also displayed in graphical format on the front panel. Individual tack analysis data is provided for each of the three tacks. The main weld and downslope data is also displayed.

  4. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  5. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  6. Satellite services system analysis study: Propellant transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    General servicing requirements, a servicing mission concept and scenario, overall servicing needs, basic servicing equipment, and a general servicing mission configuration layout are addressed. Servicing needs, equipment concepts, system requirements equipment specifications, preliminary designs, and resource requirements for flight hardware for the propellant transfer system are also addressed.

  7. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  8. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  9. Prescription Drug Use During and Immediately Before Pregnancy in Hawai‘i — Findings from the Hawai‘i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    There are relatively few population-based studies on prescription drug use during pregnancy. Hawai‘i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey data from 4,735 respondents were used to estimate statewide prevalence of overall non-vitamin prescription drug use during and in the month before pregnancy. Data were weighted to be representative of all pregnancies resulting in live births in Hawai‘i in 2009–2011. Of women with recent live births in Hawai‘i, 14.2% (95% CI: 13.0 – 15.5) reported prescription drug use before pregnancy and 17.6% (95% CI: 16.2 – 19.0) reported prescription drug use during pregnancy. Prevalence of prescription drug use both before and during pregnancy was highest among women who had a pre-pregnancy chronic disease, were White, and had a pregnancy-related medical problem. Pain relievers (2.82%; 95% CI: 2.28 – 3.47), psychiatric medications (2.34%; 95% CI: 1.85 – 2.95), and anti-infectives (1.91%; 95% CI: 1.46 – 2.48) were the most common types of medications used before pregnancy. The most commonly-reported prescription medication types taken during pregnancy were anti-infectives (4.00%; 95% CI: 3.34 – 4.79), pain relievers (3.18%; 95% CI: 2.56 – 3.94), and gastrointestinal drugs (3.08%; 95% CI: 2.47 – 3.83). Of women who reported prescription drug use during pregnancy and attended prenatal care, 10.3% (95% CI: 8.0 – 13.2) reported that their healthcare provider had not counseled them during prenatal care on which medicines are safe to use during pregnancy. PMID:25628970

  10. Enabling the BC Transfer System: A Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper outlines processes, as well as opportunities and constraints, for "enabling" BC Transfer System institutions to enhance transfer credit information in the BC Transfer Guide, making it more reflective of institutional practices and student mobility. BCCAT's focus is increasing the availability of transfer credit…

  11. Vacuum transfer system increases sugar maple sap yield

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters

    1978-01-01

    Yields of sugar maple sap collected from three plastic pipeline systems by gravity, vacuum pump, and a vacuum pump with a transfer tank were compared during 2 years in northern Vermont. The transfer system yielded 27 percent more sap one year and 17 percent more the next year. Higher vacuum levels at the tapholes were observed in the transfer system.

  12. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Approved Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation entitled Recalibrating the BC Transfer System with the institutional members of the BC Transfer System and other interested parties. This consultation was motivated in large part by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade, and…

  13. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  14. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  15. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between...

  16. Proton transfer in some periodic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, Henryk

    2007-07-01

    The electronic structure of representative hydrogen bonded systems: hydrogen cyanide, imidazole and malonic acid have been studied at the non-empirical level. The role of the dimensionality on the potential barrier for the proton transfer has been examined. It was shown that it depends on the crystal structure and only in some cases like hydrogen cyanide or imidazole the relevant crystals may be considered as one-dimensional. However, for more complicated crystallographic structures, e.g. malonic acid, the evaluated barrier is strongly dependent on the dimensionality taken into account in our calculations.

  17. Transfer zones in listric normal fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Shamik

    Listric normal faults are common in passive margin settings where sedimentary units are detached above weaker lithological units, such as evaporites or are driven by basal structural and stratigraphic discontinuities. The geometries and styles of faulting vary with the types of detachment and form landward and basinward dipping fault systems. Complex transfer zones therefore develop along the terminations of adjacent faults where deformation is accommodated by secondary faults, often below seismic resolution. The rollover geometry and secondary faults within the hanging wall of the major faults also vary with the styles of faulting and contribute to the complexity of the transfer zones. This study tries to understand the controlling factors for the formation of the different styles of listric normal faults and the different transfer zones formed within them, by using analog clay experimental models. Detailed analyses with respect to fault orientation, density and connectivity have been performed on the experiments in order to gather insights on the structural controls and the resulting geometries. A new high resolution 3D laser scanning technology has been introduced to scan the surfaces of the clay experiments for accurate measurements and 3D visualizations. Numerous examples from the Gulf of Mexico have been included to demonstrate and geometrically compare the observations in experiments and real structures. A salt cored convergent transfer zone from the South Timbalier Block 54, offshore Louisiana has been analyzed in detail to understand the evolutionary history of the region, which helps in deciphering the kinematic growth of similar structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The dissertation is divided into three chapters, written in a journal article format, that deal with three different aspects in understanding the listric normal fault systems and the transfer zones so formed. The first chapter involves clay experimental models to understand the fault patterns in

  18. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  19. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  20. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  1. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  2. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  3. The prescription drug abuse epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

  4. Characterization of adolescent prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System.

    PubMed

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-02-01

    To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System. Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38% were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  6. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  7. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  8. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  9. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  10. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  11. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  12. Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2003-09-30

    The Bagless Transfer System Welder Data Acquisition Software (BTS DAS) was developed by SRTC to replace a strip chart recorder that has been in place since the design of the BTS. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TID welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The BTS DAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. Also, the data files are now stored digitally as well as a hard copy printout, so they can be reanalyzed if needed. The BTS DAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the BTS Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. The welder DAS is a passive device and does not control the welder. The BTS control system interfaces directly with the welder and the BTS DAS. Digital handshaking is used between the BTS DAS and the BTS control system to ensure that the DAS is ready to weld prior to allowing the operator to initiate the welding process.

  13. Visualizing Patterns of Drug Prescriptions with EventFlow: A Pilot Study of Asthma Medications in the Military Health System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    patterns of asthma medication use surrounding a LABA prescription is a quick way to detect possible sub-optimal use for further evaluation. Analysis of 100...MHS). Visualizing the patterns of asthma medication use surrounding a LABA prescription is a quick way to detect possible sub-optimal use for...visualization of temporal sequences of point events (i.e., events with a single timestamp) LifeLines2 1 and LifeFlow 1 . While those tools have

  14. Space Biosensor Systems: Implications for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J. W.; Somps, C. J.; Madou, M.; Imprescia, Clifford C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To meet the need for continuous, automated monitoring of animal subjects, including; humans, during space flight, NASA is developing advanced physiologic sensor and biotelemetry system technologies. The ability to continuously track basic physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pH, and body temperature, in untethered subjects in space is a challenging task. At NASA's Ames Research Center, where a key focus is gravitational biology research, engineers have teamed with life scientists to develop wireless sensor systems for automated physiologic monitoring of animal models as small as the rat. This technology is also being adapted, in collaboration with medical professionals, to meet human clinical monitoring needs both in space and on the ground. Thus, these advanced monitoring technologies have important dual-use functions; they meet space flight data collection requirements and constraints, while concurrently addressing a number of monitoring and data acquisition challenges on the ground in areas of clinical monitoring and biomedical research. Additional applications for these and related technologies are being sought and additional partnerships established that enhance development efforts, reduce costs and facilitate technology infusion between the public and private sectors. This paper describes technology transfer and co-development projects that have evolved out of NASA's miniaturized, implantable chemical sensor development efforts.

  15. Canister Transfer System Event Sequence Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Morissette

    2001-08-16

    The ''Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister, Transportation, and Monitored Geologic Repository Systems, Structures, and Components Performance Allocation Study'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) allocated performance to both the canisters received at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) and the MGR Canister Transfer System (CTS). The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate an assumed range of canister and CTS performance allocation failure probabilities and determine the effect of these failure probabilities on the frequency of a radionuclide release. Five canister types are addressed in this calculation; high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters containing vitrified borosilicate glass, HLW canisters containing immobilized plutonium surrounded by borosilicate glass (Pu/HLW canisters), Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canisters (4 sizes), DSNF multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) for N-reactor fuel and other selected DSNF, and naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters (2 sizes). The quality assurance program applies to this calculation, and the work is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations''. The work done for this calculation was evaluated according to AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'' that determined this activity to be subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000a). This work was performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) for this activity.

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  17. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  18. Analogical Transfer from a Simulated Physical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Samuel B.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found that spontaneous analogical transfer is strongly tied to concrete and contextual similarities between the cases. However, that work has largely failed to acknowledge that the relevant factor in transfer is the similarity between individuals' mental representations of the situations rather than the overt…

  19. System-focused environmental flow regime prescription, monitoring and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David; Lexartza Artza, Irantzu

    2016-04-01

    The definition of appropriate environmental flow regimes through hydropower schemes and water storage reservoirs is key part of mitigation. Insufficient (magnitude and variability) environmental flows can result in much environmental harm with negative impacts being encountered by morphological, ecological and societal systems. Conventionally, environmental flow regimes have been determined by using generic protocols and guidance such as the Tennant method of environmental flow estimation. It is generally accepted that such approaches to minimum environmental flow definition, although being a useful starting point, are not universally applicable across catchment typologies and climatic regions. Such approaches will not always produce conditions that would be associated with 'Good Ecological Status' under the Water framework Directive (or equivalent). Other similar approaches to minimum environmental flow estimation are used that are specific to geographies, yet still the associated guidance rarely thoroughly covers appropriate definition for healthy holistic systems across the flow regime. This paper draws on experience of system-focused environmental flow regime determination in the UK and the Georgian Caucasus Mountains, which allowed for a critical analysis of more conventional methods to be undertaken. The paper describes a recommended approach for determining appropriate environmental flow regimes based on analysis of the impacted geomorphological, ecological and societal systems in a way which is sensitive to the local holistic environment and associated complexities and interactions. The paper suggests that a strong understanding of the local geomorphology in key in predicting how flows will manifest habitat differently across the flow regime, and be spatially dynamic. Additionally, an understanding of the geomorphological system allows the flow of course and fine sediment to be factored into the initial suggested environmental flow regime. It is suggested

  20. Prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the VA healthcare system: implications for national prosthetic parity.

    PubMed

    Etter, Katherine; Borgia, Matthew; Resnik, Linda

    2014-05-22

    Abstract Purpose: To quantify prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and explore differences by level, type, and age. Methods: Veterans (N = 32 440) with an initial prosthetic prescription between 2000 and 2010 were classified by amputation level and type. Annual rates of prescription and repair were calculated using person-time and compared by group. Results: Veterans with upper limb amputation had lower annual prescription and repair rates (0.28 and 0.21) compared with those with lower limb amputation (0.40 and 0.56). Myoelectric devices users had higher prescription rates. However, body-powered users had higher repair rates. Prescription and repair rates for microprocessor knee joints were higher than for fluid and friction devices. Veterans under 65 had 0.07 and 0.16 higher rates of prescription and repair than those over 65 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps in most insurance plans. In states without prosthetic parity laws, such costs likely limit access to needed devices. Implications for Rehabilitation For the almost 2 million people in the United States living with an amputation or congenital limb loss, purchasing and maintaining a prosthetic limb can be costly, with insurances often imposing annual or lifetime caps. Data on prosthetic purchasing and repair is limited and reliant on self-reported information. Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, claims data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps

  1. Factors associated with the prescription of "traditional" or "biological" systemic treatment in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Tabolli, Stefano; Paradisi, Andrea; Giannantoni, Patrizia; Gubinelli, Emanuela; Abeni, Damiano

    2015-02-01

    Abstract The choice of an adequate psoriasis treatment is critical to good disease management and to overall patient health. It is estimated that about 20-30% of patients requires systemic treatment: "traditional" (methotrexate, acitretina and cyclosporin) or "biological" (etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab). Clinical records of 784 outpatients with psoriasis were analyzed. 51.5% received traditional treatments and 48.5% a biological treatment. Males were 67.8% of patients. Psoriatic arthritis was observed in 37.3%. Females and younger patients were more likely to receive biological treatments. No differences were observed for Body Mass Index or for presence of comorbidities. Patients with psoriatic arthritis were also more frequently prescribed biological drug treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression model, only the older age-group (≥60 years) had a statistically significant OR (p=0.001) with a reduction of about 80% the likelihood of receiving biological treatment compared to the younger age-group (<40 years). Patients with a PASI score ≥20 and patients with arthritis have a probability to be prescribed biologics about five times higher than the other patients. In conclusion, younger age, psoriatic arthritis and the previous use of systemic drugs are factors associated with the use of biological treatment rather than the traditional systemic drugs.

  2. [Performances of an automated dispensing system combined with a computerized prescription order entry].

    PubMed

    Le Gonidec, P; Diallo, M L; Djoussa-Kambou, S; Guizard, M

    2009-03-01

    Performances of an automated dispensing system Pillpick (Swisslog) coupled with the computerized-prescribing - order-entry software and dispensing software Pharma (Computer Engineering) implemented at the opening of a new prison facility in Meaux were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Pillpick allows the treatment of different and varied pharmaceutical forms without imposing bulk handling or depackaging. This study conducted between July and September 2006 focused on the performances of the automated dispensing system in terms of single dose packaging, single dose dispensing, dispensing error rate and security of the medication circuit. Seventy-six plus or minus five percent of the prescribed medications were automated dispensed. Packaging working flow rate was 377 units doses per hour, dispensing working flow rate was 537 doses per hour. Dispensing error rate was 0.5%, due to wrong delivery orders mainly generated by the Pharma computer-order entry software. Automated dispensing systems Pillpick ensure safe drug dispensing. Potential drug errors can possibly be generated by the computerized-prescribing - order-entry software and dispensing software. The robot-software combination constitutes the key performance parameter.

  3. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  4. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Salman; Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K.

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  5. Implementation hurdles of an interactive, integrated, point-of-care computerised decision support system for hospital antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed

    Chow, A L; Ang, A; Chow, C Z; Ng, T M; Teng, C; Ling, L M; Ang, B S; Lye, D C

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is used to combat antimicrobial resistance. In Singapore, a tertiary hospital has integrated a computerised decision support system, called Antibiotic Resistance Utilisation and Surveillance-Control (ARUSC), into the electronic inpatient prescribing system. ARUSC is launched either by the physician to seek guidance for an infectious disease condition or via auto-trigger when restricted antibiotics are prescribed. This paper describes the implementation of ARUSC over three phases from 1 May 2011 to 30 April 2013, compared factors between ARUSC launches via auto-trigger and for guidance, examined factors associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations, and assessed user acceptability. During the study period, a monthly average of 9072 antibiotic prescriptions was made, of which 2370 (26.1%) involved ARUSC launches. Launches via auto-trigger comprised 48.1% of ARUSC launches. In phase 1, 23% of ARUSC launches were completed. This rose to 38% in phase 2, then 87% in phase 3, as escapes from the ARUSC programme were sequentially disabled. Amongst completed launches for guidance, 89% of ARUSC recommendations were accepted versus 40% amongst completed launches via auto-trigger. Amongst ARUSC launches for guidance, being from a medical department [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37] and ARUSC launch during on-call (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.61-2.05) were independently associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations. Junior physicians found ARUSC useful. Senior physicians found ARUSC reliable but admitted to having preferences for antibiotics that may conflict with ARUSC. Hospital-wide implementation of ARUSC encountered hurdles from physicians. With modifications, the completion rate improved.

  6. An Examination of Learning Transfer System Characteristics across Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    No previous research in the United States has compared and contrasted learning transfer systems across organizations and training types, primarily because no standard instruments were used in previous research. This study, based on a subset of responses in the Learning Transfer System Inventory response database, is the first to conduct such a…

  7. An Examination of Learning Transfer System Characteristics across Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    No previous research in the United States has compared and contrasted learning transfer systems across organizations and training types, primarily because no standard instruments were used in previous research. This study, based on a subset of responses in the Learning Transfer System Inventory response database, is the first to conduct such a…

  8. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  9. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.

    2017-05-02

    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  10. Anticonvulsant prescription patterns in patients covered by the Colombian Health System.

    PubMed

    Morales-Plaza, C D; Machado-Alba, J E

    Epilepsy is a group of long-term neurological disorders characterised by seizures that may respond to pharmacological treatment. Determine the prescribing patterns of anticonvulsants for patients covered by the healthcare system in Colombia. Cross-sectional study using a database containing 6.5 million people. From among residents in 88 Colombian cities, we selected patients of both sexes and all ages who were treated continuously with anticonvulsants between June and August 2012. We designed a drug consumption database and performed multivariate analysis for combination treatment and co-medication using SPSS 20.0. A total of 13,793 patients with mean age of 48.9±22.0 years were studied; 52.9% of the participants were women. Of the patient total, 74.4% were treated in monotherapy and 25.6% received two or more anticonvulsants. Globally, 72.9% of the patients were initially treated with classic anticonvulsants and 27.1% with new drugs. The most frequently used drugs were valproic acid (33.3%), carbamazepine (30.2%), clonazepam (15.7%), pregabalin (10.3%), phenytoin (10.0%) and levetiracetam (7.9%). Most agents were used in higher doses than recommended. The most common combinations were valproic acid+clonazepam (10.9%), valproic acid+carbamazepine (10.0%), carbamazepine+clonazepam (5.6%), valproic acid+phenytoin (4.4%). The most frequently prescribed co-medications were antihypertensives (61.0%), lipid-lowering drugs (45.8%), antidepressants (36.7%), antipsychotics (20.1%), anxiolytics (7.9%), and lithium (1.8%). Doctors predominantly prescribe drugs with a high therapeutic value and favour anticonvulsant monotherapy. Most agents were used in higher doses than recommended. This underlines the need to design educational strategies addressing these prescribing habits, and to undertake research on the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of a clinical decision support system for high-alert medications on the prevention of prescription errors.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeHo; Han, Hyewon; Ock, Minsu; Lee, Sang-il; Lee, SunGyo; Jo, Min-Woo

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of a high-alert medication clinical decision support system called HARMLESS on point-of-order entry errors in a tertiary hospital. HARMLESS was designed to provide three kinds of interventions for five high-alert medications: clinical knowledge support, pop-ups for erroneous orders that block the order or provide a warning, and order recommendations. The impact of this program on prescription order was evaluated by comparing the orders in 6 month periods before and after implementing the program, by analyzing the intervention log data, and by checking for order pattern changes. During the entire evaluation period, there were 357,417 orders and 5233 logs. After HARMLESS deployment, orders that omitted dilution fluids and exceeded the maximum dose dropped from 12,878 and 214 cases to 0 and 9 cases, respectively. The latter nine cases were unexpected, but after the responsible programming error was corrected, there were no further such cases. If all blocking interventions were seen as errors that were prevented, this meant that 4137 errors (3584 of which were 'dilution fluid omitted' errors) were prevented over the 6-month post-deployment period. There were some unexpected order pattern changes after deployment and several unexpected errors emerged, including intramuscular or intravenous push orders for potassium chloride (although a case review revealed that the drug was not actually administered via these methods) and an increase in pro re nata (PRN; administer when required) orders for most drugs. HARMLESS effectively implemented blocking interventions but was associated with the emergence of unexpected errors. After a program is deployed, it must be monitored and subjected to data analysis to fix bugs and prevent the emergence of new error types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Data Transfer Method in Civil Aviation Transaction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqing, Jia; Weidong, Yan; Lei, Zhang

    In Civil aviation transaction system, some of passenger information is sent to outside system so that the access to mainframe system could be declined in some way. The message queues in mainframe system could not meet the requirement for large scale parallel processing. Hence, in this article, a new method for the TIP(Transaction Processing) file change transfer is introduced simply. In this model, a kind of new index file is used, which is non-recoverable freespace file, and able to faster the data parallel transfer. According to the production application, the new method makes a great improvement to the TIP file change transfer in mainframe side.

  13. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  14. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOEpatents

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  15. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer: Applications to Black-Hole Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Fuerst, Steven V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2007-01-01

    We present general relativistic radiation transfer formulations which include opacity effects due to absorption, emission and scattering explicitly. We consider a moment expansions for the transfer in the presence of scattering. The formulation is applied to calculation emissions from accretion and outflows in black-hole systems. Cases with thin accretion disks and accretion tori are considered. Effects, such as emission anisotropy, non-stationary flows and geometrical self-occultation are investigated. Polarisation transfer in curved space-time is discussed qualitatively.

  16. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  17. Introduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    STANDARtDS- 1963-A R-3021-AF Intoduction to the Subjective Transfer Function Approach to Analyzing Systems 00 • CO Lf. Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero ...34Prepared for the United States Air Force." Bibliography: p. • "R-3021-AF." 1. Subjective transfer function method. 2. System analysis. I. Callero , Monti...to Analyzing Systems T, Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero , Barbara J. Rose July 1984 A Project AIR FORCE report prepared for the - United States Air

  18. Combating the prescription painkiller epidemic: a national prescription drug reporting program.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Prescription painkiller abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the United States. In the past year, approximately one out of twenty Americans reported misuse or abuse of prescription painkillers. Several factors contribute to the prescription painkiller epidemic. Drug abusers use various methods--such as doctor shopping, paying with cash, and filling prescriptions in different states--to avoid detection and obtain prescription painkillers for illegitimate uses. A few rogue physicians and pharmacists, lured by substantial profits, enable drug abusers by illegally prescribing or supplying controlled substances. Even ethical physicians rarely have adequate training to recognize and address prescription drug abuse, and as a result, prescribe painkillers to patients who are not using them for legitimate medical purposes. Similarly, although the majority of pharmacies have taken steps to combat drug abuse and reduce prescription painkiller dispensing, under current reporting systems, pharmacists lack visibility into several important indicators of drug abuse. As a result, even the most vigilant pharmacists find it extremely difficult to identify and detect drug abuse with certainty. While state governments have established prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to crack down on prescription drug abuse, these programs have proven to be inadequate. The programs currently suffer from inadequate data collection, ineffective utilization of data, insufficient interstate data sharing, and constraints on sharing data with law enforcement and state agencies. By contrast, third-party prescription payment systems run by pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) or health insurers have been effective in detecting prescription drug abuse. This paper suggests that a national prescription drug reporting program building on existing PBM networks could be significantly more effective than existing state PDMPs in detecting prescription drug abuse.

  19. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  20. Provincial Postsecondary Systems and Arrangements for Credit Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document describes the structure of the postsecondary education system, the mechanisms to facilitate transfer and articulation, and the major instruments used to facilitate transfer and articulation for postsecondary institutions in the Canadian Provinces. According to this document, the British Columbia postsecondary educational school…

  1. Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.

  2. Charge Transfer in Multiple Site Chemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    transfer, II1 7 III 3+* 111 III o (dte)2ClRu (L)Ru Cllkpy) 2 -(dpte) 2 ClRu (L)Rul( py) (bpy) , and is ompetitive with excited state nonradiative ...energy, mixed-valence iscmer to the ground state, (dpte) 2ClRu II(L)Ru IICl- * Cpy)2 3+-+(pte 2 ClRuI (L)Ru ICl(tpy)2 3+, folowing nonradiative decay

  3. Transfer Learning in Integrated Cognitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    with the research on MLNs lead by Pedro Domingos at the University of Washington (UW). All of the software developed was integrated with UW’s Alchemy ...learning methods. We refer to the structure-learning method developed by Kok and Domingos (2005) as Alchemy . We ran Alchemy “from scratch” without...transfer learning ( Alchemy Scratch); as well as using it to revise the MLN learned in the source domain and then automatically mapped to the target

  4. Quantum information transfer between topological and spin qubit systems.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten

    2011-11-18

    We propose a method to coherently transfer quantum information, and to create entanglement, between topological qubits and conventional spin qubits. Our suggestion uses gated control to transfer an electron (spin qubit) between a quantum dot and edge Majorana modes in adjacent topological superconductors. Because of the spin polarization of the Majorana modes, the electron transfer translates spin superposition states into superposition states of the Majorana system, and vice versa. Furthermore, we show how a topological superconductor can be used to facilitate long-distance quantum information transfer and entanglement between spatially separated spin qubits.

  5. Single-element Electron-transfer Optical Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. An electron transfer element (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) has a first end and a second end with its first end spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage being applied thereto, transfer of electrons through the electron transfer element is induced from its first to its second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred can be detected.

  6. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10[sup 4] R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10[sup 7] R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  7. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10{sup 4} R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10{sup 7} R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  8. A pneumatic transfer system for special form {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form {sup 252}Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of {sup 252}Cf with masses up to 150 {micro}g by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the {sup 252}Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those {sup 252}Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole.

  9. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. Methods On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling’s more accuracy for the actual application. Results The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. Conclusions The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system’s further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application. PMID:24428906

  10. Position sensing mechanism for a nuclear fuel transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, R.T. Jr.; Marshall, J.R.

    1988-06-07

    In a nuclear fuel transfer system which includes a cart having a pivotably mounted fuel container which is movable between a horizontal position and an upended position, guide means for guiding the cart along a path which leads to a floodable fuel transfer station, and upender means at the fuel transfer station for engaging the container when the cart is at a predetermined position and for selectively moving the container between the horizontal and vertical positions, a position sensing mechanism is described comprising: a feeler mechanism disposed at the transfer station at a position to engage the cart, the feeler mechanism being movable between a first position and a second position when the cart is not located at the predetermined position; an anchor element operatively connected to the upender means; an electrical position sensor mounted at a dry location above the transfer station; and means for transferring mechanical motion of the feeler mechanism and the anchor element to the position sensor.

  11. Phonon-assisted excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xin; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2016-09-01

    The phonon-assisted process of energy transfer aiming at exploring the newly emerging frontier between biology and physics is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of the intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic systems. Based on a dimer system consisting of a donor and an acceptor modeled by two two-level systems, in which one of them is coupled to a high-energy vibrational mode, we derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the vibration-assisted coherent energy transfer process in the polaron frame. The effective Hamiltonian reveals in the case that the vibrational mode dynamically matches the energy detuning between the donor and the acceptor, the original detuned energy transfer becomes resonant energy transfer. In addition, the population dynamics and coherence dynamics of the dimer system with and without vibration-assistance are investigated numerically. It is found that, the energy transfer efficiency and the transfer time depend heavily on the interaction strength of the donor and the high-energy vibrational mode, as well as the vibrational frequency. The numerical results also indicate that the initial state and dissipation rate of the vibrational mode have little influence on the dynamics of the dimer system. Results obtained in this article are not only helpful to understand the natural photosynthesis, but also offer an optimal design principle for artificial photosynthesis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174233).

  12. Development of a Generalized Learning Transfer System Inventory. [and] Invited Reaction: Development of a Generalized Learning Transfer System Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Noe, Raymond A.; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Holton, Bates, and Ruona report that factor analysis of data from the Learning Transfer System Inventory for 1,616 trainees identified climate, job utility, and rewards as most important influences on transfer of learning. Noe's reaction critiques the research. (Contains 73 references.) (SK)

  13. Criticality Evaluation - Cask Unloading Using the Shielded Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Nadeau, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    This evaluation reviewed the criticality aspects of Shielded Transfer System (STS) operation. The existing Nuclear Safety Control (NSC) elements were examined and new NSC elements were developed, as needed.

  14. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription of USAID... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter applicable...

  16. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prescription of USAID... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter applicable...

  17. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription of USAID... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter applicable...

  18. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prescription of USAID... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter applicable...

  19. 48 CFR 753.270 - Prescription of USAID forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription of USAID... DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 753.270 Prescription of USAID forms. The requirements for use of USAID forms are contained in parts 701 through 752 where the subject matter applicable...

  20. Plasmid transfer systems in the rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Hynes, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Agricultural application of rhizobial inoculants can play an important role in increasing leguminous crop yields. In temperate rhizobia, genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation are usually located on one or more large plasmids (pSyms) or on symbiotic islands. In addition, other large plasmids of rhizobia carry genes that are beneficial for survival and competition of rhizobia in the rhizosphere. Conjugative transfer of these large plasmids thus plays an important role in the evolution of rhizobia. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of conjugative transfer of large rhizobial plasmids provides foundations for maintaining, monitoring, and predicting the behaviour of these plasmids during field release events. In this minireview, we summarize two types of known rhizobial conjugative plasmids, including quorum sensing regulated plasmids and RctA-repressed plasmids. We provide evidence for the existence of a third type of conjugative plasmid, including pRleVF39c in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain VF39SM, and we provide a comparison of the different types of conjugation genes found in members of the rhizobia that have had their genomes sequenced so far.

  1. Revisiting "the origins of compulsory drug prescriptions".

    PubMed Central

    Marks, H M

    1995-01-01

    It has been argued that today's prescription drug market originated in the arbitrary acts of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which in 1938 issued regulations creating a class of drugs that could be sold by prescription only. On the basis of the FDA's administrative records, I argue that the 1938 regulations on prescription drug labeling were initiated by industry and then agreed to by the FDA; that contemporaries understood and accepted the reasons for restricting the use of certain drugs; and that the subsequent evolution of these regulations is best understood as an FDA effort to limit industry abuses of the prescription labeling system. This decade-long war of position ended when drug manufacturers persuaded the US Congress to enshrine their version of prescription labeling in law in a highly politicized struggle over government's role in the economy. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7832245

  2. Efficient methods for finding transfer function zeros of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, N.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. ); Lima, L.T.G. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper is probably the first to describe algorithms suited to the efficient calculation of both proper and non-proper transfer function zeros of linearized dynamic models for large interconnected power systems. The paper also describes an improvement to the well known AESOPS algorithm, formulating it as an exact transfer function zero finding problem which is efficiently solved by a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Large power system results are presented in this paper.

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  5. Prescription of medicated feedingstuffs.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Janis

    2012-08-11

    This article, by Janis McDonald of the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD), sets out advice on best practice in using medicated feedingstuffs prescriptions. It has been produced by the VMD in the light of concerns that procedures for completing medicated feedingstuffs prescriptions may not always be being followed correctly.

  6. Design of auto-tuning capacitive power transfer system for wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of capacitive wireless power transfer systems based on a Class-E inverter approach. The main reason for adopting the Class-E inverter approach is because of its high efficiency, theoretically 100%. However, the operation of a Class-E inverter is highly sensitive to its circuit's parameters. In a typical capacitive wireless power transfer application, the capacitive coupling distance between plates is subject to changes, and hence its power transfer efficiency is greatly affected if the Class-E inverter is properly tuned. This drawback motivates us to develop an auto frequency tuning algorithm for a Class-E inverter which maintains its power transfer efficiency in spite of the variations of capacitive coupling distances between plates and circuit's parameters. Finally, simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the auto frequency tuning algorithm.

  7. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  8. [Good prescription practice for out-patients-quality requirements of prescriptions in Germany].

    PubMed

    Faller, Christine K; Seidling, Hanna M; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-06-01

    Because the written prescription is a central communication medium between the prescribing physician and the dispensing pharmacist measures to improve the prescription quality are top priorities. While most primary care physicians in Germany use electronic systems, in outpatient clinics and nursing homes and on special occasions such as emergency services and home visits, many prescriptions are still handwritten. Incorrectly and illegibly issued prescriptions impair the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship and thus represent a risk factor in the context of medication safety. Well issued prescriptions expedite the dispensing and thus the continuity of treatment of the patients and spare human resources by avoiding queries and unnecessary steps in the care process. At the same time, legible and unequivocal prescriptions facilitate measures for quality assurance by the dispensing pharmacists and are essential preconditions needed for insurance reimbursement. Probably the most important step to high quality prescriptions is the consistent use of suitable electronic prescription software. This is only possible if physicians are willing to cooperate and understand the significance and benefits of an electronic prescription system.

  9. Novel gene transfer systems: intelligent gene transfer vectors for gene medicines.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery systems for gene transfer are called 'vectors'. These systems were originally invented as a delivery system for the transfection in vitro or in vivo. Several vectors are then developed for clinical use of gene medicines and currently some of them are approved as animal drugs. Conventional drug delivery system generally consists of approved (existing) materials to avoid additional pre-clinical or clinical studies. However, current vectors contain novel materials to improve an efficacy of gene medicines. Thus, these vectors have functions more than a mere delivery of active ingredients. For example some vectors have immunological functions such as adjuvants in vaccines. These new types of vectors are called 'intelligent' or 'innovative' vector system', since the concept or strategy for the development is completely different from conventional drug delivery systems. In this article, we described a current status of 'intelligent gene transfer vectors and discussed on the potentials of them.

  10. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiacheng; Huang, Xueliang; Chen, Chen; Tan, Linlin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jinpeng

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS) material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT) is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  11. Plug-to-plug gas transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1978-01-01

    A system for conducting a fluid from one component to another component of a nuclear reactor wherein at least one such component is a rotatable closure head plug capable of movement relative to the other component. The conducting system utilizes the annulus located between the components as a connecting passageway for the fluid.

  12. Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David

    2013-03-01

    Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  13. National addictions vigilance intervention and prevention program (NAVIPPRO): a real-time, product-specific, public health surveillance system for monitoring prescription drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Budman, Simon H; Licari, Andrea; Cassidy, Theresa A; Lioy, Katherine; Dickinson, James; Brownstein, John S; Benneyan, James C; Green, Traci Craig; Katz, Nathaniel

    2008-12-01

    The National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) is a scientific, comprehensive risk management program for scheduled therapeutics. NAVIPPRO provides post-marketing surveillance, signal detection, signal verification and prevention and intervention programs. Here we focus on one component of NAVIPPRO surveillance, the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV) Connect, a continuous, real-time, national data stream that assesses pharmaceutical abuse by patients entering substance abuse treatment by collecting product-specific, geographically-detailed information. We evaluate population characteristics for data collected through the ASI-MV Connect in 2007 and 2008 and assess the representativeness, geographic coverage, and timeliness of report of the data. Analyses based on 41,923 admissions to 265 treatment centers in 29 states were conducted on product-specific opioid abuse rates, source of drug, and route of administration. ASI-MV Connect data revealed that 11.5% of patients reported abuse of at least one opioid analgesic product in the 30 days prior to entering substance abuse treatment; differences were observed among sub-populations of prescription opioid abusers, among products, and also within various geographic locations. The ASI-MV Connect component of NAVIPPRO represents a potentially valuable data stream for post-marketing surveillance of prescription drugs. Analyses conducted with data obtained from the ASI-MV Connect allow for the characterization of product-specific and geospatial differences for drug abuse and can serve as a tool to monitor responses of the abuse population to newly developed "abuse deterrent" drug formulations. Additional data, evaluation, and comparison to other systems are important next steps in establishing NAVIPPRO as a comprehensive, post-marketing surveillance system for prescription drugs. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Engineered Resilient Systems: Knowledge Capture and Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-29

    lly those made by semiconductor manufacturers , in order to achieve drastic reductions in schedule and cost of development for complex DoD-class...flexibility” in a system. Robust design has been traditionally applied to the manufacturing of systems, but also increasingly upstream to the concept design... additional interest in involving the AF/A9 organization in incorporating TSE-based approaches as they are responsible for integrating and coordinating

  15. Enhanced heat transfer in partially-saturated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Carrigan, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The role of capillarity is potentially important for determining heat transfer in hydrothermal regions. Capillarity allows mixing of phases in liquid/vapor systems and results in enhanced two-phase convection. Comparisons involving a numerical model with capillarity and analytical models without indicate that heat transfer can be enhanced by about an order of magnitude. Whether capillarity can be important for a particular hydrothermal region will depend on the nature of mineral precipitation as well as pore and fracture size distributions.

  16. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  17. Pharmacy communications with physician offices to clarify prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marie; Sprecher, Bradley

    lends to ongoing improvement efforts in e-prescribing interfaces with pharmacy information systems to reduce the burden of prescription clarification. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control System and Flexible Satellite Interaction During Orbit Transfer Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Adenilson Roberto; GadelhadeSouza, Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between the attitude control system and the flexible structure of an artificial satellite during orbit transfer maneuver has been investigated. The satellite was modeled by a rigid central body with one or more flexible appendages. The dynamics equations were obtained by Lagrangean approach. The flexible appendages were treated as clamped-free beam and its displacement was discretized by assumed- mode method. In order to transfer the satellite, a typical Hohmann transfer and a burn-coast-burn strategy were used and the attitude was controlled by an on-off controller. During transfer procedure a global analysis of satellite has been done, such as: performance of control system, influence of elastic response in control system, thruster firing frequency, fuel consumption and variation of orbital elements. In order to avoid the interaction with structure motion, a control system with bandwidth of one decade bellow the fundamental frequency was used. In the simulations the firing frequency was evaluated in an approximately way but kept below the fundamental frequency of the structure. The control system has kept the attitude below the specifications. As a result, the orbit transfer maneuvering has been done correctly without excessive excitation of flexible appendage.

  19. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  20. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  1. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  2. Human transfer functions used to predict system performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Automatic, parameter-tracking, model-matching technique compares the responses of a human operator with those of an analog computer model of a human operator to predict and analyze the performance of mechanical or electromechanical systems prior to construction. Transfer functions represent the input-output relation of an operator controlling a closed-loop system.

  3. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843.210 Section 843.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time...

  4. Transfering a Computer-based Clinical Administration System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plasschaert, A. J. M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The transfer of an existing computer-based system for dental school clinical administration to another institution in another country is described. Considerable cost and time savings were effected by using an existing system rather than developing a new one. (MSE)

  5. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  6. A Brief History of the Transfer System in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…

  7. Possible evidence for re-regulation of HPA axis and brain reward systems over time in treatment in prescription opioid-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Scott C; Harris, Jonathan D; Bixler, Edward O; Taylor, Megan; Muelly, Emilie; Deneke, Erin; Thompson, Kenneth W; Meyer, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a neuroadaptive model underlying vulnerability to relapse in opioid dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical measures hypothesized to mirror elements of allostatic dysregulation in patients dependent on prescription opioids at 2 time points after withdrawal, compared with healthy control participants. Recently withdrawn (n = 7) prescription opioid-dependent patients were compared with the patients in supervised residential care for 2 to 3 months (extended care; n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 7) using drug cue reactivity, affect-modulated startle response tasks, salivary cortisol, and 8 days of sleep actigraphy. Prefrontal cortex was monitored with functional near-infrared spectroscopy during the cue reactivity task. Startle response results indicated reduced hedonic response to natural rewards among patients recently withdrawn from opioids relative to extended care patients. The recently withdrawn patients showed increased activation to pill stimuli in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to extended care patients. Cortisol levels were elevated among recently withdrawn patients and intermediate for extended care relative to healthy controls. Actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep between recently withdrawn patients and extended care patients; extended care patients were similar to controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation to drug and natural reward cues, startle responses to natural reward cues, day-time cortisol levels, time in bed, and total time spent sleeping were all correlated with the number of days since last drug use (ie, time in supervised residential treatment). These results suggest possible re-regulation of dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain reward systems in prescription opioid-dependent patients over the drug-free period in residential treatment.

  8. Substance use -- prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... high, they cause feelings of well-being, intense happiness, and excitement. As street drugs, depressants come in ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prescription Drug Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  9. Opioid Basics: Prescription Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... relievers for acute pain, and high daily doses. Addiction and Overdose Anyone who takes prescription opioids can ... in a primary care setting struggles with opioid addiction. 4,5,6 Once addicted, it can be ...

  10. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... are located inside of a grocery or large "chain" store. It is best to fill all prescriptions ... be used for long-term medicines and medical supplies. The website should have clear directions for filling ...

  11. Prescriptions for ACME's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Five prescriptions for the future agenda of the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education are (1) a core curriculum; (2) informatics; (3) remedial continuing medical education (CME); (4) focus on the individual learner; and (5) practice-oriented CME. (SK)

  12. Prescription Drug Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment & Support Finding and Paying for Treatment Understanding Health Insurance If You Have Trouble Paying a Bill Prescription ... income and no drug coverage If you have health insurance If your income is low: Look into Medicaid ...

  13. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  14. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion. 17 refs.

  15. Methods for Gene Transfer to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; Bailey, Rachel M.; Wimberly, Keon; Kalburgi, Sahana N.; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer is an increasingly utilized approach for research and clinical applications involving the central nervous system (CNS). Vectors for gene transfer can be as simple as an unmodified plasmid, but more commonly involve complex modifications to viruses to make them suitable gene delivery vehicles. This chapter will explain how tools for CNS gene transfer have been derived from naturally occurring viruses. The current capabilities of plasmid, retroviral, adeno-associated virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus vectors for CNS gene delivery will be described. These include both focal and global CNS gene transfer strategies, with short- or long-term gene expression. As is described in this chapter, an important aspect of any vector is the cis-acting regulatory elements incorporated into the vector genome that control when, where, and how the transgene is expressed. PMID:25311922

  16. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  17. Advanced two-phase heat transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1992-01-01

    Future large spacecraft, such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms, will require a significantly more capable thermal control system than is possible with current 'passive' technology. Temperatures must be controlled much more tightly over a larger surface area. Numerous heat load sources will often be located inside the body of the spacecraft without a good view to space. Power levels and flux densities may be higher than can be accommodated with traditional technology. Integration and ground testing will almost certainly be much more difficult with such larger, more complex spacecraft. For these and similar reasons, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing a new, more capable thermal control technology called capillary pumped loops (CPL's). CPL's represent an evolutionary improvement over heat pipes; they can transport much greater quantities of heat over much longer distances and can serve numerous heat load sources. In addition, CPL's can be fabricated into large cold plates that can be held to tight thermal gradients. Development of this technology began in the early 1980's and is now reaching maturity. CPL's have recently been baselined for the EOS-AM platform (1997 launch) and the COMET spacecraft (1992 launch). This presentation describes this new technology and its applications. Most of the viewgraphs are self descriptive. For those that are less clear additional comments are provided.

  18. TWRS privatization phase I liquid effluent transfer systems engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford tank waste. This `privatization` initiative includes design, permitting, construction, operations, deactivation and decommissioning of tank waste treatment facilities. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project is part of the first phase of the initiative. It consists of several sub-projects which will provide key physical interfaces and services needed to support the phase I mission. One sub-project is to provide transfer systems integrated with 200 Area liquid effluent facilities to service the private contractors. This study deals with transfer systems requirements, alternatives and identifies a preferred alternative.

  19. Optical transfer operator of the atmosphere-ocean system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkevich, T. A.

    1992-08-01

    Improved accuracy and quality of interpretation of satellite imagery in the marine observation may be obtained by using the Optical Transfer Operator (OTO) of the Atmosphere-Ocean System (AOS) illuminated by a solar beam. Solar radiation transfer is described by two models, the atmosphere-surface model and the atmosphere-ocean model with reflective and refractive interface. Operators to express reflection and refraction of the interface are defined. Three problems of radiative transfer are considered for calculating the sunlight intensity field in the atmosphere-ocean system: the ocean-surface, atmosphere-ocean system with later homogeneous interface, and the atmosphere-ocean with later homogeneous interface, including the effects of the ocean waves. In the first stage, the atmosphere influence functions are defined. In the second stage, the optical transfer operator, which establishes the obvious connection with the radiation interaction law at the boundary, is calculated. Basic theoretical tools needed to solve the three-dimensional radiative transfer with the reflective and refractive interface is obtained in form of the linear vector-functional equation.

  20. Polaron assisted charge transfer in model biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Movaghar, Bijan

    2016-11-01

    We use a tight binding Hamiltonian to simulate the electron transfer from an initial charge-separating exciton to a final target state through a two-arm transfer model. The structure is copied from the model frequently used to describe electron harvesting in photosynthesis (photosystems I). We use this network to provide proof of principle for dynamics, in quantum system/bath networks, especially those involving interference pathways, and use these results to make predictions on artificially realizable systems. Each site is coupled to the phonon bath via several electron-phonon couplings. The assumed large energy gaps and weak tunneling integrals linking the last 3 sites give rise to"Stark Wannier like" quantum localization; electron transfer to the target cluster becomes impossible without bath coupling. As a result of the electron-phonon coupling, local electronic energies relax when the site is occupied, and transient polaronic states are formed as photo-generated electrons traverse the system. For a symmetric constructively interfering two pathway network, the population is shared equally between two sets of equivalent sites and therefore the polaron energy shift is smaller. The smaller energy shift however makes the tunnel transfer to the last site slower or blocks it altogether. Slight disorder (or thermal noise) can break the symmetry, permitting essentially a "one path", and correspondingly more efficient transfer.

  1. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  2. Use of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analytical detection of illicit and controlled prescription drugs at room temperature via direct headspace sampling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, B; Petersson, F; Jürschik, S; Sulzer, P; Jordan, A; Märk, T D; Watts, P; Mayhew, C A

    2011-06-01

    The first reported use of proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) for the detection of a range of illicit and prescribed drugs is presented here. We describe the capabilities of PTR-TOF-MS to detect the following commonly used narcotics-ecstasy (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), morphine, codeine, cocaine and heroin-by the direct sampling of the headspace above small solid quantities (approximately 50 mg) of the drugs placed in glass vials at room temperature, i.e. with no heating of the sample and no pre-concentration. We demonstrate in this paper the ability to identify the drugs, both illicit and prescribed, using PTR-TOF-MS through the accurate m/z assignment of the protonated parent molecule to the second decimal place. We have also included in this study measurements with an impure sample of heroin, containing typical substances found in "street" heroin, to illustrate the use of the technology for more "real-world" samples. Therefore, in a real-world complex chemical environment, a high level of confidence can be placed on the detection of drugs. Although the protonated parent is observed for all drugs, the reactant channel leading to this species is not the only one observed and neither is it necessarily the most dominant. Details on the observed fragmentation behaviour are discussed and compared to electrospray ionisation MS(n) studies available in the literature.

  3. Transfer number in fine bubble diffused aeration systems.

    PubMed

    Capela, S; Roustan, M; Héduit, A

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of full-scale data from 58 clean water tests performed in 26 activated sludge tanks equipped with fine bubble diffusers and of a theoretical approach, it can be stated that fine bubble aeration systems with total floor coverage arrangement provide higher kLa values and the lowest spiral liquid circulation. An efficiency criterion for oxygen transfer (NT) was defined on the basis of the dimensional analysis. The transfer number NT allows us to take account of the impact of vertical liquid circulation movements on oxygen transfer. The values of NT calculated from the results of full scale nonsteady-state clean water tests vary from 5.3 x 10(-5) to 9.1 x 10(-5) and are directly dependent upon the arrangement of air diffusers. It has been shown that the highest transfer numbers corresponded to the total floor coverage arrangement and the average calculated NT values is 7.7 x 10(-5), independently of the diffuser density and of the gas velocity, over the ranges studied. The lowest transfer numbers are obtained when the diffusers are located in separate grids, and the transfer number is reduced with increasing air flow rate.

  4. Heat and mass transfer in volcano-hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems re-distribute heat and mass derived from subsurface magma bodies over large temporal and spatial scales. Numerical models of fluid flow and heat transfer provide a quantitative basis for understanding the thermo-hydrological structure and transient behavior of volcano-hydrothermal systems. At the brittle-ductile transition around a magma body, the rate of conductive heat transfer from the impermeable intrusion is balanced by the rate of advective heat transfer by the fluid. Using the Complex Systems Modeling Platform (CSMP++) to model fluid flow up to near-magmatic conditions, we examine the effect of geologic factors such as host rock permeability, magma emplacement depth, the temperature conditions of the brittle-ductile transition, and rock/magma thermal conductivity on the rates of heat and mass transfer around magma bodies. Additionally, we investigate the role of these factors on the thermo-hydrological structure of the hydrothermal system, including patterns of phase separation, gravity-driven phase segregation, and fluid mixing. Passive tracers are included in the fluid flow models to simulate the input of magmatic volatiles into hydrothermal fluids and their fractionation between the liquid and vapor phases. Ultimately, we compare our model results against measured heat and gas fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal systems to help inform the interpreation of these measurements.

  5. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang

    2015-08-20

    Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  6. Air-ground information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Lozito, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System incident data for a two-year period in order to identify the frequency of air-ground information transfer errors and the factors associated with their occurrence. Of the more than 14,000 primary reports received during the 1985 and 1986 reporting period, one out of four reports concerned problems of information transfer between aircraft and ATC. Approximately half of these errors were associated directly or indirectly with aircraft deviations from assigned heading or altitude. The majority of incidents cited some human-system problem such as workload, cockpit distractions, etc., as the primary contributing factor. Improvements in air-ground information transfer using existing and future (e.g., data link) technology are proposed centering on the development and application of user-centered information management principles.

  7. Dynamics of entanglement transfer through multipartite dissipative systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Romero, G.

    2010-06-15

    We study the dynamics of entanglement transfer in a system composed of two initially correlated three-level atoms, each located in a cavity interacting with its own reservoir. Instead of tracing out reservoir modes to describe the dynamics using the master equation approach, we consider explicitly the dynamics of the reservoirs. In this situation, we show that the entanglement is completely transferred from atoms to reservoirs. Although the cavities mediate this entanglement transfer, we show that under certain conditions, no entanglement is found in cavities throughout the dynamics. Considering the entanglement dynamics of interacting and noninteracting bipartite subsystems, we found time windows where the entanglement can only flow through interacting subsystems, depending on the system parameters.

  8. Fernald vacuum transfer system for uranium materials repackaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushiva, Shirley; Weekley, Clint; Molecke, Martin; Polansky, Gary

    2002-02-24

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the site of a former Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing plant. When production was halted, many materials were left in an intermediate state. Some of this product material included enriched uranium compounds that had to be repackaged for shipment of off-site storage. This paper provides an overview, technical description, and status of a new application of existing technology, a vacuum transfer system, to repackage the uranium bearing compounds for shipment. The vacuum transfer system provides a method of transferring compounds from their current storage configuration into packages that meet the Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping requirements for fissile materials. This is a necessary activity, supporting removal of nuclear materials prior to site decontamination and decommissioning, key to the Fernald site's closure process.

  9. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  10. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Chris G; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  11. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-10

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  12. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  13. Production and Transfer of Energy and Information in Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Chris G.; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an “experimental” implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented. PMID:24586891

  14. Transfer of Instrument Training and the Synthetic Flight Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    One phase of an innovative flight training program, its development, and initial administration is described in this paper. The operational suitability test activities related to a determination of the transfer of instrument training value of the Army's Synthetic Flight Training System (SFTS) Device 2B24. Sixteen active Army members of an Officer…

  15. Information Systems and Networks for Technology Transfer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, John; Szentivanyi, Tibor

    Results of a survey of the information resources available in industrialized countries which might be used in a United Nations technology transfer program for developing countries are presented. Information systems and networks, organized information collections of a scientific and technical character, and the machinery used to disseminate this…

  16. Automated gas transfer systems for low pressure operations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Hoseus, N.L.

    1988-01-22

    The introduction of new components and the modification of commercially available hardware have been instrumental in the automation of low pressure gas transfer systems. The benefits from the automation have been faster sample operation, increased precision and a safer environment for the operator.

  17. Low heat-gain cryogenic-liquid transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hows, G. E.; Wright, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    Cryogenic-liquid transfer system, containing a ring structure with tensioned small diameter, high strength wires, provides adequate physical support for the piping, minimizes the conductive heat paths between the piping and jacket, and allows for thermal expansion and contraction of the piping.

  18. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  19. Heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A simplified heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems was developed to perform iterative calculations for fluid temperatures along the entire pipe length. It is applicable to gas, liquid, fluid flow with no phase change. Spreadsheet computer programs of the model have been developed and used extensively to perform the above calculations for thermal resistance, heat loss and core fluid temperature.

  20. Information Systems and Networks for Technology Transfer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, John; Szentivanyi, Tibor

    Results of a survey of the information resources available in industrialized countries which might be used in a United Nations technology transfer program for developing countries are presented. Information systems and networks, organized information collections of a scientific and technical character, and the machinery used to disseminate this…

  1. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  2. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  3. The Transfer of Abstract Principles Governing Complex Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Sakamoto, Yasuaki

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles governing computer simulations of complex adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed better transfer of abstract principles across simulations that were relatively dissimilar, and that this effect was due to participants who performed relatively poorly on the…

  4. An Introduction to Register Transfer Level Simulation of Digital Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemming, Cliff; Smith R. J., II

    Register transfer level (RTL) descriptions of digital systems have certain advantages over other descriptive techniques, especially during early phases of the design effort. There are at least three identifiable major uses for RTL-type descriptions. First, RTL can serve as documentation of digital processor behavior, recording in a concise fashion…

  5. Drug utilization, prescription errors and potential drug-drug interactions: an experience in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathish, Devarajan; Bahini, Sivaswamy; Sivakumar, Thanikai; Thiranagama, Thilani; Abarajithan, Tharmarajah; Wijerathne, Buddhika; Jayasumana, Channa; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-06-25

    Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDI) in prescriptions lead to medication error. Assessment of the above was made in prescriptions dispensed at State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC), Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted. Drugs were classified according to the WHO anatomical, therapeutic chemical classification system. A three point Likert scale, a checklist and Medscape online drug interaction checker were used to assess legibility, completeness and pDDIs respectively. Thousand prescriptions were collected. Majority were hand written (99.8 %) and from the private sector (73 %). The most frequently prescribed substance and subgroup were atorvastatin (4 %, n = 3668) and proton pump inhibitors (7 %, n = 3668) respectively. Out of the substances prescribed from the government and private sectors, 59 and 50 % respectively were available in the national list of essential medicines, Sri Lanka. Patients address (5 %), Sri Lanka Medical Council (SLMC) registration number (35 %), route (7 %), generic name (16 %), treatment symbol (48 %), diagnosis (41 %) and refill information (6 %) were seen in less than half of the prescriptions. Most were legible with effort (65 %) and illegibility was seen in 9 %. There was significant difference in omission and/or errors of generic name (P = 0.000), dose (P = 0.000), SLMC registration number (P = 0.000), and in evidence of pDDI (P = 0.009) with regards to the sector of prescribing. The commonest subgroup involved in duplication was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (43 %; 56/130). There were 1376 potential drug interactions (466/887 prescriptions). Most common pair causing pDDI was aspirin with losartan (4 %, n = 1376). Atorvastatin was the most frequently prescribed substance

  6. Omnidirectional wireless power transfer system supporting mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Bang-Jun; Meng, Fan-Yi; Lyu, Yue-Long; Zhu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Kuang; Yang, Guo-Hui; Fu, Jia-Hui; Zhu, Lei; Wu, Qun; Sun, Li

    2016-02-01

    An efficient method for the challenge design of an omnidirectional wireless power transfer system (OWPT) is proposed. The OWPT is realized utilizing the rotating magnetic field, which is generated by the proposed 2-D transmitter. The transmitter is composed by two mutually perpendicular loops fed by two excitation sources with the same magnitude and 90° phase difference. An OWPT system prototype is fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the system can deliver power to receivers moving around the transmitter with a steady transfer efficiency. Furthermore, the magnitude distribution of the rotating magnetic field can be controlled by the feeding phase difference between the two loops. This capability enables the OWPT system to focus energy for device moving in a limited receiving angle range.

  7. Optical transfer functions derived from solar adaptive optics system data.

    PubMed

    Wöger, Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems installed at large ground-based telescopes partially correct Earth's atmosphere, making post facto image reconstruction techniques necessary to produce diffraction-limited observations. To achieve accurate photometry in the reconstructed images, some post facto techniques require knowledge of transfer functions that describe the optical system. I present a new, fast method for the estimation of the long-exposure and speckle transfer functions from data gathered by a solar AO system simultaneously with the observations. The results of the presented method are tested with extensive analytical models, demonstrating that the estimation is robust for situations where the AO system is performing with Strehl ratios larger than 45%. Application to observations of solar granulation produces reconstructed images that are photometrically in agreement with earlier results.

  8. Technology transfer of NASA microwave remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akey, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    Viable techniques for effecting the transfer from NASA to a user agency of state-of-the-art airborne microwave remote sensing technology for oceanographic applications were studied. A detailed analysis of potential users, their needs and priorities; platform options; airborne microwave instrument candidates; ancillary instrumentation; and other, less obvious factors that must be considered were studied. Conclusions and recommendations for the development of an orderly and effective technology transfer of an airborne microwave system that could meet the specific needs of the selected user agencies are reported.

  9. Quartz microbalance device for transfer into ultrahigh vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stavale, F.; Achete, C. A.; Niehus, H.

    2008-10-15

    An uncomplicated quartz microbalance device has been developed which is transferable into ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) systems. The device is extremely useful for flux calibration of different kinds of material evaporators. Mounted on a commercial specimen holder, the device allows fast quartz microbalance transfer into the UHV and subsequent positioning exactly to the sample location where subsequent thin film deposition experiments shall be carried out. After backtransfer into an UHV sample stage, the manipulator may be loaded in situ with the specimen suited for the experiment. The microbalance device capability is demonstrated for monolayer and submonolayer vanadium depositions with an achieved calibration sensitivity of less the 0.001 ML coverage.

  10. Transfer Functions for Nonlinear Systems via Fourier-Borel Transforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Fourier series or integral expansions of response functions of linear systems. The shuffle product which is the characteristic of the noncommutative ... noncommutative algebra on a computer in any of the currently available symbolic programming languages such as Macsyma, Reduce, PL1, and Lisp...gives the transform of the response of the nonlinear system as a Cauchy product of its transfer function which is introduced for the first time here

  11. Modelling heat transfer in a bone-cement-prosthesis system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eskil

    2003-06-01

    The heat transfer in a general bone-cement-prosthesis system was modelled. A quantitative understanding of the heat transfer and the polymerization kinetics in the system is necessary because injury of the bone tissue and the mechanical properties of the cement have been suggested to be effected by the thermal and chemical history of the system. The mathematical model of the heat transfer was based on first principles from polymerization kinetics and heat transfer, rather than certain in vitro observed properties, which has been the common approach. Our model was valid for general three-dimensional geometries and an arbitrary bone cement consisting of an initiator and monomer. The model was simulated for a cross-section of a hip with a potential femoral stem prosthesis and for a cement similar to Palacos R. The simulations were conducted by using the finite element method. These simulations showed that this general model described an auto accelerating heat production and a residual monomer concentration, which are two phenomena suggested to cause bone tissue damage and effect the mechanical properties of the cement.

  12. [Implementation of an internal transfer pricing system for anaesthesia services].

    PubMed

    Raetzell, M; Reissmann, H; Steinfath, M; Schuster, M; Schmidt, C; Scholz, J; Bauer, M

    2004-12-01

    Internal transfer pricing system (ITPS) of anaesthesia services is established to guarantee a close connection of delivered service and the budget of the department of anaesthesia. In most cases a time-based system is used with the pricing unit being calculated as the quotient from the enumerator "costs" divided by the denominator "anaesthesia time in minutes". The implementation of a transfer pricing system requires the identification of all relevant costs caused by the department of anaesthesia and a cost centre structure is needed which allocates all costs correctly according to their cause. The regulations regarding cost calculations as defined by the German DRG System should be considered. To generate valid data not only the necessary technical infrastructure is needed, but also detailed training of the staff and plausibility checks are needed to ensure correct and complete data. Subsequent agreements with the hospital administration are necessary in order to adjust the system if extrinsic cost increases occur. This paper gives a step-by-step guidance for the successful implementation of an internal transfer pricing system based on anaesthesia time.

  13. Model of radiation transfer in atmosphere-smoke system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkevich, Tamara A.; Strelkov, Sergey A.; Vladimirova, Ekaterina V.; Kulikov, Alexey K.; Maksakova, Svetlana V.

    2004-02-01

    A more detailed modeling of interactions between the solar radiation and smoke medium and also of mechanisms of radiative transfer between air and smoke media is required. One-dimensional models of solar-radiation transfer in the atmosphere-smoke system (SAS), i.e. atmosphere with admixtures that arose under the effect of large scale fires (forest, peat, industrial) and lead to forming extending smoke screen, are being developed by us on the basis of two approaches. In one model, calculations are performed by the iteration method of characteristics ofr a two-medium SAS: underlying layer - smoke screen, upper layer- atmosphere. The second model uses the optical transfer operator (OTO) to express the SAS radiation through the influence functions (IFs) of the atmosphere and smoke.

  14. Quantifying ‘Causality’ in Complex Systems: Understanding Transfer Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Fatimah; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    ‘Causal’ direction is of great importance when dealing with complex systems. Often big volumes of data in the form of time series are available and it is important to develop methods that can inform about possible causal connections between the different observables. Here we investigate the ability of the Transfer Entropy measure to identify causal relations embedded in emergent coherent correlations. We do this by firstly applying Transfer Entropy to an amended Ising model. In addition we use a simple Random Transition model to test the reliability of Transfer Entropy as a measure of ‘causal’ direction in the presence of stochastic fluctuations. In particular we systematically study the effect of the finite size of data sets. PMID:24955766

  15. Documentation requirements for Applications Systems Verification and Transfer projects (ASVTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Application Systems Verification and Transfer Projects (ASVTs) are deliberate efforts to facilitate the transfer of applications of NASA-developed space technology to users such as federal agencies, state and local governments, regional planning groups, public service institutions, and private industry. This study focused on the role of documentation in facilitating technology transfer both to primary users identified during project planning and to others with similar information needs. It was understood that documentation can be used effectively when it is combined with informal (primarily verbal) communication within each user community and with other formal techniques such as organized demonstrations and training programs. Documentation examples from eight ASVT projects and one potential project were examined to give scope to the investigation.

  16. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  17. Multi-Element Electron-Transfer Optical Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-element optical detector system includes an electrically resistive screen that is substantially transparent to radiation energy having a wavelength of interest. A plurality of electron transfer elements (e.g., a low work function photoactive material or a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based element) are provided with each having a first end and a second end. The first end of each element is spaced apart from the screen by an evacuated gap. When the radiation energy passes through the screen with a bias voltage applied thereto, transfer of electrons through each element is induced from the first end to the second end such that a quantity indicative of the electrons transferred through each element can be detected.

  18. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  19. Specific transfer entropy and other state-dependent transfer entropies for continuous-state input-output systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmon, David; Rapp, Paul E.

    2017-08-01

    Since its original formulation in 2000, transfer entropy has become an invaluable tool in the toolbox of nonlinear dynamicists working with empirical data. Transfer entropy and its generalizations provide a precise definition of uncertainty and information transfer that are central to the coupled systems studied in nonlinear science. However, a canonical definition of state-dependent transfer entropy has yet to be introduced. We introduce a candidate measure, the specific transfer entropy, and compare its properties to both total and local transfer entropy. Specific transfer entropy makes possible both state- and time-resolved analysis of the predictive impact of a candidate input system on a candidate output system. We also present principled methods for estimating total, local, and specific transfer entropies from empirical data. We demonstrate the utility of specific transfer entropy and our proposed estimation procedures with two model systems, and find that specific transfer entropy provides more, and more easily interpretable, information about an input-output system compared to currently existing methods.

  20. Calibration of a resonance energy transfer imaging system.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, M; Hensel, N F; Hartzman, R J

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the nondestructive visualization of nanometer scale intermolecular separations in a living system is described. A calibration procedure for the acquisition and analysis of resonance energy transfer (RET) image data is outlined. The factors limiting RET imaging of biological samples are discussed. Measurements required for the calibration include: (a) the spectral sensitivity of the image intensifier (or camera); (b) the transmission spectra of the emission filters; and (c) the quantum distribution functions of the energy transfer pair measured in situ. Resonance energy transfer imaging is demonstrated for two DNA specific dyes. The Förster critical distance for energy transfer between Hoechst 33342 (HO) and acridine orange (AO) is 4.5 +/- 0.7 nm. This distance is slightly greater than the distance of a single turn of the DNA helix (3.5 nm or approximately 10 base pairs), and is well below the optical diffraction limit. Timed sequences of intracellular energy transfer reveal nuclear structure, strikingly similar to that observed with confocal and electron microscopy, and may show the spatial distribution of eu- and hetero- chromatin in the interphase nuclei. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:1581499

  1. A 1:1 apochromat transfer lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, W. G.; Buchroeder, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A prototype system for remote control was constructed for the University of Arizona 90-inch telescope on Kitt Peak. The system uses image dissector tubes, a conventional photocell, and photographic plates as detectors for images formed at the Cassegrain focus of the 90-inch telescope. It was decided to use an image relay system to transfer selected portions of the image plane to image dissectors and the photographic plate. The design of a 1:1 relay system is described. Design considerations are discussed and alternate designs are outlined.

  2. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.135 What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm... be identified by the words “Oil Transfer Alarm” or “Natural Gas Transfer Alarm” in red letters at...

  3. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.135 What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm... be identified by the words “Oil Transfer Alarm” or “Natural Gas Transfer Alarm” in red letters at...

  4. Test report for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-03-04

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. Transport of the system will typically be north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The samples are intended to conform to the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 1 73.4, ``Exceptions for small quantities.`` The regulations require prototype testing of the package to demonstrate the effectiveness of the packaging system. The test procedure consisted of one 24-hour compression test and five drop tests of various orientations onto an unyielding drop pad. The testing of the Sample Transfer Canister System was performed between February 16, 1998 and February 25, 1998. The results of the testing concluded that the Sample Transfer Canister System successfully met the testing requirements with certain modifications to the original system. The modifications included replacing the original eight flange screws which were cold rolled 316 stainless steel with greater strength grade 8 high carbon-carbon steel screws, replacing the initial two glass receptacles with a better performing single glass receptacle which proved not to leak during testing, and adding more bubble wrap as extra padding.

  5. Mass transfer and disc formation in AGB binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We investigate mass transfer and the formation of discs in binary systems using a combination of numerical simulations and theory. We consider six models distinguished by binary separation, secondary mass and outflow mechanism. Each system consists of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and an accreting secondary. The AGB star loses its mass via a wind. In one of our six models, the AGB star incurs a short period of outburst. In all cases, the secondary accretes part of the ejected mass and also influences the mass-loss rate of the AGB star. The ejected mass may remain gravitationally bound to the binary system and form a circumbinary disc, or contribute to an accretion disc around the secondary. In other cases, the ejecta will escape the binary system. The accretion rate on to the secondary changes non-linearly with binary separation. In our closest binary simulations, our models exemplify the wind Roche lobe overflow while in our wide binary cases, the mass transfer exhibits Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The morphologies of the outflows in the binary systems are varied. The variety may provide clues to how the late AGB phase influences planetary nebula shaping. We employ the adaptive-mesh-refinement code astrobear for our simulations and include ray tracing, radiation transfer, cooling and dust formation. To attain the highest computational efficiency and the most stable results, all simulations are run in the corotating frame.

  6. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription?

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Potts, M; Guest, F; Ellertson, C

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, it is argued that oral contraceptives should be available without prescription. Prescription status entails heavy costs, including the dollar, time, and psychological costs of visiting a physician to obtain a prescription, the financial and human costs of unintended pregnancies that result from the obstacle to access caused by medicalization of oral contraceptives, and administrative costs to the health care system. After a review and evaluation of the reasons for strict medical control of oral contraceptives in the United States, safety concerns anticipated in response to the proposal discussed here are addressed. Also, concerns that prescription status is necessary for efficacious use are evaluated. It is concluded that neither safety nor efficacy considerations justify prescription status for oral contraceptives. Revised package design and patient labeling could allow women to screen themselves for contraindications, to educate themselves about danger signs, and to use oral contraceptives safely and successfully. Several alternatives to providing oral contraceptives by prescription with current package design and labeling and selling them over the counter are suggested; the proposals discussed would make these safe and effective contraceptives easier to obtain and to use.

  7. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription?

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Potts, M; Guest, F; Ellertson, C

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that oral contraceptives should be available without prescription. Prescription status entails heavy costs, including the dollar, time, and psychological costs of visiting a physician to obtain a prescription, the financial and human costs of unintended pregnancies that result from the obstacle to access caused by medicalization of oral contraceptives, and administrative costs to the health care system. After a review and evaluation of the reasons for strict medical control of oral contraceptives in the United States, safety concerns anticipated in response to the proposal discussed here are addressed. Also, concerns that prescription status is necessary for efficacious use are evaluated. It is concluded that neither safety nor efficacy considerations justify prescription status for oral contraceptives. Revised package design and patient labeling could allow women to screen themselves for contraindications, to educate themselves about danger signs, and to use oral contraceptives safely and successfully. Several alternatives to providing oral contraceptives by prescription with current package design and labeling and selling them over the counter are suggested; the proposals discussed would make these safe and effective contraceptives easier to obtain and to use. PMID:8342715

  8. Ecological Assessment of Clinicians’ Antipsychotic Prescription Habits in Psychiatric Inpatients: A Novel Web- and Mobile Phone–Based Prototype for a Dynamic Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A; Nitzburg, George C; Ovejero, Santiago; Alvarez-Garcia, Raquel; Carballo, Juan; Walter, Michel; Billot, Romain; Lenca, Philippe; Delgado-Gomez, David; Ropars, Juliette; de la Calle Gonzalez, Ivan; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold the potential to significantly improve pharmacological treatment management. Objective The aim of our study was to develop a novel Web- and mobile phone–based application to provide a dynamic CDSS by monitoring and analyzing practitioners’ antipsychotic prescription habits and simultaneously linking these data to inpatients’ symptom changes. Methods We recruited 353 psychiatric inpatients whose symptom levels and prescribed medications were inputted into the MEmind application. We standardized all medications in the MEmind database using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and the defined daily dose (DDD). For each patient, MEmind calculated an average for the daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics (using the N05A ATC code), prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to DDD ratio. Results MEmind results found that antipsychotics were used by 61.5% (217/353) of inpatients, with the largest proportion being patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (33.4%, 118/353). Of the 217 patients, 137 (63.2%, 137/217) were administered pharmacological monotherapy and 80 (36.8%, 80/217) were administered polytherapy. Antipsychotics were used mostly in schizophrenia spectrum and related psychotic disorders, but they were also prescribed in other nonpsychotic diagnoses. Notably, we observed polypharmacy going against current antipsychotics guidelines. Conclusions MEmind data indicated that antipsychotic polypharmacy and off-label use in inpatient units is commonly practiced. MEmind holds the potential to create a dynamic CDSS that provides real-time tracking of prescription practices and symptom change. Such feedback can help practitioners determine a maximally therapeutic drug treatment while avoiding unproductive overprescription and off-label use. PMID:28126703

  9. Ecological Assessment of Clinicians' Antipsychotic Prescription Habits in Psychiatric Inpatients: A Novel Web- and Mobile Phone-Based Prototype for a Dynamic Clinical Decision Support System.

    PubMed

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Brandt, Sara A; Nitzburg, George C; Ovejero, Santiago; Alvarez-Garcia, Raquel; Carballo, Juan; Walter, Michel; Billot, Romain; Lenca, Philippe; Delgado-Gomez, David; Ropars, Juliette; de la Calle Gonzalez, Ivan; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-01-26

    Electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold the potential to significantly improve pharmacological treatment management. The aim of our study was to develop a novel Web- and mobile phone-based application to provide a dynamic CDSS by monitoring and analyzing practitioners' antipsychotic prescription habits and simultaneously linking these data to inpatients' symptom changes. We recruited 353 psychiatric inpatients whose symptom levels and prescribed medications were inputted into the MEmind application. We standardized all medications in the MEmind database using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and the defined daily dose (DDD). For each patient, MEmind calculated an average for the daily dose prescribed for antipsychotics (using the N05A ATC code), prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to DDD ratio. MEmind results found that antipsychotics were used by 61.5% (217/353) of inpatients, with the largest proportion being patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (33.4%, 118/353). Of the 217 patients, 137 (63.2%, 137/217) were administered pharmacological monotherapy and 80 (36.8%, 80/217) were administered polytherapy. Antipsychotics were used mostly in schizophrenia spectrum and related psychotic disorders, but they were also prescribed in other nonpsychotic diagnoses. Notably, we observed polypharmacy going against current antipsychotics guidelines. MEmind data indicated that antipsychotic polypharmacy and off-label use in inpatient units is commonly practiced. MEmind holds the potential to create a dynamic CDSS that provides real-time tracking of prescription practices and symptom change. Such feedback can help practitioners determine a maximally therapeutic drug treatment while avoiding unproductive overprescription and off-label use.

  10. Experience with a clinical decision support system in community pharmacies to recommend narrow-spectrum antimicrobials, nonantimicrobial prescriptions, and OTC products to decrease broad-spectrum antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Madaras-Kelly, Karl J; Hannah, Elizabeth Lyon; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    Overuse of antibiotics increases the incidence of bacterial resistance and contributes avoidable costs to the health care system. To determine the feasibility of a protocol-driven community pharmacy intervention that was designed to decrease broad-spectrum antimicrobial (BSA) use in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The intervention involved pharmacists who conducted guided interviews regarding patient symptoms in a cohort of patients with BSA prescription visiting 2 rural community pharmacies during peak respiratory illness season. A clinical decision support system was provided to aid in pharmacist diagnosis and assist in determining if the BSA therapy was appropriate. Upon patient consent, pharmacists attempted to contact primary care providers (PCPs) to confirm the diagnosis and recommend appropriate alternative therapy. There were 192 subjects with prescriptions for BSAs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection. Only 3% of the patients who were approached declined to discuss their symptoms and treatment with the pharmacist. A mean of 3 minutes was required to collect symptom and treatment information from the patients. However, when patients were asked if the pharmacist could contact their PCP to recommend alternative therapy, only 7% (n=4) of patients agreed to the intervention. The PCPs who were contacted by pharmacists were receptive to altering the BSA to first-line antimicrobial therapy such as amoxicillin or doxycycline. Despite a description of the importance of the intervention, more than 90% of patients prescribed a BSA declined to permit the community pharmacist to contact the prescriber to discuss first-line therapeutic alternatives. This experience in a pilot study to explore the feasibility of pharmacist intervention at the point of dispensing of a BSA made clear that a successful community pharmacy intervention to reduce BSA use would require an alternative method, perhaps via a collaborative practice protocol that does not

  11. A base-free neutral phase-transfer reaction system.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Seiji; Wang, Lijia; He, Rongjun; Arimitsu, Satoru; Maruoka, Keiji

    2014-06-01

    Although phase-transfer reactions catalyzed by using quaternary ammonium salts are generally believed to require base additives, we discovered that, even without any base additives, conjugate additions of 3-substituted oxindoles to nitroolefins proceeded smoothly in the presence of lipophilic quaternary ammonium bromide under water-organic biphasic conditions. The mechanism of this novel base-free neutral phase-transfer reaction system is investigated and the assumed catalytic cycle is presented together with interesting effects of water and lipophilicity of the phase-transfer catalyst. The base-free neutral phase-transfer reaction system can be applied to highly enantioselective conjugate addition and aldol reactions under the influence of chiral bifunctional ammonium bromides as key catalysts. The structure of the chiral ammonium enolate intermediate is discussed based on the single-crystal X-ray structures of relevant ammonium salts and the importance of bifunctional design of catalyst is clearly explained in the model of intermediate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    PubMed

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  13. Heat transfer in vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dessouky, H.T.; Bouhamra, W.S.; Ettouney, H.M.; Akbar, M.

    1999-05-01

    Convection effects on heat transfer are analyzed in low temperature and vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems. This is performed by detailed temperature measurements in the phase change material (PCM) in eighteen locations forming a grid of six radial and three axial positions. The system constitutes a double pipe configuration, where commercial grade paraffin wax is stored in the annular space between the two pipes and water flows inside the inner pipe. Vertical alignment of the system allowed for reverse of the flow direction of the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which is water. Therefore, the PCM is heated from the bottom for HTF flow from bottom to top and from the top as the HTF flow direction is reversed. For the former case, natural convection affects the melting process. Collected data are used to study variations in the transient temperature distribution at axial and radial positions as well as for the two-dimensional temperature field. The data are used to calculate the PCM heat transfer coefficient and to develop correlations for the melting Fourier number. Results indicate that the PCM heat transfer coefficient is higher for the case of PCM heating from bottom to top. Nusselt number correlations are developed as a function of Rayleigh, Stefan, and Fourier numbers for the HTF flow from bottom to top and as a function of Stefan and Fourier numbers for HTF flow from top to bottom. The enhancement ratio for heat transfer caused by natural convection increases and then levels off as the inlet temperature of the HTF is increased.

  14. Appropriateness of Prescriptions of Recommended Treatments in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Systems: Findings Based on the Long-Term Registry of the European Society of Cardiology on Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Aldo P; Van Gool, Kees; Biondi, Nelly; Urso, Renato; Klazinga, Niek; Ferrari, Roberto; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    This observational study aimed to identify clinical variables and health system characteristics associated with incomplete guideline application in drug treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) across 15 countries. Three data sets were used: European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Registry, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Health System Characteristics Survey, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2013. Patient and country variables were examined by multilevel, multiple logistic regression. The study population consisted of ambulatory patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction. Inappropriateness of prescription of pharmacological treatments was defined as patients not prescribed at least one of the two recommended treatments (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers and beta-blockers) or treated with both medications but at suboptimal dosage and in absence of documented contraindication/intolerance. Of 4605 patients, 1097 (23.8%) received inappropriate drug prescriptions with a large variation within and across countries, with 18.5% of the total variability accounted for by between-country health structure characteristics. Patient-level characteristics such as having mitral regurgitation (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.7) was significantly associated with inappropriate prescription of recommended drugs, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.9) was associated with more appropriate prescriptions. Among the country-level variables, incentives or obligation to comply with guidelines increased the probability of prescription appropriateness. Combining clinical variables with health system characteristics is a promising exercise to explain the appropriateness of recommended drug prescriptions. Such an understanding can help decision makers to design more effective policies to

  15. Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyo, Gonzalo; Harvey, Andy R.

    2005-10-01

    We describe the mapping of the optical transfer function (OTF) of an incoherent imaging system into a geometrical representation. We show that for defocused traditional and wavefront-coded systems the OTF can be represented as a generalized Cornu spiral. This representation provides a physical insight into the way in which wavefront coding can increase the depth of field of an imaging system and permits analytical quantification of salient OTF parameters, such as the depth of focus, the location of nulls, and amplitude and phase modulation of the wavefront-coding OTF.

  16. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brand names ConZip®, Ryzolt®, Ultram®) The street drug heroin also is an opioid. What problems can opioids ... to buy them illegally. People often start using heroin after becoming addicted to prescription opioids. Sometimes opioids ...

  17. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  18. Leadership Prescription Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stech, Ernest L.

    2007-01-01

    The three most common paradigms used to develop leadership prescriptions are the empirical, biographical, and ideological. The empirical paradigm is subdivided into quantitative and qualitative versions. Similarly, there are two forms of the biographical paradigm: historical and autobiographical. The ideological paradigm involves an appeal to…

  19. Multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Mǎrginean, N.; Milin, M.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We measured multinucleon transfer reactions in the 40Ar+208Pb system at an energy close to the Coulomb barrier, by employing the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. We extracted differential and total cross sections of the different transfer channels, with a careful investigation of the total kinetic energy loss distributions. Comparisons between different systems having the same 208Pb target and with projectiles going from neutron-poor to neutron-rich nuclei, i.e., 40Ca, 58Ni, and 40Ar, as well as between the data and GRAZING calculations have been carried out. The neutron-rich (stable) 40Ar beam allowed us to get access to the channels involving proton pickup, whose behavior in connection with the production of neutron-rich heavy partner has been outlined.

  20. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  1. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  2. Task-Technology Fit Assessment of an Expertise Transfer System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    MSgt, USAF AFIT/ GIR /ENV/09-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force...Government. AFIT/ GIR /ENV/09-M02 TASK-TECHNOLOGY FIT ASSESSMENT OF AN EXPERTISE TRANSFER SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the Faculty...Daphne R. McGill, BS MSgt, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/ GIR /ENV/09-M02

  3. Emergency flight control system using one engine and fuel transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Jr., Frank W. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Le, Jeanette (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for emergency aircraft control uses at least one engine and lateral fuel transfer that allows a pilot to regain control over an aircraft under emergency conditions. Where aircraft propulsion is available only through engines on one side of the aircraft, lateral fuel transfer provides means by which the center of gravity of the aircraft can be moved over to the wing associated with the operating engine, thus inducing a moment that balances the moment from the remaining engine, allowing the pilot to regain control over the aircraft. By implementing the present invention in flight control programming associated with a flight control computer (FCC), control of the aircraft under emergency conditions can be linked to the yoke or autopilot knob of the aircraft. Additionally, the center of gravity of the aircraft can be shifted in order to effect maneuvers and turns by spacing such center of gravity either closer to or farther away from the propelling engine or engines. In an alternative embodiment, aircraft having a third engine associated with the tail section or otherwise are accommodated and implemented by the present invention by appropriately shifting the center of gravity of the aircraft. Alternatively, where a four-engine aircraft has suffered loss of engine control on one side of the plane, the lateral fuel transfer may deliver the center of gravity closer to the two remaining engines. Differential thrust between the two can then control the pitch and roll of the aircraft in conjunction with lateral fuel transfer.

  4. E-Beam—a new transfer system for isolator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Huber, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    In every aseptic filling application, the sterile transfer of goods into the aseptic area is a challenge, and there are many different ways to do it. With isolator technology a higher sterility assurance level (SAL) is achieved. This SAL is only as good as the weakest segment in the chain of manufacturing. The transfer of goods into and out of the isolator is one of these critical segments. Today different techniques, some already well established, others still very new, are available on the market like: dry heat tunnel, autoclave, pulsed light, rapid transfer systems (RTP), H 2O 2 tunnel, UV light, etc. all these systems are either not applicable for continuous transfer, only good for heat-compatible materials like glass, or do not guarantee a 6 log spore reduction. E-Beam opens new perspectives in this field. With E-beam technology it is possible to transfer heat-sensitive (plastic), pre-sterilised materials at high speed, continuously into an aseptic area. E-Beam unifies three different technologies, that result in a very efficient and high-speed decontamination machine designed for the pharmaceutical industry. First, there is the electron beam that decontaminates the goods and an accurate shielding that protects the surrounding from this beam. Second, there is the conveyor system that guarantees the output and the correct exposure time underneath the beam. And third, there is the isolator interface to provide correct differential pressure and clean air inside the tunnel as well as the decontamination of the tunnel with H 2O 2 prior to production. The E-beam is a low-energy electron beam, capable of decontaminating any kind of surface. It penetrates only a few micrometers into the material and therefore does not deform the packaging media. Currently, machines are being built to transfer pre-sterilised syringes, packed in plastic tubs with a Tyvek cover into an aseptic filling isolator with the following data: decontamination efficiency of 10 6 (6 log spore

  5. Fuel transfer system ALARA design review - Project A.15

    SciTech Connect

    KUEBERTH, L.R.

    2001-11-12

    One mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is to move the SNF from the K Basins in the Hanford 100K Area to an interim dry storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the Hanford 200 East Area. The Fuel Transfer System (FTS) is a subproject that will move the SNF from the 105K East (KE) Facility to the 105K West (KW) Facility. The SNF will be treated for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility at the KW Basin. The SNF canisters will be loaded underwater into a Shielded Transfer Cask (STC) in the KE Basin. The fully loaded STC will be brought out of the water and placed into a Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO) by the STC Straddle Carrier. As the STC is removed from the water, it will be washed down with demineralized water by an manual rinse system. The CTO with the STC inside will be placed on a transport trailer and transferred to the KW Basin as an intra-facility transfer. The CTO will be unloaded from the shipping trailer at the KW Basin and the STC will be removed from the CTO. The STC will then be lowered into the KW Basin water and the fuel will be removed. The SNF will then be processed for shipment to the CVD. As soon as all of the fuel has been removed from the STC, the cask will be removed from the KW Basin water and placed into the CTO. The CTO will again be placed on the trailer for transport back to the KE Basin where the entire cycle will be repeated approximately 400 times. This document records the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) findings and design recommendations/requirements by the SNF Project noted during the Final Design Review of the STC, CTO, STC Transfer System, Annexes and Roadways for support of FTS. This document is structured so that all statements that include the word ''shall'' represent design features that have been or will be implemented within the project scope. Statements that include the words ''should'' or ''recommend'' represent ALARA design features to be evaluated for future implementation.

  6. A health record integrated clinical decision support system to support prescriptions of pharmaceutical drugs in patients with reduced renal function: design, development and proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Shemeikka, Tero; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Vég, Anikó; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Cornelius, Birgitta; Korkmaz, Seher

    2015-06-01

    To develop and verify proof of concept for a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support prescriptions of pharmaceutical drugs in patients with reduced renal function, integrated in an electronic health record system (EHR) used in both hospitals and primary care. A pilot study in one geriatric clinic, one internal medicine admission ward and two outpatient healthcare centers was evaluated with a questionnaire focusing on the usefulness of the CDSS. The usage of the system was followed in a log. The CDSS is considered to increase the attention on patients with impaired renal function, provides a better understanding of dosing and is time saving. The calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the dosing recommendation classification were perceived useful while the recommendation texts and background had been used to a lesser extent. Few previous systems are used in primary care and cover this number of drugs. The global assessment of the CDSS scored high but some elements were used to a limited extent possibly due to accessibility or that texts were considered difficult to absorb. Choosing a formula for the calculation of eGFR in a CDSS may be problematic. A real-time CDSS to support kidney-related drug prescribing in both hospital and outpatient settings is valuable to the physicians. It has the potential to improve quality of drug prescribing by increasing the attention on patients with renal insufficiency and the knowledge of their drug dosing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arms Transfers: A System Dynamics Analysis Focusing on Regional Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    73 IS OSOLET E . .. JILASSIIE]L.. SECURITY C14 A :PIrATInN (.S TWIM 04rc.- .- l° AFIT/GOR/OS/83D-8 ARMS TRANSFERS: A SYSTEM DYNA’ICS ALYSIS FOCUSING...regional stability. 5. Provide guidance and instructions on how to use and alter the model for specific policy analysis. Scot e This research is...a system, and that not all societal groups are the same. Durkheim insisted that his theory of anowia must be interpreted frorr a contingency point of

  8. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  9. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  10. [Science of Acupuncture Prescription: an innovation teaching material].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze-lin

    2007-03-01

    The author introduces the background of writing the innovation teaching material Science of Acupuncture Prescription in TCM university and colleges. The characteristics of this book were: (1) It establishes the train of thought on acupuncture prescriptions mainly based on the location of the acupoints. (2) It ascertains the relationship between prescriptions and science of prescription. (3) It highlights the scientific property of Science of Acupuncture Prescription by organic combination of inheritance and creativity. The publication of Science of Acupuncture Prescription serves as a bridge between Science of Meridians and Collaterals and Acupoints and Science of Acupuncture Therapy, perfects the course system of acupuncture and moxibustion and complements knowledge structure of acupuncture and tuinaology, and it also symbolizes the development of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  11. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  12. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  13. Time and frequency transfer system using GNSS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Lun; Huang, Shi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Shu

    2014-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) time and frequency transfer is one of the most useful ways for the comparison of remote clocks, and the comparison results are very important for the calculation of International Atomic Time and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For the timing laboratories, it is necessary to calibrate and periodically evaluate their time transfer system to ensure the accuracy and long-term stability of their time and frequency comparison results. Once the calibration is achieved, it can be used as a standard for traceable time and frequency measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate Global Navigation Satellite System receiver calibration campaign between the National Time and Frequency Standard Laboratory of Telecommunication Laboratories in Taiwan and the Measurement Standards Laboratory in New Zealand. Two calibration strategies, receiver calibration and the link calibration, are adopted in this work. The receiver calibration is used for evaluating the performance of the proposed system in domestic traceability network in Taiwan. The link calibration is used for minimizing the total uncertainty budget in calculating UTC. Experimental results indicate that the expanded time and frequency uncertainty of the proposed system (with a coverage factor of k = 2) are less than 25 ns and 1.1 × 10-13, respectively, after 1 day of averaging. The accuracy of GPS time link is reported to be better than 2 ns in long-baseline link (10,000 km) in Asia-Pacific Zone.

  14. System and method for transferring data on a data link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert M. (Inventor); Bishop, James E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for transferring a packet across a data link. The packet may include a stream of data symbols which is delimited by one or more framing symbols. Corruptions of the framing symbol which result in valid data symbols may be mapped to invalid symbols. If it is desired to transfer one of the valid data symbols that has been mapped to an invalid symbol, the data symbol may be replaced with an unused symbol. At the receiving end, these unused symbols are replaced with the corresponding valid data symbols. The data stream of the packet may be encoded with forward error correction information to detect and correct errors in the data stream.

  15. Transfer matrix method in systems with topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Granada E. J.; F, Rojas D.

    2017-06-01

    In the frame of axion electrodynamics a 4×4 transfer matrix method was developed in order to describe the electrodynamic properties of systems containing topological insulators, which are characterized by non trivial topological properties related to time reversal symmetry. Analytical expressions were obtained for the components of the transfer matrix for the interface between a conventional dielectric and a topological insulator, which generalize the relations obtained in conventional electrodynamics for the description of the transmission of TE and TM polarized modes. It was shown that such matrix couples the TE and TM modes, where the terms which are related to such coupling are linear with respect to the fine structure constant. Analytical expressions were obtained for the changes induced by the non trivial topology in the reflection coefficients from TM and TE incident waves and for the rotation of the polarization planes of reflected and transmitted waves.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  17. Modeling coherent excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Pengfei

    2011-12-01

    Recent non-linear spectroscopy experiments suggest the excitation energy transfer in some biological light harvesting systems initially occurs coherently. Treating such processes brings significant challenge for conventional theoretical tools that usually involve different approximations. In this dissertation, the recently developed Iterative Linearized Density Matrix (ILDM) propagation scheme, which is non-perturbative and non-Markovian is extended to study coherent excitation energy transfer in various light harvesting complexes. It is demonstrated that the ILDM approach can successfully describe the coherent beating of the site populations on model systems and gives quantitative agreement with both experimental results and the results of other theoretical methods have been developed recently to going beyond the usual approximations, thus providing a new reliable theoretical tool to study this phenomenon. This approach is used to investigate the excited energy transfer dynamics in various experimentally studied bacteria light harvesting complexes, such as Fenna-Matthews-Olsen (FMO) complex, Phycocyanin 645 (PC645). In these model calculations, quantitative agreement is found between computed de-coherence times and quantum beating pattens observed in the non-linear spectroscopy. As a result of these studies, it is concluded that the stochastic resonance behavior is important in determining the optimal throughput. To begin addressing possible mechanics for observed long de-coherence time, various models which include correlation between site energy fluctuations as well as correlation between site energy and inter-site coupling are developed. The influence of both types of correlation on the coherence and transfer rate is explored using with a two state system-bath hamiltonian parametrized to model the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteria. To overcome the disadvantages of a fully reduced approach or a full propagation method, a brownian dynamics

  18. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  19. How does the pharmaceutical industry influence prescription? A qualitative study of provider payment incentives and drug remunerations in hospitals in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Over-prescription has become one major problem in China's health care sector. Incorporating interview data from hospitals in Shanghai, this paper provided empirical evidence on how the process of over-prescription was carried out in day-to-day clinical settings, and demonstrates various mechanisms that allow over-prescription to continue vigorously in the context of the Chinese health care system. In particular, this study identified four levels of incentives that over-prescription was carried out: hospital, medical department, doctors and pharmaceutical companies. Due to the insufficient funding from the government and rising operational costs, hospitals had to rely on the sales of drugs and provision of medical services to survive. This funding pressure then transferred to specific revenue targets for medical departments. A combination of incentives, including drug remunerations, bonus system, low pay and high workloads motivated over-prescription at doctor level. At pharmaceutical company level, high profits of pharmaceuticals products as well as lack of emphasis on efficacy of drugs led to under-table payments and illicit drug remunerations. The study argued that the way that the Chinese health care system operates was based on the profit-seeking principle rather than on fulfilling its social functions, and called for a systematic reform of provider incentives to eradicating the problem of over-prescription.

  20. Enhacements to the TTS-502 time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Hua, Q. D.

    1985-04-01

    Two years ago STI introduced an affordable, relatively compact time transfer system on the market -- the TTS-502, and described that system at the 1981 PTTI conference. Over the past few months, that system has been improved, and new features have been added. In addition, new options have been made available to further enhance the capabilities of the system. These enhancements include the addition of a positioning algorithm and new options providing a corrected 5 MHz output that is phase coherent with the 1 pps output, and providing an internal Rubidium Oscillator. The Positioning Algorithm was developed because not all time transfer users had the luxury of the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) services for determining their position in WGS-72 coordinates. The enhanced TTS-502 determines the GPS position anywhere in the world, independent of how many GPS satellites are concurrently visible. However, convergence time to a solution is inversely proportional to the number of satellites concurrently visible and the quality of frequency standard used in conjunction with the TTS-502. Real World solution results will be presented for a variety of cases and satellite scheduling scenarios. Typically, positioning accuracies were achieved better than 5 to 10 meters r.s.s. using the C/A code only at Sunnyvale, California.

  1. Energy transfer in mesoscopic vibrational systems enabled by eigenfrequency fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalaya, Juan

    Energy transfer between low-frequency vibrational modes can be achieved by means of nonlinear coupling if their eigenfrequencies fulfill certain nonlinear resonance conditions. Because of the discreteness of the vibrational spectrum at low frequencies, such conditions may be difficult to satisfy for most low-frequency modes in typical mesoscopic vibrational systems. Fluctuations of the vibrational eigenfrequencies can also be relatively strong in such systems. We show that energy transfer between modes can occur in the absence of nonlinear resonance if frequency fluctuations are allowed. The case of three modes with cubic nonlinear coupling and no damping is particularly interesting. It is found that the system has a non-thermal equilibrium state which depends only on the initial conditions. The rate at which the system approaches to such state is determined by the parameters such as the noise strength and correlation time, the nonlinearity strength and the detuning from exact nonlinear resonance. We also discuss the case of many weakly coupled modes. Our results shed light on the problem of energy relaxation of low-frequency vibrational modes into the continuum of high-frequency vibrational modes. The results have been obtained with Mark Dykman. Alternative email: jatalaya2012@gmail.com.

  2. Charge-Transfer Emitting Triarylborane π-Electron Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Zuo-Bang; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2017-02-06

    Triarylboranes have attracted significantly increasing research interest as a remarkable class of photoelectronic π-electron materials. Because of the presence of vacant p orbital on the B center, the boryl group is a very unique electron acceptor that exhibits not only electron-accepting ability through p-π* conjugation but also high Lewis acidity to coordinate with Lewis bases and steric bulk arising from the aryl substituent on the B center to get enough kinetic stability. Thus, the incorporation of a trivalent B element into π-conjugated systems is an efficient strategy to tune the electronic and stereo structures and thus the photoelectronic properties of π-electron systems. When an electron-donating group, such as amino, is present, triarylboranes would likely display intramolecular charge-transfer transitions. These kinds of molecules are often highly emissive. In addition, the geometry of the molecules has a great impact on the emission properties. In this Forum Article, we herein describe our recent progress on the charge-transfer emitting triarylborane π-electron systems with novel geometries, which include the lateral boryl-substituted π-system with amino groups at the terminal positions, the o,o'-substituted biaryl π-system with boryl and amino groups at the o,o'-positions, a triarylborane-based BODIPY system, and a B,N/S-bridged ladder-type π-system. We mainly put the emphasis on the molecular design concept, structure-property relationships, intriguing emission properties and great applications of the corresponding triarylborane π-systems.

  3. Prescription Drug Monitoring and Dispensing of Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Wunsch, Hannah; DiMaggio, Charles; Lang, Barbara H.; Giglio, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the United States, per-capita opioid dispensing has increased concurrently with analgesic-related mortality and morbidity since the 1990s. To deter diversion and abuse of controlled substances, most states have implemented electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). We evaluated the impact of state PDMPs on opioid dispensing. Methods We acquired data on opioids dispensed in a given quarter of the year for each state and the District of Columbia from 1999 to 2008 from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System and converted them to morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). We used multivariable linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations to assess the effect of state PDMPs on per-capita dispensing of MMEs. Results The annual MMEs dispensed per capita increased progressively until 2007 before stabilizing. Adjusting for temporal trends and demographic characteristics, implementation of state PDMPs was associated with a 3% decrease in MMEs dispensed per capita (p=0.68). The impact of PDMPs on MMEs dispensed per capita varied markedly by state, from a 66% decrease in Colorado to a 61% increase in Connecticut. Conclusions Implementation of state PDMPs up to 2008 did not show a significant impact on per-capita opioids dispensed. To control the diversion and abuse of prescription drugs, state PDMPs may need to improve their usability, implement requirements for committee oversight of the PDMP, and increase data sharing with neighboring states. PMID:24587548

  4. Prescription drug monitoring and dispensing of prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Brady, Joanne E; Wunsch, Hannah; DiMaggio, Charles; Lang, Barbara H; Giglio, James; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, per-capita opioid dispensing has increased concurrently with analgesic-related mortality and morbidity since the 1990s. To deter diversion and abuse of controlled substances, most states have implemented electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). We evaluated the impact of state PDMPs on opioid dispensing. We acquired data on opioids dispensed in a given quarter of the year for each state and the District of Columbia from 1999 to 2008 from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System and converted them to morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). We used multivariable linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations to assess the effect of state PDMPs on per-capita dispensing of MMEs. The annual MMEs dispensed per capita increased progressively until 2007 before stabilizing. Adjusting for temporal trends and demographic characteristics, implementation of state PDMPs was associated with a 3% decrease in MMEs dispensed per capita (p=0.68). The impact of PDMPs on MMEs dispensed per capita varied markedly by state, from a 66% decrease in Colorado to a 61% increase in Connecticut. Implementation of state PDMPs up to 2008 did not show a significant impact on per-capita opioids dispensed. To control the diversion and abuse of prescription drugs, state PDMPs may need to improve their usability, implement requirements for committee oversight of the PDMP, and increase data sharing with neighboring states.

  5. The Internet- and Digital Signature-Based Prescription Order Communication System Using Synchronized Smart Cards in the 2-Way Type Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    smart card tinder the network- and...and using their individually master smart cards are applied to all contents of the prescription stored on a patient’s slave smart card at the synchronized status in the 2-way type

  6. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  7. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  8. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  9. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  10. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Ringbauer, Joseph; HE, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  11. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  12. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwagon, R.E.

    1981-06-02

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  13. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwagon, R.E.

    1981-06-30

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  14. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher B; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K; Ringbauer, Joseph A; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  15. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer, Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered. PMID:19581361

  16. Advancing Best Practices for Prescription Drug Labeling.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Navaratnam, Prakash; Black, Heather; Russell, Allison L; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Problematic prescription drug labeling has been cited as a root cause of patient misunderstanding, medication errors, and nonadherence. Although numerous studies have recently been conducted to identify and test labeling best practices, the last systematic review on this topic was conducted a decade ago. The objective of this review was, therefore, to examine, summarize, and update best practices for conveying written prescription medication information and instructions to patients. English-language articles published from June 2005 to June 2015 were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL by searching the following text words: 'medication OR prescription OR drug' AND 'label OR leaflet OR brochure OR pamphlet OR medication guide OR medication insert OR drug insert OR medication information OR drug information OR instructions' AND 'patient OR consumer.' Reference mining and secondary searches were also performed. A total of 31 articles providing evidence on how to improve written, prescription drug labeling for patient use were selected. Two reviewers independently screened articles, rated their quality, and abstracted data. Identified best practices included the use of plain language, improved formatting and organization, and more explicit instructions to improve patient comprehension. The use of icons had conflicting findings, and few studies tested whether practices improved knowledge or behaviors with patients' actual prescribed regimens. Future studies are needed to determine how specific modifications and improvements in drug labeling can enhance patient knowledge and behavior in actual use. Synthesizing best practices across all patient materials will create a more useful, coordinated system of prescription information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Derivation of various transfer functions of ideal or aberrated imaging systems from the three-dimensional transfer function.

    PubMed

    Braat, Joseph J M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2015-06-01

    The three-dimensional frequency transfer function for optical imaging systems was introduced by Frieden in the 1960s. The analysis of this function and its partly back-transformed functions (two-dimensional and one-dimensional optical transfer functions) in the case of an ideal or aberrated imaging system has received relatively little attention in the literature. Regarding ideal imaging systems with an incoherently illuminated object volume, we present analytic expressions for the classical two-dimensional x-y-transfer function in a defocused plane, for the axial z-transfer function in the presence of defocusing and for the x-z-transfer function in the presence of a lateral shift δy with respect to the imaged pattern in the x-z-plane. For an aberrated imaging system we use the common expansion of the aberrated pupil function with the aid of Zernike polynomials. It is shown that the line integral appearing in Frieden's three-dimensional transfer function can be evaluated for aberrated systems using a relationship established first by Cormack between the line integral of a Zernike polynomial over a full chord of the unit disk and a Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind. Some new developments in the theory of Zernike polynomials from the last decade allow us to present explicit expressions for the line integral in the case of a weakly aberrated imaging system. We outline a similar, but more complicated, analytic scheme for the case of severely aberrated systems.

  18. Radiative interactions in transient energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in transient energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. The nongray radiative formulations are based on the wide-band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux are developed; these are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The methods presented in this study can be extended easily to investigate the radiative interactions in realistic flows of hydrogen-air species in the scramjet engine.

  19. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  20. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  1. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  2. Thermodynamic aspects of information transfer in complex dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan; Giffin, Adom

    2016-02-01

    From the Horowitz-Esposito stochastic thermodynamical description of information flows in dynamical systems [J. M. Horowitz and M. Esposito, Phys. Rev. X 4, 031015 (2014)], it is known that while the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied by a joint system, the entropic balance for the subsystems is adjusted by a term related to the mutual information exchange rate between the two subsystems. In this article, we present a quantitative discussion of the conceptual link between the Horowitz-Esposito analysis and the Liang-Kleeman work on information transfer between dynamical system components [X. S. Liang and R. Kleeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 244101 (2005)]. In particular, the entropic balance arguments employed in the two approaches are compared. Notwithstanding all differences between the two formalisms, our work strengthens the Liang-Kleeman heuristic balance reasoning by showing its formal analogy with the recent Horowitz-Esposito thermodynamic balance arguments.

  3. Beam profile monitor system for the Bevalac transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, G.

    1985-05-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Security issues in the electronic transmission of prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Mundy, D P; Chadwick, D W

    2003-12-01

    The UK government has stated within its plan of reform for the National Health Service that a secure system for the Electronic Transfer of Prescriptions will be available by 2004. The objectives of this paper are to highlight the significant barriers faced in securing an ETP system, to provide a critical analysis of the security mechanisms in the models currently being piloted and to suggest an alternative revised model which overcomes the identified deficiencies and security hurdles. To identify the significant security issues relevant to the adoption of ETP, the authors have combined their analysis of present prescription processing practice with their knowledge of computer security. The authors identify and describe how the issues of patient confidentiality, authorization, identity authentication, audit, scalability, availability and reliability are significant barriers to the adoption of ETP, particularly if they effect ease of use. The paper's contribution to the field of ETP is to suggest solutions to each of the identified security issues and to combine the solutions together in a revised and developed model.

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  6. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  7. Adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse is rising along with prescriptions for these medications.

    PubMed

    Setlik, Jennifer; Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona

    2009-09-01

    We sought to better understand the trend for prescription attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication abuse by teenagers. We queried the American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System for the years of 1998-2005 for all cases involving people aged 13 to 19 years, for which the reason was intentional abuse or intentional misuse and the substance was a prescription medication used for ADHD treatment. For trend comparison, we sought data on the total number of exposures. In addition, we used teen and preteen ADHD medication sales data from IMS Health's National Disease and Therapeutic Index database to compare poison center call trends with likely availability. Calls related to teenaged victims of prescription ADHD medication abuse rose 76%, which is faster than calls for victims of substance abuse generally and teen substance abuse. The annual rate of total and teen exposures was unchanged. Over the 8 years, estimated prescriptions for teenagers and preteenagers increased 133% for amphetamine products, 52% for methylphenidate products, and 80% for both together. Reports of exposure to methylphenidate fell from 78% to 30%, whereas methylphenidate as a percentage of ADHD prescriptions decreased from 66% to 56%. Substance-related abuse calls per million adolescent prescriptions rose 140%. The sharp increase, out of proportion to other poison center calls, suggests a rising problem with teen ADHD stimulant medication abuse. Case severity increased over time. Sales data of ADHD medications suggest that the use and call-volume increase reflects availability, but the increase disproportionately involves amphetamines.

  8. Treatment of continuum in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound systems. A simple model to test different prescriptions describing the coupling to continuum states

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C. H.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-03-04

    We exploit a model describing the break-up of weakly-bound nuclei that can be used as a laboratory for testing different prescriptions that have been advanced in the literature to take into account the near-by presence of continuum states. In the model we follow the evolution of a single particle wave function in one dimension, initially bound by a Woods-Saxon type potential and then perturbed by a time- and position-dependent external field. Proper choices of this potential can simulate the effect of the interaction between reaction partners in a nuclear collision. These processes generate inelastic excitation probabilities that--distributed over the bound and continuum states of the system--lead to either a partial or a total fragmentation of the final wave function. The comparison with the exact calculations shows that standard coupled channel descriptions based on discretization of the continuum can be accurate only when a proper choice is made of the number of discrete states, of the energy mesh and of the energy cutoff. This may imply, even in simplified cases, the use of a rather large (and unpracticable) number of channels. The use of a more restricted number of channels may lead to misleading results.

  9. A technology transfer tracking system for NREL: Overview and results

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.L.; Chapman, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study has been to assess the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL) technology, transfer--both the activities and the system, with the objective of developing a system to track the benefits of NREL-sponsored or conducted research. There were two factors which facilitated this study and which were important in the ability to make a detailed analysis and series of recommendations. First, was the nature of the lab, being one which, from its beginning, has worked closely with industry and, therefore has been directed toward research which would be of value to industry and hopefully commercialized. Second, the size of the laboratory made it relatively more easy to address issues and to become familiar with the organization and with the scientists themselves.

  10. A comparison of potential electric propulsion systems for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Electric propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.

  11. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  12. Transfer printing and micro-scale hybrid materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Matthew Alexander

    Micro- and nano-scale engineering, especially as it applies to integrated circuits, has impacted society in revolutionary ways. These integrated circuits are characterized by huge numbers of small electronic devices manufactured on semiconductor wafers. Some emerging technologies will require assemblies of these micro/nano-devices on substrates that are very different from semiconductor wafers in terms of processing schemes and properties. Integration of high quality semiconductors and devices onto large, low-cost, mechanically- deformable, polymeric (plastic or elastomer), and/or functional substrates for unconventional electronics applications (displays, systems-on-a-chip) are a few examples. This dissertation presents methods for assembling small-scale (˜nm to ˜mm) materials elements and devices on many classes of substrate (planar or simply-curved with nearly arbitrary composition) via transfer printing, a form of soft lithography. The approach uses rubber stamps to manipulate arrays of small-scale objects including but not limited to carbon nanotubes, metal thin films, single-crystal silicon and III-V semiconductor microstructures and devices, few-layer graphene, and silica microspheres. Presented here are the techniques for preparing printable materials elements and devices from solution (e.g. surfactant stabilized aqueous carbon nanotube solutions) and from donor/source substrates (e.g. semiconductor wafers) as well as the mechanical phenomena that govern the transfer of materials to and from the stamp. Among these are kinetically-switchable adhesion to a viscoelastic stamp and stress focusing via sharp geometries for controlling fracture. Also presented here are thin-film transistors, photodiodes, and inorganic light-emitting diodes on plastic substrates as well as semiconductor woodpile structures and silicon-III-V heterogeneous integration, examples of the capabilities of the transfer printing approach.

  13. Apparatus and Method for Effecting Data Transfer Between Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Joey V. (Inventor); Grosz, Francis B., Jr. (Inventor); Lannes, Kenny (Inventor); Maniscalco, David G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting data transfer between data systems comprising a first transceiver and a second transceiver. The first transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for converting digital data received at the input into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the data output. The second transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from another one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to the another one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for serially converting digital data received at the input of the second transceiver into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the output of the second transceiver. The apparatus further comprises an optical link connecting the first and second transceivers. The optical link comprising a pair of optical fibers. One of the optical fibers optically links the transmitter of the first transceiver to the receiver of the second transceiver. The other optical fiber optically links the receiver of the first transceiver to the transmitter of the second transceiver.

  14. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks.

  15. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is “prescription metabolism.” The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  16. Dynamical Evolution and Momentum Transfer for Binary Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerose, Julie

    Over the past decade, robotic missions have been sent to small bodies, providing a basic understanding of their environment. Some of these small systems are found to be in pairs, orbiting each other, which are thought to represent about 16% of the near-Earth asteroid population. It is fair to assume that a mission will target a binary asteroid system in the near future as they can enable scientific insight into both the geology and dynamics of asteroids. In previous work, the dynamical evolution of binary systems was investigated for an ellipsoidsphere model. From the dynamics of two celestial bodies, equilibrium configurations and their stability were analyzed. For a given value of angular momentum, it was shown that there are in general two relative equilibrium configurations which are opposite in stability. When perturbations are introduced, we found that the equilibrium states are the minimum energy points of nearby periodic families. General dynamics from unstable to stable configurations were investigated for binaries in close proximity. Accounting for the dynamics of binaries, the dynamics of particles in this gravitational field were also studied. The location of the analogue Lagrangian points and energy associated with them were characterized. The L1 region is a key element for transfers between the bodies. It was shown that L1 can be situated between or inside the bodies depending on the free parameters of the system modifying the transfer possibilities since L1 has a hyperbolic manifold associated with it. In the current work, we look at the L1 region for binary system where the bodies are in relative equilibrium, close to each other. We find that L1 transits from outside to inside the ellipsoid when the mass ratio is larger than 0.6. For binary systems in close proximity with L1 being inside the ellipsoidal body, simulations show that particles on the surface tend to move away from the ellipsoid, toward the spherical primary. We can relate this to the

  17. Communications Alternatives for Transparent Data Transfer in Civil Works Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    file transfer, distributive systems must be able to be updated . One solution to this problem is a transparent communications system. Such a system...properly, and (3) providing a communications system that the user can operate. One way to avoid these problems is to use transparent communications...ECONPACK Communications System allows data transfer of single files to or from the mainframe. File updating and transfer via transparent communications

  18. A consistent prescription of stratospheric aerosol for both radiation and chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    DOE PAGES

    Neely, III, Ryan Reynolds; Conley, Andrew J.; Vitt, Francis; ...

    2016-07-25

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterization is motivated by the poor response of the CESM1 (formerly referred to as the Community Climate System Model, version 4, CCSM4) simulations contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global mean surface temperature decreasemore » that was inconsistent with the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, and the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office (HADCRUT4). The new parameterization takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for variations in both the mass loading and size of the prescribed aerosol. An ensemble of simulations utilizing the old and new schemes shows CESM1's improved response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Most significantly, the new scheme more accurately simulates the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating. Here, results also indicate that the new scheme decreases the global mean temperature response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption by half of the observed temperature change, and modelled climate variability precludes statements as to the significance of this change.« less

  19. A consistent prescription of stratospheric aerosol for both radiation and chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, III, Ryan Reynolds; Conley, Andrew J.; Vitt, Francis; Lamarque, Jean -Francois

    2016-07-25

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterization is motivated by the poor response of the CESM1 (formerly referred to as the Community Climate System Model, version 4, CCSM4) simulations contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global mean surface temperature decrease that was inconsistent with the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, and the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office (HADCRUT4). The new parameterization takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for variations in both the mass loading and size of the prescribed aerosol. An ensemble of simulations utilizing the old and new schemes shows CESM1's improved response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Most significantly, the new scheme more accurately simulates the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating. Here, results also indicate that the new scheme decreases the global mean temperature response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption by half of the observed temperature change, and modelled climate variability precludes statements as to the significance of this change.

  20. A consistent prescription of stratospheric aerosol for both radiation and chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds Neely, Ryan, III; Conley, Andrew J.; Vitt, Francis; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterization is motivated by the poor response of the CESM1 (formerly referred to as the Community Climate System Model, version 4, CCSM4) simulations contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global mean surface temperature decrease that was inconsistent with the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, and the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office (HADCRUT4). The new parameterization takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for variations in both the mass loading and size of the prescribed aerosol. An ensemble of simulations utilizing the old and new schemes shows CESM1's improved response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Most significantly, the new scheme more accurately simulates the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating. Results also indicate that the new scheme decreases the global mean temperature response to the 1991 Pinatubo eruption by half of the observed temperature change, and modelled climate variability precludes statements as to the significance of this change.

  1. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  2. A Consistent Prescription of Stratospheric Aerosol for Both Radiation and Chemistry in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R. R., III; Conley, A.; Vitt, F.; Lamarque, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Here we describe an updated parameterization for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The need for a new parameterisation is motivated by the poor global response of most models in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to colossal volcanic perturbations to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption or the 1883 Krakatau eruption) in comparison to observations. In particular, the scheme used in the CMIP5 simulations by CESM1 simulated a global temperature decrease by a factor 2 larger than was observed. The new parameterisation takes advantage of recent improvements in historical stratospheric aerosol databases to allow for varying both the mass loading and effective radius of the prescribed aerosol. Simulations utilizing the new scheme are shown to now reproduce the observed global mean temperature response as well as the temperature response of the stratosphere due to local aerosol heating after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption.

  3. Situational and Demographic Influences on Transfer System Characteristics in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Chih; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.

    2006-01-01

    Transfer theories, which are closely related to evaluation theory, have been developed from a holistic perspective, but most of empirical transfer research has not effectively utilized holistic models to investigate transfer of learning until the late 1990s. Additionally, little has been done in examining the relationship between situational…

  4. A web-based clinical decision support system for gestational diabetes: Automatic diet prescription and detection of insulin needs.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Ruiz, Estefanía; García-Sáez, Gema; Rigla, Mercedes; Villaplana, María; Pons, Belen; Hernando, M Elena

    2017-06-01

    The growth of diabetes prevalence is causing an increasing demand in health care services which affects the clinicians' workload as medical resources do not grow at the same rate as the diabetic population. Decision support tools can help clinicians with the inspection of monitoring data, providing a preliminary analysis to ease their interpretation and reduce the evaluation time per patient. This paper presents Sinedie, a clinical decision support system designed to manage the treatment of patients with gestational diabetes. Sinedie aims to improve access to specialized healthcare assistance, to prevent patients from unnecessary displacements, to reduce the evaluation time per patient and to avoid gestational diabetes adverse outcomes. A web-based telemedicine platform was designed to remotely evaluate patients allowing them to upload their glycaemia data at home directly from their glucose meter, as well as report other monitoring variables like ketonuria and compliance to dietary treatment. Glycaemia values, not tagged by patients, are automatically labelled with their associated meal by a classifier based on the Expectation Maximization clustering algorithm and a C4.5 decision tree learning algorithm. Two finite automata are combined to determine the patient's metabolic condition, which is analysed by a rule-based knowledge base to generate therapy adjustment recommendations. Diet recommendations are automatically prescribed and notified to the patients, whereas recommendations about insulin requirements are notified also to the physicians, who will decide if insulin needs to be prescribed. The system provides clinicians with a view where patients are prioritized according to their metabolic condition. A randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Sinedie interventions versus standard care and its impact in the professionals' workload in terms of the clinician's time required per patient; number of face

  5. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors

    PubMed Central

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically. PMID:19594530

  6. The Magsat three axis arc second precision attitude transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenkel, F. W.; Heins, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Magsat Attitude Transfer System (ATS), which provides attitude alteration in pitch, yaw, and roll is described. A remote vector magnetometer extends from Magsat on a 20 ft boom, requiring vector orientation by reference to coordinate axes determined by a set of star mapping cameras. The ATS was designed to perform in a solar illuminated environment by using an optically narrow bandwidth with synchronous demodulation at 9300 A. The pitch/yaw optical design, the electrooptics, and signal and switching diagrams are provided. Simple mirrors with no moving parts are placed on the magnetometer to reflect a collimated beam from the ATS for attitude indication, which is accurate to one part in 96. Alignment was completed within 24 hr after launch.

  7. Orbital Transfer Vehicle: Concept definition and system analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Findings and recommendations from the second extension of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept definition and system analysis study are outlined. The extension study opens the scope of potential recommendations by introducing a variety of ambitious programs, and by making the large cargo vehicle recommended by the Space Transportation Architecture Studies available at no acquisition cost to the OTV program. It is a further objective of the extension study to evaluate the sensitivity of OTV program recommendations to scenario variations such as different mission models, different launch vehicle availability, and different space station availability. Program/mission issues are addressed including safety considerations for the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) OTV. Design issues related to the development of a near-term expendable OTV, engine configuration tradeoffs, lunar missions, and program evolution are discussed. Finally, aeroassist considerations for a manned Mars mission and high speed entries are presented.

  8. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  9. Conceptual design for an on-site spent-fuel transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, C.W.; Neider, T.J.; Guerra, G.V.; Margotta, K.V. )

    1991-09-01

    Transnuclear, Inc. has developed two conceptual designs for transferring spent fuel from a nuclear plant's fuel storage pool to large storage casks by means of a small transfer cask. The transfer of spent fuel would be performed external to the nuclear plant, rather than within the plant's fuel building or transport bay. The systems can also be used to transfer fuel between storage casks and transport casks. Both systems meet the design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems outlined in EPRI Report NP-6425, Design Considerations for On-Site Spent-Fuel Transfer Systems.'' One of the designs involves a dry transfer into the storage cask, while the other uses a wet transfer method. Both systems have been evaluated for economic and technical feasibility, licensability and practicality. This report describes each of the conceptual designs and outlines the operating procedures for each system. In addition, a risk and accident assessment, a logistical evaluation, and an economic analysis including target cost evaluations and system cost estimates are included. This report shows that it is technically feasible and that costs are economically justifiable to perform on-site spent-fuel transfers using small transfer casks. However, the final design selection for the transfer system could depend on the individual utility's operational preferences and the unique facility features that already exist at each nuclear plant. 9 tabs.

  10. Relationship between e-prescriptions and community pharmacy workflow.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011. 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Think-aloud protocols and pharmacy group interviews. Pharmacy staff descriptions of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delayed and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. An overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in serious time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, lack of formal training and the disconnect between pharmacy procedures for verifying prescription accuracy and presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases because of legislative mandates, it is essential that the technology supporting e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended increase in medication errors, user frustration, and stress.

  11. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  12. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  13. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  14. Burning by prescription in chaparral

    Treesearch

    Lisle R. Green

    1981-01-01

    Prescribed burning is frequently suggested for reducing conflagration costs in chaparral. Preparation for a prescribed burn includes environmental impact reports, approval by higher levels of authority, and a burn plan. After objectives are stated, the prescription can be written. Elements of the burn prescription reflect fuel, weather, and other factors that determine...

  15. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  16. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  17. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  18. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  19. Commentary on Causal Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    Causal prescriptive statements are valued in the social sciences when there is the goal of helping people through interventions. The articles in this special issue cover different methods for testing causal prescriptive statements. This commentary identifies both virtues and liabilities of these different approaches. We argue that it is extremely…

  20. Transfer matrix method for multibody systems for piezoelectric stack actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Gangli; Bian, Leixiang; Rui, Xiaoting

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve a large displacement output from a piezoelectric actuator, we realized the piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) by mechanically layering/stacking multi-chip piezoelectric wafers in a series and electrically connecting the electrodes in parallel. In this paper, in order to accurately model the hysteresis and the dynamic characteristics of a PSA, the transfer matrix method for multibody systems (MSTMM) was adopted to describe the dynamic characteristics, and the Bouc-Wen hysteresis operator was used to represent the hysteresis. The vibration characteristics of a PSA and a piezo-actuated positioning mechanism (PPM) are derived and analyzed by the MSTMM; then, the dynamic responses of the PSA and the PPM are calculated. The experimental results show that the new method can accurately portray the hysteresis and the dynamic characteristics of a PSA and a PPM. On one hand, if we use this method to model the dynamic response of the PSA and the PPM, the PSA can be considered as a flexible body, as opposed to a mass-spring-damper system, which is in better agreement with the actual condition. On the other hand, the global dynamics equation is not needed for the study of system dynamics, and the dynamics equation has a small-sized matrix and a higher computational speed. Therefore, this method gives a broad range of possibilities for model-based controller design.

  1. Verification measurements of the Karoo Array timing system: a laser radar based time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebrits, R.; Bauermeister, E.; Gamatham, R.; Adams, G.; Malan, J. A.; Burger, J. P.; Kapp, F.; Gibbon, T.; Kriel, H.; Abbott, T.

    2016-02-01

    An optical fiber based laser radar time transfer system has been developed for the 64-dish MeerKAT radiointerferometer telescope project to provide accurate atomic time to the receivers of the telescope system. This time transfer system is called the Karoo Array Timing System (KATS). Calibration of the time transfer system is essential to ensure that time is accurately transferred to the digitisers that form part of the receivers. Frequency domain reflectometry via vector network analysers is also used to verify measurements taken using time interval counters. This paper details the progress that is made in the verification measurements of the system in order to ensure that time, accurate to within a few nanoseconds of the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC, is available at the point where radio signals from astronomical sources are received. This capability enables world class transient and timing studies with a compact radio interferometer, which has inherent advantages over large single dish radio-telescopes, in observing the transient sky.

  2. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  3. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  4. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  5. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  6. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  7. Heat-transfer characteristics in viscous gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Fan, L.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Local heat-transfer measurements are performed using a special heat-transfer probe in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems with viscous Newtonian liquids as the continuous phase. Effects of viscosity on bubble-liquid and bubble-liquid-solid interactions affecting local heat transfer are studied through heat-transfer experiments with simultaneous flow visualization in a simplified system involving single bubbles or a chain of gas bubbles moving in viscous liquids and liquid-solid systems. Effects of viscosity on bubble wake and local heat transfer are examined with reference to heat transfer in freely-bubbling beds (bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds). The kinematic viscosity of the fluid greatly influences the nature of flow in the wake which affects local heat transfer in the bed. The local heat transfer decreases with the viscosity due to the rapid decay in the circulation strength of the bubble wake caused by increased viscous dissipation of vorticity. Local heat transfer due to cyclic/periodic injection of bubbles is significantly enhanced due to increased bubble-wake interactions which rapidly accelerate bubbles and increase average bubble rise velocity. Heat transfer in simplified liquid and liquid-solid systems with single- and chain-bubble injections characterizes the local heat-transfer performance of freely-bubbling beds (bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds). A mechanistic model developed accounts for the heat-transfer behavior in bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds with viscous liquids.

  8. Time-Transfer System for Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William; Wu, Seen-Chong; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Dunn, Charles; Romans, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the time-transfer system of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which information on the distribution of Earth mass is extracted from position and time measurements for two spacecraft about 200 km apart in a circular, nearly polar orbit. Each spacecraft carriers a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a K/Ka-band ranging (KBR) instrument, and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO) that serves as a clock for the GPS and KBR units. The long-term errors of the USOs are cancelled by use of a technique, called dual-one-way phase measurements, in which the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft A as measured at spacecraft B are added to the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft B as measured at spacecraft A. GPS data are used to synchronize time between the USOs to within approximately 150 ps as needed to enable the dual-one-way phase measurements: For each spacecraft, the GPS data are used to solve for orbital positions, and the difference between the onboard clocks and a ground clock every 5 minutes. The relative clock rate between the spacecraft is then determined from the difference between the two solutions.

  9. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time.

    PubMed

    Spinney, Richard E; Lizier, Joseph T; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  10. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  11. Demonstration of the smart crane ammunition transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Killough, S.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the Smart Crane Ammunition Transfer System (SCATS) project is to demonstrate robotic/telerobotic controls technology for a mobile articulated crane for missile/munitions handling, delivery, and reload. Missile resupply and reload have been manually intensive operations up to this time. Currently, reload missiles are delivered by truck to the site of the launcher. A crew of four to five personnel reloads the missiles from the truck to the launcher using a hydraulic-powered crane. The missiles are handled carefully for the safety of the missiles and personnel. Numerous steps are required in the reload process and the entire reload operation can take over an hour for some missile systems. Recent US Army directives require the entire operation to be accomplished in a fraction of that time. Current development of SCATS is being based primarily on reloading Patriot missiles. This paper summarizes the current status of the SCATS project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Additional information on project background and requirements has been described previously (Bradley, et al., 1995).

  12. BPM SYSTEM FOR THE SNS RING AND TRANSFER LINES.

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON,W.C.; CAMERON,P.; CERNIGLIA,P.; CUPOLO,J.; DEGEN,C.; DELLAPENNA,A.; HUHN,A.; KESSELMAN,M.; MEAD,J.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-05-06

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates about 1060 pulses of 38mA peak current IGeV H-minus particles from the Linac thru the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to the mercury target via the RTBT line. Bunching frequency of beam in the HEBT line is 402.5MHz, and about 1MHz in the Ring and RTBT. Position monitor electrodes in HEBT are of the shorted stripline type, with apertures of 12cm except in the dispersive bend, where the aperture is 21cm. Ring and RTBT electrodes are open striplines, with apertures of 21, 26, 30, and 36cm. All pickups are dual plane. The electronics will be PC-based with the Analog/Digital Front End passing data and receiving control and timing thru a custom PC1 interface developed by LANL[l]. LabVIEW will be used to direct the acquisition, process the data, and transfer results via Ethernet to the EPICS control system. To handle the dynamic range required with well over 60dB variation in signal size, the Ring and RTBT electronics will employ a fast gain switching technique that will take advantage of the 300ns tail-to-head gap to provide position measurement during the entire accumulation cycle. Beam-based alignment will be utilized as part of the system calibration.

  13. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  14. How do community pharmacies recover from e-prescription errors?

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient's medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber's intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber's intent. Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers' intent. Future studies are needed to examine factors that facilitate or hinder recovery

  15. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  16. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  17. Store and prescription characteristics associated with primary medication nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Tristen H; Bentley, John P; McCaffrey, David J; Pace, Pat; Holmes, Erin; West-Strum, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Primary medication nonadherence (PMN) is any instance whereby patients fail to initiate a pharmacotherapy regimen after receiving a prescription for new therapy. The Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) has proposed a standardized definition for PMN and a quality measure to assess the rates of PMN in community pharmacies. To (a) measure PMN using the proposed PQA measure with data available from a pharmacy dispensing system and (b) identify the prescription-level (patient, prescriber, and medication) and store-level (store and neighborhood) characteristics associated with PMN. This study was approved by a southern university institutional review board, and a data use agreement was in place. A large national pharmacy grocery chain provided de-identified, transactional data for 2010 through January 2012, for 100 pharmacies (de-identified unique patient and store codes were available). The proposed PQA-PMN measure was used, and PMN rates were calculated. Investigators examined adult individuals with a new electronic prescription for any of the included medications during the measurement period and determined whether the medication or an appropriate alternative was claimed within 30 days. Multilevel logistic regression with a random intercept was used to evaluate prescription-level and store-level predictors of PMN. Prescription-level variables included prescriber type, PQA-defined drug class, patient gender and age, whether the prescription was accompanied by another prescription on the same day, payment source, and out-of-pocket costs. A daily average prescription volume variable was calculated for each pharmacy as a store-level variable. Additional store-level variables were derived from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, available from the U.S. Census Bureau (median household income, educational level, percentage of minorities, and percentage aged 65 years and over in the census tracts where the pharmacies are located).  Of the e-prescriptions during the 1-year

  18. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface

  19. Analysis of compliance and outcomes in a trauma system with a 2-hour transfer rule.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Marie L; Esposito, Thomas J; Reed, R Lawrence; Gamelli, Richard L; Luchette, Frederick A

    2010-12-01

    Minimizing time to definitive care in an effort to optimize outcomes is the goal of trauma systems. Toward this end, some systems have imposed standards on time to interfacility transfer. This study evaluates compliance and outcome in a system with a 2-hour transfer rule. Retrospective review. State trauma registry data from 1999 to 2003. Trauma patients who underwent interfacility transfer and those who did not. Time to transfer; Injury Severity Score; mortality; and time to operating room at second facility. These variables were then stratified by time to transfer. During the study period, there were 22 447 interfacility transfers. Overall transfer rate was 10.4%. Of the transfers, 4502 (20%) occurred within 2 hours. Median transfer time was 2 hours 21 minutes. Injury Severity Score, mortality, and number of patients with operation performed on same day of transfer were all higher for the group transferred within 2 hours in comparison with patients transferred on the same day of injury at greater than 2 hours. While the majority of transfers occur at greater than the mandated 2-hour interval, the most seriously injured patients are reaching definitive care within 2 hours. Markers of acuity for patients transferred at greater than 2 hours parallel those of the general trauma patient population. These data suggest that, in this system, provider-determined transfer time that exceeds 2 hours has no adverse effect on patient outcome. It appears to accomplish recognition and rapid transport of the most seriously ill. This may obviate the need for onerous system mandates that are not feasible or have poor compliance.

  20. [Neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription practices in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Neves, A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Fernandez-Llimos, F

    2014-02-01

    The use of guidelines for neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) improves its clinical efficiency and the safety of prescription. To evaluate the practices of neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription in Portugal, and the adherence to the National Consensus on neonatal PN (2008). A questionnaire based on a multiple choice response on parenteral nutrition prescription was conducted, and sent to the coordinators of the 50 public and private Portuguese neonatal special care units, 25 being level III and 25 level II. Parenteral nutrition was prescribed in 32 neonatal units, 23 of which (71.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (82.6%) refer to follow the National Consensus, the remaining following local guidelines; 17 (73.9%) of units referred to using an electronic based system for prescription. In preterm neonates, most mentioned: administering judiciously the fluid intake during the first post-natal week; starting amino acids from the first post-natal day with 1.5-3g/kg/d, increasing up to 3-4g/kg/d; starting lipids from the first three post-natal days with 1g/kg/d, increasing up to 3g/kg/d; administering 40-70mg/kg/d of calcium and of phosphorus with the fixed calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1.7: 1 (mg:mg); and estimating the osmolality of the solutions, and weekly monitoring of serum triglycerides, blood urea, serum phosphorus and liver function. The high response rate is probably representative of the practice of PN prescription in Portugal. Most of the units used the National Consensus on neonatal PN as a reference, thus contributing to better nutritional support for neonates. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the limits of polarization transfer efficiency in homonuclear three spin systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L; Heitmann, Björn; Reiss, Timo O; Schor, Heloiza H R; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2006-07-01

    The limits of polarization transfer efficiency are explored for systems consisting of three isotropically coupled spins 1/2 in the absence of relaxation. An idealized free evolution and control Hamiltonian is studied, which provides an upper limit of transfer efficiency (in terms of transfer amplitude and transfer time) for realistic homonuclear spin systems with arbitrary Heisenberg-type coupling constants J12, J13, and J23. It is shown that optimal control based pulse sequences have significantly improved transfer efficiencies compared to conventional transfer schemes. An experimental demonstration of optimal polarization transfer is given for the case of the carbon spin system of fully 13C labelled alanine at 62.5 MHz Larmor frequency.

  2. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  3. A SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORD SYSTEM FOR FARM MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANEY, GEORGE E.

    THE LACK OF SCHOOL TRANSFER RECORDS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRANT FARMWORKERS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM IN PROVIDING CONTINUITY IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF THESE YOUNGSTERS. IN AN ATTEMPT TO COORDINATE THE TRANSFER OF MIGRANT FARM CHILDREN, THIS BULLETIN OF PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS AND SAMPLE FORMS HAS BEEN PREPARED. THE SUGGESTED FORMS FOR USE WITH MIGRANT…

  4. Reconceptualizing the Learning Transfer Conceptual Framework: Empirical Validation of a New Systemic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a new systemic model of learning transfer and thus determine if a more holistic approach to training transfer could better explain the phenomenon. In all, this study confirmed the validity of the new systemic model and suggested that a high performance work system could indeed serve as…

  5. Prescribing costs when computers are used to issue all prescriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to see whether the use of a computer to issue prescriptions in conjunction with a computerised, customized drug formulary affects prescribing costs. Data on prescribing costs were obtained from the Scottish Prescription Pricing Bureau for 1978-87. A microcomputer system was introduced into the practice in 1983 and used initially to issue repeat prescriptions, but from 1985 onwards a new system was added to issue all prescriptions; a personal computerised drug formulary was developed in 1983. Personal prescribing costs before and after computerisation were compared with those of the other partners and those of the Lothian Health Board and Scotland combined. The prescribing costs of the partners and Lothian Health Board and Scotland combined increased almost linearly in line with inflation from 1978 to 1987. Personal prescribing costs increased steadily until 1983, when repeat prescriptions were issued by computer, and remained static for a year. Thereafter they increased steadily until 1985, when all prescriptions were issued by computer, and then showed a steady and sustained fall. Personal prescribing costs were 21.5% lower than those of the partners in 1986 and 29.5% lower in 1987. Prescribing costs were reduced when a computer was used to issue all prescriptions in conjunction with a personal, computerised formulary. PMID:2503199

  6. Impact of rapid identification of positive blood cultures using the Verigene system on antibiotic prescriptions: A prospective study of community-onset bacteremia in a tertiary hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Kobayakawa, Masao; Yamamoto, Kei; Mutoh, Yoshikazu; Tsuboi, Motoyuki; Hasimoto, Takehiro; Nagamatsu, Maki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Katanami, Yuichi; Ishikane, Masahiro; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Rapid identification of positive blood cultures is important for initiation of optimal treatment in septic patients. Effects of automated, microarray-based rapid identification systems on antibiotic prescription against community-onset bacteremia (COB) remain unclear. We prospectively enrolled 177 patients with 185 COB episodes (occurring within 72 h of admission) over 17 months. Bacteremia episodes due to gram-positive bacteria (GP) and gram-negative bacteria (GN) in the same patient were counted separately. For GP bacteremia, patients with ≥2 sets of positive blood cultures were included. The primary study objective was evaluating the rates of antibiotic prescription changes within 2 days of rapid identification using the Verigene system. Bacteremia due to GN and GP included 144/185 (77.8%) and 41/185 (22.2%) episodes, respectively. Antibiotic prescription changes occurred in 51/185 cases (27.6% [95%CI:21.3-34.6%]) after Verigene analysis and 70/185 cases (37.8% [30.8-45.2%]) after conventional identification and susceptibility testing. Prescription changes after Verigene identification were more frequent in GP (17/41[41.5%]) than in GN (34/144[23.5%]). Among bacteremia due to single pathogen targeted by Verigene test, bacterial identification agreement between the two tests was high (GP: 38/39[97.4%], GN: 116/116[100%]). The Verigene test correctly predicted targeted antimicrobial resistance. The durations between the initiation of incubation and reporting of the results for the Verigene system and conventional test was 28.3 h (IQR: 25.8-43.4 h) and 90.6 h (68.3-118.4 h), respectively. In only four of the seven episodes of COB in which two isolates were identified by conventional tests, the Verigene test correctly identified both organisms. We observed a high rate of antibiotic prescription changes after the Verigene test in a population with COB especially in GP. The Verigene test would be a useful tool in antimicrobial stewardship programs among patients

  7. Numerical heat transfer attic model using a radiant barrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.; Alsaiegh, N.T.

    2000-04-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state finite-element model was developed to simulate the thermal effects of the application of an attic radiant barrier system (ARBS) inside a ventilated residential attic. The attic is ventilated using the exhaust air from an evaporative cooler. The study uses a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulent model to describe the velocity and temperature distributions in the attic. The ambient temperature and solar isolation densities on the outside inclined attic surfaces are used as driving functions for the model. The model also included the appropriate heat exchange modes of convection and radiation on these outside surfaces. Several recirculation zones were visually observed in the attic flow pattern. Also, the use of the ARBS seems to lower the heat transfer through the ceiling by 25--30%, but this effect decreases significantly as the outside ventilation rates are increased through the attic space. The 2D model revealed some interesting temperature distributions along the attic surfaces that could not have been predicted by the one-dimensional models. The lower emissivity ARBS seems to raise the temperature of the inclined attic surfaces as well as the temperature of the exhausted ventilation air.

  8. Satellite lines at the ionization threshold in charge transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardermann, W.; von Niessen, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the possibility of low-energy ionizations of reduced intensity for larger organic molecules. Possible mechanisms which may lead to this phenomenon are outlined and the necessary structural features are discussed. The lowest ionization energies of some organic unsaturated nitro and nitroso compounds are calculated by the ADC(3) ab initio many-body Green's function method. The π-electron system consists either of fused five- and six-membered rings or of two fused five-membered rings with a variable number of heteroatoms. Some of the molecules contain exocylic double bonds and some are substituted with the donor groups -NH 2, -OH and -NHOH. The strongest many-body effects are found for the nitroso compounds, where in one case the spectral line at the ionization threshold has lost more than 40% of its intensity to satellites. We study the many-body effects at or close to the ionization threshold for these compounds. A particular mechanism which involves the screening of localized valence holes by charge transfer excitations appears to be capable of influencing the profile and intensities of the ionization spectrum already at the ionization threshold. The effect leads to strongly reduced relative intensities of the bands and may cause the appearance of satellite bands nearly at the ionization threshold. The spectral changes in the outermost valence region are discussed by using a simple model calculation in terms of ground-state electronic properties of the molecules.

  9. The GNC Measurement System for the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Y.; da Cunha, P.

    The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a European Space Agency (ESA) funded spacecraft developed by EADS Space Transportation as prime contractor for the space segment together with major European industrial partners, in the frame of the International Space Station (ISS). Its mission objective is threefold : to supply the station with fret and propellant, to reboost ISS to a higher orbit and to dispose of waste from the station. The ATV first flight, called Jules Verne and planned on 2005, will be the first European Vehicle to perform an orbital rendezvous. The GNC Measurement System (GMS) is the ATV on board function in charge of the measurement data collection and preconditioning for the navigation, guidance and control (GNC) algorithms. The GMS is made up of hardware which are the navigation sensors (with a certain level of hardware redundancy for each of them), and of an on-board software that manages, monitors and performs consistency checks to detect and isolate potential sensor failures. The GMS relies on six kinds of navigation sensors, used during various phases of the mission : the gyrometers assembly (GYRA), the accelerometers assembly (ACCA), the star trackers (STR), the GPS receivers, the telegoniometers (TGM) and the videometers (VDM), the last two being used for the final rendezvous phase. The GMS function is developed by EADS Space Transportation together with other industrial partners: EADS Astrium, EADS Sodern, Laben and Dasa Jena Optronik.

  10. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  11. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    steering for microwave power transmission (the ability to accurately track a moving receiver) has been demonstrated at Texas A&M. It is proposed that the next step in development of this concept is a modest scale up from 25 elements to 435 followed by a further scale up using such 435 element arrays as subarrays for a still larger retrodirective system. Ultimately, transmit antenna sizes on the order of 100 meters are envisioned permitting transfer levels on the order of 30 kW to aerial vehicles up to 20 km.

  12. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  13. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  14. Deregulation of allopathic prescription and medical practice in India: Benefits and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman; Roy, Pritam

    2016-01-01

    In the background of debates on Universal Health Coverage, skill transfer from the medical practice license holders to other health-care providers such as nurse practitioner has become a global norm. In India, where the world's largest numbers of medical graduates are produced, this discussion is expanding to extremes and serious suggestions are coming forward for the development of legal framework for allowing dentists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and half duration trained doctors; permission to issue allopathic prescription. Allopathic medical prescription. It is noteworthy that this discussion only pertains to the pharmaceutical products retailed through "allopathic medical prescriptions." A prescription is not only advice for patient's recovery but it also is a legitimate order for the sale of controlled drugs and pharmaceutical product; thereby functions as a regulatory tool for consumption of pharmaceutical products at retail level. Who is ultimately going to benefit from this prescription deregulation? This editorial explores benefits and pitfalls of prescription and medical practice deregulation.

  15. A Design Study Of A Wireless Power Transfer System For Use To Transfer Energy From A Vibration Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabham, N. J.; Harden, C.; Vincent, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A wirelessly powered remote sensor node is presented along with its design process. The purpose of the node is the further expansion of the sensing capabilities of the commercial Perpetuum system used for condition monitoring on trains and rolling stock which operates using vibration energy harvesting. Surplus harvested vibration energy is transferred wirelessly to a remote satellite sensor to allow measurements over a wider area to be made. This additional data is to be used for long term condition monitoring. Performance measurements made on the prototype remote sensor node are reported and advantages and disadvantages of using the same RF frequency for power and data transfer are identified.

  16. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, C. M. Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-28

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  17. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. M.; Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  18. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  19. Transfer of training on manual control systems differing in short period frequency and damping characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Each of four groups of 16 subjects was trained on one of four compensatory tracking tasks that differed with regard to short period natural frequency and damping characteristics. After completion of the training sessions, the members of each group either transferred to a task on which they had not been trained or continued with their original task. Analysis of the training data indicated that relative task difficulty was largely determined by system damping which, however, had little effect on the amount of transfer during the transfer trials. The effect of system frequency was essentially reversed, and a marked interaction between training and transfer frequencies was observed in the transfer data. Similar results were obtained both with relative error scores and transinformation scores. Positive transfer was exhibited by most of the groups when they transferred to tasks on which they had not been trained.

  20. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... 60 3.00 4.00 Narcotics other than Heroin Past Year - - 4.80 Vicodin Past Year 0. ...

  1. Method of Relaxation Moments for Studying Nonlinear Locally Nonequilibrium Processes of Transfer of Polymeric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A method for simulating the processes of transfer of thermodynamic systems with polymeric microstructure is considered. The method is based on the classical locally equilibrium medium-state entropy concept expanded by the introduction of a structural tensor parameter whose evolution characterizes the nonlinear anisotropic relaxation properties of a thermodynamic system and the associated transfer phenomena. The dynamic, thermal, and mass transfer characteristics of macrotransfer are determined by corresponding integrals of relaxation moments.

  2. The Design and Transfer of Advanced Command and Control (C2) Computer-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    TECHNICAL REPORT 80-02 QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT: THE DESIGN AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL (C 2 ) COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS ARPA...The Tasks/Objectives and/or Purposes of the overall project are connected with the design , development, demonstration and transfer of advanced...command and control (C2 ) computer-based systems; this report covers work in the computer-based design and transfer areas only. The Technical Problems thus

  3. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  4. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  5. 48 CFR 52.232-34 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Other than System for Award Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association, or the Fedwire Transfer System. The rules..., or lockbox). (6) If applicable, the Fedwire Transfer System telegraphic abbreviation of the... Fedwire Transfer System; and, therefore, not the receiver of the wire transfer payment. (End of clause) ...

  6. Methadone and prescription drug overdose.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hansen, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    (1) Methadone accounted for 2 percent of painkiller prescriptions and more than 30 percent of prescription painkiller deaths in 2009. (2) Data suggest that the rise in deaths from methadone overdose is not related to its use in treating drug abuse but, rather, to its use for pain management. (3) Preferred drug lists in most Medicaid programs identify methadone as a preferred drug for managing chronic pain, but most experts do no recommend it as a first choice.

  7. INCENTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME PURE AND MIXED TRANSFER SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Direct income transfers to the poor are considered by many a necessary, if insufficient, weapon in the war on poverty . The most widely discussed...instrument for implementing such a transfer is the negative income tax. A promising competitor, which is just beginning to receive the attention it...deserves, is the wage subsidy. Since most of the discussion on income maintenance has turned on the labor supply effects of various alternatives, the document considers it as an important feature. (Author)

  8. Optimal Trajectories For Orbital Transfers Using Low And Medium Thrust Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1992-01-01

    For many problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well-known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs which will require more revolutions, thus making the low thrust transfer computational intensive. Here, we consider optimal low and medium thrust orbital transfers.

  9. Instability of mass transfer in a planet-star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shi; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the angular momentum exchange mechanism governing the evolution of mass-transferring binary stars does not apply to Roche lobe filling planets, because most of the angular momentum of the mass-transferring stream is absorbed by the host star. Apart from a correction for the difference in specific angular momentum of the stream and the centre of mass of the planet, the orbit does not expand much on Roche lobe overflow. We explore the conditions for dynamically unstable Roche lobe overflow as a function of planetary mass and mass and radius (age) of host star and equation of state of planet. For a Sun-like host, gas giant planets in a range of mass and entropy can undergo dynamical mass transfer. Examples of the evolution of the mass transfer process are given. Dynamic mass transfer of rocky planets depends somewhat sensitively on equation of state used. Silicate planets in the range 1 < Mp < 10 M⊕ typically go through a phase of dynamical mass transfer before settling to slow overflow when their mass drops to less than 1 M⊕.

  10. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  11. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  12. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  13. New Members' Resource Book: A Reference for Institutions New to the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2011-01-01

    This resource book is a reference for new member institutions which are those private institutions admitted to the BC Transfer System by way of having one or more programs reviewed by the Degree Quality Assessment Board and given Minister's Consent. All current BC Transfer System members and prospective members (private institutions contemplating…

  14. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, V.; Aberle, O.; Bracco, C.; Fraser, M.; Galleazzi, F.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Maciariello, F.; Meddahi, M.; Nuiry, F. X.; Steele, G.; Velotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  15. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  16. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  17. A pharmacoepidemiological study of prescription pattern in outpatient clinics in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Al-Homrany, Mohammed A; Hamdi, Anwar A; Adjepon-Yamoah, Keneth K; Mahfouz, Ahmed A

    2004-12-01

    To study the pattern of prescriptions in outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 3796 prescriptions from outpatient clinics of Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened randomly and systemically over one-year period (April 2000 to April 2001). The prescriptions were analyzed for the essential elements of the prescription order, and for the number and classes of drugs prescribed, source of prescription and appropriateness of prescription to the diagnosis. The source of prescriptions was not provided in 61.5% of prescriptions. The diagnosis was missing in 15.1% and not readable in 18.9% of prescriptions. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the most frequent diagnosis and was included in 21.6% of prescriptions. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.1 +/- 1.05 (Mean +/- SD), with 90.8% of prescriptions containing 3 or fewer drugs. The most frequently prescribed drugs were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including paracetamol which were included in 51.2% of prescriptions, followed by antibacterial agents (33.2%). Only 46.4% of prescriptions were appropriate to the diagnosis, while 11.1% were partially appropriate and 5.3% were inappropriate. For the rest (37.2%), it was difficult to evaluate appropriateness due to deficient information. General practitioners and specialists were more likely to prescribe appropriately than emergency room physicians (64.6% and 60.4% versus 35.7%). None of the prescriptions for antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs and antihypertensive agents were inappropriate. These results emphasize the need for continuing medical education on rational prescribing, and for periodic monitoring of physicians habits on drug utilization.

  18. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  19. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  20. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  1. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  2. Linearized transfer between coplanar circular orbits using blow down propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    A closed form solution is presented for the coplanar transfer between nearby circular orbits for spacecraft using their own blow down propulsion system. The decaying thrust is applied along the local horizontal and the linearized equation of motion in the orbital elements formulation are used to describe the transfer which consists of a thrust-coast-relight program. Sensitivity partials are also presented analytically in order to study the effect of maneuver execution errors and various other parameters affecting the blow down propulsion system characteristics on the transfer. This strategy is applied to study the transfer of the TOPEX spacecraft from the Shuttle parking orbit to its final operational orbit.

  3. Linearized transfer between coplanar circular orbits using blow down propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; White, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    A closed form solution is presented for the coplanar transfer between nearby circular orbits for spacecraft using their own blow down propulsion system. The decaying thrust is applied along the local horizontal and the linearized equation of motion in the orbital elements formulation are used to describe the transfer which consists of a thrust-coast-relight program. Sensitivity partials are also presented analytically in order to study the effect of maneuver execution errors and various other parameters affecting the blow down propulsion system characteristics on the transfer. This strategy is applied to study the transfer of the TOPEX spacecraft from the Shuttle parking orbit to its final operational orbit.

  4. Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-12-03

    A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.

  5. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  6. Transient fluid flow and heat transfer in petroleum production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongqing

    Heat transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil production. In this work, two kinds of co-production, production fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the production string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas production, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the

  7. Dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.M.S.; Gahbauer, R.A. ); Blue, T.E. ); Wambersie, A. )

    1994-03-30

    The purpose of this paper is to address some aspects of the many considerations that need to go into a dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for brain tumors; and to describe some methods to incorporate knowledge from animal studies and other experiments into the process of dose prescription. Previously, an algorithm to estimate the normal tissue tolerance to mixed high and low linear energy transfer radiations in BNCT was proposed. The authors have developed mathematical formulations and computational methods to represent this algorithm. Generalized models to fit the central axis dose rate components for an epithermal neutron field were also developed. These formulations and beam fitting models were programmed into spreadsheets to simulate two treatment techniques which are expected to be used in BNCT: a two-field bilateral scheme and a single-field treatment scheme. Parameters in these spreadsheets can be varied to represent the fractionation scheme used, the [sup 10]B microdistribution in normal tissue, and the ratio of [sup 10]B in tumor to normal tissue. Most of these factors have to be determined for a given neutron field and [sup 10]B compound combination from large animal studies. The spreadsheets have been programmed to integrate all of the treatment-related information and calculate the location along the central axis where the normal tissue tolerance is exceeded first. This information is then used to compute the maximum treatment time allowable and the maximum tumor dose that may be delivered for a given BNCT treatment. The effect of different treatment variables on the treatment time and tumor dose has been shown to be very significant. It has also been shown that the location of D[sub max] shifts significantly, depending on some of the treatment variables-mainly the fractionation scheme used. These results further emphasize the fact that dose prescription in BNCT is very complicated and nonintuitive. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Determination of continuous system transfer functions from sampled pulse response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jay B.

    1993-09-01

    A method for determining the transfer function of a continuous system from sampled responses to single and multiple pulse excitation is presented. The method is an extension of the sampled edge response method pioneered by the theoretical work of A. Papoulis in 1962 and the application of the theory to optical systems by B. Tatian in 1965. Occasions arise when pulse rather than step function stimuli are available for system excitations. In such cases, the method presented is practical for determining the system transfer function. The use of anti- aliasing filters and estimation of non-bandwidth limited transfer functions are also discussed.

  9. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, M. S.; Seon, C. R.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Bertalot, L.

    2012-10-01

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  10. Prescription audit of outpatient attendees of secondary level government hospitals in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Potharaju, Hanumantha Rao; Kabra, S G

    2011-04-01

    The main objective of the prescription audit of the secondary level government hospitals under the Maharashtra Health Systems Development Project (MHSDP) was to develop a list of essential drugs. Other objectives were to articulate measures for improving the prescription practices and to generate information on the core prescribing indicators proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The study was conducted among a representative sample of 31 secondary level hospitals under MHSDP. A copy of the prescription was obtained with the help of a pre-inserted carbon, in a special format. Data for only 'first encounter prescriptions' was collected for all patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD). About 77 percent of the prescriptions contained only one diagnosis. The average number of drugs per prescription was 3.1. About 60 percent of the drugs were prescribed by generic names and about 23 percent of the prescribed drugs were in combination. About 25 percent of the prescriptions contained at least one injection, while 35 percent contained at least one antibiotic. In 16 percent of the prescriptions a vitamin or tonic was prescribed. About 46 percent of the single ingredient formulations were as per the WHO 2003, Essential Medicines List (EML). Based on the findings of the Prescription Audit an EML was prepared for each category of the secondary level hospitals, for use in the OPD. Prescription audits are useful in generating data on morbidity, which forms the basis for preparing the list of essential medicines. Mechanisms necessary for improving prescription practices are suggested.

  11. Correlating electronic and vibrational motions in charge transfer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  12. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.

    1980-04-23

    The short time and deposition distance for the energy from inertial fusion products results in local peak power densities on the order of 10/sup 18/ watts/m/sup 3/. This paper presents an overview of the various inertial fusion reactor designs which attempt to reduce these peak power intensities and describes the heat transfer considerations for each design.

  13. Segment Transfer: A Consequence of a Dynamic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancin-Bhatt, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Discusses theoretical explanations of segment transfer in early second-language learning, focusing on the issue of differential substitution. The Feature Competition Model is based on an algorithm for the calculation of feature prominences in the first language based on the principles of underspecification. (62 references) (MDM)

  14. Availability of Spanish prescription labels.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Iman; Lo, Sarah; Ozuah, Philip O

    2006-02-01

    The research team conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of all pharmacies in the Bronx, New York (99.4% participation rate) to determine availability of Spanish prescription labels. One hundred twenty five pharmacies (78%) were small independent pharmacies; 36 (22%) were large-chain pharmacies. Overall, 111 (69%) stated that they could provide prescription labels in Spanish. Overall, for all the pharmacy ZIP codes, the mean proportion of the population that was Spanish-speaking was 46.8% (range 11% to 71.6%). Seventy-eight (48%) pharmacies were located in areas where more than 50% of the population were Spanish-speaking, 48 (30%) were located in areas with 25.1-50% Spanish-speakers, and 35 (22%) were in areas with up to 25% Spanish-speakers. Small independent pharmacies were more likely than large chain pharmacies to provide prescription labels in Spanish (71% vs. 61%, p=0.25). All the pharmacists commented that a patient must specifically request a Spanish prescription label in order to receive one. Pharmacies located in areas with the highest proportion of Spanish speakers were more likely to provide prescription labels in Spanish (82% vs. 62% vs. 49%; p=.001). Of the 111 pharmacies that could provide Spanish labels, 95 (86%) used a computer program to perform the translation and 16(14%) used a lay employee. Of pharmacies using a computer program, only one had a Spanish-speaking pharmacist who could check and correct the computer translations.

  15. The impact of diabetes on prescription drug costs: the population-based Turin study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Karaghiosoff, L; Merletti, F; Costa, G; De Maria, M; Panero, F; Segre, O; Cavallo-Perin, P; Gnavi, R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of our study was to compare prescription drug costs in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in a large population-based Italian cohort covered by the National Health System. We identified diabetic residents in Turin on 31 July 2003 through multiple independent data sources (diabetes registry, hospital discharges and prescriptions data sources). All prescriptions registered in the 12 month period 1 August 2003 to 31 July 2004 were examined to compare prevalence of treatment and costs in diabetic (n = 33,797) and non-diabetic individuals (n = 863,876). A log-linear model was employed to estimate age- and sex-adjusted ratios of costs. Costs per person per year were 830.90euros in diabetic patients and 182.80euros in non-diabetic individuals (age- and sex-adjusted rate ratio 2.8, 95% CI 2.7-2.9). Diabetes treatment accounted for 18.5% of the total cost. Compared with non-diabetic individuals, the excess of expenditure was particularly high in diabetic patients aged <45 years (rate ratio 9.3), in those with type 1 diabetes (rate ratio 7.7) and in insulin users (rate ratio 4.8). The cost of diet-treated patients was similar to those treated with oral drugs. Diabetes was associated with an increased prevalence of treatment for most drug categories; one-third of the diabetic cohort received ACE inhibitors, anti-thrombotic drugs and statins. This population-based study shows that diabetes has a great impact on prescription drug costs, independently of main confounders, particularly in insulin-treated patients, suggesting that a wide range of comorbidities affect their health. Costs are expected to further increase if the transferability of knowledge provided by evidence-based guidelines on diabetic patients is completed over the coming years.

  16. [Shen cha zheng ji yan fang (Inspection of the Collection of TCM Proved Prescriptions) , the first official collection of proved prescriptions in Modern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhang, P F; Chen, X J

    2017-01-28

    Yan Xishan, the local ruler of Shanxi Province in modern period, claiming that the folk TCM prescriptions should be collected, inspected and maintained because of its definite effect. The government of Shanxi Province provided a lot of resources in collecting TCM proved prescriptions since 1929. The TCM Improving Society of Shanxi made more effort on the inspecting process, with a reasonable incentive system and standardized methods established. As a result, the Shen cha zheng ji yan fang (Inspection of the Collection of TCM Proved Prescriptions) was published, characterized by the principles of "cheap, convenient and effective" . It was the beginning of official collection and collation of TCM proved prescriptions in modern China.

  17. Reaction dynamics and proton coupled electron transfer: studies of tyrosine-based charge transfer in natural and biomimetic systems.

    PubMed

    Barry, Bridgette A

    2015-01-01

    In bioenergetic reactions, electrons are transferred long distances via a hopping mechanism. In photosynthesis and DNA synthesis, the aromatic amino acid residue, tyrosine, functions as an intermediate that is transiently oxidized and reduced during long distance electron transfer. At physiological pH values, oxidation of tyrosine is associated with a deprotonation of the phenolic oxygen, giving rise to a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. Tyrosine-based PCET reactions are important in photosystem II, which carries out the light-induced oxidation of water, and in ribonucleotide reductase, which reduces ribonucleotides to form deoxynucleotides. Photosystem II contains two redox-active tyrosines, YD (Y160 in the D2 polypeptide) and YZ (Y161 in the D1 polypeptide). YD forms a light-induced stable radical, while YZ functions as an essential charge relay, oxidizing the catalytic Mn₄CaO₅ cluster on each of four photo-oxidation reactions. In Escherichia coli class 1a RNR, the β2 subunit contains the radical initiator, Y122O•, which is reversibly reduced and oxidized in long range electron transfer with the α2 subunit. In the isolated E. coli β2 subunit, Y122O• is a stable radical, but Y122O• is activated for rapid PCET in an α2β2 substrate/effector complex. Recent results concerning the structure and function of YD, YZ, and Y122 are reviewed here. Comparison is made to recent results derived from bioengineered proteins and biomimetic compounds, in which tyrosine-based charge transfer mechanisms have been investigated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaulina, O. S.

    2016-09-15

    The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.

  19. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  20. A Plan for Course and Credit Transfer between Oregon Community Colleges and Oregon University System Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    This document presents a plan for course and credit transfer between Oregon community colleges and Oregon University System (OUS) institutions. It outlines the current and proposed policies, practices, and procedures for providing effective course and credit transfer in the state. The document also provides a summary of intersector communication…

  1. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eder, D.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

  2. Nucleon Transfer Reactions in Few-Body Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltuva, A.

    2017-03-01

    Three- and four-body scattering is described solving Faddeev-Yakubovsky or equivalent Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas integral equations for transition operators in momentum-space. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used; the Coulomb force between charged particles is taken into account via the screening and renormalization method. Differential cross sections and spin observables for various nucleon transfer reactions are calculated and compared with experimental data.

  3. TIS (Technology Information System) A Focal Point for Technology Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    3 2.1 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Inovation Act of 1980 .................................... 3 2.2 Technical Information Centers...passwords is required since none were disclosed. The DIAL command provides an equally powerful , but user-controlled, method for accessing other...a local file from TIS to a remote machine. This has particular importance when downloaded and saved information is to be transferred to more powerful

  4. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  5. Identification of boiler inlet transfer functions and estimation of system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function of the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

  6. Conjugated-polymer-based energy-transfer systems for antimicrobial and anticancer applications.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huanxiang; Wang, Bing; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2014-10-29

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) attract a lot of attention in sensing, imaging, and biomedical applications because of recent achievements that are highlighted in this Research News article. A brief review of recent progress in the application of CP-based energy-transfer systems in antimicrobial and anticancer treatments is provided. The transfer of excitation energy from CPs to photosensitizers leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are able to efficiently kill pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells in the surroundings. Both fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET) modes are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Inter-hospital transfers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: characteristics, predictors, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael M; Odutola, Jennifer J

    2006-08-01

    To describe the reasons for inter-hospital transfers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), to identify predictors of transfers, and to compare the risk of in-hospital mortality between patients who were transferred and those not transferred. Data on acute care hospitalizations of patients with SLE in New York and Pennsylvania in 2000-2002 were obtained from state health planning agencies. We identified inter-hospital transfers from discharge and admission codes, and categorized the major reason for transfer (rehabilitation, procedure, or continued medical care). Patient and hospital characteristics were examined as predictors of transfers. We used a matched cohort design with propensity adjustment to compare in-hospital mortality between patients transferred for continued medical care and those who were not transferred. We identified 533 inter-hospital transfers in 490 patients, 524 of which involved one transfer per hospitalization episode. Of these 524 transfers, 122 (23.3%) were for rehabilitation, 158 (30.1%) were for procedures, and 244 (46.6%) were for continued medical care. Patient characteristics and transfer destinations varied among these groups. Transfers for continued medical care were more common among younger patients, those who were more severely ill, had an emergency or urgent admission, or were hospitalized in a smaller, rural or non-teaching hospital, or in Pennsylvania, and were less common among those at proprietary hospitals. In the matched cohort analysis, the risk of in-hospital mortality was 2.25 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.31, 3.85; p = 0.004) among those transferred compared with those who were not transferred. This risk differed with the experience of the attending physician at the receiving hospital: among patients of physicians who treated 3 or fewer patients with SLE per year, this risk was 2.5 times higher (95% CI 1.42, 4.36; p = 0.002), while among patients of physicians who treated more than 3 patients

  8. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  9. Moisture effects in heat transfer through clothing systems for wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lelia K; Crown, Elizabeth M; Ackerman, Mark Y; Dale, J Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Wildland firefighters work in unfavourable environments involving both heat and moisture. Moisture in clothing systems worn by wildland firefighters may increase or decrease heat transfer, depending on its source and location in the clothing system, location on the body, timing of application and degree of sorption. In this experiment, 4 outerwear/underwear combinations were exposed to 1 of 5 different conditions varying on amount and location of moisture. The fabric systems were then exposed to either a high-heat-flux flame exposure (83 kW/m(2)) or a low-heat-flux radiant exposure (10 kW/m(2)). Under high-heat-flux flame exposures, external moisture tended to decrease heat transfer through the fabric systems, while internal moisture tended to increase heat transfer. Under low-heat-flux radiant exposures, internal moisture decreased heat transfer through the fabric systems. The nature and extent of such differences was fabric dependent. Implications for test protocol development are discussed.

  10. Determination of continuous system transfer functions from sampled pulse response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jay B.; Watkins, Wendell R.; Palacios, Fernando R.; Billingsley, Daniel R.

    1994-12-01

    A method for determining the transfer function of a continuous system from sampled responses to single- and multiple-pulse excitation is presented. The method is an extension of the sampled-edge-response method pioneered by the theoretical work of A. Papoulis in 1962 and the application of the theory to optical systems by B. Tatian in 1965. Occasions arise when pulse rather than step-function stimuli are available for system excitations. In such cases, the method presented is useful for determining the system transfer function. The use of antialiasing filters and estimation of non-bandwidth-limited transfer functions are discussed. Practical application of the method to characterizing the system transfer function of a commercial 8- to 12-micrometers infrared imager is also presented.

  11. Cost savings realized by use of the PhaSeal(®) closed-system transfer device for preparation of antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael S; Solimando, Dominic A; Grollman, Franklin R; Pang, Janet L; Chasick, Ashley H; Hightman, Charlene M; Johnson, Anthony D; Mickens, Maxine G; Preston, Lorenzo M

    2013-12-01

    Medication cost is a major factor associated with increasing health care costs in the United States. Expenditures for prescription drugs in 2013 are estimated to be $283.7 billion. Closed system transfer devices are widely used for preparation of hazardous drugs. Reports indicate the Phaseal(®) closed system transfer device maintains sterility in vials for 7 days, suggesting the unused portion of single-use vials could be salvaged. This study was done to determine whether using a closed system transfer device to extend the beyond-use date of single-use vials of antineoplastic medications would result in a measurable cost saving. A list of 25 drugs available in single-use vials, with a chemical stability of at least 48 hours, was compiled. Use of these agents was recorded during a 50-day period in April through June 2012. Use from a total of 296 vials of 21 antineoplastic agents was recorded. After allowing for the initial use of each vial, the mean potential percentage of drug waste was calculated to be 57.03%. Actual savings during the study period was $96,348.70. The pharmacy avoided nearly half of the potential waste and saved a mean of 29% of each vial. The cost-saving during the study period represents a $703,047.67 annual saving; which more than offsets the $106,556.55 the pharmacy spent for the Phaseal(®) system in 2012. In addition to being a protective measure to reduce exposure to hazardous agents, use of the Phaseal(®) system results in a reduction in drug waste, and a noticeable cost saving for antineoplastic agents.

  12. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate prescriptions): development of a tool to identify inappropriate prescribing.

    PubMed

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based -50%- or working in community -50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary.

  13. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate Prescriptions): Development of a Tool to Identify Inappropriate Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045

  14. Self-prescription practices in recent Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Maren J; Shobe, Marcia A; O'Connell, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Self-prescription involves the purchase and use of restricted medications without medical advice. Although common in Central and South American countries, little is known about this practice among Latino immigrants in the United States. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore how Latino immigrants obtain and use prescription medications without accessing the formal health care system. This exploratory descriptive study used focus groups to gain an understanding of the use of prescription medications without medical care. Three focus group discussions were held with 19 adult Latino immigrants who were new residents in the United States, and did not have health insurance; most were undocumented. Analysis of the data revealed 4 major themes: (a) health care barriers, (b) cultural norms, (c) self-care, and (d) self-prescription. The data indicate that this population experiences significant barriers to accessing health care, forcing them to seek treatment alternatives including the purchase and use of drugs manufactured in Mexico. There are many public health and safety concerns related to self-prescription practices. Nurses need to be aware of the barriers to health care that lead to these potentially dangerous medication practices, and to recognize and understand self-prescription.

  15. The burden of the nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M; Kreis, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    An increase in the prescribing of opioids over the past several years often has been perceived as the primary reason for the increase in the nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Determining the prevalence of this illicit use has been difficult, because of varied methodologies and terminologies that are used to estimate the number of people directly contributing to or affected by this burden. Despite these discrepancies, the findings from several nationally recognized surveys have demonstrated that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use is indeed significant and has been increasing in recent years. The considerable burden on society imposed by misuse and abuse of these drugs is largely due to the monetary costs associated with nonmedical use (e.g., strategies implemented to prevent or deter abuse, treatment programs for misusers, etc.), decreased economic productivity, and the indirect effect on access to appropriate health care. However, using various nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to treat patients who use prescription opioids illicitly can decrease its overall prevalence and associated impact, with the development of novel opioid formulations designed to reduce nonmedical use providing valuable clinical tools as part of an overall risk management program. In addition, prescription monitoring programs are a prevalent drug control system designed to identify and address abuse and diversion of prescription medications, including opioids. Such resources, along with an accurate understanding of the problem, extend greater hope that the public health challenge of nonmedical prescription opioid use can be effectively mitigated.

  16. The influence of prescription monitoring programs on chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Christo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    the actual rate of abuse may not have been reduced. These 2 studies both point to the challenges the PMPs face. However, more recent data suggest that proactive use of the PMPs results in the decreased growth of prescription medication sales. Finally, a number of states have also begun to objectively evaluate the efficiencies of the system. Many states have developed PMPs to help regulatory agencies as well as physicians detect prescription drug abuse. Limited data so far suggest that such programs reduce abuse practices. In addition, proactive usage of the data further prevents abuse.

  17. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  18. Bridge-mediated hopping or superexchange electron-transfer processes in bis(triarylamine) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Christoph; Nöll, Gilbert; Schelter, Jürgen

    2002-09-01

    Hopping and superexchange are generally considered to be alternative electron-transfer mechanisms in molecular systems. In this work we used mixed-valence radical cations as model systems for the investigation of electron-transfer pathways. We show that substituents attached to a conjugated bridge connecting two triarylamine redox centres have a marked influence on the near-infrared absorption spectra of the corresponding cations. Spectral analysis, followed by evaluation of the electron-transfer parameters using the Generalized Mulliken-Hush theory and simulation of the potential energy surfaces, indicate that hopping and superexchange are not alternatives, but are both present in the radical cation with a dimethoxybenzene bridge. We found that the type of electron-transfer mechanism depends on the bridge-reorganization energy as well as on the bridge-state energy. Because superexchange and hopping follow different distance laws, our findings have implications for the design of new molecular and polymeric electron-transfer materials.

  19. Rapid laser induced energy transfer in atomic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the rapid transfer of stored populations from metastable states to selected target states of a different species are reported. Both laser-induced or laser-switched collision and laser-induced two-photon spontaneous emission are described. It is shown that the laser-induced collision method is particularly useful in the visible and UV spectral regions. It has applications in photochemistry, gas-phase kinetics, and in high-power, high-energy gas-phase lasers. The anti-Stokes source is useful in the VUV and soft X-ray spectral regions.

  20. Code System to Predict LWR Reflood Heat Transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRCHNER, WALTER L.

    1999-04-27

    Version: 00 REFLUX calculates the temperature-time history of a representative fuel rod during the reflood stage of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The logic used fo selection of the appropriate flow regime for analysis of the cladding temperature transient is based on the axial position with regard to the continuous liquid level (based on a mass balance), a liquid carry-over criterion (derived from a force balance on a drop suspended in a vapor stream), and the local cladding surface temperature. A generalized boiling curve is constructed, and the local flow and clad conditions determine the applicable heat transfer coefficient.