Science.gov

Sample records for preservation acceptance model

  1. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  2. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  3. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  4. Model for the New Millennium: Preserving Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezmierski, Virginia E.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding higher education and community building in the context of the effect on human behavior of the information technology revolution. Suggests the need for a new model which will seek to preserve a community that is open, just, disciplined, and caring by refocusing on mission, resisting change for its own sake,…

  5. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  6. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  7. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  8. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  9. Technological Diffusion within Educational Institutions: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolski, Stacy; Jackson, Sally

    Expectancy models of behavior such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) offer guidelines that aid efforts to facilitate use of new technology. These models remind us that both acceptance of and resistance to technology use are grounded in beliefs and norms regarding the technology. Although TAM is widely…

  10. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  11. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  12. New ideas and their acceptance. As it has related to preservation of chordae tendinea and certain other discoveries.

    PubMed

    Lillehei, C W

    1995-10-01

    The significant benefits of preserving chordal-papillary muscle integrity in mitral valve replacement took some two decades to become widely accepted. Familiarity with history clearly tells us that this paradox between our dedication to "new ideas" on the one hand, and opposition to their acceptance on the other has existed for hundreds of years. Most "new ideas" have been surrounded by controversy and opposition before wide acceptance. Selected examples from history are cited beginning with Roger Bacon in the 13th century, and continuing with Galileo, Semmelweiss, Lister, and Forssmann. The author cites two notable examples from his personal experiences. They occurred during the development of open heart surgery, and another during the development of the rigid bileaflet cardiac prosthesis, now known as the St. Jude cardiac prosthesis. Some of the basic reasons for this inevitable opposition are: an innate skepticism over anything "new." Simplicity is often resented, as well as any need to change patterns of behavior/habits. Determination, persistence, stubbornness are the most important components for successful research. In addition, the successful innovator must learn to expect opposition and not be deterred by it, but rather must learn to take sustenance from it, and "learn to thrive upon opposition." In conclusion, these observations and suggestions are summarized in a satire on "The Seven Ages in the Evolution of an Idea--with particular reference to the critic."

  13. Modeling Patients' Acceptance of Provider-delivered E-health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E. Vance; Lankton, Nancy K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Health care providers are beginning to deliver a range of Internet-based services to patients; however, it is not clear which of these e-health services patients need or desire. The authors propose that patients' acceptance of provider-delivered e-health can be modeled in advance of application development by measuring the effects of several key antecedents to e-health use and applying models of acceptance developed in the information technology (IT) field. Design: This study tested three theoretical models of IT acceptance among patients who had recently registered for access to provider-delivered e-health. Measurements: An online questionnaire administered items measuring perceptual constructs from the IT acceptance models (intrinsic motivation, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation, and behavioral intention to use e-health) and five hypothesized antecedents (satisfaction with medical care, health care knowledge, Internet dependence, information-seeking preference, and health care need). Responses were collected and stored in a central database. Results: All tested IT acceptance models performed well in predicting patients' behavioral intention to use e-health. Antecedent factors of satisfaction with provider, information-seeking preference, and Internet dependence uniquely predicted constructs in the models. Conclusion: Information technology acceptance models provide a means to understand which aspects of e-health are valued by patients and how this may affect future use. In addition, antecedents to the models can be used to predict e-health acceptance in advance of system development. PMID:15064290

  14. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  15. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  16. User Acceptance of YouTube for Procedural Learning: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Young; Lehto, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was framed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to identify determinants affecting behavioral intention to use YouTube. Most importantly, this research emphasizes the motives for using YouTube, which is notable given its extrinsic task goal of being used for procedural learning tasks. Our conceptual framework included two…

  17. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  18. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  19. Model Preservation Program for a Small University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Louise S.

    This report proposes a preservation program assuming a model of a university library serving 5,000 or fewer students and 350 or fewer faculty members. The model program is not for a comprehensive university or research institution, and the library's collection is one developed and used as a curriculum-support collection. The goal of the…

  20. Preserving Pelicans with Models That Make Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tamara J.; Doerr, Helen M.; Glancy, Aran W.; Ntow, Forster D.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to think deeply about mathematical concepts is not an easy job, which is why we often use problem-solving tasks to engage students in higher-level mathematical thinking. Mathematical modeling, one of the mathematical practices found in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), is a type of problem solving that can…

  1. Development and application of an acceptance testing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, Rex D.; Noonan, Caroline H.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    The process of acceptance testing large software systems for NASA has been analyzed, and an empirical planning model of the process constructed. This model gives managers accurate predictions of the staffing needed, the productivity of a test team, and the rate at which the system will pass. Applying the model to a new system shows a high level of agreement between the model and actual performance. The model also gives managers an objective measure of process improvement.

  2. A Causal Model of Teacher Acceptance of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jui-Ling; Lieu, Pang-Tien; Liang, Jung-Hui; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Wong, Seng-lee

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a causal model for investigating teacher acceptance of technology. We received 258 effective replies from teachers at public and private universities in Taiwan. A questionnaire survey was utilized to test the proposed model. The Lisrel was applied to test the proposed hypotheses. The result shows that computer self-efficacy has…

  3. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.

  4. Predicting User Acceptance of Collaborative Technologies: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Ronnie; Vogel, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative technologies support group work in project-based environments. In this study, we enhance the technology acceptance model to explain the factors that influence the acceptance of Google Applications for collaborative learning. The enhanced model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 136 students enrolled in a…

  5. Acceptance of health information technology in health professionals: an application of the revised technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Ketikidis, Panayiotis; Dimitrovski, Tomislav; Lazuras, Lambros; Bath, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The response of health professionals to the use of health information technology (HIT) is an important research topic that can partly explain the success or failure of any HIT application. The present study applied a modified version of the revised technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the relevant beliefs and acceptance of HIT systems in a sample of health professionals (n = 133). Structured anonymous questionnaires were used and a cross-sectional design was employed. The main outcome measure was the intention to use HIT systems. ANOVA was employed to examine differences in TAM-related variables between nurses and medical doctors, and no significant differences were found. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of HIT usage intentions. The findings showed that perceived ease of use, but not usefulness, relevance and subjective norms directly predicted HIT usage intentions. The present findings suggest that a modification of the original TAM approach is needed to better understand health professionals' support and endorsement of HIT. Perceived ease of use, relevance of HIT to the medical and nursing professions, as well as social influences, should be tapped by information campaigns aiming to enhance support for HIT in healthcare settings.

  6. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations. PMID:26986408

  7. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  8. Modeling the stratigraphy and preservation potential of meandering stream deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, G. E.; Clevis, Q.; Lock, G.; Lancaster, S.; Desitter, A.

    2003-12-01

    Both natural and human-induced modes of river and floodplain behavior have the potential to obscure, expose, or even destroy portions of the archaeological record. In valley systems with actively meandering channels much material can be lost to lateral bank erosion. Conversely, floodplain aggradation can bury and therefore obscure sites. In this study we aim to quantify the preservation potential of fluvial units containing archaeological sites as a function of the natural process of meandering, climate change and increased land-use during the Holocene. We used the CHILD simulation model of landscape evolution to explore alternative scenarios in which these three factors are both varied independently and combined. Boundary and initial conditions for the model scenarios are based on the Holocene evolution of the archaeologically-rich Upper Thames Valley, which is known to have witnessed variations in flood frequency, land-clearance, episodic alluviation and river entrenchment. The CHILD model is set up to combine four components that simulate the development of valley and floodplain system: hillslope and channel erosion, lateral stream meandering, overbank deposition, and the accumulation of a 3D stratigraphy. The landscape is represented by an adaptable triangular mesh of nodes, especially suited for simulating the gradual shifting of meander bends. The new stratigraphic layering routine recently added to the model in improves the resolution of the stratigraphic record accumulated by the model. Simulation results reveal systematic controls on preservation potential, and suggest potential sources of bias in the archaeological record.

  9. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  10. The History of UTAUT Model and Its Impact on ICT Acceptance and Usage by Academicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oye, N. D.; Iahad, N. A.; Rahim, N. Ab.

    2014-01-01

    This paper started with the review of the history of technology acceptance model from TRA to UTAUT. The expected contribution is to bring to lime light the current development stage of the technology acceptance model. Based on this, the paper examined the impact of UTAUT model on ICT acceptance and usage in HEIs. The UTAUT model theory was…

  11. Influence of Gender and Computer Teaching Efficacy on Computer Acceptance among Malaysian Student Teachers: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Teo, Timothy; Russo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the technology acceptance model (TAM) in an educational context and explore the role of gender and computer teaching efficacy as external variables. From the literature, it appeared that only limited studies had developed models to explain statistically the chain of influence of computer teaching efficacy…

  12. Edge-preserving Traveltime Tomography with a Model Sparsity Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first-arrival traveltime tomography is applied to image the near surface as the first step in the procedures of reflection seismic data processing. Tomographic velocity model is used to calculate statics or further input to waveform inversion in exploration geophysics. In the traveltime tomography, Tikhonov regularization always produces a model with highly smooth structures. However, the real underground structure may not be smooth. Since traveltime tomography is an inverse problem which is often ill-posed and non-unique, it suffers from a multi-solution problem. Smoothing may help to reduce its non-uniqueness. To produce a velocity model that is reliable and also offers high resolution, we develop a new alternative edge-preserving traveltime tomography based on sparse model constraint. This new methodology is based on a hypothesis that velocity model can be represented sparsely in a known basis. In our synthetic and real data test, we choose orthogonal wavelet basis created by 'symN' as the sparse transform matrix. We provide two different alternative schemes, and one can choose one scheme or combine two schemes according to one's request, like the sharpness degree of the inversion result. We estimate the effect of the new method by applying it to synthetic and real data respectively. The results show that this method can provide an image with sharper boundary in the same data fitting level comparing with the conventional traveltime tomography.

  13. Modeling Computer Usage Intentions of Tertiary Students in a Developing Country through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afari-Kumah, Eben; Achampong, Akwasi Kyere

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer usage intentions of Ghanaian Tertiary Students. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the theoretical framework to ascertain whether it could help explain behavioral intentions of individuals to accept and use technology. Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the initial…

  14. Identifying Ghanaian Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Computer Use: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the technology acceptance model to identify factors that influence technology acceptance among pre-service teachers in Ghana. Data from 380 usable questionnaires were tested against the research model. Utilising the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) as a research framework, the study found that: pre-service teachers'…

  15. Swarm intelligence algorithm for interconnect model order reduction with sub-block structure preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Wang, Chenxu; Yu, Mingyan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalised sub-block structure preservation interconnect model order reduction (MOR) technique based on the swarm intelligence method, that is, particle swarm optimisation (PSO). The swarm intelligence-based structure preservation MOR can be used for a standard model as a criterion for different structure preservation interconnect MOR methods. In the proposed technique, the PSO method is used for predicting the unknown elements of structure-preserving reduced-order modelling of interconnect circuits. The prediction is based on minimising the difference of transform function between the original full-order and desired reduced-order systems maintaining the full-order structure in the reduced-order model. The proposed swarm-intelligence-based structure-preserving MOR method is compared with published work on structure preservation MOR SPRIM techniques. Simulation and synthesis results verify the accuracy and validity of the new structure-preserving MOR technique.

  16. Modeling eBook acceptance: A study on mathematics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, Azlin Abd; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    The integration and effectiveness of eBook utilization in Mathematics teaching and learning greatly relied upon the teachers, hence the need to understand their perceptions and beliefs. The eBook, an individual laptop completed with digitized textbook sofwares, were provided for each students in line with the concept of 1 student:1 laptop. This study focuses on predicting a model on the acceptance of the eBook among Mathematics teachers. Data was collected from 304 mathematics teachers in selected schools using a survey questionnaire. The selection were based on the proportionate stratified sampling. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed where the model was tested and evaluated and was found to have a good fit. The variance explained for the teachers' attitude towards eBook is approximately 69.1% where perceived usefulness appeared to be a stronger determinant compared to perceived ease of use. This study concluded that the attitude of mathematics teachers towards eBook depends largely on the perception of how useful the eBook is on improving their teaching performance, implying that teachers should be kept updated with the latest mathematical application and sofwares to use with the eBook to ensure positive attitude towards using it in class.

  17. Angler Survey Contributes to Socially Acceptable Modification of Harvest Regulations to Preserve Cutthroat Trout Fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed

    Hubert; Gipson

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.KEY WORDS: Rivers; Salmonidae; Trout; Anglers; Regulations; Wyoming

  18. Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

  19. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard. PMID:12891827

  20. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard.

  1. Do I Have to Learn Something New? Mental Models and the Acceptance of Replacement Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Few studies in technology acceptance have explicitly addressed the acceptance of replacement technologies, technologies that replace legacy ones that have been in use. This article explores this issue through the theoretical lens of mental models. We contend that accepting replacement technologies entails both mental model maintenance and mental…

  2. Use of shape-preserving interpolation methods in surface modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ftitsch, F. N.

    1984-01-01

    In many large-scale scientific computations, it is necessary to use surface models based on information provided at only a finite number of points (rather than determined everywhere via an analytic formula). As an example, an equation of state (EOS) table may provide values of pressure as a function of temperature and density for a particular material. These values, while known quite accurately, are typically known only on a rectangular (but generally quite nonuniform) mesh in (T,d)-space. Thus interpolation methods are necessary to completely determine the EOS surface. The most primitive EOS interpolation scheme is bilinear interpolation. This has the advantages of depending only on local information, so that changes in data remote from a mesh element have no effect on the surface over the element, and of preserving shape information, such as monotonicity. Most scientific calculations, however, require greater smoothness. Standard higher-order interpolation schemes, such as Coons patches or bicubic splines, while providing the requisite smoothness, tend to produce surfaces that are not physically reasonable. This means that the interpolant may have bumps or wiggles that are not supported by the data. The mathematical quantification of ideas such as physically reasonable and visually pleasing is examined.

  3. The Adult Roles Models Program: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051

  4. Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hassan M. Selim

    2010-01-01

    E-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a "hybrid" e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners'…

  5. Model of line preserving field line motions using Euler potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Figura, Przemysław; Macek, Wiesław M.

    2013-06-15

    We consider behavior of finite magnetic field lines during reconnection processes. We portray field line motions using Euler potentials representation. Here, we propose a new insight into plasma flow fields related with magnetic reconnection. In this approach reconnection is treated as a breakage of magnetic topology, which results in deviation from the line preserving flow regime. We derive constraints and the general equations for these flows. In our approach the flux preserving flows are treated as a special case of line preserving regime. We also derive a constraint on a non-ideal term in Ohm’s Law within diffusion regions, which relates plasma flow with resistivity, and which must hold for non-reconnective diffusion. We also propose a new method of detecting magnetic reconnection. -- Highlights: •We formulate a line preserving magnetic field flow equation using Euler potentials. •We find constraints on a non-reconnective general resistivity term in Ohm’s Law. •We propose a new method of detecting magnetic reconnection.

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Unified Model of Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…

  7. Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and flow theory to Cyworld user behavior: implication of the Web2.0 user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young

    2008-06-01

    This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.

  8. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  9. Murine models of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Horgan, S; Watson, C; Glezeva, N; Baugh, J

    2014-12-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction leads to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, an increasingly prevalent condition largely driven by modern day lifestyle risk factors. As heart failure with preserved ejection fraction accounts for almost one-half of all patients with heart failure, appropriate nonhuman animal models are required to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome and to provide a platform for preclinical investigation of potential therapies. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are major risk factors for diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. This review focuses on murine models reflecting this disease continuum driven by the aforementioned common risk factors. We describe various models of diastolic dysfunction and highlight models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction reported in the literature. Strengths and weaknesses of the different models are discussed to provide an aid to translational scientists when selecting an appropriate model. We also bring attention to the fact that heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is difficult to diagnose in animal models and that, therefore, there is a paucity of well described animal models of this increasingly important condition.

  10. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  11. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model...

  12. A Model for Promoting Native American Language Preservation and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Richard E.; Martinez, Alicia, Ed.

    The Interface Alaska Multifunctional Resource Center developed a model for training Native American language teachers to effectively teach Native languages. The model provides Native American paraprofessional language teachers with basic knowledge of classroom techniques and effective teaching strategies. The training introduces the Total Physical…

  13. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys. PMID:26057875

  14. Adolescents' unconditional acceptance by parents and teachers and educational outcomes: A structural model of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Makri-Botsari, Evi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect gender specific patterns in the network of relations between unconditionality of parental and teacher acceptance in the form of unconditional positive regard and a range of educational outcomes, as indexed by academic self-perception, academic intrinsic motivation, and academic achievement. To test the role of gender as a moderator, a multi-group analysis was employed within the framework of structural equation modelling with increasing restrictions placed on the structural paths across genders. The results on a sample of 427 adolescents in grades 7-9 showed that conditionality of acceptance undermined level of perceived acceptance for both social agents. Moreover, unconditionality of teacher acceptance exerted stronger influences on students' educational outcomes than unconditionality of parental acceptance, with effect sizes being larger for girls than for boys.

  15. Theory development in health care informatics: Information and communication technology acceptance model (ICTAM) improves the explanatory and predictive power of technology acceptance models.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this web-based study was to explain and predict consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of Internet health information and services. Toward this goal, the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM) was developed and tested. Individuals who received a flyer through the LISTSERV of HealthGuide were eligible to participate. The study population was eighteen years old and older who had used Internet health information and services for a minimum of 6 months. For the analyses, SPSS (version 13.0) and AMOS (version 5.0) were employed. More than half of the respondents were women (n = 110, 55%). The average age of the respondents was 35.16 years (S.D. = 10.07). A majority reported at least some college education (n = 126, 63%). All of the observed factors accounted for 75.53% of the total variance explained. The fit indices of the structural model were within an acceptable range: chi2/df = 2.38 (chi2 = 1786.31, df = 752); GFI = .71; RMSEA = .08; CFI = .86; NFI = .78. The results of this study provide empirical support for the continued development of ICTAM in the area of health consumers' information and communication technology acceptance.

  16. Predicting nurses' use of healthcare technology using the technology acceptance model: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Strudwick, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    The benefits of healthcare technologies can only be attained if nurses accept and intend to fully use them. One of the most common models utilized to understand user acceptance of technology is the Technology Acceptance Model. This model and modified versions of it have only recently been applied in the healthcare literature among nurse participants. An integrative literature review was conducted on this topic. Ovid/MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL were searched yielding a total of 982 references. Upon eliminating duplicates and applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the review included a total of four dissertations, three symposium proceedings, and 13 peer-reviewed journal articles. These documents were appraised and reviewed. The results show that a modified Technology Acceptance Model with added variables could provide a better explanation of nurses' acceptance of healthcare technology. These added variables to modified versions of the Technology Acceptance Model are discussed, and the studies' methodologies are critiqued. Limitations of the studies included in the integrative review are also examined.

  17. Thermodynamic investigation of the interaction between cyclodextrins and preservatives - Application and verification in a mathematical model to determine the needed preservative surplus in aqueous cyclodextrin formulations.

    PubMed

    Holm, René; Olesen, Niels Erik; Alexandersen, Signe Dalgaard; Dahlgaard, Birgitte N; Westh, Peter; Mu, Huiling

    2016-05-25

    Preservatives are inactivated when added to conserve aqueous cyclodextrin (CD) formulations due to complex formation between CDs and the preservative. To maintain the desired conservation effect the preservative needs to be added in apparent surplus to account for this inactivation. The purpose of the present work was to establish a mathematical model, which defines this surplus based upon knowledge of stability constants and the minimal concentration of preservation to inhibit bacterial growth. The stability constants of benzoic acid, methyl- and propyl-paraben with different frequently used βCDs were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Based upon this knowledge mathematical models were constructed to account for the equilibrium systems and to calculate the required concentration of the preservations, which was evaluated experimentally based upon the USP/Ph. Eur./JP monograph. The mathematical calculations were able to predict the needed concentration of preservation in the presence of CDs; it clearly demonstrated the usefulness of including all underlying chemical equilibria in a mathematical model, such that the formulation design can be based on quantitative arguments.

  18. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  19. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  20. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  1. Test of the technology acceptance model for the internet in pediatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Chismar, William G.; Wiley-Patton, Sonja

    2002-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of the Internet and, more generally, information technology to pediatric care. However, acceptance of these technologies has been low. Attitudes of physicians can play a pivotal role in the adoption session. This study tests the extension to a widely used model in the information systems literature: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Data were collected in a survey of pediatricians to see how well the extended model, TAM2, fits in the medical arena. Our results partially confirm the model; significant parts of the model were not confirmed. The primary factors in pediatricians' acceptance of technology applications relate to their usefulness and job relevance. Little weight is given to ease of use and social factors. We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies and suggest future research. PMID:12463806

  2. How craton margins are preserved: Insights from geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Claire A.; van Wijk, Jolante

    2016-10-01

    Lateral variations in lithosphere thickness are observed in many continental regions, especially at the boundary between the ancient cratonic core and the adjacent more juvenile lithosphere. In some places, such as the North America craton margin in western Canada and the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone in northern Europe, the transition in lithosphere thickness has a steep gradient (>45°) and it appears to be a long-lived feature (at least 50 Ma). We use thermal-mechanical numerical models to address the dynamics of lithospheric thickness changes on timescales of 100 Ma. Models start with the juxtaposition of 60 km thick lithosphere ("mobile belt") and 160 km thick lithosphere ("craton"). In the reference model, all mantle materials have a damp olivine rheology and a density comparable to primitive mantle. With this configuration, edge-driven mantle convection occurs at the craton boundary, resulting in a lateral smoothing of the thickness transition. The density and rheology of the craton mantle lithosphere are then varied to approximate changes in composition and water content. For all densities, a steep transition is maintained only if the craton strength is 5-50 times stronger than the reference damp olivine. If dry olivine is an upper limit on strength, only cratonic mantle with moderate compositional buoyancy (20-40 kg/m3 less dense than primitive mantle) remains stable. At higher densities, the thick lithosphere is eroded through downwellings, and the craton margin migrates inboard. Conversely, a compositionally buoyant craton destabilises through lateral spreading below the mobile belt.

  3. Preserving Lagrangian Structure in Nonlinear Model Reduction with Application to Structural Dynamics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlberg, Kevin; Tuminaro, Ray; Boggs, Paul

    2015-03-11

    Our work proposes a model-reduction methodology that preserves Lagrangian structure and achieves computational efficiency in the presence of high-order nonlinearities and arbitrary parameter dependence. As such, the resulting reduced-order model retains key properties such as energy conservation and symplectic time-evolution maps. We focus on parameterized simple mechanical systems subjected to Rayleigh damping and external forces, and consider an application to nonlinear structural dynamics. To preserve structure, the method first approximates the system's “Lagrangian ingredients''---the Riemannian metric, the potential-energy function, the dissipation function, and the external force---and subsequently derives reduced-order equations of motion by applying the (forced) Euler--Lagrange equation with thesemore » quantities. Moreover, from the algebraic perspective, key contributions include two efficient techniques for approximating parameterized reduced matrices while preserving symmetry and positive definiteness: matrix gappy proper orthogonal decomposition and reduced-basis sparsification. Our results for a parameterized truss-structure problem demonstrate the practical importance of preserving Lagrangian structure and illustrate the proposed method's merits: it reduces computation time while maintaining high accuracy and stability, in contrast to existing nonlinear model-reduction techniques that do not preserve structure.« less

  4. Preserving Lagrangian Structure in Nonlinear Model Reduction with Application to Structural Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Kevin; Tuminaro, Ray; Boggs, Paul

    2015-03-11

    Our work proposes a model-reduction methodology that preserves Lagrangian structure and achieves computational efficiency in the presence of high-order nonlinearities and arbitrary parameter dependence. As such, the resulting reduced-order model retains key properties such as energy conservation and symplectic time-evolution maps. We focus on parameterized simple mechanical systems subjected to Rayleigh damping and external forces, and consider an application to nonlinear structural dynamics. To preserve structure, the method first approximates the system's “Lagrangian ingredients''---the Riemannian metric, the potential-energy function, the dissipation function, and the external force---and subsequently derives reduced-order equations of motion by applying the (forced) Euler--Lagrange equation with these quantities. Moreover, from the algebraic perspective, key contributions include two efficient techniques for approximating parameterized reduced matrices while preserving symmetry and positive definiteness: matrix gappy proper orthogonal decomposition and reduced-basis sparsification. Our results for a parameterized truss-structure problem demonstrate the practical importance of preserving Lagrangian structure and illustrate the proposed method's merits: it reduces computation time while maintaining high accuracy and stability, in contrast to existing nonlinear model-reduction techniques that do not preserve structure.

  5. THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: ITS PAST AND ITS FUTURE IN HEALTH CARE

    PubMed Central

    HOLDEN, RICHARD J.; KARSH, BEN-TZION

    2009-01-01

    Increasing interest in end users’ reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods. PMID:19615467

  6. The technology acceptance model: its past and its future in health care.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in end users' reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods.

  7. Modeling the acceptance of clinical information systems among hospital medical staff: an extended TAM model.

    PubMed

    Melas, Christos D; Zampetakis, Leonidas A; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2011-08-01

    Recent empirical research has utilized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to advance the understanding of doctors' and nurses' technology acceptance in the workplace. However, the majority of the reported studies are either qualitative in nature or use small convenience samples of medical staff. Additionally, in very few studies moderators are either used or assessed despite their importance in TAM based research. The present study focuses on the application of TAM in order to explain the intention to use clinical information systems, in a random sample of 604 medical staff (534 physicians) working in 14 hospitals in Greece. We introduce physicians' specialty as a moderator in TAM and test medical staff's information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and ICT feature demands, as external variables. The results show that TAM predicts a substantial proportion of the intention to use clinical information systems. Findings make a contribution to the literature by replicating, explaining and advancing the TAM, whereas theory is benefited by the addition of external variables and medical specialty as a moderator. Recommendations for further research are discussed.

  8. Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the effect of acceptability threshold in the GLUE methodology.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2008-04-01

    Uncertainty analysis in integrated urban drainage modelling is of growing importance in the field of water quality. However, only few studies deal with uncertainty quantification in urban drainage modelling; furthermore, the few existing studies mainly focus on quantitative sewer flow modelling rather than uncertainty in water quality aspects. In this context, the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology was applied for the evaluation of the uncertainty of an integrated urban drainage model and some of its subjective hypotheses have been explored. More specifically, the influence of the subjective choice of the acceptability threshold has been detected in order to gain insights regarding its effect on the model results. The model has been applied to the Savena case study (Bologna, Italy) where water quality and quantity data were available. The model results show a strong influence of the acceptability threshold selection and confirm the importance of modeller's experience in the application of GLUE uncertainty analysis.

  9. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore the Intention to Use Second Life for Enhancing Healthcare Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Meyrick; Herold, David Kurt; Choo, Tat-Ming; Chan, Kitty

    2012-01-01

    Learners need to have good reasons to engage and accept e-learning. They need to understand that unless they do, the outcomes will be less favourable. The technology acceptance model (TAM) is the most widely recognized model addressing why users accept or reject technology. This study describes the development and evaluation of a virtual…

  10. Comparing the context and the SitBAC models for privacy preservation in terms of model understanding and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Beimel, Dizza; Peleg, Mor

    2008-11-06

    There is an increasing interest in preserving patients' privacy while accessing Electronic Health Record (EHR) data. Two models that support representation of data-request authorization policies are the Contextual Role-Based Access Control (Context) model [1] and the Situation-Based Access Control (SitBAC) model [2]. We conducted a controlled experiment that compared the two models with respect to model-understanding and model-synthesis.

  11. Preserving spatial linear correlations between neighboring stations in simulating daily precipitation using extended Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababaei, Behnam; Sohrabi, Teymour; Mirzaei, Farhad

    2014-10-01

    Most stochastic weather generators have their focus on precipitation because it is the most important variable affecting environmental processes. One of the methods to reproduce the precipitation occurrence time series is to use a Markov process. But, in addition to the simulation of short-term autocorrelations in one station, it is sometimes important to preserve the spatial linear correlations (SLC) between neighboring stations as well. In this research, an extension of one-site Markov models was proposed to preserve the SLC between neighboring stations. Qazvin station was utilized as the reference station and Takestan (TK), Magsal, Nirougah, and Taleghan stations were used as the target stations. The performances of different models were assessed in relation to the simulation of dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies in precipitation time series. The results revealed that in TK station, a Markov model with a first-order spatial model could be selected as the best model, while in the other stations, a model with the order of two or three could be selected. The selected (i.e., best) models were assessed in relation to preserving the SLC between neighboring stations. The results depicted that these models were very capable in preserving the SLC between the reference station and any of the target stations. But, their performances were weaker when the SLC between the other stations were compared. In order to resolve this issue, spatially correlated random numbers were utilized instead of independent random numbers while generating synthetic time series using the Markov models. Although this method slightly reduced the model performances in relation to dry and wet spells and short-term dependencies, the improvements related to the simulation of the SLC between the other stations were substantial.

  12. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios. PMID:26409546

  13. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios.

  14. Accept/decline decision module for the liver simulated allocation model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Phil; Gupta, Diwakar; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bertram L

    2015-03-01

    Simulated allocation models (SAMs) are used to evaluate organ allocation policies. An important component of SAMs is a module that decides whether each potential recipient will accept an offered organ. The objective of this study was to develop and test accept-or-decline classifiers based on several machine-learning methods in an effort to improve the SAM for liver allocation. Feature selection and imbalance correction methods were tested and best approaches identified for application to organ transplant data. Then, we used 2011 liver match-run data to compare classifiers based on logistic regression, support vector machines, boosting, classification and regression trees, and Random Forests. Finally, because the accept-or-decline module will be embedded in a simulation model, we also developed an evaluation tool for comparing performance of predictors, which we call sample-path accuracy. The Random Forest method resulted in the smallest overall error rate, and boosting techniques had greater accuracy when both sensitivity and specificity were simultaneously considered important. Our comparisons show that no method dominates all others on all performance measures of interest. A logistic regression-based classifier is easy to implement and allows for pinpointing the contribution of each feature toward the probability of acceptance. Other methods we tested did not have a similar interpretation. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients decided to use the logistic regression-based accept-decline decision module in the next generation of liver SAM.

  15. An Investigation of the Integrated Model of User Technology Acceptance: Internet User Samples in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash; Cucchi, Alain

    2008-01-01

    National background of users may influence the process of technology acceptance. The present study explored this issue with the new, integrated technology use model proposed by Sun and Zhang (2006). Data were collected from samples of college students in India, Mauritius, Reunion Island, and United States. Questionnaire methodology and…

  16. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  17. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  18. Extended TAM Model: Impacts of Convenience on Acceptance and Use of Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiao-hui; Chang, Yu-ying

    2013-01-01

    The increasing online access to courses, programs, and information has shifted the control and responsibility of learning process from instructors to learners. Learners' perceptions of and attitudes toward e-learning constitute a critical factor to the success of such system. The purpose of this study is to take TAM (technology acceptance model)…

  19. The technology acceptance model: predicting nurses' intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU).

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine factors and predictors that influence nurses' intention to use the eICU technology, to examine the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model in explaining nurses' intention to use the eICU technology in healthcare settings, and to provide psychometric evidence of the measurement scales used in the study. The study involved 117 participants from two healthcare systems. The Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model was developed based on the original Technology Acceptance Model that was initially developed by Fred Davis in 1986. The eICU Acceptance Survey was used as an instrument for the study. Content validity was examined, and the reliability of the instrument was tested. The results show that perceived usefulness is the most influential factor that influences nurses' intention to use the eICU technology. The principal factors that influence perceived usefulness are perceived ease of use, support from physicians, and years working in the hospital. The model fit was reasonably adequate and able to explain 58% of the variance (R = 0.58) in intention to use the eICU technology with the nursing sample.

  20. Examining the Factors That Contribute to Successful Database Application Implementation Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworji, Alexander O.

    2013-01-01

    Most organizations spend millions of dollars due to the impact of improperly implemented database application systems as evidenced by poor data quality problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to use, and extend, the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the impact of information quality and technical quality factors on database…

  1. Improving sleep with mindfulness and acceptance: a metacognitive model of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Ulmer, Christi S; Manber, Rachel

    2012-11-01

    While there is an accumulating evidence to suggest that therapies using mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches have benefits for improving the symptoms of insomnia, it is unclear how these treatments work. The goal of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for the cognitive mechanisms of insomnia based upon mindfulness and acceptance approaches. The existing cognitive and behavioral models of insomnia are first reviewed and a two-level model of cognitive (primary) and metacognitive (secondary) arousal is presented in the context of insomnia. We then focus on the role of metacognition in mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies, followed by a review of these therapies in the treatment of insomnia. A conceptual framework is presented detailing the mechanisms of metacognition in the context of insomnia treatments. This model proposes that increasing awareness of the mental and physical states that are present when experiencing insomnia symptoms and then learning how to shift mental processes can promote an adaptive stance to one's response to these symptoms. These metacognitive processes are characterized by balanced appraisals, cognitive flexibility, equanimity, and commitment to values and are posited to reduce sleep-related arousal, leading to remission from insomnia. We hope that this model will further the understanding and impact of mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to insomnia.

  2. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions. 200.926c Section 200.926c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  3. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  4. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  5. An opinion diffusion model with decision-making groups: The influence of the opinion's acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhichao; Xiong, Yang; Xu, Yiwen

    2016-11-01

    An opinion dynamic model with decision-making groups was proposed to study the process of adopting new opinions or ideas by individuals. The opinion's acceptability is introduced to distinguish the general character of different opinions. The simulation results on a free-scale network demonstrate that when two opinions have similar acceptability, the opinion supported by more decision-making groups in the beginning will eventually win the support of more agents, whereas an opinion supported by fewer decision-making groups in the beginning may be supported by the majority at the end only if it has better acceptability, and if the tolerance threshold of the society is higher than a specific value.

  6. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  7. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  8. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. PMID:24603028

  9. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  10. The acceptance of in silico models for REACH: Requirements, barriers, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In silico models have prompted considerable interest and debate because of their potential value in predicting the properties of chemical substances for regulatory purposes. The European REACH legislation promotes innovation and encourages the use of alternative methods, but in practice the use of in silico models is still very limited. There are many stakeholders influencing the regulatory trajectory of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models, including regulators, industry, model developers and consultants. Here we outline some of the issues and challenges involved in the acceptance of these methods for regulatory purposes. PMID:21982269

  11. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  12. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  13. The Effects of a Modified Treatment Package with and without Feeder Modeling on One Child's Acceptance of Novel Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Harclerode, Whitney; Williams, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if sequential presentation with feeder modeling would lead to an increase in bites accepted of new foods compared to sequential presentation without feeder modeling in a typically developing 4-year-old boy with food selectivity. The participant's acceptance of novel foods increased both in the modeling and…

  14. Structure-preserving model reduction of passive and quasi-active neurons.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Kathryn R; Cox, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    The spatial component of input signals often carries information crucial to a neuron's function, but models mapping synaptic inputs to the transmembrane potential can be computationally expensive. Existing reduced models of the neuron either merge compartments, thereby sacrificing the spatial specificity of inputs, or apply model reduction techniques that sacrifice the underlying electrophysiology of the model. We use Krylov subspace projection methods to construct reduced models of passive and quasi-active neurons that preserve both the spatial specificity of inputs and the electrophysiological interpretation as an RC and RLC circuit, respectively. Each reduced model accurately computes the potential at the spike initiation zone (SIZ) given a much smaller dimension and simulation time, as we show numerically and theoretically. The structure is preserved through the similarity in the circuit representations, for which we provide circuit diagrams and mathematical expressions for the circuit elements. Furthermore, the transformation from the full to the reduced system is straightforward and depends on intrinsic properties of the dendrite. As each reduced model is accurate and has a clear electrophysiological interpretation, the reduced models can be used not only to simulate morphologically accurate neurons but also to examine computations performed in dendrites. PMID:22714391

  15. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  16. Inner retinal preservation in rat models of retinal degeneration implanted with subretinal photovoltaic arrays.

    PubMed

    Light, Jacob G; Fransen, James W; Adekunle, Adewumi N; Adkins, Alice; Pangeni, Gobinda; Loudin, James; Mathieson, Keith; Palanker, Daniel V; McCall, Maureen A; Pardue, Machelle T

    2014-11-01

    Photovoltaic arrays (PVA) implanted into the subretinal space of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are designed to electrically stimulate the remaining inner retinal circuitry in response to incident light, thereby recreating a visual signal when photoreceptor function declines or is lost. Preservation of inner retinal circuitry is critical to the fidelity of this transmitted signal to ganglion cells and beyond to higher visual targets. Post-implantation loss of retinal interneurons or excessive glial scarring could diminish and/or eliminate PVA-evoked signal transmission. As such, assessing the morphology of the inner retina in RP animal models with subretinal PVAs is an important step in defining biocompatibility and predicting success of signal transmission. In this study, we used immunohistochemical methods to qualitatively and quantitatively compare inner retinal morphology after the implantation of a PVA in two RP models: the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) or transgenic S334ter-line 3 (S334ter-3) rhodopsin mutant rat. Two PVA designs were compared. In the RCS rat, we implanted devices in the subretinal space at 4 weeks of age and histologically examined them at 8 weeks of age and found inner retinal morphology preservation with both PVA devices. In the S334ter-3 rat, we implanted devices at 6-12 weeks of age and again, inner retinal morphology was generally preserved with either PVA design 16-26 weeks post-implantation. Specifically, the length of rod bipolar cells and numbers of cholinergic amacrine cells were maintained along with their characteristic inner plexiform lamination patterns. Throughout the implanted retinas we found nonspecific glial reaction, but none showed additional glial scarring at the implant site. Our results indicate that subretinally implanted PVAs are well-tolerated in rodent RP models and that the inner retinal circuitry is preserved, consistent with our published results showing implant-evoked signal transmission. PMID

  17. Inner retinal preservation in rat models of retinal degeneration implanted with subretinal photovoltaic arrays

    PubMed Central

    Light, Jacob G.; Fransen, James W.; Adekunle, Adewumi N.; Adkins, Alice; Pangeni, Gobinda; Loudin, James; Mathieson, Keith; Palanker, Daniel V.; McCall, Maureen A.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays (PVA) implanted into the subretinal space of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are designed to electrically stimulate the remaining inner retinal circuitry in response to incident light, thereby recreating a visual signal when photoreceptor function declines or is lost. Preservation of inner retinal circuitry is critical to the fidelity of this transmitted signal to ganglion cells and beyond to higher visual targets. Post-implantation loss of retinal interneurons or excessive glial scarring could diminish and/or eliminate PVA-evoked signal transmission. As such, assessing the morphology of the inner retina in RP animal models with subretinal PVAs is an important step in defining biocompatibility and predicting success of signal transmission. In this study, we used immunohistochemical methods to qualitatively and quantitatively compare inner retinal morphology after the implantation of a PVA in two RP models: the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) or transgenic S334ter-line 3 (S334ter-3) rhodopsin mutant rat. Two PVA designs were compared. In the RCS rat, we implanted devices in the subretinal space at 4 weeks of age and histologically examined them at 8 weeks of age and found inner retinal morphology preservation with both PVA devices. In the S334ter-3 rat, we implanted devices at 6 to 12 weeks of age and again, inner retinal morphology was generally preserved with either PVA design 16 to 26 weeks post implantation. Specifically, the length of rod bipolar cells and numbers of cholinergic amacrine cells were maintained along with their characteristic inner plexiform lamination patterns. Throughout the implanted retinas we found nonspecific glial reaction, but none showed additional glial scarring at the implant site. Our results indicate that subretinally implanted PVAs are well-tolerated in rodent RP models and that the inner retinal circuitry is preserved, consistent with our published results showing implant-evoked signal transmission. PMID

  18. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum. PMID:26411928

  19. An Empirical Assessment of a Technology Acceptance Model for Apps in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Briz-Ponce, Laura; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    The evolution and the growth of mobile applications ("apps") in our society is a reality. This general trend is still upward and the app use has also penetrated the medical education community. However, there is a lot of unawareness of the students' and professionals' point of view about introducing "apps" within Medical School curriculum. The aim of this research is to design, implement and verify that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be employed to measure and explain the acceptance of mobile technology and "apps" within Medical Education. The methodology was based on a survey distributed to students and medical professionals from University of Salamanca. This model explains 46.7% of behavioral intention to use mobile devise or "apps" for learning and will help us to justify and understand the current situation of introducing "apps" into the Medical School curriculum.

  20. A comprehensive examination of the model underlying acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Vowles, Kevin E; Sowden, Gail; Ashworth, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The therapeutic model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is reasonably well-established as it applies to chronic pain. Several studies have examined measures of single ACT processes, or subsets of processes, and have almost uniformly indicated reliable relations with patient functioning. To date, however, no study has performed a comprehensive examination of the entire ACT model, including all of its component processes, as it relates to functioning. The present study performed this examination in 274 individuals with chronic pain presenting for an assessment appointment. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, assessing multiple aspects of the ACT model, as well as pain intensity, disability, and emotional distress. Initial exploratory factor analyses examined measures of the ACT model and measures of patient functioning separately with each analysis identifying three factors. Next, the fit of a model including ACT processes on the one hand and patient functioning on the other was examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Overall model fit was acceptable and indicated moderate correlations among the ACT processes themselves, as well as significant relations with pain intensity, emotional distress, and disability. These analyses build on the existing literature by providing, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive evaluation of the ACT theoretical model in chronic pain to date.

  1. Comparison between cryopreserved and glycerol-preserved allografts in a partial-thickness porcine wound model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Lim, Kihwan; Lee, Sungjun; Choi, Yanghwan; Choi, Youngwhan; Lee, Jungsuk

    2016-03-01

    Human skin allografts are one of the best temporary biological coverings for severely burned patients. Cryopreserved (CPA) and glycerol-preserved (GPA) allografts are the most widely used types. This study compared the allograft efficiency of both preservation methods under the same conditions. To simulate actual clinical conditions, we used a porcine wound model. In addition, we evaluated the macroscopic and microscopic scoring of graft performance for each method. Porcine cadaver skin 1 mm thick was obtained from one pig. Cryopreserved skin cell viability was 20.8 %, glycerol-preserved skin was 9.08 %, and fresh skin was 58.6 %. We made ten partial-thickness wounds each in two pigs. The take rates on day 2 were 96.23 and 82.65 % in the GPA and CPA group (both n = 9), respectively. After 1 week, the take rates of both groups were nearly equal. The removal rate at week 5 was 98.87 and 94.41 % in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. On microscopic findings at week 2, inflammation was greater in the CPA group. Other findings such as fibroblast hyperplasia and neovascularization were not significantly different between both groups. At week 5, the score of collagen fiber synthesis was 2.67 ± 0.47 and 2.33 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. The epidermal-dermal junction was 2.22 ± 0.79 and 2.00 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. These findings suggest that wound healing takes longer in the CPA group. The preservation method of allografts is not a absolute factor in the wound healing process in this wound model.

  2. Results of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model comparison using a state accepted statistical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant, located approximately 26 km northwest of downtown Denver, Colorado, has developed an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for complex terrain applications. Plant personnel would use the model, known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985) to project plume impacts and provide off-site protective action recommendations to the State of Colorado should a hazardous material release occur from the facility. The Colorado Department of Health (CDH) entered into an interagency agreement with the Rocky Flats Plant prime contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, and the US Department of Energy to evaluate TRAC as an acceptable emergency response tool. After exhaustive research of similar evaluation processes from other emergency response and regulatory organizations, the interagency committee devised a formal acceptance process. The process contains an evaluation protocol (Hodgin and Smith 1992), descriptions of responsibilities, an identified experimental data set to use in the evaluation, and judgment criteria for model acceptance. The evaluation protocol is general enough to allow for different implementations. This paper explains one implementation, shows protocol results for a test case, and presents results of a comparison between versions of TRAC with different wind Field codes: a two dimensional mass consistent code called WINDS (Fosberg et al. 1976) that has been extended to three dimensions, and a fully 3 dimensional mass conserving code called NUATMOS (Ross and Smith 1987, Ross et al. 1988).

  3. Applying the Extended Technology Acceptance Model to the Use of Clickers in Student Learning: Some Evidence from Macroeconomics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the extended technology acceptance model (exTAM) in information systems research to the use of clickers in student learning. The technology acceptance model (TAM) posits that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of technology influence users' attitudes toward using and intention to use technology. Research subsequent…

  4. The Acceptance Model of Intuitive Eating: A Comparison of Women in Emerging Adulthood, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and…

  5. Calcium glycerophosphate preserves transepithelial integrity in the Caco-2 model of intestinal transport

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Palika; Weis, Margaret T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the direct effects of ischemia on intestinal epithelial integrity. Furthermore, clinical efforts at mitigating the effect of hypoperfusion on gut permeability have focused on restoring gut vascular function. METHODS: We report that, in the Caco-2 cell model of transepithelial transport, calcium glycerophosphate (CGP), an inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase F3, has a significant effect to preserve transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and to attenuate increases in mannitol flux rates during hypoxia or cytokine stimulation. RESULTS: The effect was observable even at concentrations as low as 1 μmol/L. As celiac disease is also marked by a loss of gut epithelial integrity, the effect of CGP to attenuate the effect of the α-gliadin peptide 31-55 was also examined. In this instance, CGP exerted little effect of preservation of TEER, but significantly attenuated peptide induced increase in mannitol flux. CONCLUSION: It appears that CGP treatment might synergize with other therapies to preserve gut epithelial integrity. PMID:26290632

  6. Rank-preserving regression: a more robust rank regression model against outliers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Kowalski, Jeanne; Chen, Rui; Wu, Pan; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Changyong; Tu, Xin M

    2016-08-30

    Mean-based semi-parametric regression models such as the popular generalized estimating equations are widely used to improve robustness of inference over parametric models. Unfortunately, such models are quite sensitive to outlying observations. The Wilcoxon-score-based rank regression (RR) provides more robust estimates over generalized estimating equations against outliers. However, the RR and its extensions do not sufficiently address missing data arising in longitudinal studies. In this paper, we propose a new approach to address outliers under a different framework based on the functional response models. This functional-response-model-based alternative not only addresses limitations of the RR and its extensions for longitudinal data, but, with its rank-preserving property, even provides more robust estimates than these alternatives. The proposed approach is illustrated with both real and simulated data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26934999

  7. Surrogate modelling and optimization using shape-preserving response prediction: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifsson, Leifur; Koziel, Slawomir

    2016-03-01

    Computer simulation models are ubiquitous in modern engineering design. In many cases, they are the only way to evaluate a given design with sufficient fidelity. Unfortunately, an added computational expense is associated with higher fidelity models. Moreover, the systems being considered are often highly nonlinear and may feature a large number of designable parameters. Therefore, it may be impractical to solve the design problem with conventional optimization algorithms. A promising approach to alleviate these difficulties is surrogate-based optimization (SBO). Among proven SBO techniques, the methods utilizing surrogates constructed from corrected physics-based low-fidelity models are, in many cases, the most efficient. This article reviews a particular technique of this type, namely, shape-preserving response prediction (SPRP), which works on the level of the model responses to correct the underlying low-fidelity models. The formulation and limitations of SPRP are discussed. Applications to several engineering design problems are provided.

  8. Rank-preserving regression: a more robust rank regression model against outliers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Kowalski, Jeanne; Chen, Rui; Wu, Pan; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Changyong; Tu, Xin M

    2016-08-30

    Mean-based semi-parametric regression models such as the popular generalized estimating equations are widely used to improve robustness of inference over parametric models. Unfortunately, such models are quite sensitive to outlying observations. The Wilcoxon-score-based rank regression (RR) provides more robust estimates over generalized estimating equations against outliers. However, the RR and its extensions do not sufficiently address missing data arising in longitudinal studies. In this paper, we propose a new approach to address outliers under a different framework based on the functional response models. This functional-response-model-based alternative not only addresses limitations of the RR and its extensions for longitudinal data, but, with its rank-preserving property, even provides more robust estimates than these alternatives. The proposed approach is illustrated with both real and simulated data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Theory development in nursing and healthcare informatics: a model explaining and predicting information and communication technology acceptance by healthcare consumers.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Panniers, Teresa; Carty, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    About 110 million American adults are looking for health information and services on the Internet. Identification of the factors influencing healthcare consumers' technology acceptance is requisite to understanding their acceptance and usage behavior of online health information and related services. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM). From the literature reviewed, ICTAM was developed with emphasis on integrating multidisciplinary perspectives from divergent frameworks and empirical findings into a unified model with regard to healthcare consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of information and services on the Internet.

  10. Modelling Facebook Usage among University Students in Thailand: The Role of Emotional Attachment in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…

  11. Measuring the Moderating Effect of Gender and Age on E-Learning Acceptance in England: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach for an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The success of an e-learning intervention depends to a considerable extent on student acceptance and use of the technology. Therefore, it has become imperative for practitioners and policymakers to understand the factors affecting the user acceptance of e-learning systems in order to enhance the students' learning experience. Based on an extended…

  12. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingquan

    2015-07-08

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS.

  13. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS. PMID:26155953

  14. Application of Advanced Thermal Hydraulic TRACG Model to Preserve Operating Margins in BWRs at Extended Power Up-rate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens G. M.; Casillas, Jose L.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.

    2006-07-01

    GE has developed TRACG, a customized BWR version of the TRAC model, for application to BWR analyses. This model was initially applied to special BWR challenges and for benchmarking the official simplified thermal-hydraulic design models. However, in past years extensive additional model development, qualification and application studies have been completed. This development has followed the CSAU methodology, where extensive model evaluation and qualification have been performed to demonstrate the applicability of the model and to quantify the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as in plant parameters and initial conditions. This has then been combined with a statistically based application methodology following the CSAU approach to generate tolerance limits for the critical safety and design parameters. This effort has resulted in application processes that have been reviewed and approved by the US NRC to enable routine application of the TRACG model to the design and licensing analyses and utilize the improved operating margin to optimize the fuel cycle design. These applications have been supported by development of programs that construct specific plant and problem base-decks that utilize BWR plant characteristics and system databases to standardize and streamline the application to several plants. The application of the TRACG model in Transient and LOCA analyses has assisted in allowing similar power peaking at higher power density conditions for BWRs. Also, the application of the TRACG model in Stability analyses has assisted in preserving the setpoints of stability monitoring systems to avoid margin loss for high power density applications. TRACG is being used for analysis of ATWS events. It has been used to support the development of emergency procedure guidelines, and it is currently being used to demonstrate that the suppression pool temperature limits can be met for up-rated conditions. Finally, the application of the TRACG model in Faulted Load

  15. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Prize Lecture: Correlation Functions in Integrable Models: Ising Model and Monodromy Preserving Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Tetsuji

    2013-03-01

    Studies on integrable models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory originated in the works of Bethe on the one-dimensional quantum spin chain and the work of Onsager on the two-dimensional Ising model. I will talk on the discovery in 1977 of the link between quantum field theory in the scaling limit of the two-dimensional Ising model and the theory of monodromy preserving linear ordinary differential equations. This work was the staring point of our journey with Michio Jimbo in integrable models, the journey which finally led us to the exact results on the correlation functions of quantum spin chains in 1992.

  16. Variation transmission model for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montes, Richard O

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes consist of a series of stages (e.g., reaction, workup, isolation) to generate the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Outputs at intermediate stages (in-process control) and API need to be controlled within acceptance criteria to assure final drug product quality. In this paper, two methods based on tolerance interval to derive such acceptance criteria will be evaluated. The first method is serial worst case (SWC), an industry risk minimization strategy, wherein input materials and process parameters of a stage are fixed at their worst-case settings to calculate the maximum level expected from the stage. This maximum output then becomes input to the next stage wherein process parameters are again fixed at worst-case setting. The procedure is serially repeated throughout the process until the final stage. The calculated limits using SWC can be artificially high and may not reflect the actual process performance. The second method is the variation transmission (VT) using autoregressive model, wherein variation transmitted up to a stage is estimated by accounting for the recursive structure of the errors at each stage. Computer simulations at varying extent of variation transmission and process stage variability are performed. For the scenarios tested, VT method is demonstrated to better maintain the simulated confidence level and more precisely estimate the true proportion parameter than SWC. Real data examples are also presented that corroborate the findings from the simulation. Overall, VT is recommended for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  17. Development of a prediction model on the acceptance of electronic laboratory notebooks in academic environments.

    PubMed

    Kloeckner, Frederik; Farkas, Robert; Franken, Tobias; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Documentation of research data plays a key role in the biomedical engineering innovation processes. It makes an important contribution to the protection of intellectual property, the traceability of results and fulfilling the regulatory requirement. Because of the increasing digitalization in laboratories, an electronic alternative to the commonly-used paper-bound notebooks could contribute to the production of sophisticated documentation. However, compared to in an industrial environment, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks is not widespread in academic laboratories. Little is known about the acceptance of an electronic documentation system and the underlying reasons for this. Thus, this paper aims to establish a prediction model on the potential preference and acceptance of scientists either for paper-based or electronic documentation. The underlying data for the analysis originate from an online survey of 101 scientists in industrial, academic and clinical environments. Various parameters were analyzed to identify crucial factors for the system preference using binary logistic regression. The analysis showed significant dependency between the documentation system preference and the supposed workload associated with the documentation system (p<0.006; odds ratio=58.543) and an additional personal component. Because of the dependency of system choice on specific parameters it is possible to predict the acceptance of an electronic laboratory notebook before implementation.

  18. Evaluation of teledermatology adoption by health-care professionals using a modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Orruño, Estibalitz; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Asua, José; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis

    2011-01-01

    We examined the main factors affecting the intention of physicians to use teledermatology using a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The investigation was carried out during a teledermatology pilot study conducted in Spain. A total of 276 questionnaires were sent to physicians by email and 171 responded (62%). Cronbach's alpha was acceptably high for all constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable (Intention to Use). Logistic regression indicated that the original TAM model was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology and that the variables Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use were both significant (odds ratios of 8.4 and 7.4, respectively). When other theoretical variables were added, the model was still significant and it also became more powerful. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators with an odds ratio of 9.9. Thus the TAM was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology. However, the most important variable was the perception of Facilitators to using the technology (e.g. infrastructure, training and support).

  19. Acceptability of telemedicine and other cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery in geographically remote settings.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Eileen; Lamb, Amanda; Grillo, Barbara; Lucas, Lee; Miesfeldt, Susan

    2014-04-01

    This work examined acceptability of cancer genetic counseling models of service delivery among Maine residents at risk for hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders. Pre-counseling, participants ranked characteristics reflecting models of care from most to least important including: mode-of-communication (in-person versus telegenetics), provider level of training (genetic specialty versus some training/experience), delivery format (one-on-one versus group counseling), and location (local versus tertiary service requiring travel). Associations between models of care characteristic rankings and patient characteristics, including rural residence, perceived cancer risk, and perceived risk for a hereditary cancer risk susceptibility disorder were examined. A total of 149/300 (49.7% response rate) individuals from 11/16 Maine counties responded; 30.8% were from rural counties; 92.2% indicated that an important/the most important model of care characteristic is provider professional qualifications. Among other characteristics, 65.1% ranked one-on-one counseling as important/the most important. In-person and local counseling were ranked the two least important characteristics (51.8% and 52.1% important/the most important, respectively). Responses did not vary by patient characteristics with the exception of greater acceptance of group counseling among those at perceived high personal cancer risk. Cancer telegenetic services hold promise for access to expert providers in a one-on-one format for rurally remote clients.

  20. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A.; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed–accuracy trade-offs and speed–cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  1. Computational model of collective nest selection by ants with heterogeneous acceptance thresholds.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; O'shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Doran, Carolina; Franks, Nigel R

    2015-06-01

    Collective decision-making is a characteristic of societies ranging from ants to humans. The ant Temnothorax albipennis is known to use quorum sensing to collectively decide on a new home; emigration to a new nest site occurs when the number of ants favouring the new site becomes quorate. There are several possible mechanisms by which ant colonies can select the best nest site among alternatives based on a quorum mechanism. In this study, we use computational models to examine the implications of heterogeneous acceptance thresholds across individual ants in collective nest choice behaviour. We take a minimalist approach to develop a differential equation model and a corresponding non-spatial agent-based model. We show, consistent with existing empirical evidence, that heterogeneity in acceptance thresholds is a viable mechanism for efficient nest choice behaviour. In particular, we show that the proposed models show speed-accuracy trade-offs and speed-cohesion trade-offs when we vary the number of scouts or the quorum threshold. PMID:26543578

  2. On Multiscale Modeling: Preserving Energy Dissipation Across the Scales with Consistent Handshaking Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A mesh objective crack band model was implemented within the generalized method of cells micromechanics theory. This model was linked to a macroscale finite element model to predict post-peak strain softening in composite materials. Although a mesh objective theory was implemented at the microscale, it does not preclude pathological mesh dependence at the macroscale. To ensure mesh objectivity at both scales, the energy density and the energy release rate must be preserved identically across the two scales. This requires a consistent characteristic length or localization limiter. The effects of scaling (or not scaling) the dimensions of the microscale repeating unit cell (RUC), according to the macroscale element size, in a multiscale analysis was investigated using two examples. Additionally, the ramifications of the macroscale element shape, compared to the RUC, was studied.

  3. EXpectation Propagation LOgistic REgRession (EXPLORER): Distributed Privacy-Preserving Online Model Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wu, Yuan; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-01-01

    We developed an EXpectation Propagation LOgistic REgRession (EXPLORER) model for distributed privacy-preserving online learning. The proposed framework provides a high level guarantee for protecting sensitive information, since the information exchanged between the server and the client is the encrypted posterior distribution of coefficients. Through experimental results, EXPLORER shows the same performance (e.g., discrimination, calibration, feature selection etc.) as the traditional frequentist Logistic Regression model, but provides more flexibility in model updating. That is, EXPLORER can be updated one point at a time rather than having to retrain the entire data set when new observations are recorded. The proposed EXPLORER supports asynchronized communication, which relieves the participants from coordinating with one another, and prevents service breakdown from the absence of participants or interrupted communications. PMID:23562651

  4. An Elaboration Likelihood Model Based Longitudinal Analysis of Attitude Change during the Process of IT Acceptance via Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to gain insight into attitude changes occurring during IT acceptance from the perspective of elaboration likelihood model (ELM). In particular, the primary target of this study was the process of IT acceptance through an education program. Although the Internet and computers are now quite ubiquitous, and…

  5. An Investigation of Employees' Use of E-Learning Systems: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Yen-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the technology acceptance model to examine the employees' attitudes and acceptance of electronic learning (e-learning) systems in organisations. This study examines four factors (organisational support, computer self-efficacy, prior experience and task equivocality) that are believed to influence…

  6. An Exploration of Student Internet Use in India: The Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore behavioral processes involved in internet technology acceptance and use with a sample in India, a developing country that can potentially benefit from greater participation in the web economy. Design/methodology/approach - User experience was incorporated into the technology acceptance model (TAM)…

  7. Investigating Students' Acceptance and Self-Efficacy of E-Learning at Al-Aqsa University Based on TAM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hasan Rebhi

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of E-learning Self-Efficacy (ELSE) on the acceptance of e-learning by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). According to the TAM which used as the theoretical basis, both of the Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) influence directly the end user's Behavioral Intention…

  8. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  9. A model-reduction approach in micromechanics of materials preserving the variational structure of constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    In 2003 the authors proposed a model-reduction technique, called the Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA), based on a decomposition of the local fields of internal variables on a reduced basis of modes, to analyze the effective response of composite materials. The present study extends and improves on this approach in different directions. It is first shown that when the constitutive relations of the constituents derive from two potentials, this structure is passed to the NTFA model. Another structure-preserving model, the hybrid NTFA model of Fritzen and Leuschner, is analyzed and found to differ (slightly) from the primal NTFA model (it does not exhibit the same variational upper bound character). To avoid the "on-line" computation of local fields required by the hybrid model, new reduced evolution equations for the reduced variables are proposed, based on an expansion to second order (TSO) of the potential of the hybrid model. The coarse dynamics can then be entirely expressed in terms of quantities which can be pre-computed once for all. Roughly speaking, these pre-computed quantities depend only on the average and fluctuations per phase of the modes and of the associated stress fields. The accuracy of the new NTFA-TSO model is assessed by comparison with full-field simulations. The acceleration provided by the new coarse dynamics over the full-field computations (and over the hybrid model) is then spectacular, larger by three orders of magnitude than the acceleration due to the sole reduction of unknowns.

  10. Privacy-preserving genomic testing in the clinic: a model using HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Paul J.; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Aouri, Manel; Rotger, Margalida; Ayday, Erman; Bartha, István; Delgado, Maria B.; Vallet, Yannick; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Marzolini, Catia; Schmid, Patrick; Di Benedetto, Caroline; Decosterd, Laurent A.; Fellay, Jacques; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Telenti, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of genomic-based medicine is hindered by unresolved questions regarding data privacy and delivery of interpreted results to health-care practitioners. We used DNA-based prediction of HIV-related outcomes as a model to explore critical issues in clinical genomics. Genet Med 18 8, 814–822. Methods: We genotyped 4,149 markers in HIV-positive individuals. Variants allowed for prediction of 17 traits relevant to HIV medical care, inference of patient ancestry, and imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Genetic data were processed under a privacy-preserving framework using homomorphic encryption, and clinical reports describing potentially actionable results were delivered to health-care providers. Genet Med 18 8, 814–822. Results: A total of 230 patients were included in the study. We demonstrated the feasibility of encrypting a large number of genetic markers, inferring patient ancestry, computing monogenic and polygenic trait risks, and reporting results under privacy-preserving conditions. The average execution time of a multimarker test on encrypted data was 865 ms on a standard computer. The proportion of tests returning potentially actionable genetic results ranged from 0 to 54%. Genet Med 18 8, 814–822. Conclusions: The model of implementation presented herein informs on strategies to deliver genomic test results for clinical care. Data encryption to ensure privacy helps to build patient trust, a key requirement on the road to genomic-based medicine. Genet Med 18 8, 814–822. PMID:26765343

  11. Testing the Electronic Personal Health Record Acceptance Model by Nurses for Managing Their Own Health

    PubMed Central

    Trinkoff, A.M.; Storr, C.L.; Wilson, M.L.; Gurses, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To our knowledge, no evidence is available on health care professionals’ use of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) for their health management. We therefore focused on nurses’ personal use of ePHRs using a modified technology acceptance model. Objectives To examine (1) the psychometric properties of the ePHR acceptance model, (2) the associations of perceived usefulness, ease of use, data privacy and security protection, and perception of self as health-promoting role models to nurses’ own ePHR use, and (3) the moderating influences of age, chronic illness and medication use, and providers’ use of electronic health record (EHRs) on the associations between the ePHR acceptance constructs and ePHR use. Methods A convenience sample of registered nurses, those working in one of 12 hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC areas and members of the nursing informatics community (AMIA and HIMSS), were invited to respond to an anonymous online survey; 847 responded. Multiple logistic regression identified associations between the model constructs and ePHR use, and the moderating effect. Results Overall, ePHRs were used by 47%. Sufficient reliability for all scales was found. Three constructs were significantly related to nurses’ own ePHR use after adjusting for covariates: usefulness, data privacy and security protection, and health-promoting role model. Nurses with providers that used EHRs who perceived a higher level of data privacy and security protection had greater odds of ePHR use than those whose providers did not use EHRs. Older nurses with a higher self-perception as health-promoting role models had greater odds of ePHR use than younger nurses. Conclusions Nurses who use ePHRs for their personal health might promote adoption by the general public by serving as health-promoting role models. They can contribute to improvements in patient education and ePHR design, and serve as crucial resources when working with their

  12. A Realizability-Preserving Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the $M_1$ Model of Radiative Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Martin; Olbrant, Edgar; Hauck, Cory D

    2012-01-01

    The M{sub 1} model for radiative transfer coupled to a material energy equation in planar geometry is studied in this paper. For this model to be well-posed, its moment variables must fulfill certain realizability conditions. Our main focus is the design and implementation of an explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method which, under a more restrictive CFL condition, guarantees the realizability of the moment variables and the positivity of the material temperature. An analytical proof for our realizability-preserving scheme, which also includes a slope-limiting technique, is provided and confirmed by various numerical examples. Among other things, we present accuracy tests showing convergence up to fourth-order, compare our results with an analytical solution in a Riemann problem, and consider a Marshak wave problem.

  13. Frequency-Preserved Acoustic Diode Model with High Forward-Power-Transmission Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Du, Zongliang; Sun, Zhi; Gao, Huajian; Guo, Xu

    2015-06-01

    The acoustic diode (AD) can provide brighter and clearer ultrasound images by eliminating acoustic disturbances caused by sound waves traveling in two directions at the same time and interfering with each other. Such an AD could give designers new flexibility in making ultrasonic sources like those used in medical imaging or nondestructive testing. However, current AD designs, based on nonlinear effects, only partially fill this role by converting sound to a new frequency and blocking any backward flow of the original frequency. In this work, an AD model that preserves the frequencies of acoustic waves and has a relatively high forward-power-transmission rate is proposed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed AD has forward, reverse, and breakdown characteristics very similar to electrical diodes. The significant rectifying effect of the proposed AD is verified numerically through a one-dimensional example. Possible schemes for experimental realization of this model as well as more complex and efficient AD designs are also discussed.

  14. Electronic Health Record Patient Portal Adoption by Health Care Consumers: An Acceptance Model and Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The future of health care delivery is becoming more citizen centered, as today’s user is more active, better informed, and more demanding. Worldwide governments are promoting online health services, such as electronic health record (EHR) patient portals and, as a result, the deployment and use of these services. Overall, this makes the adoption of patient-accessible EHR portals an important field to study and understand. Objective The aim of this study is to understand the factors that drive individuals to adopt EHR portals. Methods We applied a new adoption model using, as a starting point, Ventkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in a consumer context (UTAUT2) by integrating a new construct specific to health care, a new moderator, and new relationships. To test the research model, we used the partial least squares (PLS) causal modelling approach. An online questionnaire was administrated. We collected 360 valid responses. Results The statistically significant drivers of behavioral intention are performance expectancy (beta=.200; t=3.619), effort expectancy (beta=.185; t=2.907), habit (beta=.388; t=7.320), and self-perception (beta=.098; t=2.285). The predictors of use behavior are habit (beta=0.206; t=2.752) and behavioral intention (beta=0.258; t=4.036). The model explained 49.7% of the variance in behavioral intention and 26.8% of the variance in use behavior. Conclusions Our research helps to understand the desired technology characteristics of EHR portals. By testing an information technology acceptance model, we are able to determine what is more valued by patients when it comes to deciding whether to adopt EHR portals or not. The inclusion of specific constructs and relationships related to the health care consumer area also had a significant impact on understanding the adoption of EHR portals. PMID:26935646

  15. Development of a Health Information Technology Acceptance Model Using Consumers’ Health Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers’ intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. Objective To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers’ behavioral intention of using HIT. Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model’s explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers’ behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers’ use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers’ attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers’ health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Conclusions An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health

  16. Energy law preserving C{sup 0} finite element schemes for phase field models in two-phase flow computations

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Jinsong; Lin Ping; Liu Chun; Wang Qi

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} We study phase-field models for multi-phase flow computation. {yields} We develop an energy-law preserving C0 FEM. {yields} We show that the energy-law preserving method work better. {yields} We overcome unphysical oscillation associated with the Cahn-Hilliard model. - Abstract: We use the idea in to develop the energy law preserving method and compute the diffusive interface (phase-field) models of Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard type, respectively, governing the motion of two-phase incompressible flows. We discretize these two models using a C{sup 0} finite element in space and a modified midpoint scheme in time. To increase the stability in the pressure variable we treat the divergence free condition by a penalty formulation, under which the discrete energy law can still be derived for these diffusive interface models. Through an example we demonstrate that the energy law preserving method is beneficial for computing these multi-phase flow models. We also demonstrate that when applying the energy law preserving method to the model of Cahn-Hilliard type, un-physical interfacial oscillations may occur. We examine the source of such oscillations and a remedy is presented to eliminate the oscillations. A few two-phase incompressible flow examples are computed to show the good performance of our method.

  17. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  18. Feature, design intention and constraint preservation for direct modeling of 3D freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak; Shimada, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Direct modeling has recently emerged as a suitable approach for 3D free-form shape modeling in industrial design. It has several advantages over the conventional, parametric modeling techniques, including natural user interactions, as well as the underlying, automatic feature-preserving shape deformation algorithms. However, current direct modeling packages still lack several capabilities critical for product design, such as managing aesthetic design intentions, and enforcing dimensional, geometric constraints. In this paper, we describe a novel 3D surface editing system capable of jointly accommodating aesthetic design intentions expressed in the form of surface painting and color-coded annotations, as well as engineering constraints expressed as dimensions. The proposed system is built upon differential coordinates and constrained least squares, and is intended for conceptual design that involves frequent shape tuning and explorations. We also provide an extensive review of the state-of-the-art direct modeling approaches for 3D mesh-based, freeform surfaces, with an emphasis on the two broad categories of shape deformation algorithms developed in the relevant field of geometric modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Comparing Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Models of Depression: a Longitudinal Study Survey.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula

    2015-06-16

    This study analyzed the interrelationships between key constructs of cognitive therapy (CT; depressogenic schemas), metacognitive therapy (MCT; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; psychological inflexibility) in the prediction of depressive symptoms. With a lapse of nine months, 106 nonclinical participants responded twice to an anonymous online survey containing the following questionnaires: the Depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Revised (DAS-R), the Positive beliefs, Negative beliefs and Need to control subscales of the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Results showed that when controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and demographic variables, psychological inflexibility longitudinally mediated the effect of depressogenic schemas (path ab = .023, SE = .010; 95% BC CI [.008, .048]) and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs on depressive symptoms (positive metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .052, SE = .031; 95% BC CI [.005, .134]; negative metacognitive beliefs: path ab = .087, SE = .049; 95% BC CI [.016, .214]; need to control: path ab = .087, SE = .051; 95% BC CI [.013, .220]). Results are discussed emphasizing the role of psychological inflexibility in the CT and MCT models of depression.

  20. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold. PMID:25977043

  1. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold.

  2. ICT & OTs: a model of information and communications technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists (part 2).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise; Pervan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper describes the development, empirical validation and analysis of a model of technology acceptance by Australian occupational therapists. The study described involved the collection of quantitative data through a national survey. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with one of the largest sample sizes ever tested (n=1605), to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector. Results provide strong support for the model. This work reveals the complexity of the constructs and relationships that influence technology acceptance and highlights the need to include sociotechnical and system issues in studies of technology acceptance in healthcare to improve information system implementation success in this arena. The results of this study have practical and theoretical implications for health informaticians and researchers in the field of health informatics and information systems, tertiary educators, Commonwealth and State Governments and the allied health professions.

  3. Structure-preserving spectral element method in attenuating seismic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenjun; Zhang, Huai

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the extension of the conformal symplectic method to solve the damped acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equations in the framework of the spectral element method. The conformal symplectic method is a variation of conventional symplectic methods to treat non-conservative time evolution problems which has superior behaviors in long-time stability and dissipation preservation. To construct the conformal symplectic method, we first reformulate the damped acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equations in their equivalent conformal multi-symplectic structures, which naturally reveal the intrinsic properties of the original systems, especially, the dissipation laws. We thereafter separate each structures into a conservative Hamiltonian system and a purely dissipative ordinary differential equation system. Based on the splitting methodology, we solve the two subsystems respectively. The dissipative one is cheaply solved by its analytic solution. While for the conservative system, we combine a fourth-order symplectic Nyström method in time and the spectral element method in space to cover the circumstances in realistic geological structures involving complex free-surface topography. The Strang composition method is adopted thereby to concatenate the corresponding two parts of solutions and generate the completed numerical scheme, which is conformal symplectic and can therefore guarantee the numerical stability and dissipation preservation after a large time modeling. Additionally, a relative larger Courant number than that of the traditional Newmark scheme is found in the numerical experiments in conjunction with a spatial sampling of approximately 5 points per wavelength. A benchmark test for the damped acoustic wave equation validates the effectiveness of our proposed method in precisely capturing dissipation rate. The classical Lamb problem is used to demonstrate the ability of modeling Rayleigh-wave propagation. More comprehensive

  4. Using the VERHIB model to reconstruct palaeo-vegetation from preserved biomarker patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Emiel; Jansen, Boris

    2010-05-01

    One of the most detailed methods available to date to reconstruct past vegetation dynamics is the analysis of fossil pollen. Unfortunately, fossil pollen analysis does not distinguish beyond family or generic level in most cases, while its spatial resolution is limited amongst others by windblown dispersal of pollen, affecting the accuracy of pollen-based reconstructions of UFL positions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new method based on the analysis of plant-specific groups of biomarkers preserved in suitable archives, such as peat deposits, that are unraveled into the plant species of origin by the newly developed VERHIB model. It consists of a linear forward model to describe the way in which a certain vegetation development over time at a certain location results in accumulation of biomarkers in a suitable archive such as marine or lacustrine sediment, peat deposit or soil. An inversion of the forward model is used to reconstruct paleovegetation on the basis of the observed accumulated biomarker signal. Tikhonov regularization is used to cope with non-uniqueness resulting from the combination of fine-scale output resolution and limited sample numbers. The Bayesian quality control technique by Ingleby & Lorenc is used to deal with heterogeneity in observational errors. Hard as well as soft constraints, derived from biological principles and dynamical models are included to ensure model results are always within physically and biologically realistic limits. Sequential Quadratic Programming is used as the solution technique for the combined non-linear constrained and regularized problem in VERHIB. Here we describe the model and present its first application to reconstruct palaeo-vegetation based on patterns of plant-specific n-alcohols and n-alkanes with chain lengths of C20-C36 preserved in a peat sequence from a biodiversity hotspot of montane rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. We show how a combination of the new biomarker application using

  5. Where there's smoke: Cigarette use, social acceptability, and spatial approaches to multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Heather A

    2015-09-01

    I contribute to understandings of how context is related to individual outcomes by assessing the added value of combining multilevel and spatial modeling techniques. This methodological approach leads to substantive contributions to the smoking literature, including improved clarity on the central contextual factors and the examination of one manifestation of the social acceptability hypothesis. For this analysis I use restricted-use natality data from the Vital Statistics, and county-level data from the 2005-9 ACS. Critically, the results suggest that spatial considerations are still relevant in a multilevel framework. In addition, I argue that spatial processes help explain the relationships linking racial/ethnic minority concentration to lower overall odds of smoking. PMID:26188587

  6. WHERE THERE’S SMOKE: CIGARETTE USE, SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY, AND SPATIAL APPROACHES TO MULTILEVEL MODELING

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    I contribute to understandings of how context is related to individual outcomes by assessing the added value of combining multilevel and spatial modeling techniques. This methodological approach leads to substantive contributions to the smoking literature, including improved clarity on the central contextual factors and the examination of one manifestation of the social acceptability hypothesis. For this analysis I use restricted-use natality data from the Vital Statistics, and county-level data from the 2005–9 ACS. Critically, the results suggest that spatial considerations are still relevant in a multilevel framework. In addition, I argue that spatial processes help explain the relationships linking racial/ethnic minority concentration to lower overall odds of smoking. PMID:26188587

  7. Finite Element Surface Registration Incorporating Curvature, Volume Preservation, and Statistical Model Information

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, Marcel; Vetter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for nonrigid registration of 3D surfaces and images. The method can be used to register surfaces by means of their distance images, or to register medical images directly. It is formulated as a minimization problem of a sum of several terms representing the desired properties of a registration result: smoothness, volume preservation, matching of the surface, its curvature, and possible other feature images, as well as consistency with previous registration results of similar objects, represented by a statistical deformation model. While most of these concepts are already known, we present a coherent continuous formulation of these constraints, including the statistical deformation model. This continuous formulation renders the registration method independent of its discretization. The finite element discretization we present is, while independent of the registration functional, the second main contribution of this paper. The local discontinuous Galerkin method has not previously been used in image registration, and it provides an efficient and general framework to discretize each of the terms of our functional. Computational efficiency and modest memory consumption are achieved thanks to parallelization and locally adaptive mesh refinement. This allows for the first time the use of otherwise prohibitively large 3D statistical deformation models. PMID:24187581

  8. Finite element surface registration incorporating curvature, volume preservation, and statistical model information.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Thomas; Dedner, Andreas; Lüthi, Marcel; Vetter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for nonrigid registration of 3D surfaces and images. The method can be used to register surfaces by means of their distance images, or to register medical images directly. It is formulated as a minimization problem of a sum of several terms representing the desired properties of a registration result: smoothness, volume preservation, matching of the surface, its curvature, and possible other feature images, as well as consistency with previous registration results of similar objects, represented by a statistical deformation model. While most of these concepts are already known, we present a coherent continuous formulation of these constraints, including the statistical deformation model. This continuous formulation renders the registration method independent of its discretization. The finite element discretization we present is, while independent of the registration functional, the second main contribution of this paper. The local discontinuous Galerkin method has not previously been used in image registration, and it provides an efficient and general framework to discretize each of the terms of our functional. Computational efficiency and modest memory consumption are achieved thanks to parallelization and locally adaptive mesh refinement. This allows for the first time the use of otherwise prohibitively large 3D statistical deformation models.

  9. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  10. Bovine in vitro reproduction models can contribute to the development of (female) fertility preservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Langbeen, An; De Porte, Hannelore F M; Bartholomeus, Esther; Leroy, Jo L M R; Bols, Peter E J

    2015-09-01

    Recent increases in the number of successful cancer treatments have stimulated interest in fertility preservation strategies in women of reproductive age and in prepubertal girls. However, research on the application of such programs under clinical conditions suffers from the scarce availability of human tissue for research purposes and from concurrent relevant ethical issues. To partly address this problem, this review focuses on the possibilities of ruminant in vitro models providing additional insights into several aspects of fertility preservation, ranging from preantral follicle collection to oocyte and follicle cryopreservation, to noninvasive quality assessment, and to follicle culture. After a brief introduction, we discuss currently available techniques involved in (human) fertility preservation, together with their inherent advantages and limitations. On the basis of literature, we describe specific points for improvement or urgent additional research, such as (1) the lack of noninvasive methods to assess viability and developmental capacity of preantral follicles (either isolated or "in situ"); (2) autotransplantation and cryopreservation of ovarian cortex and follicles; (3) ischemia, follicular burnout, and graft rejection as major causes of preantral follicle loss; and (4) the development of routine in vitro follicle culture methods. Within each section, an overview is given of similar available techniques in (ruminant) assisted reproduction, with suggestions as to where and how these research models might contribute to fill the identified gaps. After the identification of the remaining issues in the development of integrated fertility preservation strategies, available ruminant in vitro models are introduced, described, and matched to these challenges to define common grounds for reproductive research. Ruminant in vitro models are increasingly considered as being very relevant for human preimplantation reproductive research. Because ruminant in

  11. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: a comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L; Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and investigating it with emerging (ages 18-25 years old, n = 318), early (ages 26-39 years old, n = 238), and middle (ages 40-65 years old, n = 245) adult women. Multiple-group analysis revealed that this model fit the data for all age groups. Body appreciation and resistance to adopt an observer's perspective mediated the body acceptance by others-intuitive eating link. Body acceptance by others mediated the social support-body appreciation and BMI-body appreciation links. Early and middle adult women had stronger negative BMI-body acceptance by others and BMI-intuitive eating relationships and a stronger positive body acceptance by others-body appreciation relationship than emerging adult women. Early adult women had a stronger positive resistance to adopt observer's perspective-body appreciation relationship than emerging and middle adult women.

  12. [Skin and tissue bank: Operational model for the recovery and preservation of tissues and skin allografts].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Sandoval-Zamora, Hugo; Machuca-Rodriguez, Catalina; Barrera-López, Araceli; García-Cavazos, Ricardo; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Tissue storage is a medical process that is in the regulation and homogenisation phase in the scientific world. The international standards require the need to ensure safety and efficacy of human allografts such as skin and other tissues. The activities of skin and tissues banks currently involve their recovery, processing, storage and distribution, which are positively correlated with technological and scientific advances present in current biomedical sciences. A description is presented of the operational model of Skin and Tissue Bank at INR as successful case for procurement, recovery and preservation of skin and tissues for therapeutic uses, with high safety and biological quality. The essential and standard guidelines are presented as keystones for a tissue recovery program based on scientific evidence, and within an ethical and legal framework, as well as to propose a model for complete overview of the donation of tissues and organ programs in Mexico. Finally, it concludes with essential proposals for improving the efficacy of transplantation of organs and tissue programs. PMID:26259741

  13. [Skin and tissue bank: Operational model for the recovery and preservation of tissues and skin allografts].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Sandoval-Zamora, Hugo; Machuca-Rodriguez, Catalina; Barrera-López, Araceli; García-Cavazos, Ricardo; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Tissue storage is a medical process that is in the regulation and homogenisation phase in the scientific world. The international standards require the need to ensure safety and efficacy of human allografts such as skin and other tissues. The activities of skin and tissues banks currently involve their recovery, processing, storage and distribution, which are positively correlated with technological and scientific advances present in current biomedical sciences. A description is presented of the operational model of Skin and Tissue Bank at INR as successful case for procurement, recovery and preservation of skin and tissues for therapeutic uses, with high safety and biological quality. The essential and standard guidelines are presented as keystones for a tissue recovery program based on scientific evidence, and within an ethical and legal framework, as well as to propose a model for complete overview of the donation of tissues and organ programs in Mexico. Finally, it concludes with essential proposals for improving the efficacy of transplantation of organs and tissue programs.

  14. A Quantitative Examination of User Experience as an Antecedent to Student Perception in Technology Acceptance Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…

  15. Determinants of Intention to Use eLearning Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punnoose, Alfie Chacko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find some of the predominant factors that determine the intention of students to use eLearning in the future. Since eLearning is not just a technology acceptance decision but also involves cognition, this study extended its search beyond the normal technology acceptance variables into variables that could affect…

  16. Empirical Testing of a Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: An Exploratory Study of Educational Wikis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xun

    2010-01-01

    This study extended the technology acceptance model and empirically tested the new model with wikis, a new type of educational technology. Based on social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior, three new variables, wiki self-efficacy, online posting anxiety, and perceived behavioral control, were added to the original technology…

  17. Learning with Interactive Whiteboards: Determining the Factors on Promoting Interactive Whiteboards to Students by Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Eylem; Güler, Çetin; Çelik, H. Eray; Tatli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which might affect the intention to use interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by university students, using Technology Acceptance Model by the structural equation modeling approach. The following hypothesis guided the current study: H1. There is a positive relationship between IWB…

  18. [The Technology Acceptance Model and Its Application in a Telehealth Program for the Elderly With Chronic Illnesses].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Many technology developments hold the potential to improve the quality of life of people and make life easier and more comfortable. New technologies have been well accepted by most people. Information sharing in particular is a major catalyst of change in our current technology-based society. Technology has widely innovated life and drastically changed lifestyles. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a model developed to address the rapid advances in computer technology, is used to explain and predict user acceptance of new information technology. In the past, businesses have used the TAM as an assessment tool to predict user acceptance when introducing new technology products. They have also used external factors in the model to influence user perceptions and beliefs and to ensure the successful spread of new technologies. Informatization plays a critical role in healthcare services. Due to the rapid aging of populations and upward trends in the incidence of chronic illness, requirements for long-term care have increased in both quality and quantity. Therefore, there has been an increased emphasis on integrating healthcare and information technology. However, most elderly are significantly less adept at technology use than the general population. Therefore, we reexamined the effect that the essential concepts in a TAM exerted on technology acceptance. In the present study, the technology acceptance experience with regard to telehealth of the elderly was used as an example to explain how the revised technology acceptance model (TAM 2) may be effectively applied to enhance the understanding of technology care among nurses. The results may serve as a reference for future research on healthcare-technology use in long-term care or in elderly populations.

  19. Area-preserving maps models of gyroaveraged E×B chaotic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, J. D. da Caldas, I. L.; Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2014-09-15

    Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E × B chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on the counting of recurrences times are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

  20. Physician Acceptance of a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Treatment Model for Hypertension Management in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Hasan, Michaela; Huebschmann, Amy G; Penaloza, Richard; Schorr-Ratzlaff, Wagner; Sieja, Amber; Roscoe, Nicholai; Trinkley, Katy E

    2015-09-01

    Physician-pharmacist collaborative care (PPCC) is effective in improving blood pressure (BP) control, but primary care provider (PCP) engagement in such models has not been well-studied. The authors analyzed data from PPCC referrals to 108 PCPs, for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, assessing the proportion of referral requests approved, disapproved, and not responded to, and reasons for disapproval. Of 2232 persons with uncontrolled hypertension, PPCC referral requests were sent for 1516 (67.9%): 950 (62.7%) were approved, 406 (26.8%) were disapproved, and 160 (10.6%) received no response. Approval rates differed widely by PCP with a median approval rate of 75% (interquartile range, 41%-100%). The most common reasons for disapproval were: PCP prefers to manage hypertension (19%), and BP controlled per PCP (18%); 8% of cases were considered too complex for PPCC. Provider acceptance of a PPCC hypertension clinic was generally high and sustained but varied widely among PCPs. No single reason for disapproval predominated.

  1. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  2. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  3. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  4. Memory-preserving equilibration after a quantum quench in a one-dimensional critical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriadis, Spyros

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental principles of statistical physics is that only partial information about a system's state is required for its macroscopic description. This is not only true for thermal ensembles, but also for the unconventional ensemble, known as generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE), that is expected to describe the relaxation of integrable systems after a quantum quench. By analytically studying the quench dynamics in a prototypical one-dimensional critical model, the massless free bosonic field theory, we find evidence of a novel type of equilibration characterized by the preservation of an enormous amount of memory of the initial state that is accessible by local measurements. In particular, we show that the equilibration retains memory of non-Gaussian initial correlations, in contrast to the case of massive free evolution which erases all such memory. The GGE in its standard form, being a Gaussian ensemble, fails to predict correctly the equilibrium values of local observables, unless the initial state is Gaussian itself. Our findings show that the equilibration of a broad class of quenches whose evolution is described by Luttinger liquid theory with an initial state that is non-Gaussian in terms of the bosonic field, is not correctly captured by the corresponding bosonic GGE, raising doubts about the validity of the latter in general one-dimensional gapless integrable systems such as the Lieb-Liniger model. We also propose that the same experiment by which the GGE was recently observed [Langen et al., Science 348, 207 (2015), 10.1126/science.1257026] can also be used to observe its failure, simply by starting from a non-Gaussian initial state.

  5. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology.

  6. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology. PMID:26492319

  7. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  8. Efficiency of the Technology Acceptance Model to Explain Pre-Service Teachers' Intention to Use Technology: A Turkish Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Bahcekapili, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficiency of the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explain pre-service teachers' intention to use technology in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 197 pre-service teachers from a Turkish university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs…

  9. Factors of Online Learning Adoption: A Comparative Juxtaposition of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubisi, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Organisational investments in information technologies have increased significantly in the past few decades. All around the globe and in Malaysia particularly, a number of educational institutions are experimenting with e-learning. Adopting the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the technology acceptance model (TAM) this article tries to…

  10. A Quantitative Study of Faculty Perceptions and Attitudes on Asynchronous Virtual Teamwork Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolusky, G. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study used a web-based questionnaire to assess the attitudes and perceptions of online and hybrid faculty towards student-centered asynchronous virtual teamwork (AVT) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) of Davis (1989). AVT is online student participation in a team approach to problem-solving culminating in a written…

  11. Validating the Technology Acceptance Model in the Context of the Laboratory Information System-Electronic Health Record Interface System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a research validating the efficacy of Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by pairing it with the Organizational Change Readiness Theory (OCRT) to develop another extension to the TAM, using the medical Laboratory Information Systems (LIS)--Electronic Health Records (EHR) interface as the medium. The TAM posits that it is…

  12. Noncyclic geometric quantum computation and preservation of entanglement for a two-qubit Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangani Jahromi, H.; Amniat-Talab, M.

    2015-10-01

    After presenting an exact analytical solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we study the dynamics of entanglement for a two-qubit Ising model. One of the spin qubits is driven by a static magnetic field applied in the direction of the Ising interaction, while the other is coupled with a rotating magnetic field. We also investigate how the entanglement can be controlled by changing the external parameters. Because of the important role of maximally entangled Bell states in quantum communication, we focus on the generalized Bell states as the initial states of the system. It is found that the entanglement evolution is independent of the initial Bell states. Moreover, we can preserve the initial maximal entanglement by adjusting the angular frequency of the rotating field or controlling the exchange coupling between spin qubits. Besides, our calculation shows that the entanglement dynamics is unaffected by the static magnetic field imposed in the direction of the Ising interaction. This is an interesting result, because, as we shall show below, this driving field can be used to control and manipulate the noncyclic geometric phase without affecting the system entanglement. Besides, the nonadiabatic and noncyclic geometric phase for evolved states of the present system are calculated and described in detail. In order to identify the unusable states for quantum communication, completely deviated from the initial maximally entangled states, we also study the fidelity between the initial Bell state and the evolved state of the system. Interestingly, we find that these unusable states can be detected by geometric quantum computation.

  13. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model.

    PubMed

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning.

  14. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model.

    PubMed

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning. PMID:26491712

  15. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model

    PubMed Central

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning. PMID:26491712

  16. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models.

  17. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models. PMID:27122324

  18. Developing Print Repositories: Models for Shared Preservation and Access. Managing Economic Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Bernard F., Jr.

    This study is an outgrowth of recommendations made in a report issued by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) in 2001 (Nichols and Smith 2001). The report made three broad recommendations for addressing print preservation: (1) Establish regional repositories to house and provide proper treatment of low-use print matter drawn…

  19. Preserving Appalachian Heritage: A Model for Oral History Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Lone, Mary B.

    1999-01-01

    An oral history project on the coal mining heritage of southwest Virginia's New River Valley developed from a partnership between Radford University and a grassroots community group interested in cultural preservation. Publication products, benefits to participating college students, and reasons for the project's success are discussed. Contains 26…

  20. Using the UTAUT Model to Examine the Acceptance Behavior of Synchronous Collaboration to Support Peer Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi Chun; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of translation has received considerable attention in recent years. Research on translation in collaborative learning contexts, however, has been less studied. In this study, we use a tool of synchronous collaboration to assist students in experiencing a peer translation process. Afterward, the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  1. Adult Role Models: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes for Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. They also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the four-week intervention.…

  2. Exploring Students' Intention to Use LINE for Academic Purposes Based on Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Bogart, Willard; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    The LINE application is often conceived as purely social space; however, the authors of this paper wanted to determine if it could be used for academic purposes. In this study, we examined how undergraduate students accepted LINE in terms of using it for classroom-related activities (e.g., submit homework, follow up course information queries,…

  3. Integrating Telemedicine for Disaster Response: Testing the Emergency Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence that technology acceptance is well understood in healthcare. The hospital environment is complex and dynamic creating a challenge when new technology is introduced because it impacts current processes and workflows which can significantly affect patient care delivery and outcomes. This study tested the effect…

  4. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  5. An Investigation of University Student Readiness Towards M-Learning Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Shakeel; Bhatti, Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    M-learning is learning delivered via mobile devices and mobile technology. The research indicates that this medium of learning has potential to enhance formal as well as informal learning. However, acceptance of m-learning greatly depends upon the personal attitude of students towards this medium; therefore this study focuses only on the…

  6. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics: can we step beyond Richard's equation while preserving capillarity as first order control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Water storage in the unsaturated zone is controlled by capillary forces which increase nonlinearly with decreasing pore size, because water acts as a wetting fluid in soil. The standard approach to represent capillary and gravity controlled soil water dynamics is the Darcy-Richards equation in combination with suitable soil water characteristics. This continuum model essentially assumes capillarity controlled diffusive fluxes to dominate soil water dynamics under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Today we know that the assumptions of local equilibrium conditions e.g. and a mainly diffusive flow are often not appropriate, particularly during rainfall events in structured soils. Rapid or preferential flow imply a strong local disequilibrium and imperfect mixing between a fast fraction of soil water, traveling in interconnected coarse pores or non-capillary macropores, and the slower diffusive flow in finer fractions of the pore space. Although various concepts have been proposed to overcome the inability of the Darcy - Richards concept to cope with not-well mixed preferential flow, we still lack an approach that is commonly accepted. Notwithstanding the listed short comings, one should not mistake the limitations of the Richards equation with non-importance of capillary forces in soil. Without capillarity infiltrating rainfall would drain into groundwater bodies, leaving an empty soil as the local equilibrium state - there would be no soil water dynamics at all, probably even no terrestrial vegetation without capillary forces. Better alternatives for the Darcy-Richards approach are thus highly desirable, as long they preserve the grain of "truth" about capillarity as first order control. Here we propose such an alternative approach to simulate soil moisture dynamics in a stochastic and yet physical way. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker Planck equation. The model concept builds on

  7. Test of the technology acceptance model for a Web-based information system in a Hong Kong Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man; Sachs, John

    2006-12-01

    The modified technology acceptance model was used to predict actual Blackboard usage (a web-based information system) in a sample of 57 Hong Kong student teachers whose mean age was 27.8 yr. (SD = 6.9). While the general form of the model was supported, Application-specific Self-efficacy was a more powerful predictor of system use than Behavioural Intention as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. Thus in this cultural and educational context, it has been shown that the model does not fully mediate the effect of Self-efficacy on System Use. Also, users' Enjoyment exerted considerable influence on the component variables of Usefulness and Ease of Use and on Application-specific Self-efficacy, thus indirectly influencing system usage. Consequently, efforts to gain students' acceptance and, therefore, use of information systems such as Blackboard must pay adequate attention to users' Self-efficacy and motivational variables such as Enjoyment.

  8. Stress exposure and generation: A conjoint longitudinal model of body dysmorphic symptoms, peer acceptance, popularity, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the bidirectional (conjoint) longitudinal pathways linking adolescents' body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms with self- and peer-reported social functioning. Participants were 367 Australian students (45.5% boys, mean age=12.01 years) who participated in two waves of a longitudinal study with a 12-month lag between assessments. Participants self-reported their symptoms characteristic of BDD, and perception of peer acceptance. Classmates reported who was popular and victimized in their grade, and rated their liking (acceptance) of their classmates. In support of both stress exposure and stress generation models, T1 victimization was significantly associated with more symptoms characteristic of BDD at T2 relative to T1, and higher symptom level at T1 was associated with lower perceptions of peer acceptance at T2 relative to T1. These results support the hypothesized bidirectional model, whereby adverse social experiences negatively impact symptoms characteristic of BDD over time, and symptoms also exacerbate low perceptions of peer-acceptance. PMID:27236472

  9. Stress exposure and generation: A conjoint longitudinal model of body dysmorphic symptoms, peer acceptance, popularity, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the bidirectional (conjoint) longitudinal pathways linking adolescents' body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms with self- and peer-reported social functioning. Participants were 367 Australian students (45.5% boys, mean age=12.01 years) who participated in two waves of a longitudinal study with a 12-month lag between assessments. Participants self-reported their symptoms characteristic of BDD, and perception of peer acceptance. Classmates reported who was popular and victimized in their grade, and rated their liking (acceptance) of their classmates. In support of both stress exposure and stress generation models, T1 victimization was significantly associated with more symptoms characteristic of BDD at T2 relative to T1, and higher symptom level at T1 was associated with lower perceptions of peer acceptance at T2 relative to T1. These results support the hypothesized bidirectional model, whereby adverse social experiences negatively impact symptoms characteristic of BDD over time, and symptoms also exacerbate low perceptions of peer-acceptance.

  10. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  11. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  12. Bed-form climb models to analyze geometry and preservation potential of clastic facies and erosional surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Martinez, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Based on a combination of Walther's Law of Facies and bed-form climb theory, the authors propose a model that explains how erosion surfaces and vertical sequences of clastic strata are preserved where deposition occurs in channelized or locally erosional environments including fluvial and submarine-channel deposits, barred beaches, and transgressive coastlines. the model considers both lateral and vertical migration of a scour surface and its associated depositional products. As in studies of bed-form climb, they recognize subcritical, critical, and supercritical climb of scour surfaces relative to adjacent depositional forms. 12 figures.

  13. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  14. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  15. An in vivo autotransplant model of renal preservation: cold storage versus machine perfusion in the prevention of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    La Manna, Gaetano; Conte, Diletta; Cappuccilli, Maria Laura; Nardo, Bruno; D'Addio, Francesca; Puviani, Lorenza; Comai, Giorgia; Bianchi, Francesca; Bertelli, Riccardo; Lanci, Nicole; Donati, Gabriele; Scolari, Maria Piera; Faenza, Alessandro; Stefoni, Sergio

    2009-07-01

    There is increasing proof that organ preservation by machine perfusion is able to limit ischemia/reperfusion injury in kidney transplantation. This study was designed to compare the efficiency in hypothermic organ preservation by machine perfusion or cold storage in an animal model of kidney autotransplantation. Twelve pigs underwent left nephrectomy after warm ischemic time; the organs were preserved in machine perfusion (n = 6) or cold storage (n = 6) and then autotransplanted with immediate contralateral nephrectomy. The following parameters were compared between the two groups of animals: hematological and urine indexes of renal function, blood/gas analysis values, histological features, tissue adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) content, perforin gene expression in kidney biopsies, and organ weight changes were compared before and after preservation. The amount of cellular ATP was significantly higher in organs preserved by machine perfusion; moreover, the study of apoptosis induction revealed an enhanced perforin expression in the kidneys, which underwent simple hypothermic preservation compared to the machine-preserved ones. Organ weight was significantly decreased after cold storage, but it remained quite stable for machine-perfused kidneys. The present model seems to suggest that organ preservation by hypothermic machine perfusion is able to better control cellular impairment in comparison with cold storage.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for weight control: Model, evidence, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Jason; Kendra, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral weight loss programs achieve substantial short-term weight loss; however attrition and poor weight loss maintenance remain significant problems. Recently, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been used in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes. This conceptual article outlines the standard behavioral and ACT approach to weight control, discusses potential benefits and obstacles to combing approaches, briefly reviews current ACT for weight control outcome research, and highlights significant empirical questions that remain. The current evidence suggests that ACT could be useful as an add-on treatment, or in a combined format, for improving long-term weight loss outcomes. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed as well as studies that aim to identify how best to combine standard treatments and ACT and also who would benefit most from these approaches. PMID:25419510

  17. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    SciTech Connect

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  18. An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…

  19. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  20. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  1. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  2. Digitizing Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

  3. The bootstrapped model--Lessons for the acceptance of intellectual technology.

    PubMed

    Lovie, A D

    1987-09-01

    This paper is intended as a non-technical introduction to a growing aspect of what has been termed 'intellectual technology'. The particular area chosen is the use of simple linear additive models for judgement and decision making purposes. Such models are said to either outperform, or perform at least as well as, the human judges on which they are based, hence they are said to 'bootstrap' such human inputs. Although the paper will provide a fairly comprehensive list of recent applications of such models, from postgraduate selection to judgements of marital happiness, the work will concentrate on the topic of Credit Scoring as an exemplar - that is, the assignment of credit by means of a simple additive rule. The paper will also present a simple system, due to Dawes, of classifying such models according to the form and source of their weights. The paper further discusses the reasons for bootstrapping and that other major phenomenon of such models - that is, the one can rarely distinguish between the prescriptions of such models, however the weights have been arrived at. It is argued that this 'principle of the flat maximum' allows us to develop a technology of judgement. The paper continues with a brief historical survey of the reactions of human experts to such models and their superiority, and suggestions for a better mix of expert and model on human engineering lines. Finally, after a brief comparison between expert systems and linear additive models, the paper concludes with a brief survey of possible future developments. A short Appendix describes two applications of such models.

  4. Preserved Tool Knowledge in the Context of Impaired Action Knowledge: Implications for Models of Semantic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Dombovy, Mary; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have observed that the motor system is activated when processing the semantics of manipulable objects. Such phenomena have been taken as evidence that simulation over motor representations is a necessary and intermediary step in the process of conceptual understanding. Cognitive neuropsychological evaluations of patients with impairments for action knowledge permit a direct test of the necessity of motor simulation in conceptual processing. Here, we report the performance of a 47-year-old male individual (Case AA) and six age-matched control participants on a number of tests probing action and object knowledge. Case AA had a large left-hemisphere frontal-parietal lesion and hemiplegia affecting his right arm and leg. Case AA presented with impairments for object-associated action production, and his conceptual knowledge of actions was severely impaired. In contrast, his knowledge of objects such as tools and other manipulable objects was largely preserved. The dissociation between action and object knowledge is difficult to reconcile with strong forms of the embodied cognition hypothesis. We suggest that these, and other similar findings, point to the need to develop tractable hypotheses about the dynamics of information exchange among sensory, motor and conceptual processes. PMID:23641205

  5. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  6. A Structure-Preserving Model and Sufficient Condition for Frequency Synchronization of Lossless Droop Inverter-Based AC Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Nathan G; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysis of frequency synchronization of lossless power networks whose sources are frequency-droop controlled inverters. Unlike most existing approaches, our method focuses on the interaction between inverters and the network to provide new physical insight into how those interactions create frequency synchronization. We introduce two structure-preserving models of such a network (one bus-oriented and one line-oriented), and show that frequency synchronization corresponds to convergence to an equilibrium of these models. We derive a necessary condition for existence of such equilibria, and determine a simple test for their local stability. Finally, we introduce a sufficient condition for frequency synchronization of such networks, and show that it consists of a set of local criteria which can each be determined from local measurements.

  7. Preservation of dynamic properties in qualitative modeling frameworks for gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shahrad; Siebert, Heike; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Mathematical modeling often helps to provide a systems perspective on gene regulatory networks. In particular, qualitative approaches are useful when detailed kinetic information is lacking. Multiple methods have been developed that implement qualitative information in different ways, e.g., in purely discrete or hybrid discrete/continuous models. In this paper, we compare the discrete asynchronous logical modeling formalism for gene regulatory networks due to R. Thomas with piecewise affine differential equation models. We provide a local characterization of the qualitative dynamics of a piecewise affine differential equation model using the discrete dynamics of a corresponding Thomas model. Based on this result, we investigate the consistency of higher-level dynamical properties such as attractor characteristics and reachability. We show that although the two approaches are based on equivalent information, the resulting qualitative dynamics are different. In particular, the dynamics of the piecewise affine differential equation model is not a simple refinement of the dynamics of the Thomas model.

  8. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood.

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-02-01

    A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics of the least and most preserved sample of CSGH and CSS were used as input for the existing deterministic model. For both modelling approaches, it was shown that lag time and the effect of microbial interaction needs to be included to accurately predict MPD values of L. monocytogenes. Addition of organic acids to CSGH and CSS was confirmed as a suitable mitigation strategy against the risk of growth by L. monocytogenes as both types of products were in compliance with the EU regulation on ready-to-eat foods.

  9. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserve Working Memory in the 3xTg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruzicka, Jiri; Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Rodrigez-Arellano, Jose Julio; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The transplantation of stem cells may have a therapeutic effect on the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the lateral ventricle of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer´s disease (3xTg-AD) at the age of eight months. We evaluated spatial reference and working memory after MSC treatment and the possible underlying mechanisms, such as the influence of transplanted MSCs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the expression levels of a 56 kDa oligomer of amyloid β (Aβ*56), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate transporters (Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) in the entorhinal and prefrontal cortices and the hippocampus. At 14 months of age we observed the preservation of working memory in MSC-treated 3xTg-AD mice, suggesting that such preservation might be due to the protective effect of MSCs on GS levels and the considerable downregulation of Aβ*56 levels in the entorhinal cortex. These changes were observed six months after transplantation, accompanied by clusters of proliferating cells in the SVZ. Since the grafted cells did not survive for the whole experimental period, it is likely that the observed effects could have been transiently more pronounced at earlier time points than at six months after cell application. PMID:26821012

  11. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  12. Right ventricular nitric oxide signaling in an ovine model of congenital heart disease: a preserved fetal phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kameny, Rebecca Johnson; He, Youping; Morris, Catherine; Sun, Christine; Johengen, Michael; Gong, Wenhui; Raff, Gary W; Datar, Sanjeev A; Oishi, Peter E; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    We recently reported superior right ventricle (RV) performance in response to acute afterload challenge in lambs with a model of congenital heart disease with chronic left-to-right cardiac shunts. Compared with control animals, shunt lambs demonstrated increased contractility because of an enhanced Anrep effect (the slow increase in contractility following myocyte stretch). This advantageous physiological response may reflect preservation of a fetal phenotype, since the RV of shunt lambs remains exposed to increased pressure postnatally. Nitric oxide (NO) production by NO synthase (NOS) is activated by myocyte stretch and is a necessary intermediary of the Anrep response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that NO signaling is increased in the RV of fetal lambs compared with controls and shunt lambs have persistence of this fetal pattern. An 8-mm graft was placed between the pulmonary artery and aorta in fetal lambs (shunt). NOS isoform expression, activity, and association with activating cofactors were determined in fetal tissue obtained during late-gestation and in 4-wk-old juvenile shunt and control lambs. We demonstrated increased RNA and protein expression of NOS isoforms and increased total NOS activity in the RV of both shunt and fetal lambs compared with control. We also found increased NOS activation and association with cofactors in shunt and fetal RV compared with control. These data demonstrate preserved fetal NOS phenotype and NO signaling in shunt RV, which may partially explain the mechanism underlying the adaptive response to increased afterload seen in the RV of shunt lambs.

  13. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  14. From Darwin to Mars: desert varnish as a model for preservation of complex (bio)chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2004-02-01

    The search for life on Mars is an important goal of NASA and other space agencies. It is not known if chemical evolution on Mars produced the same or similar types of life as on Earth. If not, what would non-Earth biosignatures look like? If life has left its footprint on Mars, what chemical signatures can we recognize, and how can we prevent missing novel life signatures? Alternatively, chemical evolution on Mars may have produced complex chemical systems, which, however, did not lead to life. How can such systems be identified? We use as a model a complex inorganic-organic-biotic system on Earth, commonly called desert or rock varnish, which has been known to Darwin, and which is now also indicated on Mars. We describe unique complex chemical markers that are preserved in rock varnish on Earth. An intricate interaction between minerals, metals, and organic compounds is responsible for their preservation. We suggest some important types of organic compounds to look for in the Martian varnish, should it exist.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserve Working Memory in the 3xTg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jiri; Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Rodrigez-Arellano, Jose Julio; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2016-01-25

    The transplantation of stem cells may have a therapeutic effect on the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the lateral ventricle of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) at the age of eight months. We evaluated spatial reference and working memory after MSC treatment and the possible underlying mechanisms, such as the influence of transplanted MSCs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the expression levels of a 56 kDa oligomer of amyloid β (Aβ*56), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate transporters (Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) in the entorhinal and prefrontal cortices and the hippocampus. At 14 months of age we observed the preservation of working memory in MSC-treated 3xTg-AD mice, suggesting that such preservation might be due to the protective effect of MSCs on GS levels and the considerable downregulation of Aβ*56 levels in the entorhinal cortex. These changes were observed six months after transplantation, accompanied by clusters of proliferating cells in the SVZ. Since the grafted cells did not survive for the whole experimental period, it is likely that the observed effects could have been transiently more pronounced at earlier time points than at six months after cell application.

  16. Myostatin Neutralization Results in Preservation of Muscle Mass and Strength in Preclinical Models of Tumor-Induced Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rosamund C; Cramer, Martin S; Mitchell, Pamela J; Capen, Andrew; Huber, Lysiane; Wang, Rong; Myers, Laura; Jones, Bryan E; Eastwood, Brian J; Ballard, Darryl; Hanson, Jeff; Credille, Kelly M; Wroblewski, Victor J; Lin, Boris K; Heuer, Josef G

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a great majority of cancer patients with advanced disease and is associated with a poor prognosis and decreased survival. Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and has recently become a therapeutic target for reducing the loss of skeletal muscle and strength associated with clinical myopathies. We generated neutralizing antibodies to myostatin to test their potential use as therapeutic agents to attenuate the skeletal muscle wasting due to cancer. We show that our neutralizing antimyostatin antibodies significantly increase body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and strength in non-tumor-bearing mice with a concomitant increase in mean myofiber area. The administration of these neutralizing antibodies in two preclinical models of cancer-induced muscle wasting (C26 colon adenocarcinoma and PC3 prostate carcinoma) resulted in a significant attenuation of the loss of muscle mass and strength with no effect on tumor growth. We also show that the skeletal muscle mass- and strength-preserving effect of the antibodies is not affected by the coadministration of gemcitabine, a common chemotherapeutic agent, in both non-tumor-bearing mice and mice bearing C26 tumors. In addition, we show that myostatin neutralization with these antibodies results in the preservation of skeletal muscle mass following reduced caloric intake, a common comorbidity associated with advanced cancer. Our findings support the use of neutralizing antimyostatin antibodies as potential therapeutics for cancer-induced muscle wasting.

  17. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  18. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code, 1992 Edition, including the 1993 amendments, with... Chapter 3. (e) Materials standards Chapter 26. (f) Construction components Part III. (g) Glass Chapter...

  19. Improving Technology Acceptance Modeling for Disadvantaged Communities Using a Systems Engineering Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jordan L.

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations are poised to spend billions on information and communication technology (ICT) innovation in 2020. A study of the historical adoption of ICT in developing nations has indicated that their adoption patterns do not follow typical technology innovation adoption models. This study addressed the weaknesses found in existing…

  20. Comparison of Two Stochastic Daily Rainfall Models and their Ability to Preserve Multi-year Rainfall Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George; Kiem, Anthony; Parana Manage, Nadeeka

    2016-04-01

    hierarchical MC model with the semi-parametric model in preserving rainfall variability in daily, monthly, and multi-year scales. To calibrate the parameters of both models and assess their ability to preserve observed statistics, we have used ground based data from 15 raingauge stations around Australia, which consist a wide range of climate zones including coastal, monsoonal, and arid climate characteristics. In preliminary results, both models show comparative performances in preserving the multi-year variability of rainfall depth and occurrence. However, the semi-parametric model shows a tendency of overestimating the mean rainfall depth, while our model shows a tendency of overestimating the number of wet days. We will discuss further the relative merits of the both models for hydrology simulation in the presentation.

  1. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  2. Model and Processes of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain Including a Closer Look at the Self.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the so called "third-wave" cognitive behavioral therapies. It has been increasingly applied to chronic pain, and there is accumulating evidence to support its effectiveness. ACT is based on a model of general human functioning called the psychological flexibility (PF) model. Most facets of the PF model have been examined in chronic pain. However, a potential key facet related to "self" appears underappreciated. Indeed, a positive or healthy sense of self seems essential to our well-being, and there have been numerous studies of the self in chronic pain. At the same time, these studies are not currently well organized or easy to summarize. This lack of clarity and integration creates barriers to progress in this area of research. PF with its explicit inclusion of self-related therapeutic processes within a broad, integrative, theoretical model may help. The current review summarizes the PF model in the context of chronic pain with a specific emphasis on the parts of the model that address self-related processes. PMID:26803836

  3. Model and Processes of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain Including a Closer Look at the Self.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the so called "third-wave" cognitive behavioral therapies. It has been increasingly applied to chronic pain, and there is accumulating evidence to support its effectiveness. ACT is based on a model of general human functioning called the psychological flexibility (PF) model. Most facets of the PF model have been examined in chronic pain. However, a potential key facet related to "self" appears underappreciated. Indeed, a positive or healthy sense of self seems essential to our well-being, and there have been numerous studies of the self in chronic pain. At the same time, these studies are not currently well organized or easy to summarize. This lack of clarity and integration creates barriers to progress in this area of research. PF with its explicit inclusion of self-related therapeutic processes within a broad, integrative, theoretical model may help. The current review summarizes the PF model in the context of chronic pain with a specific emphasis on the parts of the model that address self-related processes.

  4. Preserving the Public Good: Presenting an Organizational Model for the Changing Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Stephanie Parra

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education face financial pressure to become self-sustaining (Gumport, 2001; 2000). This rapidly growing economic demand is negatively affecting the social mission of higher education (Kezar, 2004). Scholars suggest the implementation of a new model of higher education, one that blends a for-profit model with the traditional…

  5. Reliability and acceptability of a five-station multiple mini-interview model for residency program recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Julian Diaz; Oluwasanjo, Adetokunbo; Wasser, Thomas; Donato, Anthony; Alweis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Standard interviews are used by most residency programs in the United States for assessment of aptitude of the non-cognitive competencies, but variability of interviewer skill, interviewer bias, interviewer leniency or stringency, and context specificity limit reliability. Aim To investigate reliability and acceptability of five-station multiple mini-interview (MMI) model for resident selection into an internal medicine residency program in the United States. Setting One independent academic medical center. Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven applicants and 17 faculty interviewers. Program description Five, 10-min MMI stations with five different interviewers blinded to the candidate's records and one traditional 20-min interview with the program director. Candidates were rated on two items: interpersonal and communication skills, and overall performance. Program evaluation Generalizability data showed that the reliability of our process was high (>0.9). The results of anonymous surveys demonstrated that both applicants and interviewers consider the MMI as a fair and more effective tool to evaluate non-cognitive traits, and prefer the MMI to standard interviews. Discussion The MMI process for residency interviews can generate reliable interview results using only five stations, and it is acceptable and preferred over standard interview modalities by the applicants and faculty members of one US residency program. PMID:24392211

  6. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers.

  7. On the asymptotic preserving property of the unified gas kinetic scheme for the diffusion limit of linear kinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Mieussens, Luc

    2013-11-15

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) of K. Xu et al. (2010) [37], originally developed for multiscale gas dynamics problems, is applied in this paper to a linear kinetic model of radiative transfer theory. While such problems exhibit purely diffusive behavior in the optically thick (or small Knudsen) regime, we prove that UGKS is still asymptotic preserving (AP) in this regime, but for the free transport regime as well. Moreover, this scheme is modified to include a time implicit discretization of the limit diffusion equation, and to correctly capture the solution in case of boundary layers. Contrary to many AP schemes, this method is based on a standard finite volume approach, it does neither use any decomposition of the solution, nor staggered grids. Several numerical tests demonstrate the properties of the scheme.

  8. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  9. A 3D modeling and measurement system for cultural heritage preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoguang; Zhou, Mingquan; Ren, Pu; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo; Wu, Zhongke

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Heritage reflects the human production, life style and environmental conditions of various historical periods. It exists as one of the major national carriers of national history and culture. In order to do better protection and utilization for these cultural heritages, a system of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and statistical measurement is proposed in this paper. The system solves the problems of cultural heritage's data storage, measurement and analysis. Firstly, for the high precision modeling and measurement problems, range data registration and integration algorithm used to achieve high precision 3D reconstruction. Secondly, multi-view stereo reconstruction method is used to solve the problem of rapid reconstruction by procedures such as the original image data pre-processing, camera calibration, point cloud modeling. At last, the artifacts' measure underlying database is established by calculating the measurements of the 3D model's surface. These measurements contain Euclidean distance between the points on the surface, geodesic distance between the points, normal and curvature in each point, superficial area of a region, volume of model's part and some other measurements. These measurements provide a basis for carrying out information mining of cultural heritage. The system has been applied to the applications of 3D modeling, data measurement of the Terracotta Warriors relics, Tibetan architecture and some other relics.

  10. 3D-manufactured patient-specific models of congenital heart defects for communication in clinical practice: feasibility and acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Biglino, Giovanni; Capelli, Claudio; Wray, Jo; Schievano, Silvia; Leaver, Lindsay-Kay; Khambadkone, Sachin; Giardini, Alessandro; Derrick, Graham; Jones, Alexander; Taylor, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the communication potential of three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific models of congenital heart defects and their acceptability in clinical practice for cardiology consultations. Design This was a questionnaire-based study in which participants were randomised into two groups: the ‘model group’ received a 3D model of the cardiac lesion(s) being discussed during their appointment, while the ‘control group’ had a routine visit. Setting Outpatient clinic, cardiology follow-up visits. Participants 103 parents of children with congenital heart disease were recruited (parental age: 43±8 years; patient age: 12±6 years). In order to have a 3D model made, patients needed to have a recent cardiac MRI examination; this was the crucial inclusion criterion. Interventions Questionnaires were administered to the participants before and after the visits and an additional questionnaire was administered to the attending cardiologist. Main outcome measures Rating (1–10) for the liking of the 3D model, its usefulness and the clarity of the explanation received were recorded, as well as rating (1–10) of the parental understanding and their engagement according to the cardiologist. Furthermore, parental knowledge was assessed by asking them to mark diagrams, tick keywords and provide free text answers. The duration of consultations was recorded and parent feedback collected. Results Parents and cardiologists both found the models to be very useful and helpful in engaging the parents in discussing congenital heart defects. Parental knowledge was not associated with their level of education (p=0.2) and did not improve following their visit. Consultations involving 3D models lasted on average 5 min longer (p=0.02). Conclusions Patient-specific models can enhance engagement with parents and improve communication between cardiologists and parents, potentially impacting on parent and patient psychological adjustment following treatment. However, in

  11. Three-Dimensional Model for Preservation and Restoration of Architectural Heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchis, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Thc aim of the research will be to create a model, three-dimensional mathematical. implementation. consultation and assistance to "large" restoration projects that will assist the structural analysis, allowing easier display of dynamic strain. analysis and lighting noise. It could also be a valuable tool for decision support. therefore. may simulate several possible scenarios for intervention, This model appears therefore an excellent support for recovering. ordering and monitoring information about materials and data (stage of restoration. photographs. sampling points. results of diagnostic tests, etc.) collected dynamically during the "life" of the cultural heritage. allowing to document its complete history

  12. Thiel embalming method for cadaver preservation: a review of new training model for urologic skills training.

    PubMed

    Healy, Samuel E; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    The use of endourology training models is on the rise. Surgical practice is moving toward a more minimally invasive approach and deficits in surgical exposure by enforcement of the European Working Time Directive call for simulation models to be anatomically sound. Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been found to demonstrate efficacy in tissue quality, elasticity, and handling in addition to playing a role in teaching and training. This review summarizes the current status of the Thiel method and its role in urologic skills training.

  13. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development.

  14. Regulatory acceptance of animal models of disease to support clinical trials of medicines and advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Joy; Silva Lima, Beatriz

    2015-07-15

    The utility of animal models of disease for assessing the safety of novel therapeutic modalities has become an increasingly important topic of discussion as research and development efforts focus on improving the predictive value of animal studies to support accelerated clinical development. Medicines are approved for marketing based upon a determination that their benefits outweigh foreseeable risks in specific indications, specific populations, and at specific dosages and regimens. No medicine is 100% safe. A medicine is less safe if the actual risks are greater than the predicted risks. The purpose of preclinical safety assessment is to understand the potential risks to aid clinical decision-making. Ideally preclinical studies should identify potential adverse effects and design clinical studies that will minimize their occurrence. Most regulatory documents delineate the utilization of conventional "normal" animal species to evaluate the safety risk of new medicines (i.e., new chemical entities and new biological entities). Animal models of human disease are commonly utilized to gain insight into the pathogenesis of disease and to evaluate efficacy but less frequently utilized in preclinical safety assessment. An understanding of the limitations of the animal disease models together with a better understanding of the disease and how toxicity may be impacted by the disease condition should allow for a better prediction of risk in the intended patient population. Importantly, regulatory authorities are becoming more willing to accept and even recommend data from experimental animal disease models that combine efficacy and safety to support clinical development. PMID:25814257

  15. Preserving Heterogeneity and Consistency in Hydrological Model Inversions by Adjusting Pedotransfer Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerical modeling is the dominant method for quantifying water flow and the transport of dissolved constituents in surface soils as well as the deeper vadose zone. While the fundamental laws that govern the mechanics of the flow processes in terms of Richards' and convection-dispersion equations a...

  16. Examining the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: An Integration of the Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported intention to use technology. One hundred fifty-seven participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that integrated the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Structural equation modeling was…

  17. Assessment of the delta opioid agonist DADLE in a rat model of lethal hemorrhage treated by emergency preservation and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Tomas; Han, Fei; Garman, Robert H; Stezoski, Jason; Tisherman, Samuel A; Stezoski, S William; Morhard, Ryan C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Emergency preservation and resuscitation (EPR) is a new approach for resuscitation of exsanguination cardiac arrest (CA) victims. EPR uses a cold aortic flush to induce deep hypothermic preservation during no-flow to buy time for transport and damage control surgery, followed by resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We reported previously that 20-60 min EPR in rats was associated with intact outcome, while 75 min EPR resulted in high mortality and neurological impairment in survivors. The delta opioid agonist DADLE ([D-Ala(2),D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin) was shown previously to be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple organs, including brain. We hypothesized that DADLE could augment neurological outcome after EPR in rats. After rapid lethal hemorrhage, EPR was initiated by perfusion with ice-cold crystalloid to induce hypothermia (15 degrees C). After 75 min EPR, resuscitation was attempted with CPB. After randomization, three groups were studied (n=10 per group): DADLE 0mg/kg (D0), 4 mg/kg (D4) or 10mg/kg (D10) added to the flush and during reperfusion. Survival, overall performance category (OPC; 1=normal, 5=death), neurological deficit score (NDS; 0-10% normal, 100%=max deficit), and histological damage score (HDS) were assessed in survivors on day 3. In D0 group, 2/10 rats survived, while in D4 and D10 groups, 4/10 and 5/10 rats survived, respectively (p=NS). Survival time (h) was 26.7+/-28.2 in D0, 36.3+/-31.9 in D4 and 47.1+/-30.3 in D10 groups, respectively (p=0.3). OPC, NDS and HDS were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, DADLE failed to confer benefit on functional or histological outcome in our model of prolonged rat EPR.

  18. Cardiac function is preserved following 4 weeks of voluntary wheel running in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, James M.; Martens, Christopher R.; Kim, Jahyun; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running on cardiac performance in the 5/6 ablation-infarction (AI) rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that voluntary wheel running would be effective in preserving cardiac function in AI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three study groups: 1) sham, sedentary nondiseased control; 2) AI-SED, sedentary AI; and 3) AI-WR, wheel-running AI. Animals were maintained over a total period of 8 wk following AI and sham surgery. The 8-wk period included 4 wk of disease development followed by a 4-wk voluntary wheel-running intervention/sedentary control period. Cardiac performance was assessed using an isolated working heart preparation. Left ventricular (LV) tissue was used for biochemical tissue analysis. In addition, soleus muscle citrate synthase activity was measured. AI-WR rats performed a low volume of exercise, running an average of 13 ± 2 km, which resulted in citrate synthase activity not different from that in sham animals. Isolated AI-SED hearts demonstrated impaired cardiac performance at baseline and in response to preload/afterload manipulations. Conversely, cardiac function was preserved in AI-WR vs. sham hearts. LV nitrite + nitrate and expression of LV nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms 2 and 3 in AI-WR were not different from those of sham rats. In addition, LV H2O2 in AI-WR was similar to that of sham and associated with increased expression of LV superoxide-dismutase-2 and glutathione peroxidase-1/2. The findings of the current study suggest that a low-volume exercise intervention is sufficient to maintain cardiac performance in rats with CKD, potentially through a mechanism related to improved redox homeostasis and increased NO. PMID:25059238

  19. Factors That Influence the Acceptance of Telemetry by Emergency Medical Technicians in Ambulances: An Application of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Young

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to verify the effects of patient factors perceived by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) as well as their social and organizational factors on prehospital telemetry use intention based on the technology use intention and elaboration likelihood models. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective empirical study. Questionnaires were developed on the basis of clinical factors of 72,907 patients assessed by prehospital telemetry from January 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012 by reviewing their prehospital medical care records and in-hospital medical records. Questionnaires regarding the social and organizational factors of EMTs were created on the basis of a literature review. To verify which factors affect the utilization of telemetry, we developed a partial least-squares route model on the basis of each characteristic. In total, 136 EMTs who had experience in using prehospital telemetry were surveyed from April 1 to April 7, 2013. Reliability, validity, hypotheses, and the model goodness of fit of the study tools were tested. Results: The clinical factors of the patients (path coefficient=−0.12; t=2.38), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.18; t=2.63), and job fit (path coefficient=0.45; t=5.29) positively affected the perceived usefulness (p<0.010). Meanwhile, the clinical factors of the patients (path coefficients=−0.19; t=4.46), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.97), loyalty incentives (path coefficient=−0.17; t=3.83), job fit (path coefficient=−0.32; t=7.06), organizational facilitations (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.99), and technical factors (i.e., usefulness and ease of use) positively affected attitudes (path coefficient=0.10, 0.58; t=2.62, 5.81; p<0.010). Attitudes and perceived usefulness significantly positively affected use intention. Conclusions: Factors that influence the use of telemetry by EMTs in ambulances included patients' clinical factors, as well as complex organizational and

  20. Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining hospital nurses' behavioral intentions toward the use of bar code medication administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Lunar; Park, Byeonghwa; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-04-01

    Serious medication errors continue to exist in hospitals, even though there is technology that could potentially eliminate them such as bar code medication administration. Little is known about the degree to which the culture of patient safety is associated with behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study evaluated the relationships among patient safety culture and perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention to use bar code medication administration technology among nurses in hospitals. Cross-sectional surveys with a convenience sample of 163 nurses using bar code medication administration were conducted. Feedback and communication about errors had a positive impact in predicting perceived usefulness (β=.26, P<.01) and perceived ease of use (β=.22, P<.05). In a multiple regression model predicting for behavioral intention, age had a negative impact (β=-.17, P<.05); however, teamwork within hospital units (β=.20, P<.05) and perceived usefulness (β=.35, P<.01) both had a positive impact on behavioral intention. The overall bar code medication administration behavioral intention model explained 24% (P<.001) of the variance. Identified factors influencing bar code medication administration behavioral intention can help inform hospitals to develop tailored interventions for RNs to reduce medication administration errors and increase patient safety by using this technology.

  1. A reference data model of a metadata registry preserving semantics and representations of data elements.

    PubMed

    Löpprich, Martin; Jones, Jennifer; Meinecke, Marie-Claire; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Knaup, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Integration and analysis of clinical data collected in multiple data sources over a long period of time is a major challenge even when data warehouses and metadata registries are used. Since most metadata registries focus on describing data elements to establish domain consistent data definition and providing item libraries, hierarchical and temporal dependencies cannot be mapped. Therefore we developed and validated a reference data model, based on ISO/IEC 11179, which allows revision and branching control of conceptually similar data elements with heterogeneous definitions and representations.

  2. Parametric Accuracy: Building Information Modeling Process Applied to the Cultural Heritage Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagnani, S.; Manferdini, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Since their introduction, modeling tools aimed to architectural design evolved in today's "digital multi-purpose drawing boards" based on enhanced parametric elements able to originate whole buildings within virtual environments. Semantic splitting and elements topology are features that allow objects to be "intelligent" (i.e. self-aware of what kind of element they are and with whom they can interact), representing this way basics of Building Information Modeling (BIM), a coordinated, consistent and always up to date workflow improved in order to reach higher quality, reliability and cost reductions all over the design process. Even if BIM was originally intended for new architectures, its attitude to store semantic inter-related information can be successfully applied to existing buildings as well, especially if they deserve particular care such as Cultural Heritage sites. BIM engines can easily manage simple parametric geometries, collapsing them to standard primitives connected through hierarchical relationships: however, when components are generated by existing morphologies, for example acquiring point clouds by digital photogrammetry or laser scanning equipment, complex abstractions have to be introduced while remodeling elements by hand, since automatic feature extraction in available software is still not effective. In order to introduce a methodology destined to process point cloud data in a BIM environment with high accuracy, this paper describes some experiences on monumental sites documentation, generated through a plug-in written for Autodesk Revit and codenamed GreenSpider after its capability to layout points in space as if they were nodes of an ideal cobweb.

  3. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine; Reiner, Tom

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  4. Data Preservation and Curation for the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Joyner, R.; Hardman, S.; Rye, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has just released PDS4 Version 1.0, its next generation data standards for the planetary science archive. These data standards are the result of a multi-year effort to develop an information model based on accepted standards for data preservation, data curation, metadata management, and model development. The resulting information model is subsequently used to drive information system development from the generation of data standards documentation to the configuration of federated registries and search engines. This paper will provide an overview of the development of the PDS4 Information Model and focus on the application of the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) Reference Model - ISO 14721:2003, the Metadata Registry (MDR) Standard - ISO/IEC 11179, and the E-Business XML Standard to help ensure the long-term preservation and curation of planetary science data. Copyright 2013 California Institute of Technology Government sponsorship acknowledged

  5. Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Marie-Josée; Choquette, Julie; Delaquis, Pascal J; Claude, Gariépy; Rodrigue, Natalie; Saucier, Linda

    2002-10-25

    The inhibitory effect of Microgard 100, Microgard 300, nisin, Alta 2002, Perlac 1902, sodium lactate and essential oil of mustard on microorganisms experimentally inoculated was screened in an acidified chicken meat model (pH = 5.0) and stored for 2 weeks at a none restrictive growth temperature of 22 degrees C. All antimicrobials tested were used at the highest concentration recommended by their manufacturer. Sausage batter made with mechanically deboned chicken was inoculated with a mixed culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Brochothrix thermosphacta CRDAV452, and a protective culture Lactobacillus alimentarius BJ33 (FloraCan L-2). A final cell concentration of 3-4 log CFU g (-1) was targeted after cooking at a core temperature of 55 degrees C for each microorganism in order to assess cell count variation effectively. Composition, water activity (a(w)), pH and redox potential of the sausage model was also evaluated. The E. coli population decreased steadily during storage and was close or below detection level (< 1 log CFU g (-1)) for all treatments, including the control, after 14 days. Sodium lactate was most effective against B. thermosphacta; population was 4 log lower than the control after 14 days of storage. When essential oil of mustard was used, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were significantly lower than the control after 2 days of storage (P < or = 0.05). The other antimicrobial agents tested had no significant effect on the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, B. thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria counts, when compared to the control.

  6. Serpentinite in Active Suprasubduction-Zone Regions and Preserved Terrestrial Sections: Observations; Modeling; and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2012-12-01

    Exposures of serpentinized mantle of the overriding plate in the trench-proximal regions of nonaccretionary, intraoceanic forearcs have been extensively studied. Deposits of what were formerly called "sedimentary" serpentinite bodies on land are well documented all over the world. The deposits are variously categorized as mylonitized peridotite that was metamorphosed after obduction of an ophiolite section; olistostromes derived from sections of fault-exposed, serpentinized mantle; diapiric intrusions from point sources or along faults (as ridges); and flows from serpentinite mud volcanoes. The structures and compositions of serpentinite exposures help to differentiate between potential origins and protoliths. Theoretical studies of dehydration reactions, coupled with models of the thermal structure of subduction zones, provide constraints on the nature of fluids liberated from the subducting slab for various convergence angles and rates. These fluids are the source for serpentinization of the suprasubduction-zone mantle. The parameters for degree and distribution of serpentinite in such environments must be, however, constrained in each instance by the forcing functions operating within a given convergent margin. Spatial, i.e., down-dip increases in temperature and pressure vary with convergence angle and rate. Whereas most models assume continuous dehydration of the slab, in reality dehydration events are likely episodic and thus temporal effects must also be considered. We know that suprasubduction-zone serpentinization can begin early in the evolution of a convergent margin and that extensive faulting of a forearc region is necessary for emplacement of serpentinite deposits on the seafloor in active margins. Recent studies of Archean exposures of serpentinized peridotitic deposits suggest that the processes we observe in today's active convergent margins likely also took place during the earliest stages of tectonic cycling of the Earth's lithosphere. The

  7. Assessing in vivo fertilizing capacity of liquid-preserved boar semen according to the 'Hanover gilt model'.

    PubMed

    Ardón, F; Döhring, A; Le Thi, X; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the Hanover gilt model to assess in vivo fertilizing capacity of preserved sperm and to consider whether any modifications to this model were needed. This model evaluates the fertilizing capacity of semen based on the fertilization rate, the rate of normal embryos and the accessory sperm count of 3-5-day embryos. Its distinguishing characteristics are the use of one-time insemination of sperm in reduced numbers, of spontaneously ovulating gilts and of ovulation detection through ultrasound examination of ovaries. Reduced sperm numbers allow for an accurate evaluation of the fertilizing potential of different semen treatments, thereby avoiding the compensatory effect of doses calibrated to maximize fertility. The model's usefulness was assessed in a trial run designed to compare the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen diluted into two different extenders. The diluent, the boar and the backflow, had no significant effect on any of the parameters studied. Gilts inseminated less than 24 h before ovulation had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) fertilization rate and accessory sperm cell count (p < 0.05) than those inseminated more than 24 h before ovulation. Very good/good embryos from homogeneous litters (only very good/good embryos were present) had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) accessory sperm count than those from heterogeneous litters (at least one embryo was of a different quality and/or oocytes were present). Both very good/good and degenerated/retarded embryos from heterogeneous litters had low accessory sperm numbers. This suggests that accessory sperm count is significantly related to the quality of the litter, but not to the quality of the embryo within gilts. It can be concluded that the Hanover gilt model is sensitive enough to show fertility differences (in this study, those associated with in vivo ageing of semen), while using relatively few gilts and little time.

  8. An asymptotic preserving scheme for the two-fluid Euler-Poisson model in the quasineutral limit

    SciTech Connect

    Crispel, Pierre . E-mail: crispel@mip.ups-tlse.fr; Degond, Pierre . E-mail: degond@mip.ups-tlse.fr; Vignal, Marie-Helene . E-mail: mhvignal@mip.ups-tlse.fr

    2007-04-10

    This paper deals with the modeling of a plasma in the quasineutral limit using the two-fluid Euler-Poisson system. In this limit, explicit numerical schemes suffer from severe numerical constraints related to the small Debye length and large plasma frequency. Here, we propose an implicit scheme which reduces to a scheme for the quasineutral Euler model in the quasineutral limit. Such a property is referred to as 'asymptotic preservation'. One of the distinctive features of this scheme is that it has a comparable numerical cost to that of an explicit scheme: simply the Poisson equation is replaced by a different (but formally equivalent) elliptic problem. We present numerical simulations for two different one-dimensional test-cases. They confirm the expected stability of the scheme in the quasineutral limit. They also show that this scheme has some accuracy problems in the limit of small electron to ion mass ratio in reproducing the correct electron velocity. But this problem is already present in the results of the classical algorithm. Numerical simulations are also performed for a two-dimensional problem of a plasma expansion in vacuum between two electrodes.

  9. Abatacept Treatment Does Not Preserve Renal Function in the Streptozocin-Induced Model of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Helding Kvist, Peter; Douglas Galsgaard, Elisabeth; Coppieters, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes and remains the largest cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Treatment options are limited and novel therapies that effectively slow disease progression are warranted. Previous work suggested that treatment with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept), a molecule that binds and blocks B7-1 and is licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, could ameliorate DN. This study was designed to assess whether B7-1 signalling constitutes a promising therapeutic pathway for DN. Mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with abatacept and glycemia and renal function were assessed. No differences were found in diabetes progression, albumin excretion rates or albumin/creatine ratios, while mesangial expansion was unaltered at endpoint. Except for increased renal CCL5, treatment did not affect a panel of gene expression endpoints reflecting early fibrotic changes, inflammation and kidney injury. Finally, abatacept treatment effectively reduced the accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in the kidney, suggesting that renal T cell inflammation is not a driving factor in the pathology of the STZ model. In conjunction with the recent data discounting the expression of B7-1 on podocytes, our present data do not support a role for abatacept in DN treatment. PMID:27055155

  10. Abatacept Treatment Does Not Preserve Renal Function in the Streptozocin-Induced Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Norlin, Jenny; Nielsen Fink, Lisbeth; Helding Kvist, Peter; Douglas Galsgaard, Elisabeth; Coppieters, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes and remains the largest cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Treatment options are limited and novel therapies that effectively slow disease progression are warranted. Previous work suggested that treatment with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept), a molecule that binds and blocks B7-1 and is licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, could ameliorate DN. This study was designed to assess whether B7-1 signalling constitutes a promising therapeutic pathway for DN. Mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with abatacept and glycemia and renal function were assessed. No differences were found in diabetes progression, albumin excretion rates or albumin/creatine ratios, while mesangial expansion was unaltered at endpoint. Except for increased renal CCL5, treatment did not affect a panel of gene expression endpoints reflecting early fibrotic changes, inflammation and kidney injury. Finally, abatacept treatment effectively reduced the accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in the kidney, suggesting that renal T cell inflammation is not a driving factor in the pathology of the STZ model. In conjunction with the recent data discounting the expression of B7-1 on podocytes, our present data do not support a role for abatacept in DN treatment. PMID:27055155

  11. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Preserves Dopaminergic Neurons in Cellular and Rodent Models of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Redondo, Miriam; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Perez, Concepción; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background Phosphodiesterase 7 plays a major role in down-regulation of protein kinase A activity by hydrolyzing cAMP in many cell types. This cyclic nucleotide plays a key role in signal transduction in a wide variety of cellular responses. In the brain, cAMP has been implicated in learning, memory processes and other brain functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show a novel function of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal death. We found that S14, a heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 7, conferred significant neuronal protection against different insults both in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y and in primary rat mesencephalic cultures. S14 treatment also reduced microglial activation, protected dopaminergic neurons and improved motor function in the lipopolysaccharide rat model of Parkinson disease. Finally, S14 neuroprotective effects were reversed by blocking the cAMP signaling pathways that operate through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that phosphodiesterase 7 inhibition can protect dopaminergic neurons against different insults, and they provide support for the therapeutic potential of phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson disease. PMID:21390306

  12. Abatacept Treatment Does Not Preserve Renal Function in the Streptozocin-Induced Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Norlin, Jenny; Nielsen Fink, Lisbeth; Helding Kvist, Peter; Douglas Galsgaard, Elisabeth; Coppieters, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes and remains the largest cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Treatment options are limited and novel therapies that effectively slow disease progression are warranted. Previous work suggested that treatment with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept), a molecule that binds and blocks B7-1 and is licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, could ameliorate DN. This study was designed to assess whether B7-1 signalling constitutes a promising therapeutic pathway for DN. Mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with abatacept and glycemia and renal function were assessed. No differences were found in diabetes progression, albumin excretion rates or albumin/creatine ratios, while mesangial expansion was unaltered at endpoint. Except for increased renal CCL5, treatment did not affect a panel of gene expression endpoints reflecting early fibrotic changes, inflammation and kidney injury. Finally, abatacept treatment effectively reduced the accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in the kidney, suggesting that renal T cell inflammation is not a driving factor in the pathology of the STZ model. In conjunction with the recent data discounting the expression of B7-1 on podocytes, our present data do not support a role for abatacept in DN treatment.

  13. Health research access to personal confidential data in England and Wales: assessing any gap in public attitude between preferable and acceptable models of consent.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Taylor, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    England and Wales are moving toward a model of 'opt out' for use of personal confidential data in health research. Existing research does not make clear how acceptable this move is to the public. While people are typically supportive of health research, when asked to describe the ideal level of control there is a marked lack of consensus over the preferred model of consent (e.g. explicit consent, opt out etc.). This study sought to investigate a relatively unexplored difference between the consent model that people prefer and that which they are willing to accept. It also sought to explore any reasons for such acceptance.A mixed methods approach was used to gather data, incorporating a structured questionnaire and in-depth focus group discussions led by an external facilitator. The sampling strategy was designed to recruit people with different involvement in the NHS but typically with experience of NHS services. Three separate focus groups were carried out over three consecutive days.The central finding is that people are typically willing to accept models of consent other than that which they would prefer. Such acceptance is typically conditional upon a number of factors, including: security and confidentiality, no inappropriate commercialisation or detrimental use, transparency, independent overview, the ability to object to any processing considered to be inappropriate or particularly sensitive.This study suggests that most people would find research use without the possibility of objection to be unacceptable. However, the study also suggests that people who would prefer to be asked explicitly before data were used for purposes beyond direct care may be willing to accept an opt out model of consent if the reasons for not seeking explicit consent are accessible to them and they trust that data is only going to be used under conditions, and with safeguards, that they would consider to be acceptable even if not preferable.

  14. Testing a model for parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccine in 9- to 18-year-old girls: a theory-guided study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Diane; O'Connell, Kathleen A

    2012-12-01

    Gardasil is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by certain types of genital human papillomavirus in females, but little is known about parental acceptance of this vaccine. The purpose of this study was to test a model that predicts intention to vaccinate that includes constructs from the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action.

  15. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  16. ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF NATIONAL PARKS WITH COUNT DATA MODELS USING ON-SITE, SECONDARY DATA: THE CASE OF THE GREAT SAND DUNES NATIONAL PARK AND PRESERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimate an individual travel cost model for Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSD) in Colorado using on-site, secondary data. The purpose of the on-site survey was to help the National Park Service better understand the visitors of GSD; it was not intended for a t...

  17. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others.

  19. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  20. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.’s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user’s behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user’s behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services. PMID:27270915

  1. Perceptions of a Specific Family Communication Application among Grandparents and Grandchildren: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Ho, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have noted that the use of social networks sites (SNSs) can enhance social interaction among the elderly and that the motivation for the elderly to use SNSs is to keep in contact with remote friends and family or the younger generation. Memotree is designed to promote intergenerational family communication. The system incorporates the Family Tree design concept and provides family communication mechanisms based on the Family Communication Scale. In addition, the system optimizes hardware and interface use to conform to the specific needs of older and substantially younger individuals. Regarding the impact of variables on SNS with respect to the interaction of usability variables in the construction of a cross-generational communication platform, we adopted the TAM model and Chung et al.'s suggestions to promote user acceptance of the proposed Memotree system. A total of 39 grandchildren and 39 grandparents met the criteria and were included in the study. The elderly and young respondents revealed substantial willingness to use and/or satisfaction with using the Memotree system. Empirical results indicate that technology affordances and perceived ease of use have a positive impact on perceived usefulness, while perceived ease of use is affected by technology affordances. Internet self-efficacy and perceived usefulness have a positive impact on the user's behavioral intention toward the system. In addition, this study investigated age as a moderating variable in the model. The results indicate that grandchildren have a larger significant effect on the path between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention than grandparents. This study proposes a more complete framework for investigating the user's behavioral intention and provides a more appropriate explanation of related services for cross-generational interaction with SNS services.

  2. Estimating the economic value of national parks with count data models using on-site, secondary data: the case of the great sand dunes national park and preserve.

    PubMed

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    We estimate an individual travel cost model for Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSD) in Colorado using on-site, secondary data. The purpose of the on-site survey was to help the National Park Service better understand the visitors of GSD; it was not intended for a travel cost model. Variables such as travel cost and income were estimated based on respondents' Zip Codes. Following approaches found in the literature, a negative binomial model corrected for truncation and endogenous stratification fit the data the best. We estimate a recreational benefit of U.S. $89/visitor/year or U.S. $54/visitor/24-h recreational day (in 2002 U.S. $). Based on the approach presented here, there are other data sets for national parks, preserves, and battlefields where travel cost models could be estimated and used to support National Park Service management decisions.

  3. Bridging between NMA and Elastic Network Models: Preserving All-Atom Accuracy in Coarse-Grained Models

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L.; Song, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations—how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models. PMID:26473491

  4. Bridging between NMA and Elastic Network Models: Preserving All-Atom Accuracy in Coarse-Grained Models.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Jernigan, Robert L; Song, Guang

    2015-10-01

    Dynamics can provide deep insights into the functional mechanisms of proteins and protein complexes. For large protein complexes such as GroEL/GroES with more than 8,000 residues, obtaining a fine-grained all-atom description of its normal mode motions can be computationally prohibitive and is often unnecessary. For this reason, coarse-grained models have been used successfully. However, most existing coarse-grained models use extremely simple potentials to represent the interactions within the coarse-grained structures and as a result, the dynamics obtained for the coarse-grained structures may not always be fully realistic. There is a gap between the quality of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures given by all-atom models and that by coarse-grained models. In this work, we resolve an important question in protein dynamics computations--how can we efficiently construct coarse-grained models whose description of the dynamics of the coarse-grained structures remains as accurate as that given by all-atom models? Our method takes advantage of the sparseness of the Hessian matrix and achieves a high efficiency with a novel iterative matrix projection approach. The result is highly significant since it can provide descriptions of normal mode motions at an all-atom level of accuracy even for the largest biomolecular complexes. The application of our method to GroEL/GroES offers new insights into the mechanism of this biologically important chaperonin, such as that the conformational transitions of this protein complex in its functional cycle are even more strongly connected to the first few lowest frequency modes than with other coarse-grained models.

  5. DRP1 inhibition rescues retinal ganglion cells and their axons by preserving mitochondrial integrity in a mouse model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-Y; Perkins, G A; Shim, M S; Bushong, E; Alcasid, N; Ju, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Ju, W-K

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of the optic nerve head axons and retinal ganglion cell (RGC), leading to loss of visual function. Although oxidative stress and/or alteration of mitochondrial (mt) dynamics induced by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with this neurodegenerative disease, the mechanisms that regulate mt dysfunction-mediated glaucomatous neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J (D2), which spontaneously develops elevated IOP, as well as an in vitro RGC culture system, we show here that oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and mt transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression, triggers mt fission and loss by increasing dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) in the retina of glaucomatous D2 mice as well as in cultured RGCs exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. DRP1 inhibition by overexpressing DRP1 K38A mutant blocks mt fission and triggers a subsequent reduction of oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreasing SOD2 and Tfam protein expression. DRP1 inhibition promotes RGC survival by increasing phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112 in the retina and preserves RGC axons by maintaining mt integrity in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings demonstrate an important vicious cycle involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration that starts with elevated IOP producing oxidative stress; the oxidative stress then leads to mt fission and a specific form of mt dysfunction that generates further oxidative stress, thus perpetuating the cycle. Our findings suggest that DRP1 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated mt fission and dysfunction in RGC and its axons during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Thus, DRP1 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting both RGCs and their axons in glaucoma and other optic

  6. Valproate Attenuates Nitroglycerin-Induced Trigeminovascular Activation by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in a Rat Model of Migraine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruxian; Liu, Yushuang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yitong; Song, Ge; Zhang, Zhongling

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migraine is a chronic disease that interferes with life quality and work productivity. Valproate shows protective effects against migraine, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of valproate on migraine using a rat model of nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation, as well as to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin was conducted to induce trigeminovascular activation in rats. To explore the protective effect of valproate, a low dose (100 mg/kg) or a high dose (200 mg/kg) of valproate was intraperitoneally injected into rats, and then the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide in the peripheral blood were examined. The mtDNA copy number and the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were detected to evaluate the biogenesis of mitochondria. The mitochondrial energy metabolism was determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and the levels of adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome C oxidase, and reactive oxygen species. RESULTS Valproate attenuated nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation in rats, with reduced scratching behavior and restored 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide levels. Moreover, the mitochondrial energy metabolism and the biogenesis of mitochondria were preserved by valproate in nitroglycerin-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS The protective effect of valproate against migraine may be achieved through the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our study provides evidence for the potential use of valproate in the treatment of migraine. PMID:27618395

  7. Valproate Attenuates Nitroglycerin-Induced Trigeminovascular Activation by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in a Rat Model of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruxian; Liu, Yushuang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yitong; Song, Ge; Zhang, Zhongling

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is a chronic disease that interferes with life quality and work productivity. Valproate shows protective effects against migraine, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of valproate on migraine using a rat model of nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation, as well as to explore the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin was conducted to induce trigeminovascular activation in rats. To explore the protective effect of valproate, a low dose (100 mg/kg) or a high dose (200 mg/kg) of valproate was intraperitoneally injected into rats, and then the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide in the peripheral blood were examined. The mtDNA copy number and the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were detected to evaluate the biogenesis of mitochondria. The mitochondrial energy metabolism was determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and the levels of adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome C oxidase, and reactive oxygen species. Results Valproate attenuated nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation in rats, with reduced scratching behavior and restored 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide levels. Moreover, the mitochondrial energy metabolism and the biogenesis of mitochondria were preserved by valproate in nitroglycerin-treated rats. Conclusions The protective effect of valproate against migraine may be achieved through the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our study provides evidence for the potential use of valproate in the treatment of migraine. PMID:27618395

  8. A Path Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes to Computer Use: Applying and Extending the Technology Acceptance Model in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…

  9. Analysis of Utility and Use of a Web-Based Tool for Digital Signal Processing Teaching by Means of a Technological Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study about the development of a structural and measurement model for the technological acceptance (TAM) of a web-based educational tool. The aim consists of measuring not only the use of this tool, but also the external variables with a significant influence in its use for planning future improvements. The tool,…

  10. Modeling the Interrelationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding and Acceptance of Evolution, Their Views on Nature of Science and Self-Efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…

  11. Assessing the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers in Singapore and Malaysia: A Multigroup Invariance Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Su Luan

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the pre-service teachers' self-reported future intentions to use technology in Singapore and Malaysia. A survey was employed to validate items from past research. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a research framework, 495 pre-service teachers from Singapore and Malaysia responded to an 11-item questionnaires…

  12. Exploring Attitudes towards Computer Use among Pre-Service Teachers from Singapore and the UK: A Multi-Group Invariance Test of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Noyes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to compare the pre-service teachers from Singapore and the UK on their self-reported attitude towards computer use (ATCU) by employing the technology acceptance model (TAM) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 395 pre-service teachers completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses…

  13. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  14. Re-examining the role of attitude in information system acceptance: a model from the satisfaction-dissatisfaction perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Zhou, Shasha

    2016-05-01

    This study attempts to re-examine the role of attitude in voluntary information system (IS) acceptance and usage, which has often been discounted in the previous technology acceptance research. We extend the unidimensional view of attitude into a bidimensional one, because of the simultaneous existence of both positive and negative evaluation towards IS in technology acceptance behaviour. In doing so, attitude construct is divided into two components: satisfaction as the positive attitudinal component and dissatisfaction as the negative attitudinal component. We argue that satisfaction and dissatisfaction will interactively affect technology usage intention. Besides, we explore the predictors of satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on the disconfirmation theory. Empirical results from a longitudinal study on bulletin board system (BBS) usage confirm the interaction effect of satisfaction and dissatisfaction on usage intention. Moreover, perceived task-related value has a significant effect on satisfaction, while perceived personal value has a significant effect on dissatisfaction. We also discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of our findings.

  15. Learner Differences in Perceived Satisfaction of an Online Learning: An Extension to the Technology Acceptance Model in an Arabic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azawei, Ahmed; Lundqvist, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Online learning constitutes the most popular distance-learning method, with flexibility, accessibility, visibility, manageability and availability as its core features. However, current research indicates that its efficacy is not consistent across all learners. This study aimed to modify and extend the factors of the Technology Acceptance Model…

  16. Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, e-Learning Satisfaction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Barrio-García, Salvador; Arquero, José L.; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    As long as students use Web 2.0 tools extensively for social purposes, there is an opportunity to improve students' engagement in Higher Education by using these tools for academic purposes under a Personal Learning Environment approach (PLE 2.0). The success of these attempts depends upon the reactions and acceptance of users towards e-learning…

  17. A Model of Acceptance of Web 2.0 in Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Abel; Echeng, Razep; Majewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Though a few empirical studies on acceptance of Web 2.0 as a social networking tool in teaching and learning exist, apparently none consider students' and faculties' views from different cultures, which is the focus of this study. This article reports on a pilot study that begins to fill this gap by investigating the perceptions,…

  18. E-Learning and the University of Huelva: A Study of WebCT and the Technological Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, R. Arteaga; Hueros, A. Duarte; Ordaz, M. Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that determine the acceptance of the WebCT learning system among students of the faculties of Business and Education Sciences at the University of Huelva, and to verify the direct and indirect effects of these factors. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 226 students at the…

  19. Water-balance uncertainty in Honduras: a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation using a time-variant rating curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Beven, K.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.-C.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    The climate of Central America is highly variable both spatially and temporally; extreme events like floods and droughts are recurrent phenomena posing great challenges to regional water-resources management. Scarce and low-quality hydro-meteorological data complicate hydrological modelling and few previous studies have addressed the water-balance in Honduras. In the alluvial Choluteca River, the river bed changes over time as fill and scour occur in the channel, leading to a fast-changing relation between stage and discharge and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. In this application of a four-parameter water-balance model, a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation was used within the General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The limits of acceptability were determined for discharge alone for each time step, and ideally a simulated result should always be contained within the limits. A moving-window weighted fuzzy regression of the ratings, based on estimated uncertainties in the rating-curve data, was used to derive the limits. This provided an objective way to determine the limits of acceptability and handle the non-stationarity of the rating curves. The model was then applied within GLUE and evaluated using the derived limits. Preliminary results show that the best simulations are within the limits 75-80% of the time, indicating that precipitation data and other uncertainties like model structure also have a significant effect on predictability.

  20. Local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data used as a communication tool in water management: The Rönneå Study.

    PubMed

    Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Berg, Karin

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to increase the knowledge of local stakeholders' acceptance of model-generated data when used as a communication tool in water quality management. The Rönneå catchment in the southwest of Sweden was chosen as the study area. The results indicate the model-generated data served as a uniting factor. Simultaneously, the stakeholders were concerned with presented data, the main problems being sources of pollution, which were not accounted for, lack of trustworthiness when measuring pollution, and the uncertainty of the impact of natural variation and delayed effects. Four clusters of factors were identified as influencing stakeholders' acceptance of the model-generated data: confidence in its practical applications, confidence in the people involved in or providing material for the dialog (such as experts, decision-makers, and media), the social characteristics of the participants (such as age and profession), and the way of communicating the data (such as tone of communication, group composition, duration, and geographical scope of the dialog). The perception of the fairness of the practical application of given model-generated data was also an important factor for acceptance.

  1. Using combined hydrological variables for extracting functional signatures of catchments to better assess the acceptability of model structures in conceptual catchment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, O.; Hrachowitz, M.; RUIZ, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.; Savenije, H.

    2013-12-01

    While most hydrological models reproduce the general flow dynamics of a system, they frequently fail to adequately mimic system internal processes. This is likely to make them inadequate to simulate solutes transport. For example, the hysteresis between storage and discharge, which is often observed in shallow hard-rock aquifers, is rarely well reproduced by models. One main reason is that this hysteresis has little weight in the calibration because objective functions are based on time series of individual variables. This reduces the ability of classical calibration/validation procedures to assess the relevance of the conceptual hypothesis associated with hydrological models. Calibrating models on variables derived from the combination of different individual variables (like stream discharge and groundwater levels) is a way to insure that models will be accepted based on their consistency. Here we therefore test the value of this more systems-like approach to test different hypothesis on the behaviour of a small experimental low-land catchment in French Brittany (ORE AgrHys) where a high hysteresis is observed on the stream flow vs. shallow groundwater level relationship. Several conceptual models were applied to this site, and calibrated using objective functions based on metrics of this hysteresis. The tested model structures differed with respect to the storage function in each reservoir, the storage-discharge function in each reservoir, the deep loss expressions (as constant or variable fraction), the number of reservoirs (from 1 to 4) and their organization (parallel, series). The observed hysteretic groundwater level-discharge relationship was not satisfactorily reproduced by most of the tested models except for the most complex ones. Those were thus more consistent, their underlying hypotheses are probably more realistic even though their performance for simulating observed stream flow was decreased. Selecting models based on such systems-like approach is

  2. Preservation Of Native Aortic Valve Flow And Full Hemodynamic Support With The TORVAD™ Using A Computational Model Of The Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Chang, Kay-Won; Larson, Erik R.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the stroke volume selection and operational design for the TORVAD™, a synchronous, positive-displacement ventricular assist device (VAD). A lumped parameter model was used to simulate hemodynamics with the TORVAD™ compared to those under continuous flow VAD support. Results from the simulation demonstrated that a TORVAD™ with a 30 mL stroke volume ejecting with an early diastolic counterpulse provides comparable systemic support to the HeartMate II® (HMII) (cardiac output 5.7 L/min up from 3.1 L/min in simulated heart failure). By taking advantage of synchronous pulsatility, the TORVAD™ delivers full hemodynamic support with nearly half the VAD flow rate (2.7 L/min compared to 5.3 L/min for the HMII) by allowing the left ventricle to eject during systole, thus preserving native aortic valve flow (3.0 L/min compared to 0.4 L/min for the HMII, down from 3.1 L/min at baseline). The TORVAD™ also preserves pulse pressure (26.7 mmHg compared to 12.8 mmHg for the HMII, down from 29.1 mmHg at baseline). Preservation of aortic valve flow with synchronous pulsatile support could reduce the high incidence of aortic insufficiency and valve cusp fusion reported in patients supported with continuous flow VADs. PMID:25485562

  3. "It's all about acceptance": A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2015-09-01

    Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore positive body image experiences in people with spinal cord injury. Nine participants (five women, four men) varying in age (21-63 years), type of injury (C3-T7; complete and incomplete), and years post-injury (4-36 years) were recruited. The following main categories were found: body acceptance, body appreciation and gratitude, social support, functional gains, independence, media literacy, broadly conceptualizing beauty, inner positivity influencing outer demeanour, finding others who have a positive body image, unconditional acceptance from others, religion/spirituality, listening to and taking care of the body, managing secondary complications, minimizing pain, and respect. Interestingly, there was consistency in positive body image characteristics reported in this study with those found in previous research, demonstrating universality of positive body image. However, unique characteristics (e.g., resilience, functional gains, independence) were also reported demonstrating the importance of exploring positive body image in diverse groups. PMID:26002149

  4. "It's all about acceptance": A qualitative study exploring a model of positive body image for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2015-09-01

    Using modified constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore positive body image experiences in people with spinal cord injury. Nine participants (five women, four men) varying in age (21-63 years), type of injury (C3-T7; complete and incomplete), and years post-injury (4-36 years) were recruited. The following main categories were found: body acceptance, body appreciation and gratitude, social support, functional gains, independence, media literacy, broadly conceptualizing beauty, inner positivity influencing outer demeanour, finding others who have a positive body image, unconditional acceptance from others, religion/spirituality, listening to and taking care of the body, managing secondary complications, minimizing pain, and respect. Interestingly, there was consistency in positive body image characteristics reported in this study with those found in previous research, demonstrating universality of positive body image. However, unique characteristics (e.g., resilience, functional gains, independence) were also reported demonstrating the importance of exploring positive body image in diverse groups.

  5. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-10-01

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) 'Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. PMID:26423841

  6. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-10-01

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) 'Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae.

  7. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) ‘Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. PMID:26423841

  8. An extension of the extended parallel process model (EPPM) in television health news: the influence of health consciousness on individual message processing and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of health consciousness in processing TV news that contains potential health threats and preventive recommendations. Based on the extended parallel process model (Witte, 1992), relationships among health consciousness, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and message acceptance/rejection were hypothesized. Responses collected from 175 participants after viewing four TV health news stories were analyzed using the bootstrapping analysis (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results confirmed three mediators (i.e., perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy) in the influence of health consciousness on message acceptance. A negative association found between health consciousness and perceived susceptibility is discussed in relation to characteristics of health conscious individuals and optimistic bias of health risks. PMID:21416420

  9. Preserving socially expected crowd density in front of an exit for the reproduction of experimental data by modeling pedestrians' rear perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmod Shuaib, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we discuss different approaches and mechanisms implemented in the social force model regarding its role in obtaining real-life data. In crowd evacuation processes, preserving normal crowd density at an exit is crucial. Here, we introduce a new mechanism for the reproduction of specific flow rate within the range stated in the literature. For the implementation of this mechanism into the social force model, an association between the pedestrians' social responsibility to relieve any unusual crowd density in front of an exit and a reduction in their competition behavior is presented, where the pedestrians' perception of what is behind them is the main factor in this association. Accordingly, a model is proposed for rear perception subject to the production of the fundamental diagram and the specific flow rate, while conserving the inter-pedestrian dynamics by which the social force model is characterized. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of this mechanism.

  10. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information that facilitates characterization of the site and selection of treatment technologies at wood preserving sites, to meet the regulations’ acceptable cleanup levels. It does not provide risk-assessment information or policy guidance related to det...

  11. Self Acceptance and the Selection of a Marital Partner - An Assessment of the SVR Model of Murstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava

    1986-01-01

    Mate selection is often explained by either the homogenity or the complementary need model. The Stimulus-Value-Response (SVR) model for integration of the two models was assessed in the present study. The sample included 48 engaged Israeli couples. Results support the SVR model and confirm earlier research in this area. Conceptual and…

  12. Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

  13. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  14. Texture-preserved penalized weighted least-squares reconstruction of low-dose CT image via image segmentation and high-order MRF modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Zhang, Hao; Wei, Xinzhou; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a low-dose computed tomography (LdCT) image reconstruction method with the help of prior knowledge learning from previous high-quality or normal-dose CT (NdCT) scans. The well-established statistical penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm was adopted for image reconstruction, where the penalty term was formulated by a texture-based Gaussian Markov random field (gMRF) model. The NdCT scan was firstly segmented into different tissue types by a feature vector quantization (FVQ) approach. Then for each tissue type, a set of tissue-specific coefficients for the gMRF penalty was statistically learnt from the NdCT image via multiple-linear regression analysis. We also proposed a scheme to adaptively select the order of gMRF model for coefficients prediction. The tissue-specific gMRF patterns learnt from the NdCT image were finally used to form an adaptive MRF penalty for the PWLS reconstruction of LdCT image. The proposed texture-adaptive PWLS image reconstruction algorithm was shown to be more effective to preserve image textures than the conventional PWLS image reconstruction algorithm, and we further demonstrated the gain of high-order MRF modeling for texture-preserved LdCT PWLS image reconstruction.

  15. Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Bacterial Clearance and Preserve Bioprosthetic Integrity in a Model of Mesh Infection

    PubMed Central

    Criman, Erik T.; Kurata, Wendy E.; Matsumoto, Karen W.; Aubin, Harry T.; Campbell, Carmen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The reported incidence of mesh infection in contaminated operative fields is as high as 30% regardless of the material used. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess favorable immunomodulatory properties and improve tissue incorporation when seeded onto bioprosthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seeding noncrosslinked bovine pericardium (Veritas Collagen Matrix) with allogeneic bone marrow–derived MSCs improves infection resistance in vivo after inoculation with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Rat bone marrow–derived MSCs at passage 3 were seeded onto bovine pericardium and cultured for 7 days before implantation. Additional rats (n = 24) were implanted subcutaneously with MSC-seeded or unseeded mesh and inoculated with 7 × 105 colony-forming units of E. coli or saline before wound closure (group 1, unseeded mesh/saline; group 2, unseeded mesh/E. coli; group 3, MSC-seeded mesh/E. coli; 8 rats per group). Meshes were explanted at 4 weeks and underwent microbiologic and histologic analyses. Results: MSC-seeded meshes inoculated with E. coli demonstrated superior bacterial clearance and preservation of mesh integrity compared with E. coli–inoculated unseeded meshes (87.5% versus 0% clearance; p = 0.001). Complete mesh degradation concurrent with abscess formation was observed in 100% of rats in the unseeded/E. coli group, which is in contrast to 12.5% of rats in the MSC-seeded/E. coli group. Histologic evaluation determined that remodeling characteristics of E. coli–inoculated MSC-seeded meshes were similar to those of uninfected meshes 4 weeks after implantation. Conclusions: Augmenting a bioprosthetic material with stem cells seems to markedly enhance resistance to bacterial infection in vivo and preserve mesh integrity. PMID:27482490

  16. Lowstand versus highstand eustatic models for peat preservation: The coal-bearing rocks of the Breathitt Group, Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr.; Greb, S.F. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Stratigraphic and chronologic studies suggest that the alternation between major coal beds and clastic rocks of the Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group (Central Appalachian Basin) resulted from glacial eustacy. The typical Coal-Clastic cycle starts at the top of a major coal bed and consists of a coarsening-upward sequence of marine or brackish-water strata which is commonly truncated and overlain by a fining-upward sequence. The fining-upward sequence is overlain by a rooted paleosol which is overlain by a coal bed. In one scenario, the peat is deposited during the stable highstand period. Because of subsidence, the highstand peat deposit is drowned and covered by marine sediments. During the subsequent lowstand the marine strata are eroded to varying degrees and bare channels are developed, causing an erosional unconformity surface on the marine strata. During transgression, the rise in base-level causes sediments to aggrade within the channels, creating fining-upward sequences above the marine strata. Paleosol development and peat deposition begin again at the next highstand. In another scenario peats are deposited in a coastal setting during lowstand. As transgression proceeds from lowstand, channels backfill and all low-lying areas including peat are covered by coarsening-upward sequences. Peats are then deposited on exposed platforms during highstand. During the subsequent drop in sea level, channels are incised and highstand peats and part of the coarsening-upward sediment package is eroded. The second scenario implies a preservation bias to cyclothems caused by eustatic rates being greater than subsidence rates. Peats are probably deposited during both lowstand and highstand, but lowstand peats are more likely to be preserved.

  17. Ischaemia-related cell damage in extracorporeal preserved tissue – new findings with a novel perfusion model

    PubMed Central

    Taeger, Christian D; Müller-Seubert, Wibke; Horch, Raymund E; Präbst, Konstantin; Münch, Frank; Geppert, Carol I; Birkholz, Torsten; Dragu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Tissue undergoing free transfer in transplant or reconstructive surgery always is at high risk of ischaemia-related cell damage. This study aims at assessing different procedures using an extracorporeal perfusion and oxygenation system to investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-α as marker for hypoxia and of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase-3 in skeletal muscle to elucidate potential improvements in tissue conservation. Twenty-four porcine rectus abdominis muscles were assigned to five different groups and examined after they had been extracorporeally preserved for 60 min. time. Group I was left untreated (control), group II was perfused with a cardioplegic solution, group III was flushed with 10 ml of a cardioplegic solution and then left untreated. Group IV and V were perfused and oxygenated with either an isotone crystalloid solution or a cardioplegic solution. Among others, immunohistochemistry (Caspase-3 and HIF-1-α) of muscle samples was performed. Furthermore, oxygen partial pressure in the perfusate at the arterial and venous branch was measured. Expression of Caspase-3 after 60 min. was reduced in all groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, all groups (except group III) expressed less HIF-1-α than the control group. Oxygenation leads to higher oxygen levels at the venous branch compared to groups without oxygenation. Using an extracorporeal perfusion and oxygenation system cell damage could be reduced as indicated by stabilized expressions of Caspase-3 and HIF-1-α for 60 min. of tissue preservation. Complete depletion of oxygen at the venous branch can be prevented by oxygenation of the perfusate with ambient air. PMID:24636195

  18. Comparison between Utsu's and Vere-Jones' aftershocks model by means of a computer simulation based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J.; Morales-Esteban, A.; González, E.; Martínez-Álvarez, F.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, a new algorithm for generating a stochastic earthquake catalog is presented. The algorithm is based on the acceptance-rejection sampling of von Neumann. The result is a computer simulation of earthquakes based on the calculated statistical properties of each zone. Vere-Jones states that an earthquake sequence can be modeled as a series of random events. This is the model used in the proposed simulation. Contrariwise, Utsu indicates that the mainshocks are special geophysical events. The algorithm has been applied to zones of Chile, China, Spain, Japan, and the USA. This allows classifying the zones according to Vere-Jones' or Utsu's model. The results have been quantified relating the mainshock with the largest aftershock within the next 5 days (which has been named as Bath event). The results show that some zones fit Utsu's model and others Vere-Jones'. Finally, the fraction of seismic events that satisfy certain properties of magnitude and occurrence is analyzed.

  19. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  20. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  1. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  2. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model.

  3. Gender and Acceptance of E-Learning: A Multi-Group Analysis Based on a Structural Equation Model among College Students in Chile and Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Correa, Patricio E; Arenas-Gaitán, Jorge; Rondán-Cataluña, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of e-learning in two universities, and in particular, the relationship between the perception of external control and perceived ease of use, is different because of gender differences. The study was carried out with participating students in two different universities, one in Chile and one in Spain. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as a theoretical framework for the study. A multi-group analysis method in partial least squares was employed to relate differences between groups. The four main conclusions of the study are: (1) a version of the Technology Acceptance Model has been successfully used to explain the process of adoption of e-learning at an undergraduate level of study; (2) the finding of a strong and significant relationship between perception of external control and perception of ease of use of the e-learning platform; (3) a significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use and between results demonstrability and perceived usefulness is found; (4) the study indicates a few statistically significant differences between males and females when adopting an e-learning platform, according to the tested model. PMID:26465895

  4. Cold ischemia with selective anterograde in situ pulmonary perfusion preserves gas exchange and mitochondrial homeostasis and curbs inflammation in an experimental model of donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Pottecher, Julien; Santelmo, Nicola; Noll, Eric; Charles, Anne-Laure; Benahmed, Malika; Canuet, Matthieu; Frossard, Nelly; Namer, Izzie J; Geny, Bernard; Massard, Gilbert; Diemunsch, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional preservation of the lung graft with anterograde lung perfusion in a model of donation after cardiac death. Thirty minutes after cardiac arrest, in situ anterograde selective pulmonary cold perfusion was started in six swine. The alveolo-capillary membrane was challenged at 3, 6, and 8 h with measurements of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio, the transpulmonary oxygen output (tpVO2 ), and the transpulmonary CO2 clearance (tpCO2 ). Mitochondrial homeostasis was investigated by measuring maximal oxidative capacity (Vmax ) and the coupling of phosphorylation to oxidation (ACR, acceptor control ratio) in lung biopsies. Inflammation and induction of primary immune response were assessed by measurement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Data were compared using repeated measures Anova. Pulmonary hemodynamics (mPAP: P = 0.69; PVR: P = 0.46), oxygenation (PaO2 /FiO2 : P = 0.56; tpVO2 : P = 0.46), CO2 diffusion (tpCO2 : P = 0.24), mitochondrial homeostasis (Vmax : P = 0.42; ACR: P = 0.8), and RAGE concentrations (P = 0.24) did not significantly change up to 8 h after cardiac arrest. TNFα and IL-6 were undetectable. Unaffected pulmonary hemodynamics, sustained oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion, preserved mitochondrial homeostasis, and lack of inflammation suggest a long-lasting functional preservation of the graft with selective anterograde in situ pulmonary perfusion.

  5. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  6. The influence of the family preservation model on child sexual abuse intervention strategies: changes in child welfare worker tasks.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, G J

    1995-01-01

    There is no easy solution for child sexual abuse. Various innovations have been tried. Most are based on the belief that punishment without treatment is counterproductive in cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse because it further disrupts the family. Many counties have developed strategies that divert offenders into treatment rather than prison. Professionals in those counties apparently believe that treatment with the threat of prosecution or imprisonment is faster, cheaper, less traumatic for the child, and more effective in reducing recidivism. Ideally, it will also help preserve families. To make such strategies work, child sexual abuse intervention professionals have adapted their activities through all phases of contact with the victim, offender, and the family. They must be collaborators, consultants, liaisons, counselors, and advocates. Finally, there is little research on the effectiveness of the innovative intervention strategies. To discern if those strategies are more effective than traditional approaches in reducing child sexual abuse, in helping the family to cope with the problem, and in minimizing system-induced trauma to the child, continued research is necessary.

  7. Preservation of striatal tissue and behavioral function after neural stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T J; Price, J; Williams, S C R; Modo, M

    2006-01-01

    Cell replacement has the potential to become a frontline therapy to remedy behavioral impairments in Huntington's disease. To determine the efficacy of stem cell transplantation, behavioral assessment and in vivo monitoring of the lesion environment are paramount. We here demonstrate that neural stem cells from the MHP36 cell line prevented the development of a deficit on the beam walk test while providing partial recovery of learning in the water maze. However, no beneficial effect on rats' impairment in the staircase test was observed. By quantification of the lesion from serial magnetic resonance images, no effect of neural stem cells on lesion volume was observed. Instead, a preservation of striatal volume over time and its correlation with performance on the beam walk test suggested that sparing of behavioral function was associated with a stagnation of ongoing tissue loss rather than a reduction in lesion size. Serial imaging therefore warrants further implementation in clinical trials of neural grafts to monitor in vivo changes in the damaged brain due to transplantation.

  8. The outstation model of rehabilitation as practiced in Central Australia: the case for its recognition and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gillian; Ray, Tristan; McFarland, Blair

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the model of care provided by the Ilpurla remote outstation rehabilitation program in Australia's Northern Territory. Reflections are offered about the cultural antecedents of the model, and how it addresses the needs of young Indigenous people. Data describing client numbers, length of stay, the underlying approach to rehabilitation, and the practices of the program are presented. The paper aims to promote an understanding of the outstation model of care, highlight difficulties between programs and their funding sources, and encourages recognition of its importance in the response to drug and alcohol use-related problems among Indigenous people.

  9. Modeling lactose hydrolysis for efficiency and selectivity: Toward the preservation of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum whey permeate.

    PubMed

    de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Aquino, Leticia F M C; Liu, Yan; Cohen, Joshua L; Lee, Hyeyoung; de Melo Silva, Vitor L; Rodrigues, Maria I; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose has been shown to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of bioactive oligosaccharides. Achieving maximum lactose hydrolysis requires intrinsic process optimization for each specific substrate, but the effects of those processing conditions on the target oligosaccharides are not well understood. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH (3.25-8.25), temperature (35-55°C), reaction time (6 to 58 min), and amount of enzyme (0.05-0.25%) on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase and on the preservation of biologically important sialyloligosaccharides (3'-siallylactose, 6'-siallylactose, and 6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine) naturally present in bovine colostrum whey permeate. A central composite rotatable design was used. In general, β-galactosidase activity was favored at pH values ranging from 3.25 to 5.75, with other operational parameters having a less pronounced effect. A pH of 4.5 allowed for the use of a shorter reaction time (19 min), lower temperature (40°C), and reduced amount of enzyme (0.1%), but complete hydrolysis at a higher pH (5.75) required greater values for these operational parameters. The total amount of sialyloligosaccharides was not significantly altered by the reaction parameters evaluated, suggesting specificity of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae toward lactose as well as the stability of the oligosaccharides at pH, temperature, and reaction time evaluated. PMID:27236766

  10. Impact of exogenous growth hormone on host preservation and tumor cell-cycle distribution in a rat sarcoma model.

    PubMed

    Ng, E H; Rock, C S; Lazarus, D; Staiano-Coico, L; Fischer, E; Moldawer, L L; Lowry, S F

    1991-08-01

    Growth hormone (hGH) has been reported to improve nitrogen balances and accrue lean mass tissue in stable subjects. However, the ability of hGH to positively influence host preservation in stressed catabolic states such as cancer-induced cachexia remains unproven. Thirty-seven sham or tumor implanted Fischer 344 rats were randomized to receive either 0.5 mg/kg/day hGH or saline (SAL) subcutaneously from Days 14 to 23 postimplantation. Plasma levels of hGh and somatomedin C/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) as well as IGF I bioactivity were determined at sacrifice. Gastrocnemius muscle protein content was used as a index of host lean tissue mass and the tumor response was evaluated via flow cytometry for analysis of cell-cycle distribution. Host cachexia was not attenuated by hGH as muscle protein content was similar in hGH and saline-treated groups. Despite elevated hGH levels (range, 77-222 ng/ml (GH) vs less than 2 ng/ml (SAL], IGF I levels and bioactivity were not elevated in GH-treated groups. In contrast, cancer-induced anorexia markedly decreased IGF I levels (4 U/ml vs 9 U/ml, NTB; P less than 0.01) and this response remained refractory to hGH administration. While final tumor weights were similar between GH- and SAL-treated groups, hGH treatment caused a twofold increase in the proportion of aneuploid cells (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, hGH failed to attenuate lean mass dissolution in the tumor bearing host and this response may be related to the failure of IGF I induction. Conversely, the altered proportion of tumor aneuploid cells suggests a direct influence on tumor cell-cycling populations.

  11. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  13. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

  14. AMERICAN JOINT COMMITTEE ON CANCER ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION OF RISK MODELS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED PROGNOSIS IN THE PRACTICE OF PRECISION MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Amin, Mahul; Lu, Ying; Moons, Karel G; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Guinney, Justin; Halabi, Susan; Lazar, Alexander J.; Mahar, Alyson L.; Patel, Tushar; Sargent, Daniel J.; Weiser, Martin R.; Compton, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has increasingly recognized the need for more personalized probabilistic predictions than those delivered by ordinal staging systems, particularly through the use of accurate risk models or calculators. However, judging the quality and acceptability of a risk model is complex. The AJCC Precision Medicine Core conducted a two-day meeting to discuss characteristics necessary for a quality risk model in cancer patients. More specifically, the committee established inclusion and exclusion criteria necessary for a risk model to potentially be endorsed by the AJCC. This committee reviewed and discussed relevant literature before creating a checklist unique to this need of AJCC risk model endorsement. The committee identified 13 inclusion and 3 exclusion criteria for AJCC risk model endorsement in cancer. The emphasis centered on performance metrics, implementation clarity, and clinical relevance. The facilitation of personalized probabilistic predictions for cancer patients holds tremendous promise, and these criteria will hopefully greatly accelerate this process. Moreover, these criteria might be useful for a general audience when trying to judge the potential applicability of a published risk model in any clinical domain. PMID:26784705

  15. Student Attitudes towards and Use of ICT in Course Study, Work and Social Activity: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Rob; Thorpe, Mary; Conole, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education has been explored largely in relation to student experience of coursework and university life. Students' lives and experience beyond the university have been largely unexplored. Research into student experience of ICT used a validated model--the technology…

  16. Predicting the Use of Paired Programming: Applying the Attitudes of Application Development Managers through the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zecca, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Business managers who look for ways to cut costs face difficult questions about the efficiency and effectiveness of software engineering practices that are used to complete projects on time, on specification, and within budget (Johnson, 1995; Lindstrom & Jeffries, 2004). Theoretical models such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) have linked…

  17. [Hearing preservation: Better hearing with advanced technology].

    PubMed

    Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

  18. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325828

  19. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  20. Post-consumer use efficacies of preservatives in personal care and topical drug products: relationship to preservative category.

    PubMed

    Ravita, Timothy D; Tanner, Ralph S; Ahearn, Donald G; Arms, Erin L; Crockett, Patrick W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six used personal care and topical OTC drug items collected from consumers in the USA were examined for the presence of microbial contaminants. Of the eye and face product type containing global preservative chemistries (i.e., acceptable for use in Japan without major restrictions), 55% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.1814). For the mascara products with global preservative chemistries, 79% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.024). Products containing global preservative chemistries accounted for 88% (n = 14) of the products that had microbial contents above 10(4) CFU/g (P < 0.001). Prominent contaminants were species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and yeast. In general, under the stress of consumer use, products preserved with global preservative chemistries did not maintain as adequate preservation as products with non-global preservatives. PMID:18802729

  1. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  2. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  3. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network. PMID:20497531

  4. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lance D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Yang, Zamin Koo; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Keller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors.

  5. Students Perception towards the Implementation of Computer Graphics Technology in Class via Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binti Shamsuddin, Norsila

    Technology advancement and development in a higher learning institution is a chance for students to be motivated to learn in depth in the information technology areas. Students should take hold of the opportunity to blend their skills towards these technologies as preparation for them when graduating. The curriculum itself can rise up the students' interest and persuade them to be directly involved in the evolvement of the technology. The aim of this study is to see how deep is the students' involvement as well as their acceptance towards the adoption of the technology used in Computer Graphics and Image Processing subjects. The study will be towards the Bachelor students in Faculty of Industrial Information Technology (FIIT), Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL); Bac. In Multimedia Industry, BSc. Computer Science and BSc. Computer Science (Software Engineering). This study utilizes the new Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to further validate the model and enhance our understanding of the adoption of Computer Graphics and Image Processing Technologies. Four (4) out of eight (8) independent factors in UTAUT will be studied towards the dependent factor.

  6. Insertion of 3-D-primitives in mesh-based representations: towards compact models preserving the details.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Florent; Keriven, Renaud; Brédif, Mathieu

    2010-07-01

    We propose an original hybrid modeling process of urban scenes that represents 3-D models as a combination of mesh-based surfaces and geometric 3-D-primitives. Meshes describe details such as ornaments and statues, whereas 3-D-primitives code for regular shapes such as walls and columns. Starting from an 3-D-surface obtained by multiview stereo techniques, these primitives are inserted into the surface after being detected. This strategy allows the introduction of semantic knowledge, the simplification of the modeling, and even correction of errors generated by the acquisition process. We design a hierarchical approach exploring different scales of an observed scene. Each level consists first in segmenting the surface using a multilabel energy model optimized by -expansion and then in fitting 3-D-primitives such as planes, cylinders or tori on the obtained partition where relevant. Experiments on real meshes, depth maps and synthetic surfaces show good potential for the proposed approach.

  7. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL)

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Objective Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human–machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. Methods In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. Results We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Conclusions Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human–machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility. PMID:24201028

  8. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  9. Preservation--Everybody's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobernd, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation…

  10. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  11. Hypersensitivity to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to cosmetics, topical medicaments, consumer goods, foods, and industrial products to protect them against microbial spoilage and to protect the consumer against infection. The ideal preservative, both effective and devoid of irritant or sensitizing potential, is still to be discovered. The present paper reviews the most important classes of preservatives, namely parabens, formaldehyde-releasers, and isothiazolinones. The author also discusses newer agents such as Euxyl K 400 and isopropynyl butylcarbamate. Each preservative is described in terms of chemical and physical characteristics, antimicrobial efficacy, exposure, cutaneous adverse reactions, patch testing concentrations, patterns of cross-reactions, and reported rates of sensitization. The history of preservatives goes back to the 1930s, and ironically, the parabens, which the industry has sought to replace with "safer" alternatives, are still the most frequently used biocides in cosmetics and appear to be far less sensitizing than most of the newer agents.

  12. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  13. Implementing an acceptance and commitment therapy group protocol with veterans using VA's stepped care model of pain management.

    PubMed

    Cosio, David; Schafer, Tracy

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous findings; further demonstrating the effectiveness of an ACT outpatient, group-based treatment for Veterans who suffer from mixed idiopathic, chronic, non-cancer pain. This course of treatment utilized the VA's Stepped Care Model of Pain Management as a framework. A sample of 50 Veterans who participated in an ACT for chronic pain group intervention was evaluated after completing a pain health education program at a Midwestern VA Medical Center between February 16, 2010 and November 9, 2010. All participants completed a standard set of pre- and post-intervention measures. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of the manualized intervention on Veterans' scores. The current study found a significant difference in measures of pain interference, illness-focused coping, and global distress upon completion of the intervention. Findings suggest that ACT is an effective treatment for Veterans with chronic pain as a secondary consultative service.

  14. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT): the foundation of the therapeutic model and an overview of its contribution to the treatment of patients with chronic physical diseases.

    PubMed

    Prevedini, Anna Bianca; Presti, Giovambattista; Rabitti, Elisa; Miselli, Giovanni; Moderato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, treatment of chronic illnesses, such as stroke, cancer, chronic heart and respiratory diseases, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and so forth, account for the largest part of expenses in western countries national health systems. Moreover, these diseases are by far the leading causes of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Any treatment aimed at targeting them might engage an individual for a large portion of his/her life so that personal and environmental factors can play a crucial role in modulating the person's quality of life and functioning, on top of any medical cure. Anxiety, depression, and distress for examples are not rare in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, Cognitive and Behavior Therapy research has largely contributed in the last decades in identifying and programming interventions on such aspects as real and perceived social and family support, coping abilities, locus of control, self-efficacy that might help patients living with their chronic disease. More recently, third generation Cognitive-Behavior-Therapies, such as Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) and Acceptance, and Commitment Therapy (ACT) focused their attention and research efforts on developing intervention models targeting the needs of patients with a chronic disease. This paper has three aims. First is to briefly introduce ACT epistemological (Functional Contextualism) and theoretical (Relational Frame Theory) foundations as a stand point for understanding the peculiarity of ACT as a modern form of Clinical Behavior Analysis. The second aim is to introduce ACT clinical model and its six core processes (acceptance, defusion, present moment, self as a context, values and committed action) as both accountable, in their continuum, for psychological flexibility and inflexibility. Third, to present a brief overview of studies and outcomes of ACT intervention protocols and

  16. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  17. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  18. Analysis Preservation in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Kyle; Heinrich, Lukas; Jones, Roger; South, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Long before data taking, ATLAS established a policy that all analyses need to be preserved. In the initial data-taking period, this has been achieved by various tools and techniques. ATLAS is now reviewing the analysis preservation with the aim of bringing coherence and robustness to the process and with a clearer view of the level of reproducibility that is reasonably achievable. The secondary aim is to reduce the load on the analysts. Once complete, this will serve for our internal preservation needs but also provide a basis for any subsequent sharing of analysis results with external parties.

  19. High-resolution Near-surface Permafrost Modeling for the 21st Century, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost within most part of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is discontinuous and warm i.e. within a few degrees of thawing. It is the physical foundation on which the ecosystems in the park rest. Thawing of permafrost alters this foundation, and can alter ecosystems and landscapes. Nonetheless, the data on permafrost condition and extent within WRST is limited. The current and future permafrost distribution and thickness of active layer can be modeled, given sufficient data about ground properties, vegetation, topography, and climate. We used GIPL 1.0 (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska) model; and downscaled climate forcing from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCM) that work best for Alaska and high-resolution soil landscape and ecotype maps from National Park Service (NPS) as model inputs to develop high-resolution permafrost maps for the recent past (2001-10) and the future decades (2050s and 2090s). The soil landscape and ecotype maps were derived from Landsat TM scenes (Jorgenson et al. 2008). The modeling effort resulted in recent and future permafrost maps of WRST at a spatial resolution of 28.5 m, the best resolution permafrost maps available for any part of Alaska. The model mapped 80% of WRST as underlain by near-surface permafrost during the decade of 2001-10 (Fig. 1) and predicted 50% decrease in the near-surface permafrost extent by 2050s owing to a 2 °C increase in the mean decadal air temperature and slightly higher precipitation. According to the 5 GCM projections, the decadal air temperature will increase by another 2 °C between 2050s and 2090s which will likely cause further increase in the ground temperature and decrease in the permafrost extent. The model predicts a meager 15% of WRST would still remain underlain by near-surface permafrost toward the end of the 21st century. Comparison of the modeled permafrost distribution with in situ observation of permafrost presence/absence at 430 sites

  20. Mechanism of entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.

    2010-05-15

    We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

  1. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  2. The Volume Regulation Graph versus the Ejection Fraction as Metrics of Left Ventricular Performance in Heart Failure with and without a Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Mathematical Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Faes, Theo JC; Kerkhof, Peter LM

    2015-01-01

    In left ventricular heart failure, often a distinction is made between patients with a reduced and a preserved ejection fraction (EF). As EF is a composite metric of both the end-diastolic volume (EDV) and the end-systolic ventricular volume (ESV), the lucidity of the EF is sometimes questioned. As an alternative, the ESV–EDV graph is advocated. This study identifies the dependence of the EF and the EDV–ESV graph on the major determinants of ventricular performance. Numerical simulations were made using a model of the systemic circulation, consisting of an atrium–ventricle valves combination; a simple constant pressure as venous filling system; and a three-element Windkessel extended with a venous system. ESV–EDV graphs and EFs were calculated using this model while varying one by one the filling pressure, diastolic and systolic ventricular elastances, and diastolic pressure in the aorta. In conclusion, the ESV–EDV graph separates between diastolic and systolic dysfunction while the EF encompasses these two pathologies. Therefore, the ESV–EDV graph can provide an advantage over EF in heart failure studies. PMID:26052232

  3. Advances in lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  4. A coupled model between mechanical deformation and chemical diffusion: An explanation for the preservation of chemical zonation in plagioclase at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xin; Vrijmoed, Johannes; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie

    2016-04-01

    Compositional zoning in metamorphic minerals have been generally recognized as an important geological feature to decipher the metamorphic history of rocks. The observed chemical zoning of, e.g. garnet, is commonly interpreted as disequilibrium between the fractionated inner core and the surrounding matrix. However, chemically zoned minerals were also observed in high grade rocks (T>800 degree C) where the duration of metamorphic processes was independently dated to take several Ma. This implies that temperature may not be the only factor that controls diffusion timescales, and grain scale pressure variation was proposed to be a complementary factor that may significantly contribute to the formation and preservation of chemical zoning in high temperature metamorphic minerals [Tajcmanová 2013, 2015]. Here, a coupled model is developed to simulate viscous deformation and chemical diffusion. The numerical approach considers the conservation of mass, momentum, and a constitutive relation developed from equilibrium thermodynamics. A compressible viscoelastic rheology is applied, which associates the volumetric change triggered by deformation and diffusion to a change of pressure. The numerical model is applied to the chemically zoned plagioclase rim described by [Tajcmanová 2014]. The diffusion process operating during the plagioclase rim formation can lead to a development of a pressure gradient. Such a pressure gradient, if maintained during ongoing viscous relaxation, can lead to the preservation of the observed chemical zonation in minerals. An important dimensionless number, the Deborah number, is defined as the ratio between the Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation time and the characteristic diffusion time. It characterizes the relative influence between the maintenance of grain scale pressure variation and chemical diffusion. Two extreme regimes are shown: the mechanically-controlled regime (high Deborah number) and diffusion-controlled regime (low Deborah number

  5. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  6. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398].

  7. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  8. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  9. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  10. A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives (SHEDS-Wood...

  11. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is related to both reduced contractile function and incomplete relaxation: an electromechanically detailed biophysical modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for about 50% of heart failure cases. It has features of incomplete relaxation and increased stiffness of the left ventricle. Studies from clinical electrophysiology and animal experiments have found that HFpEF is associated with impaired calcium homeostasis, ion channel remodeling and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, it is still unclear how the abnormal calcium homeostasis, ion channel and structural remodeling affect the electro-mechanical dynamics of the ventricles. In this study we have developed multiscale models of the human left ventricle from single cells to the 3D organ, which take into consideration HFpEF-induced changes in calcium handling, ion channel remodeling and concentric LVH. Our simulation results suggest that at the cellular level, HFpEF reduces the systolic calcium level resulting in a reduced systolic contractile force, but elevates the diastolic calcium level resulting in an abnormal residual diastolic force. In our simulations, these abnormal electro-mechanical features of the ventricular cells became more pronounced with the increase of the heart rate. However, at the 3D organ level, the ejection fraction of the left ventricle was maintained due to the concentric LVH. The simulation results of this study mirror clinically observed features of HFpEF and provide new insights toward the understanding of the cellular bases of impaired cardiac electromechanical functions in heart failure. PMID:25852567

  12. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  13. Intracerebroventricular gene therapy that delays neurological disease progression is associated with selective preservation of retinal ganglion cells in a canine model of CLN2 disease.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Rebecca E H; Jensen, Cheryl A; Pearce, Jacqueline W; Gillespie, Lauren E; Bristow, Daniel E; Katz, Martin L

    2016-05-01

    CLN2 disease is one of a group of lysosomal storage disorders called the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs). The disease results from mutations in the TPP1 gene that cause an insufficiency or complete lack of the soluble lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). TPP1 is involved in lysosomal protein degradation, and lack of this enzyme results in the accumulation of protein-rich autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies in numerous cell types including neurons throughout the central nervous system and the retina. CLN2 disease is characterized primarily by progressive loss of neurological functions and vision as well as generalized neurodegeneration and retinal degeneration. In children the progressive loss of neurological functions typically results in death by the early teenage years. A Dachshund model of CLN2 disease with a null mutation in TPP1 closely recapitulates the human disorder with a progression from disease onset at approximately 4 months of age to end-stage at 10-11 months. Delivery of functional TPP1 to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), either by periodic infusion of the recombinant protein or by a single administration of a TPP1 gene therapy vector to the CSF, significantly delays the onset and progression of neurological signs and prolongs life span but does not prevent the loss of vision or modest retinal degeneration that occurs by 11 months of age. In this study we found that in dogs that received the CSF gene therapy treatment, the degeneration of the retina and loss of retinal function continued to progress during the prolonged life spans of the treated dogs. Eventually the normal cell layers of the retina almost completely disappeared. An exception was the ganglion cell layer. In affected dogs that received TPP1 gene therapy to the CSF and survived an average of 80 weeks, ganglion cell axons were present in numbers comparable to those of normal Dachshunds of similar age. The selective preservation of the retinal ganglion cells suggests

  14. Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Methods Relating to the Preservation of Urban Coastal Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, B. R.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Government Accountability Office’s report, Climate Change Adaption, examines federal, state, local, and international mitigation actions for climate change and sea-level rise. The report specifically addresses the dearth of Site-Specific Information relating to the effects of climate change on a localized scale and the challenges this poses for the development of adaption strategies. We are developing a model that will begin to regionalize climate change projections for the purpose of projecting the effects of climate change on coastal cultural heritage. As global sea level increases, so too will the number of historically significant landscapes that are threatened due to sea-level rise. Because of this, historical preservationists will require a greater availability of pertinent information in order to contend with the threats posed by climate change and rising sea levels. These threats will have a far greater impact on Low Elevation Coastal Zones (LECZ) areas. The US ranks third for land mass classified as LECZ and has an estimated population of 22 million people living within these regions. Many of these areas have had high population densities due to the concentration of marine fishery resources, ease of transportation, and agricultural associations with river deltas. These areas have acted as catalysts for the evolution of various societies and cultures, and contain a concentrated stratification of cultural heritage deposits. The development of models for the assessment of spatial/temporal impacts of climate change on coastal cultural heritage will play a significant role in defining long-term preservation needs on a regional scale. We are coordinating ground water seepage models, tidal estuary models, and the regionalized Global Climate Models with localized geophysical assessments and GIS data sets. Through the digitization and rectification of various contemporary and historical maps we have developed a GIS data set that reflects the evolution of the

  15. A survey of university students' perceptions of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Chipps, Jennifer; Kerr, Jane; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona

    2015-02-01

    Learning management systems have been widely advocated for the support of distance learning. In low-resource settings, the uptake of these systems by students has been mixed. This study aimed to identify, through the use of the Technology Acceptance Model, the individual, organizational, and technological factors that could be influencing the use of learning management systems. A simple quantitative descriptive survey was conducted of nursing and health science students at a university in South Africa as part of their first exposure to a learning management system. A total of 274 respondents (56.7%) completed the survey questionnaire, made up of 213 nursing respondents (87.7%) and 61 health sciences respondents (25%). Overall, the respondents found the learning management system easy to use and useful for learning. There were significant differences between the two groups of respondents, with the respondents from health sciences being both younger and more computer literate. The nursing respondents, who received more support and orientations, reported finding the learning management system more useful. Recommendations are made for training and support to ensure uptake.

  16. A mouse model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction due to chronic infusion of a low subpressor dose of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jessica A.; Mauro, Adolfo Gabriele; Carbone, Salvatore; Marchetti, Carlo; Gill, Rabia; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Valle Raleigh, Juan; Salloum, Fadi N.; Van Tassell, Benjamin W.; Abbate, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome of HF symptoms associated with impaired diastolic function. Although it represents ∼50% of patients with HF, the mechanisms of disease are poorly understood, and therapies are generally ineffective in reducing HF progression. Animal models of HFpEF not due to pressure or volume overload are lacking, therefore limiting in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapies. We hypothesize that a continuous infusion of low-dose angiotensin II (ATII) is sufficient to induce left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF, without increasing blood pressure or inducing LV hypertrophy or dilatation. Osmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in 8-wk-old male mice assigned to the ATII (0.2 mg·kg−1·day−1) or volume-matched vehicle (N = 8/group) for 4 wk. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures through a tail-cuff transducer, LV dimensions and ejection fraction through echocardiography, and LV relaxation through pulsed-wave Doppler and LV catheterization. Myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were measured. ATII infusion had no effects on systemic arterial blood pressure. ATII induced significant impairment in LV diastolic function, as measured by an increase (worsening) in LV isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, isovolumetric relaxation time constant, and LV end-diastolic pressure without altering LV dimensions, mass, or ejection fraction. Chronic infusion of low-dose ATII recapitulates the HFpEF phenotype in the mouse, without increasing systemic arterial blood pressure. This mouse model may provide insight into the mechanisms of HFpEF. PMID:26188021

  17. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  18. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  19. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated.

  20. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated. PMID:26613910

  1. [Morphological alterations induced by preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Huber-van der Velden, K K; Thieme, H; Eichhorn, M

    2012-11-01

    A large number of experimental and clinical investigations carried out recently have confirmed that the chronic application of eye drops induces significant cytological and histological impairment in ocular tissues. It is also generally accepted that preservatives are the components responsible for the observed changes. The most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which has a relatively high toxicity. Possible consequences of preservatives on the eye are chronic inflammation and subsequent fibrosis of the subconjunctiva and cell loss and structural changes in the conjunctival epithelium as well as in the epithelial and endothelial layers of the cornea. Frequently, dry eye symptoms occur or deteriorate during therapy. During the last few years new preservatives have been developed which seem to have fewer side effects; however, relatively little data are available with regard to these new substances. To minimize impairments of the eye, preservative-free formulations should be considered for therapy.

  2. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  3. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  4. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  5. Electronic Technologies and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Donald J.

    Digital imaging technology, which is used to take a computer picture of documents at the page level, has significant potential as a tool for preserving deteriorating library materials. Multiple reproductions can be made without loss of quality; the end product is compact; reproductions can be made in paper, microfilm, or CD-ROM; and access over…

  6. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  7. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  8. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  9. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  10. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    SciTech Connect

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-07-01

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin reduces tau pathology and preserves neuroplastic gene expression in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Counts, Scott E; Perez, Sylvia E; He, Bin; Mufson, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent negative results of the Gammaglobulin Alzheimer's Partnership (GAP) trial, the good tolerability to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and its potential benefit for patient subpopulations have highlighted the importance of understanding IVIG's mechanism of action. IVIG contains antibodies to amyloid suggesting an amyloid clearance mechanism. However, the suboptimal results of the amyloid immunotherapy trials suggest an additional mechanism. Therefore, we tested whether IVIG alters the expression of tau neurofibrillary tangle (NFT)-like deposits within hippocampal CA1 neurons of the 3xTg mouse model of AD. Three-month-old mice were treated intravenously with IVIG (10%, 400 mg/kg) or placebo (10% BSA/saline) every two weeks for either three or six months. At sacrifice, plasma was isolated for gene expression profiling and brains were processed for immunohistochemistry using the AT-180 antibody, which recognizes hyperphosphorylated tau in NFTs. Stereologic analysis of CA1 neurons following three months of treatment revealed no difference in AT-180+ neuron number but a significant 15-20% decrease in AT-180 intraneuronal optical density with IVIG compared to placebo. By contrast, the number of AT-180+ CA1 neurons was reduced by 25-30% following six months of IVIG treatment compared to placebo. Expression profiling studies showed that IVIG treatment resulted in a significant 40-50% increase in plasma levels of genes regulating neuronal cytoskeletal plasticity function and calcium-mediated signaling compared to placebo. Moreover, several transcripts encoding protein phosphatase subunits were 40-50% higher in IVIG-treated mice. Hence, IVIG reduces hippocampal NFT pathology in the 3xTg mouse through a mechanism that may involve preservation of neuronal plasticity and tau phosphorylation homeostasis. PMID:25156574

  12. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    PubMed

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer. PMID:26877198

  13. The ASSERT Virtual Machine Kernel: Support for Preservation of Temporal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, J.; de la Puente, J. A.; Pulido, J. A.; Urueña

    2008-08-01

    A new approach to building embedded real-time software has been developed in the ASSERT project. One of its key elements is the concept of a virtual machine preserving the non-functional properties of the system, and especially real-time properties, all the way down from high- level design models down to executable code. The paper describes one instance of the virtual machine concept that provides support for the preservation of temporal properties both at the source code level —by accept- ing only "legal" entities, i.e. software components with statically analysable real-tim behaviour— and at run-time —by monitoring the temporal behaviour of the system. The virtual machine has been validated on several pilot projects carried out by aerospace companies in the framework of the ASSERT project.

  14. 32 CFR 148.1 - Intergency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the... AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on... security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  15. 32 CFR 148.1 - Interagency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on... security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  16. 32 CFR 148.1 - Interagency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on... security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  17. 32 CFR 148.1 - Interagency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NATIONAL POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RECIPROCITY OF FACILITIES National Policy on... security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  18. 32 CFR 148.1 - Intergency reciprocal acceptance .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reciprocal acceptance of security policies and procedures for approving, accrediting, and maintaining the secure posture of shared facilities will reduce aggregate costs, promote interoperability of agency security systems, preserve vitality of the U.S. industrial base, and advance national security objectives....

  19. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  20. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  1. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  2. Best Interests and Family Preservation in America. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuerman, John R.

    There has been widespread acceptance of the principles of family preservation as congruent with the best interests of children in situations of abuse and neglect. This paper discusses the "best interest" ideas articulated by Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud, and Albert Solnit in the books "Before the Best Interests of the Child" and "Beyond the Best…

  3. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  4. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  5. Technology Acceptance in an Academic Context: Faculty Acceptance of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Shanan G.; Harris, Michael L.; Colaric, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors surveyed faculty from a college of business and a college of education regarding their attitudes toward online education. Results of the survey were examined to determine the degree to which the technology acceptance model was able to adequately explain faculty acceptance of online education. Results indicate that perceived usefulness…

  6. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  7. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  8. Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.

  9. Development of a model describing the inhibitory effect of selected preservatives on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a meat model system.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of seven independent factors consisting of sodium nitrite, pH, sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium lactate syrup, calcium propionate and a blend of nisin and hop alpha acids on the growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in ham as a model of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. A central composite consisted of seven factors mentioned above was designed and the response surface methodology was applied for creating a mathematic model to predict the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat products. Six parameters showed a significant (P ≤ 0.1) influence on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes. Only the blend of nisin and hop alpha acids did not show any significant effect (P > 0.1) in the concentrations used in this study. Increasing concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite, sodium acetate, potassium lactate and calcium propionate in meat reduced bacterial growth rate while increasing pH in meat increased the growth rate of L. monocytogenes. The current mathematical equation will be an important tool in order to reduce the required number of challenge studies performed in order to ensure a safe food product.

  10. Development of a model describing the inhibitory effect of selected preservatives on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a meat model system.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of seven independent factors consisting of sodium nitrite, pH, sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium lactate syrup, calcium propionate and a blend of nisin and hop alpha acids on the growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in ham as a model of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. A central composite consisted of seven factors mentioned above was designed and the response surface methodology was applied for creating a mathematic model to predict the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in RTE meat products. Six parameters showed a significant (P ≤ 0.1) influence on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes. Only the blend of nisin and hop alpha acids did not show any significant effect (P > 0.1) in the concentrations used in this study. Increasing concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite, sodium acetate, potassium lactate and calcium propionate in meat reduced bacterial growth rate while increasing pH in meat increased the growth rate of L. monocytogenes. The current mathematical equation will be an important tool in order to reduce the required number of challenge studies performed in order to ensure a safe food product. PMID:26678138

  11. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  12. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  13. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  14. Preservation Strategies for Electronic Records: Where We Are Now--Obliquity and Squint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele V.; Sanett, Shelby

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an international survey of the activities of 13 institutions and projects that employ or are exploring strategies to preserve authentic electronic records. Topics include preservation techniques; selection for preservation; staffing configurations; cost modeling; access to preserved records; and policymaking. Appendices include…

  15. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  16. Oversize Color Images Project, 1994-1995. A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Janet

    This report provides results of the first phase of a project to identify acceptable preservation and digital access techniques for dealing with oversize, color images associated with text. The goal of Phase I was to provide a preservation-quality photographic archival copy, a digital version for online access, and paper printouts. Five maps from…

  17. The stratified microbial community at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico: a possible model for prephanerozoic laminated microbial communities preserved in cherts.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J F; Margulis, L

    1984-01-01

    The microbial mat community of the evaporite flat at North Pond, Laguna Figueroa (Baja California, Mexico) was actively involved in the production of laminated sediments prior to 1978. Heavy rains in 1979 and 1980 flooded the mat with 1 and 3 meters of meteoric water respectively. The flooding deposited up to 10 cm of silicoclastic sediment over the Microcoleus-dominated mat and resulted in the cessation of laminated sediment deposition. In 1982, the surface had been recolonized by species of cyanobacteria (Spirulina, Oscillatoria) and purple photosynthetic bacteria (Chromatium, Thiocapsa). The silicoclastic sediments and residual evaporites, which overlaid the laminated sediment, had been reworked into an anaerobic, sulfide-rich mud and contained well preserved sheaths of filamentous and coccoid bacteria. The Swaziland Sequence in the Barberton mountain land (which includes the Onverwacht and Fig Tree Group as well as the Swartkoppie zone between them) contains laminated sediments and carbon-rich chert. Structurally preserved microfossils have been found in the smooth black chert but not in the laminae. We concur with others who suggested that the laminated sediments from the Swaziland Sequence were deposited by an active stratified microbial community. However, we propose that these organisms which were preserved were originally buried in the associated sulfide-rich muds and were subsequently silicified. PMID:11536585

  18. The stratified microbial community at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico: a possible model for prephanerozoic laminated microbial communities preserved in cherts.

    PubMed

    Stolz, J F; Margulis, L

    1984-01-01

    The microbial mat community of the evaporite flat at North Pond, Laguna Figueroa (Baja California, Mexico) was actively involved in the production of laminated sediments prior to 1978. Heavy rains in 1979 and 1980 flooded the mat with 1 and 3 meters of meteoric water respectively. The flooding deposited up to 10 cm of silicoclastic sediment over the Microcoleus-dominated mat and resulted in the cessation of laminated sediment deposition. In 1982, the surface had been recolonized by species of cyanobacteria (Spirulina, Oscillatoria) and purple photosynthetic bacteria (Chromatium, Thiocapsa). The silicoclastic sediments and residual evaporites, which overlaid the laminated sediment, had been reworked into an anaerobic, sulfide-rich mud and contained well preserved sheaths of filamentous and coccoid bacteria. The Swaziland Sequence in the Barberton mountain land (which includes the Onverwacht and Fig Tree Group as well as the Swartkoppie zone between them) contains laminated sediments and carbon-rich chert. Structurally preserved microfossils have been found in the smooth black chert but not in the laminae. We concur with others who suggested that the laminated sediments from the Swaziland Sequence were deposited by an active stratified microbial community. However, we propose that these organisms which were preserved were originally buried in the associated sulfide-rich muds and were subsequently silicified.

  19. [New strategies for fertility preservation in young women with cancer].

    PubMed

    Moffat, Rebecca; De Geyter, Christian; von Wolff, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Especially young women with cancer face rising survival rates due to remarkable progress in oncologic therapies. Preserving fertility is a major concern for both patients and their next of kin. Well established reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of fertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization already make fertility preservation possible for some patients. This review is dedicated to the emerging techniques that are becoming widely accepted for fertility preservation in young women and girls with cancer, such as auto transplantation of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation (IVM) of either oocytes or follicles. First results are encouraging. But some challenges still have to be tackled in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

  20. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  1. The Acceptance and Use of Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2011-01-01

    The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…

  2. Clinical guide to fertility preservation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S; Savani, BN; Chow, EJ; Gilleece, MH; Halter, J; Jacobsohn, DA; Pidala, J; Quinn, GP; Cahn, J-Y; Jakubowski, AA; Kamani, NR; Lazarus, HM; Rizzo, JD; Schouten, HC; Socie, G; Stratton, P; Sorror, ML; Warwick, AB; Wingard, JR; Loren, AW; Majhail, NS

    2014-01-01

    With broadening indications, more options for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and improvement in survival, the number of long-term HCT survivors is expected to increase steadily. Infertility is a frequent problem that long-term HCT survivors and their partners face and it can negatively impact on the quality of life. The most optimal time to address fertility issues is before the onset of therapy for the underlying disease; however, fertility preservation should also be addressed before HCT in all children and patients of reproductive age, with referral to a reproductive specialist for patients interested in fertility preservation. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking are acceptable methods for fertility preservation in adult women/pubertal females. Sperm banking is the preferred method for adult men/pubertal males. Frequent barriers to fertility preservation in HCT recipients may include the perception of lack of time to preserve fertility given an urgency to move ahead with transplant, lack of patient–physician discussion because of several factors (for example, time constraints, lack of knowledge), inadequate access to reproductive specialists, and costs and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation. There is a need to raise awareness in the medical community about fertility preservation in HCT recipients. PMID:24419521

  3. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  4. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  5. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  6. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  7. Moesin functionality in hypothermic liver preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Lindell, Susanne L; Kowalski, Chris; Mangino, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an isolated perfused liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by Western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.

  8. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  9. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  10. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  11. Bandage lenses and the use of topical solutions containing preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lemp, M A

    1978-10-01

    Eight patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca and filamentary keratitis requiring treatment with continuous wear bandage lenses and frequent instillation of artificial tears were studied. The lenses were removed after wear from 3 to 8 weeks and subjected to ultraviolet spectrophotometric evaluation for the presence of the preservative, benzalkonium chloride. No evidence of benzalkonium chloride in the lenses was seen and no clinical evidence of corneal damage was noted. The use of topical medication containing benzalkonium chloride as a preservative in conjunction with hydrophilic lens appears to be clinically acceptable.

  12. Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…

  13. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  14. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic.

  15. Anti-arrhythmic effects of atrial ganglionated plexi stimulation is accompanied by preservation of connexin43 protein in ischemia-reperfusion canine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyun; Li, Hewei; Yu, Lilei; Chen, Mingxian; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Bing; Zhou, Liping; Zhou, Xiaoya; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to provide a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-related arrhythmias by preventing the loss of Connexin43 (Cx43). Our previous studies showed that atrial epicardial ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) might exert a VNS-like effect on ventricular electrophysiology. Objectives: To investigate whether GPS could preserve Cx43 and reduce I/R induced ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Sixteen dogs were randomly divided into GPS group (N = 8, receiving GPS) and Sham group (N = 8, receiving sham GPS). Ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured at baseline and 1 h after GPS. Myocardial I/R was then performed. Ventricular arrhythmia occurred during the first hour after reperfusion was measured and myocardial tissue from the peri-infarct zone was excised for immunohistological analysis. In another 4 dogs (Control group, receiving sham GPS and sham I/R), myocardial tissue from the corresponding area was also excised. Results: Compared with the Sham group, GPS caused a significant increase in ventricular ERP and HRV, and a significant decrease in I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Western blotting revealed a marked reduction in the amount of phosphorylated Cx43 and total Cx43 in the Sham group, whereas no significant change was observed in the GPS group compared with the Control group. Immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the myocardial I/R-induced loss of phosphorylated Cx43 from the intercellular junctions was prevented by GPS. Conclusion: GPS protects against I/R induced ventricular arrhythmias, accompanied by preserving Cx43. PMID:26885184

  16. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  17. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  18. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  19. The Preservation of Digital Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele Valerie; Sanett, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    The authors are conducting a three-part study to evaluate current trends in the preservation of digital content, with an emphasis on electronic records. The study emanated from the authors' work on the Preservation Task Force of the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) project. This article…

  20. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  1. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  2. Preserving Observatory Publications: Microfilming, Scanning...What's Next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Donna J.

    Since 1996, the John G. Wolbach Library & Information Resource Center at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has participated in a preservation project, funded by the U. S. National Endowment for the Humanities and carried out at Harvard University's Weissman Preservation Center, to preserve the history of science. More than 2,000 volumes of Wolbach Library's 3,000 volume collection of historical observatory publications from around the world have already been preserved on microfilm. A follow-up project to convert the collection to digital format was begun in the year 2000. Meanwhile, Harvard University unveiled its Digital Repository Service (DRS) offering state-of-the-art storage and retrieval of digital collections. DRS goes further than our previous projects by offering full-text searching, page turning capability, color plates, strict metadata requirements, persistent links using universal resource names, reformatting as necessary, and perpetual storage. Harvard also offers the service and guidance of preservation experts from its state-of-the-art Imaging Service and Preservation Department. In anticipation of the LISA IV meeting in Prague, Wolbach Library issued a challenge to Harvard, ``Show us what you can do with a brittle volume from the Observatory Publication collection.'' Harvard accepted. The result is included in this paper and links are provided to allow the reader closer scrutiny of the final product.

  3. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  4. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  5. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  6. Resveratrol nanosuspensions: interaction of preservatives with nanocrystal production.

    PubMed

    Kobierski, S; Ofori-Kwakye, K; Müller, R H; Keck, C M

    2011-12-01

    The effect of six different preservatives on the production process and stability of resveratrol nanosuspensions was investigated. Nanosuspensions of the anti-oxidant resveratrol were prepared by high pressure homogenization (1,500 bar, 20 homogenization cycles). The preservatives used were: caprylyl glycol (0.75%), Euxyl PE 9010 (1.0%), Hydrolite-5 (2.0), Phenonip (0.75%), Rokonsal PB-5 (0.5%) and MultiEx Naturotics (2.0%). Preservation is essential for oral and dermal nanosuspensions, but can impair the stability. The effect of the preservatives on stability as a function of cycle numbers was determined by size measurements (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD) and light microscopy). Zeta potential measurements were performed for determination of the Stern potential (measurements in water) and as stability criterion (measurements in original dispersion medium), to elucidate the mechanism of destabilization. The preservatives could be placed into three groups. Hydrolite-5 did not affect the production process and the short term stability, sizes were practically identical to the preservative-free nanosuspension (e.g. PCS diameters 196 nm and 184 nm, respectively). All other preservatives impaired the stability medium to pronounced, being most pronounced for MultiEx Naturotics. Hydrolite-5 is recommended as preservative of choice. A mechanistic model was developed to explain the absence and the different degrees of destabilization. In general, when screening for suitable preservatives, suspensions are produced, different preservatives added and the size changes are monitored over long-term. The destabilizing effect of the preservatives on nanosuspensions became evident when added in the production process immediately, thus this can be used as a screening tool for optimal, non-destabilizing preservatives, replacing or minimizing time-consuming long-term stability studies.

  7. Public acceptance of wildlife trapping in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manfredo, M.J.; Pierce, C.L.; Fulton, D.; Pate, J.; Gill, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    In November 1994, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW) initiated a stakeholder process to develop trapping regulations that would seek to achieve compromise among divergent interests. A telephone survey was conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the Colorado public's acceptance of trapping. A random sample of 900 residents, stratified by geographic region, indicated that the public would vote to ban trapping and that they believed the ban would eliminate a cruel activity and help to preserve endangered wildlife. Most, however, agreed that trapping was acceptable to prevent spread of disease and to protect livestock, but unacceptable on the basis of providing recreation or making money. Beliefs about trapping were found to be rooted in a protection versus use value orientation about wildlife. The regulations subsequently adopted by the CDOW were consistent with survey findings; however, the regulatory process was bypassed by legislative action, giving trapping authority to the Colorado Department of Agriculture. In response, citizen activists succeeded in placing a ballot initiative before voters. In 1996, the ballot initiative passed, banning trapping in Colorado.

  8. Gland-preserving surgery can effectively preserve gland function without increased recurrence in treatment of benign submandibular gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Min, Ruan; Zun, Zhang; Siyi, Li; Wenjun, Yang; Jian, Sun; Chenping, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    The most widely accepted treatment for neoplasms of the submandibular gland usually involves excision of the entire gland. Our aim was to establish a gland-preserving operation for benign tumours of the submandibular gland and evaluate its efficacy. We treated 40 patients from January 2007 to December 2008 with benign submandibular gland tumours who were listed to have an operation that either preserved the gland or sacrificed it. Duration of operation, extent of injury to the nerve, postoperative function of the gland, aesthetic appearance, and recurrence were assessed. We found no significant difference in baseline characteristics among the 20 patients in each group (19 men; 21 women, mean (SD) age of 34 (33.8 ± 5.72) years. The extent of injury to the lingual nerve and submandibular branch, together with deformities of the facial contour, were significantly less in the group in which the gland was preserved. Postoperative salivary production and overall patients' satisfaction were also better in that group. There was no recurrence in either group during the follow up period of 38 months-5 years. The gland-preserving procedure has advantages over the typical approach in which the gland is sacrificed. There is less risk of injury to the nerve, less deformity of the facial contour, better preservation of function, and patients are more satisfied. The gland-preserving technique should therefore be the first choice for management of benign submandibular tumours.

  9. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  10. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  11. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  12. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  13. Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care.

  14. Preservation of bacteria in natural polymers.

    PubMed

    Krumnow, April A; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Olsen, Eric; Globa, Ludmila; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2009-08-01

    A new inexpensive and simple method for preserving microorganisms has been developed. Natural polymers of acacia gum and pullulan were used to preserve model bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis via immobilization and storage under various conditions. Formulation of E. coli and B. subtilis in acacia gum significantly increased the viability of both cultures during desiccation at 40 degrees C as well as during the storage at various temperatures and relative humidity. In the ranges of temperatures and humidity used in experiments, the high humidity affected the viability of E. coli more than high temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for E. coli thermal degradation were used for quantification of results and characterization of the preservation process. Viability of B. subtilis in acacia gum polymer was not significantly changed during the storage in the temperature and humidity experiments. The number of viable B. subtilis recovered after storage in pullulan, and in PBS under various humidity conditions was 1-2 logs less in comparison with the number of cells before storage. It was found that acacia gum provides better protection than pullulan for both bacteria during the preservation process.

  15. Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells preserve kidney function and extend lifespan in NZB/W F1 mouse model of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Austin; Yavanian, Gregory; Nastke, Maria-Dorothea; Morales, Peter; Kouris, Nicholas A; Kimbrel, Erin A; Lanza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are showing promise in clinical trials for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the inability to manufacture large quantities of functional cells from a single donor as well as donor-dependent variability in quality limits their clinical utility. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived MSCs are an alternative to adult MSCs that can circumvent issues regarding scalability and consistent quality due to their derivation from a renewable starting material. Here, we show that hESC-MSCs prevent the progression of fatal lupus nephritis (LN) in NZB/W F1 (BWF1) mice. Treatment led to statistically significant reductions in proteinuria and serum creatinine and preserved renal architecture. Specifically, hESC-MSC treatment prevented disease-associated interstitial inflammation, protein cast deposition, and infiltration of CD3(+) lymphocytes in the kidneys. This therapy also led to significant reductions in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two inflammatory cytokines associated with SLE. Mechanistically, in vitro data support these findings, as co-culture of hESC-MSCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BWF1 lymphocytes decreased lymphocyte secretion of TNFα and IL-6, and enhanced the percentage of putative regulatory T cells. This study represents an important step in the development of a commercially scalable and efficacious cell therapy for SLE/LN. PMID:26628350

  16. Isolation of Pancreatic Cancer Cells from a Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Allows for Practical Expansion and Preserved Heterogeneity in Culture.

    PubMed

    Pham, Kien; Delitto, Daniel; Knowlton, Andrea E; Hartlage, Emily R; Madhavan, Ricky; Gonzalo, David H; Thomas, Ryan M; Behrns, Kevin E; George, Thomas J; Hughes, Steven J; Wallet, Shannon M; Liu, Chen; Trevino, Jose G

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available, highly passaged pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines are of limited translational value. Attempts to overcome this limitation have primarily consisted of cancer cell isolation and culture directly from human PC specimens. However, these techniques are associated with exceedingly low success rates. Here, we demonstrate a highly reproducible culture of primary PC cell lines (PPCLs) from patient-derived xenografts, which preserve, in part, the intratumoral heterogeneity known to exist in PC. PPCL expansion from patient-derived xenografts was successful in 100% of attempts (5 of 5). Phenotypic analysis was evaluated with flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and short tandem repeat profiling. Importantly, tumorigenicity of PPCLs expanded from patient-derived xenografts was assessed by subcutaneous injection into nonobese diabeteic.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice. Morphologically, subcutaneous injection of all PPCLs into mice yielded tumors with similar characteristics to the parent xenograft. PPCLs uniformly expressed class I human leukocyte antigen, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and cytokeratin-19. Heterogeneity within each PPCL persisted in culture for the frequency of cells expressing the cancer stem cell markers CD44, CD133, and c-Met and the immunologic markers human leukocyte antigen class II and programmed death ligand 1. This work therefore presents a reliable method for the rapid expansion of primary human PC cells and, thereby, provides a platform for translational investigation and, importantly, potential personalized therapeutic approaches.

  17. Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells preserve kidney function and extend lifespan in NZB/W F1 mouse model of lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Austin; Yavanian, Gregory; Nastke, Maria-Dorothea; Morales, Peter; Kouris, Nicholas A.; Kimbrel, Erin A.; Lanza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are showing promise in clinical trials for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the inability to manufacture large quantities of functional cells from a single donor as well as donor-dependent variability in quality limits their clinical utility. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived MSCs are an alternative to adult MSCs that can circumvent issues regarding scalability and consistent quality due to their derivation from a renewable starting material. Here, we show that hESC-MSCs prevent the progression of fatal lupus nephritis (LN) in NZB/W F1 (BWF1) mice. Treatment led to statistically significant reductions in proteinuria and serum creatinine and preserved renal architecture. Specifically, hESC-MSC treatment prevented disease-associated interstitial inflammation, protein cast deposition, and infiltration of CD3+ lymphocytes in the kidneys. This therapy also led to significant reductions in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), two inflammatory cytokines associated with SLE. Mechanistically, in vitro data support these findings, as co-culture of hESC-MSCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BWF1 lymphocytes decreased lymphocyte secretion of TNFα and IL-6, and enhanced the percentage of putative regulatory T cells. This study represents an important step in the development of a commercially scalable and efficacious cell therapy for SLE/LN. PMID:26628350

  18. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  19. Privacy preserving RBF kernel support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data. PMID:25013805

  20. Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  1. Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  2. Folliculogenesis Is Not Fully Inhibited during GnRH Analogues Treatment in Mice Challenging Their Efficiency to Preserve the Ovarian Reserve during Chemotherapy in This Model.

    PubMed

    Horicks, Florence; Van Den Steen, Géraldine; Houben, Sarah; Englert, Yvon; Demeestere, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    As many chemotherapy regimens induce follicular depletion, fertility preservation became a major concern in young cancer patients. By maintaining follicles at the resting stage, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) were proposed as an ovarian-protective option during chemotherapy. However, their efficacy and mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. Mice were dosed with cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100-500 mg/kg i.p) to quantify follicular depletion and evaluate apoptosis at different times. We observed a dose-dependent depletion of the follicular reserve within 24 hours after Cy injection with a mean follicular loss of 45% at the dose of 200mg/kg. Apoptosis occurs in the granulosa cells of growing follicles within 12 hours after Cy treatment, while no apoptosis was detected in resting follicles suggesting that chemotherapy acutely affects both resting and growing follicles through different mechanisms. We further tested the ability of both GnRH agonist and antagonist to inhibit oestrus cycles, follicular growth and FSH secretion in mice and to protect ovarian reserve against chemotherapy. Although GnRHa were efficient to disrupt oestrus cycles, they failed to inhibit follicular development, irrespective of the doses and injection sites (sc or im). Around 20% of healthy growing follicles were still observed during GnRHa treatment and serum FSH levels were not reduced either by antagonist or agonist. GnRHa had no effect on Cy-induced follicular damages. Thus, we showed that GnRHa were not as efficient at inhibiting the pituitary-gonadal axis in mice as in human. Furthermore, the acute depletion of primordial follicles observed after chemotherapy does not support the hypothesis that the ovary may be protected by gonadotropin suppression. PMID:26325271

  3. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  4. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  5. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.

    2011-05-01

    We wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A2+A1)(1), may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  6. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  7. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.

  8. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  9. Conceptual and Adoption of Technology Acceptance Model in Digital Information Resources Usage by Undergraduates: Implication to Higher Institutions Education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhiewhu, Lucky Oghenetega; Emojorho, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The article paper was on conceptual and theoretical framework of digital information resources usage by undergraduates: Implication to higher institutions education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria. It revealed the concept of digital information resources [DIRs] and model theory that related to the study. Finding shows that DIRs are use to low extent…

  10. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    PubMed

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  11. A sedimentological model of organic-matter preservation and phosphogenesis in the Miocene Monterey Formation at Haskells Beach, Goleta (central California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, David; de Kaenel, Eric; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2015-08-01

    At Haskells Beach, west of Santa Barbara (CA, U.S.A.), the upper part of the Miocene Monterey Formation is predominantly composed of organic-rich mudstone, which is interstratified with phosphatic laminae and lenses. Minor lithologies consist of dolomite, volcanic ash, porcelanite, chert and condensed phosphate. These sediments date from the end of the Serravallian and almost the entire Tortonian (11.05-7.85 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils and the δ13Corg record, which correlates well with the global record. Sediments have total organic-carbon values between 2.75 and 9.15 wt.% (average value = 6.48 wt.%; n = 61). Rock-Eval analyses show the dominance of type-II kerogen. The sediment accumulation rate varied between 5.9 and 84.7 m/Ma. Correspondingly, organic-carbon accumulation rates range between 0.08 and 1.43 g/cm2/ky (average value = 0.48 g/cm2/ky). Total phosphorus contents in the organic-rich mudstone vary between 0.001 and 3.48 wt.% and Corg/Porg ratios show high values of up to 4727 (average value = 2232), whereas Corg/Ptotal values are low (up to 185; average value = 52). This indicates that early diagenetic organic-matter degradation was a source of phosphate in phosphogenesis. In addition, other sources of phosphate were necessary in order to explain the abundance of phosphate relative to organic matter such as the transfer of dissolved inorganic phosphate into the sediments. Slumps, angular unconformities, erosive surfaces, reworked clasts and nodules, and condensed phosphatic layers suggest that hydrodynamic conditions were important and likely variable, leading to frequent erosion and sediment reworking. Under these circumstances, organic-matter was predominantly delivered during gravity-flow events, which were followed by longer periods of low sediment accumulation and phosphogenesis of the uppermost sediment layer. Associated pore occlusion by phosphate minerals may have considerably enhanced the preservation of organic-matter. During the early

  12. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  13. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  14. Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, D C; Nowak, M A

    1999-10-01

    Gene duplication events produce both perfect and imperfect copies of genes. Perfect copies are said to be functionally redundant when knockout of one gene produces no 'scoreable', phenotypic effects. Preserving identical, duplicate copies of genes is problematic as all copies are prone to accumulate neutral mutations as pseudogenes, or more rarely, evolve into new genes with novel functions. We summarise theoretical treatments for the invasion and subsequent evolutionary modification of functionally redundant genes. We then consider the preservation of functionally identical copies of a gene over evolutionary time. We present several models for conserving redundancy: asymmetric mutation, asymmetric efficacy, pleiotropy, developmental buffering, allelic competition and regulatory asymmetries. In all cases, some form of symmetry breaking is required to maintain functional redundancy indefinitely.

  15. Evaluating innovation. Part 1: The concept of progressive scholarly acceptance.

    PubMed

    Schnurman, Zane; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the relevant medical community accepts new therapies is vital to patients, physicians, and society. Increasingly, focus is placed on how medical innovations are evaluated. But recognizing when a treatment has become accepted practice-essentially, acceptance by the scientific community-remains a challenge and a barrierto investigating treatment development. This report aims to demonstrate the theory, method, and limitations of a model for measuring a new metric that the authors term "progressive scholarly acceptance." A model was developed to identify when the scientific community has accepted an innovation, by observing when researchers have moved beyond the initial study of efficacy. This model could enable further investigations into the methods and influences of treatment development.

  16. Technology Acceptance among Pre-Service Teachers: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible gender differences in pre-service teachers' perceived acceptance of technology in their professional work under the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Based on a sample of pre-service teachers, a series of progressively more stringent measurement invariance tests (configural, metric, and scalar…

  17. 40 CFR 600.007-08 - Vehicle acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle acceptability. 600.007-08... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.007-08 Vehicle acceptability. (a)...

  18. Technology Acceptance of Electronic Medical Records by Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Technology Acceptance Model's (TAM) relevance of the intention of nurses to use electronic medical records in acute health care settings. The basic technology acceptance research of Davis (1989) was applied to the specific technology tool of electronic medical records (EMR) in a specific setting…

  19. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate…

  20. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  1. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  2. Honoring Our Hospital's History: A Preservation and Digitization Initiative.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Kerry; Bass, Jordan; Maloney, Toby

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature on hospital archives projects. Hospitals understandably have a strong focus on patient care, but there is still a critical need to keep institutional archives. Among their many uses, institutional archives preserve corporate memory, provide evidence of interactions with community, and assist in contemporary decision making. This column describes a university-hospital partnership to undertake a one-year project to preserve, detail, and digitize ten boxes, or approximately 3.8 meters, of materials dating from 1980 to 2006. This project serves as a model for other hospital or health care facilities wanting to preserve and more actively engage with their archival collections. PMID:27391184

  3. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, digitalpreservation.gov) that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  4. Protective Effect of Antiapoptosis Potency of Prolonged Preservation by Desiccation Using High-Pressure Carbon Monoxide on Isolated Rabbit Hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P Y; Zhang, Z; Guo, Y L; Xiao, Z Z; Zhu, P; Mai, M J; Zheng, S Y

    2015-11-01

    Heart transplantation has been widely accepted as a therapy for end-stage heart failure. Mitigation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting the apoptotic process plays an important role in organ transplantation. Desiccation using high-pressure carbon monoxide (CO) is a new method of preserving donor hearts; however, its mechanism of antiapoptosis remains unclear. This study was intended to elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of preservation by desiccation for 18 hours using high-pressure CO on myocardial apoptosis. Rabbit heterotopic abdominal cardiac transplantation models were established. New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups: naive group (n = 16), HTK group (n = 16), and desiccation using high-pressure CO group (n = 16). The donor hearts of the naive group were transplanted immediately after being extracted. In the HTK group, the donor hearts were extracted and steeped in 4°C HTK cardioplegic solution for 18 hours and then transplanted; in the desiccation using high-pressure CO group, the donor hearts were extracted and exposed to a gas mixture (Po2 = 3200 hPa, Pco = 800 hPa) in the chamber before being preserved in a refrigerator at 4°C for 18 hours and then transplanted. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes were detected using TUNEL technique and histopathology was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3 proteins was detected using the Western blot method. These findings suggest that compared with traditional HTK preservation, preservation by desiccation using high-pressure CO could alleviate rabbits' myocardial histopathology and apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury through adjusting the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression, thus resulting in the reduction of expression of caspase-3.

  5. Preservation of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Despite Short-Term Impairments in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C.; Cooke, Sam F.; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Bliss, Timothy V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a…

  6. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  7. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  8. Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

  9. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  10. Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. ); Mahowald, A.P. )

    1992-12-18

    The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

  11. Context preserving maps of tubular structures.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie

    2011-12-01

    When visualizing tubular 3D structures, external representations are often used for guidance and display, and such views in 2D can often contain occlusions. Virtual dissection methods have been proposed where the entire 3D structure can be mapped to the 2D plane, though these will lose context by straightening curved sections. We present a new method of creating maps of 3D tubular structures that yield a succinct view while preserving the overall geometric structure. Given a dominant view plane for the structure, its curve skeleton is first projected to a 2D skeleton. This 2D skeleton is adjusted to account for distortions in length, modified to remove intersections, and optimized to preserve the shape of the original 3D skeleton. Based on this shaped 2D skeleton, a boundary for the map of the object is obtained based on a slicing path through the structure and the radius around the skeleton. The sliced structure is conformally mapped to a rectangle and then deformed via harmonic mapping to match the boundary placement. This flattened map preserves the general geometric context of a 3D object in a 2D display, and rendering of this flattened map can be accomplished using volumetric ray casting. We have evaluated our method on real datasets of human colon models.

  12. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  13. Preservation of KIT genotype in a novel pair of patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse models of metastatic pediatric CNS germinoma.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Holly; Huang, Yulun; Du, Yuchen; Braun, Frank K; Teo, Wan Yee; Kogiso, Mari; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Huiyuan; Zhao, Sibo; Mao, Hua; Lin, Frank; Baxter, Patricia; Su, Jack M; Terashima, Keita; Perlaky, Laszlo; Chintagumpala, Murali; Adesina, Adekunle; Lau, Ching C; Williams Parsons, D; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Metastatic intracranial germinoma is difficult to treat. Although the proto-oncogene KIT is recognized as one of the most frequent genetic abnormalities in CNS germinoma, the development of new target therapeutic agents for CNS germinoma is hampered by the lack of clinically-relevant animal models that replicate the mutated or over-expressed KIT. CNS germinoma tumor cells from five pediatric patients were directly implanted into the brains of Rag2/severe combined immune deficiency mice. Once established, the xenograft tumors were sub-transplanted in vivo in mouse brains. Characterization of xenograft tumors were performed through histologic and immunohistochemical staining, and KIT mutation analysed with quantitative pyro-sequencing. Expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (CD133, CD15, CD24, CD44, CD49f) was analyzed through flow cytometry. Two patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models (IC-6999GCT and IC-9302GCT) were established from metastatic germinoma and serially sub-transplanted five times in mouse brains. Similar to the original patient tumors, they both exhibited faint expression (+) of PLAP, no expression (-) of β-HCG and strong (+++) expression of KIT. KIT mutation (D816H), however, was only found in IC-9320GCT. This mutation was maintained during the five in vivo tumor passages with an increased mutant allele frequency compared to the patient tumor. Expression of putative cancer stem cell markers CD49f and CD15 was also detected in a small population of tumor cells in both models. This new pair of PDOX models replicated the key biological features of pediatric intracranial germinoma and should facilitate the biological and pre-clinical studies for metastatic intracranial germinomas.

  14. Highly accurate stability-preserving optimization of the Zener viscoelastic model, with application to wave propagation in the presence of strong attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Émilie; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Chaljub, Emmanuel; Lombard, Bruno; Xie, Zhinan

    2016-04-01

    This paper concerns the numerical modelling of time-domain mechanical waves in viscoelastic media based on a generalized Zener model. To do so, classically in the literature relaxation mechanisms are introduced, resulting in a set of the so-called memory variables and thus in large computational arrays that need to be stored. A challenge is thus to accurately mimic a given attenuation law using a minimal set of relaxation mechanisms. For this purpose, we replace the classical linear approach of Emmerich & Korn with a nonlinear optimization approach with constraints of positivity. We show that this technique is more accurate than the linear approach. Moreover, it ensures that physically meaningful relaxation times that always honour the constraint of decay of total energy with time are obtained. As a result, these relaxation times can always be used in a stable way in a modelling algorithm, even in the case of very strong attenuation for which the classical linear approach may provide some negative and thus unusable coefficients.

  15. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  16. The role of spatial information in the preservation of the shrimp nursery function of mangroves: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for the assessment of land use trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Zavalloni, Matteo; Groeneveld, Rolf A; van Zwieten, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    Conversion to aquaculture affects the provision of important ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems, and this effect depends strongly on the location of the conversion. We introduce in a bio-economic mathematical programming model relevant spatial elements that affect the provision of the nursery habitat service of mangroves: (1) direct or indirect connection of mangroves to watercourses; (2) the spatial allocation of aquaculture ponds; and (3) the presence of non-linear relations between mangrove extent and juvenile recruitment to wild shrimp populations. By tracing out the production possibilities frontier of wild and cultivated shrimp, the model assesses the role of spatial information in the trade-off between aquaculture and the nursery habitat function using spatial elements relevant to our model of a mangrove area in Ca Mau Province, Viet Nam. Results show that where mangrove forests have to coexist with shrimp aquaculture ponds, the inclusion of specific spatial information on ecosystem functions in considerations of land allocation can achieve aquaculture benefits while largely preserving the economic benefits generated by the nursery habitat function. However, if spatial criteria are ignored, ill-advised land allocation decisions can easily lead to a collapse of the mangrove's nursery function. PMID:24833524

  17. The role of spatial information in the preservation of the shrimp nursery function of mangroves: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for the assessment of land use trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Zavalloni, Matteo; Groeneveld, Rolf A; van Zwieten, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    Conversion to aquaculture affects the provision of important ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems, and this effect depends strongly on the location of the conversion. We introduce in a bio-economic mathematical programming model relevant spatial elements that affect the provision of the nursery habitat service of mangroves: (1) direct or indirect connection of mangroves to watercourses; (2) the spatial allocation of aquaculture ponds; and (3) the presence of non-linear relations between mangrove extent and juvenile recruitment to wild shrimp populations. By tracing out the production possibilities frontier of wild and cultivated shrimp, the model assesses the role of spatial information in the trade-off between aquaculture and the nursery habitat function using spatial elements relevant to our model of a mangrove area in Ca Mau Province, Viet Nam. Results show that where mangrove forests have to coexist with shrimp aquaculture ponds, the inclusion of specific spatial information on ecosystem functions in considerations of land allocation can achieve aquaculture benefits while largely preserving the economic benefits generated by the nursery habitat function. However, if spatial criteria are ignored, ill-advised land allocation decisions can easily lead to a collapse of the mangrove's nursery function.

  18. Innovations in major system reconfiguration in England: a study of the effectiveness, acceptability and processes of implementation of two models of stroke care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant changes in provision of clinical care within the English National Health Service (NHS) have been discussed in recent years, with proposals to concentrate specialist services in fewer centres. Stroke is a major public health issue, accounting for over 10% of deaths in England and Wales, and much disability among survivors. Variations have been highlighted in stroke care, with many patients not receiving evidence-based care. To address these concerns, stroke services in London and Greater Manchester were reorganised, although different models were implemented. This study will analyse processes involved in making significant changes to stroke care services over a short time period, and the factors influencing these processes. We will examine whether the changes have delivered improvements in quality of care and patient outcomes; and, in light of this, whether the significant extra financial investment represented good value for money. Methods/design This study brings together quantitative data on ‘what works and at what cost?’ with qualitative data on ‘understanding implementation and sustainability’ to understand major system change in two large conurbations in England. Data on processes of care and their outcomes (e.g. morbidity, mortality, and cost) will be analysed to evidence services’ performance before and after reconfiguration. The evaluation draws on theories related to the dissemination and sustainability of innovations and the ‘social matrix’ underlying processes of innovation. We will conduct a series of case studies based on stakeholder interviews and documentary analysis. These will identify drivers for change, how the reconfigurations were governed, developed, and implemented, and how they influenced service quality. Discussion The research faces challenges due to: the different timings of the reconfigurations; the retrospective nature of the evaluation; and the current organisational turbulence in the English NHS

  19. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  20. A systematic review of current and emerging approaches in the field of larynx preservation.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Nerina; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Lefebvre, Jean Louis; Merlano, Marco Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options targeting laryngeal preservation include conservative surgery, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by radiotherapy (RT), and alternating chemo-radiation. The goal of this paper was to perform a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on current and emerging approaches in the field of larynx preservation. The search identified 36 papers of which 27 did not fall within the inclusion criteria (i.e. non-RCTs). IC followed by RT has been shown to allow laryngeal preservation in about two-thirds of pts with locally advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer without compromising survival. IC is regarded as the landmark treatment of non-surgical larynx preservation approaches. Concomitant and alternating chemoradiotherapy treatments are also acceptable in larynx preservation.

  1. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

  2. Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Fibrosis and Preserve Renal Function in a Preclinical Porcine Model of Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Baulier, Edouard; Favreau, Frederic; Le Corf, Amélie; Jayle, Christophe; Schneider, Fabrice; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Feraud, Olivier; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Turhan, Ali G.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that ischemia/reperfusion injuries strongly affect the success of human organ transplantation. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is the main deleterious phenomenon involved. Stem cells are a promising therapeutic tool already validated in various ischemic diseases. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (af-MSCs), a subpopulation of multipotent cells identified in amniotic fluid, are known to secrete growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, these cells are easy to collect, present higher proliferation and self-renewal rates compared with other adult stem cells (ASCs), and are suitable for banking. Consequently, af-MSCs represent a promising source of stem cells for regenerative therapies in humans. To determine the efficiency and the safety of af-MSC infusion in a preclinical porcine model of renal autotransplantation, we injected autologous af-MSCs in the renal artery 6 days after transplantation. The af-MSC injection improved glomerular and tubular functions, leading to full renal function recovery and abrogated fibrosis development at 3 months. The strong proof of concept generated by this translational porcine model is a first step toward evaluation of af-MSC-based therapies in human kidney transplantation. PMID:24797827

  3. 17β-Estradiol eye drops protect the retinal ganglion cell layer and preserve visual function in an in vivo model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatrai, Katalin Prokai; Xin, Hua; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Blazics, Balazs; Prokai, Laszlo; Koulen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotection in glaucoma as a curative strategy complementary to current therapies to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) is highly desirable. This study was designed to investigate neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol (E2) to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a glaucoma model of surgically elevated IOP in rats. We found that daily treatment with E2 containing eye drops resulted in significant E2 concentration in the retina with concomitant profound neuroprotective therapeutic benefits, even in the presence of continually elevated IOP. The number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layer was significantly decreased in the E2-treated group, when compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Deterioration in visual acuity in these animals was also markedly prevented. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, beneficial changes in the expression of several proteins implicated in the maintenance of retinal health were also found in the retina of E2-treated animals. On the other hand, systemic side-effects could not be avoided with the eye drops, as confirmed by the measured high circulating estrogen levels and through the assessment of the uterus representing a typical hormone-sensitive peripheral organ. Collectively, the demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect of topical E2 in the selected animal model of glaucoma provides a clear rationale for further studies aiming at targeting E2 into the eye while avoiding systemic E2 exposure to diminish undesirable off target side-effects. PMID:23841874

  4. 17β-estradiol eye drops protect the retinal ganglion cell layer and preserve visual function in an in vivo model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Xin, Hua; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Blazics, Balazs; Prokai, Laszlo; Koulen, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Neuroprotection in glaucoma as a curative strategy complementary to current therapies to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) is highly desirable. This study was designed to investigate neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol (E2) to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a glaucoma model of surgically elevated IOP in rats. We found that daily treatment with E2-containing eye drops resulted in significant E2 concentration in the retina with concomitant profound neuroprotective therapeutic benefits, even in the presence of continually elevated IOP. The number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layer was significantly decreased in the E2-treated group, when compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Deterioration in visual acuity in these animals was also markedly prevented. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, beneficial changes in the expression of several proteins implicated in the maintenance of retinal health were also found in the retina of E2-treated animals. On the other hand, systemic side effects could not be avoided with the eye drops, as confirmed by the measured high circulating estrogen levels and through the assessment of the uterus representing a typical hormone-sensitive peripheral organ. Collectively, the demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect of topical E2 in the selected animal model of glaucoma provides a clear rationale for further studies aiming at targeting E2 into the eye while avoiding systemic E2 exposure to diminish undesirable off-target side effects. PMID:23841874

  5. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  6. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  7. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2012-03-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(logN) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, for example, in some models of complex networks. With minor modifications, the algorithm might also be used for sampling with fitness cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  8. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  9. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2014-11-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways.

  10. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  11. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  12. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  13. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  14. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  16. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  17. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  18. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  20. Preservation of VGLUT1 synapses on ventral calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons and normal locomotor function in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Behrend, Rachel M.; Birineni, Swetha; Liu, Wenfang; Blivis, Dvir

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction in sensorimotor synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes observed in a mouse model [spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)Δ7] of spinal muscular atrophy. Here, we examined the density of proprioceptive and cholinergic synapses on calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons ventral to the lateral motor column. This population includes inhibitory Renshaw interneurons that are known to receive synaptic input from muscle spindle afferents and from motoneurons. At postnatal day (P)13, near the end stage of the disease, the somatic area of calbindin+ neurons in the L1/L2 and L5/L6 segments was reduced in SMAΔ7 mice compared with controls. In addition, the number and density of terminals expressing the glutamate vesicular transporter (VGLUT1) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) were increased on calbindin+ cells in the L1-L2 but not in the L5-L6 segments of SMAΔ7 mice. In addition, the isolated spinal cord of SMA mice was able to generate locomotor-like activity at P4-P6 in the presence of a drug cocktail or in response to dorsal root stimulation. These results argue against a generalized loss of proprioceptive input to spinal circuits in SMA and suggest that the loss of proprioceptive synapses on motoneurons may be secondary to motoneuron pathology. The increased number of VGLUT1+ and VAChT+ synapses on calbindin+ neurons in the L1/L2 segments may be the result of homeostatic mechanisms. Finally, we have shown that abnormal locomotor network function is unlikely to account for the motor deficits observed in SMA mice at P4–6. PMID:23136344