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Sample records for pressure inductive discharges

  1. Relatively high plasma density in low pressure inductive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured in a low pressure argon inductive discharge. As radio frequency (RF) power increases, discharge mode is changed from E-mode (capacitively coupled) to H-mode (inductively coupled) and the EEPFs evolve from a bi-Maxwellian distribution to a Maxwellian distribution. It is found that the plasma densities at low RF powers (<30 W) are much higher than the density predicted from the slope of the densities at high powers. Because high portion of high energy electrons of the bi-Maxwellian distribution lowers the collisional energy loss and low electron temperature of low energy electrons reduces particle loss rate at low powers. Therefore, the energy loss of plasma decreases and electron densities become higher at low powers.

  2. Features of RF low-pressure discharge with inductive and capacitive channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralkina, E. A.; Nekliudova, P. A.; Pavlov, V. B.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    The present paper deals with the experimental and numerical study of radio-frequency (RF) low-pressure discharge having both inductive and capacitive or DC channels. Two discharge schemes are considered. In the first case the inductive and capacitive channels are powered by two independent RF power sources. In the second case the inductor and capacitor plates, being the main parts of inductive and capacitive channels, are connected in parallel to one RF power source. The properties of the mentioned discharges are compared with that of pure inductive RF discharge. It is shown that the presence of the capacitive component leads to changes of the fraction of RF power coupled through the inductive channel. This manifests with a reduction of the RF source power value, at which the transition from E- to H-mode takes place, and with the disappearance of hysteresis.

  3. In situ CF3 Detection in Low Pressure Inductive Discharges by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. S.; Cappelli, M. A.; Sharma, S. P.; Arnold, J. O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of CF(x) (x=1-3) radicals in low pressure discharges using source gases such as CF4 and CHF3 is of importance to the understanding of their chemical structure and relevance in plasma based etching processes. These radicals are known to contribute to the formation of fluorocarbon polymer films, which affect the selectivity and anisotropy of etching. In this study, we present preliminary results of the quantitative measurement of trifluoromethyl radicals, CF3, in low pressure discharges. The discharge studied here is an inductively (transformer) coupled plasma (ICP) source in the GEC reference cell, operating on pure CF4 at pressures ranging from 10 - 100 mTorr, This plasma source generates higher electron number densities at lower operating pressures than obtainable with the parallel-plate capacitively coupled version of the GEC reference cell. Also, this expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma reactors being used by the microelectronics industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to observe the absorption band of CF3 radicals in the electronic ground state X2Al in the region of 1233-1270/cm. The spectrometer is equipped with a high sensitivity HgCdTe (MCT) detector and has a fixed resolution of 0.125/cm. The CF3 concentrations are measured for a range of operating pressures and discharge power levels.

  4. In situ CF3 Detection in Low Pressure Inductive Discharges by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. S.; Cappelli, M. A.; Sharma, S. P.; Arnold, J. O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of CF(x) (x=1-3) radicals in low pressure discharges using source gases such as CF4 and CHF3 is of importance to the understanding of their chemical structure and relevance in plasma based etching processes. These radicals are known to contribute to the formation of fluorocarbon polymer films, which affect the selectivity and anisotropy of etching. In this study, we present preliminary results of the quantitative measurement of trifluoromethyl radicals, CF3, in low pressure discharges. The discharge studied here is an inductively (transformer) coupled plasma (ICP) source in the GEC reference cell, operating on pure CF4 at pressures ranging from 10 - 100 mTorr, This plasma source generates higher electron number densities at lower operating pressures than obtainable with the parallel-plate capacitively coupled version of the GEC reference cell. Also, this expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma reactors being used by the microelectronics industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to observe the absorption band of CF3 radicals in the electronic ground state X2Al in the region of 1233-1270/cm. The spectrometer is equipped with a high sensitivity HgCdTe (MCT) detector and has a fixed resolution of 0.125/cm. The CF3 concentrations are measured for a range of operating pressures and discharge power levels.

  5. RF power transfer efficiency of inductively coupled low pressure H2 and D2 discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauner, D.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.

    2017-09-01

    The RF power transfer efficiency and the relevant power absorption mechanisms of inductively heated hydrogen and deuterium plasmas are investigated in the low-pressure region between 0.25 and 10 Pa. The discharges are generated in a cylindrical vessel via a helical coil applying a frequency of 1 MHz and delivered RF powers up to 800 W. The power transfer efficiency η is quantified by a subtractive method that relies on the measurement of the delivered RF power and of the RF current through the plasma coil both with and without discharge operation. By means of optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probe measurements, the key plasma parameters are obtained. For both H2 and D2, the relative behavior of the power transfer efficiency is well comparable, which increases with increasing delivered RF power and describes a maximum at pressures between 1 and 3 Pa where more than 90 % of the provided power are absorbed by the plasma. The observed relative dependencies of η on the operational parameters are found to be well explained by an analytical approach that considers the power absorption by the plasma via evaluating the RF plasma conductivity based on the measured plasma parameters. At the parameters present, non-collisional stochastic heating of electrons has to be considered for pressures p≤slant 1 {Pa}, while collisional heating dominates at higher pressure. Molecular dissociation is found to have a significant influence on the power transfer efficiency of light molecular discharges. The direct comparison of H2 and D2 identifies the higher atomic density in deuterium to cause a systematically increased power transfer efficiency due to an increased ionization rate in the present electron temperature region.

  6. Removal of model proteins by means of low-pressure inductively coupled plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylián, O.; Rauscher, H.; Gilliland, D.; Brétagnol, F.; Rossi, F.

    2008-05-01

    Surgical instruments are intended to come into direct contact with the patients' tissues and thus interact with their first immune defence system. Therefore they have to be cleaned, sterilized and decontaminated, in order to prevent any kind of infections and inflammations or to exclude the possibility of transmission of diseases. From this perspective, the removal of protein residues from their surfaces constitutes new challenges, since certain proteins exhibit high resistance to commonly used sterilization and decontamination techniques and hence are difficult to remove without inducing major damages to the object treated. Therefore new approaches must be developed for that purpose and the application of non-equilibrium plasma discharges represents an interesting option. The possibility to effectively remove model proteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and ubiquitin) from surfaces of different materials (Si wafer, glass, polystyrene and gold) by means of inductively coupled plasma discharges sustained in different argon containing mixtures is demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  7. Collisionless electron heating by radio frequency bias in low gas pressure inductive discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2012-12-10

    We show experimental observations of collisionless electron heating by the combinations of the capacitive radio frequency (RF) bias power and the inductive power in low argon gas pressure RF biased inductively coupled plasma (ICP). With small RF bias powers in the ICP, the electron energy distribution (EED) evolved from bi-Maxwellian distribution to Maxwellian distribution by enhanced plasma bulk heating and the collisionless sheath heating was weak. In the capacitive RF bias dominant regime, however, high energy electrons by the RF bias were heated on the EEDs in the presence of the ICP. The collisionless heating mechanism of the high energy electrons transited from collisionless inductive heating to capacitive coupled collisionless heating by the electron bounce resonance in the RF biased ICP.

  8. Ion-plasma nitriding of austenitic steel in a low-pressure low-frequency inductive discharge with ferrite core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, M. V.; Pinaev, V. A.; Mul, D. O.; Belousova, N. S.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental investigation of ion-plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steel AISI 321 in a low-frequency (100 kHz) nitrogen inductive discharge has been performed for the nitrogen pressure of 7 Pa, nitrogen ion densities of 1010-1011 cm-3, sample temperatures of 440-590 °C, the densities of current on the sample surface of 1.2-3.3 mA/cm2, sample biases of -500 and -750 V. The time of ion-plasma treatment was 20 and 60 min. It is shown that even for the short (20 min.) ion-plasma treatment in the low-frequency inductive discharge, formation of nitrided layers with the thickness of up to 40 μm and microhardness of up to 9 GPa is observed.

  9. On the optimal chamber length and electron heating mechanism in low pressure inductive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Won; Park, Il-Seo; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Plasma resistance with the chamber length was measured at different plasma densities in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas. It was found that the plasma resistance has a maximum at specific chamber length, Lopt, and the Lopt is changed with the plasma density. It is related to the maximum collisionless electron heating, which simultaneously satisfies the conditions of both the bounce resonance and the transit time resonance. Therefore, Lopt is an optimal chamber size for the power transfer to the plasma.

  10. Formation Of Carbon Oxides In CH4/O2 Plasmas Produced By Inductively Coupled RF Discharges At Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Ivonne; Soltwisch, Henning

    2003-06-01

    The formation of CO and CO2 has been studied in inductively coupled rf (13.56 MHz) discharges with varied mixtures of CH4 and O2 as feed gases at a total pressure of 10 Pa, flow rates of <10 sccm, and input powers of <500 W. The primary diagnostic tool has been TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) to measure absolute concentrations of molecular species as well as their kinetic and rovibrational temperatures. Of particular interest is the sudden transition between different modes of power coupling (capacitive and inductive mode, resp.) and the related changes of the plasma composition. We have found that the power threshold for this transition exhibits a clear hysteresis and depends on the oxygen content. Comparing the ratio of the CO- and CO2-concentrations in capacitive mode with corresponding data from a parallel-plate discharge, clear differences have been observed. The findings can partly be explained on the basis of plasma-chemical reaction chains using tabulated cross-sections in combination with estimations of the electron energy distribution function. Some observations (as, e.g. the presence of CO in inductively coupled plasmas that are fed by pure oxygen) cannot be understood from volume reactions only but point to an important role of surface processes, which depend on the materials of the discharge chamber and on its history and cleaning method.

  11. Hybrid simulations of solenoidal radio-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen discharges at low pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Hong; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have described a radio-frequency (RF) inductively coupled H2 plasma using a hybrid computational model, incorporating the Maxwell equations and the linear part of the electron Boltzmann equation into global model equations. This report focuses on the effects of RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current on the spatial profiles of the induced electric field and plasma absorption power density. The plasma parameters, i.e., plasma density, electron temperature, density of negative ion, electronegativity, densities of neutral species, and dissociation degree of H2, as a function of absorption power, are evaluated at different gas pressures. The simulation results show that the utilization efficiency of the RF source characterized by the coupling efficiency of the RF electric field and power to the plasma can be significantly improved at the low RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current, due to a low plasma density in these cases. The densities of vibrational states of H2 first rapidly increase with increasing absorption power and then tend to saturate. This is because the rapidly increased dissociation degree of H2 with increasing absorption power somewhat suppresses the increase of the vibrational states of H2, thus inhibiting the increase of the H-. The effects of absorption power on the utilization efficiency of the RF source and the production of the vibrational states of H2 should be considered when setting a value of the coil current. To validate the model simulations, the calculated electron density and temperature are compared with experimental measurements, and a reasonable agreement is achieved.

  12. Modelling Of Chlorine Inductive Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert P.; Despiau-Pujo, E.

    2010-07-01

    III-V compounds such as GaAs, InP or GaN-based materials are increasingly important for their use in optoelectronic applications, especially in the telecommunications and light detection industries. Photonic devices including lasers, photodetectors or LEDs, require reliable etching processes characterized by high etch rate, profile control and low damage. Although many problems remain to be understood, inductively coupled discharges seem to be promising to etch such materials, using Cl2/Ar, Cl2/N2 and Cl2/H2 gas chemistries. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources meet most of the requirements for efficient plasma processing such as high etch rates, high ion densities and low controllable ion energies. However, the presence of a negative ion population in the plasma alters the positive ion flux, reduces the electron density, changes the electron temperature, modifies the spatial structure of the discharge and can cause unstable operation. Several experimental studies and numerical simulation results have been published on inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasmas but relatively few systematic comparisons of model predictions and experimental data have been reported in given reactor geometries under a wide range of op- erating conditions. Validation of numerical predictions is essential for chemically complex plasma processing and there is a need to benchmark the models with as many measurements as possible. In this paper, comparisons of 2D fluid simulations with experimental measurements of Ar/Cl2 plasmas in a low pressure ICP reactor are reported (Corr et al. 2008). The electron density, negative ion fraction and Cl atom density are investigated for various conditions of Ar/Cl2 ratio, gas pressure and applied RF power in H mode. Simulations show that the wall recombination coefficient of Cl atom (?) is a key parameter of the model and that neutral densities are very sensitive to its variations. The best agreement between model and experiment is obtained for ? = 0

  13. Generation of ion-acoustic waves in an inductively coupled, low-pressure discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J. C.; Klimcak, C. M.

    2006-04-15

    For a number of years it has been known that the alkali rf-discharge lamps used in atomic clocks can exhibit large amplitude intensity oscillations. These oscillations arise from ion-acoustic plasma waves and have typically been associated with erratic clock behavior. Though large amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves are clearly deleterious for atomic clock operation, it does not follow that small amplitude oscillations have no utility. Here, we demonstrate two easily implemented methods for generating small amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves in alkali rf-discharge lamps. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of these waves is proportional to the square root of the rf power driving the lamp and therefore that their examination can provide an easily accessible parameter for monitoring and controlling the lamp's plasma conditions. This has important consequences for precise timekeeping, since the atomic ground-state hyperfine transition, which is the heart of the atomic clock signal, can be significantly perturbed by changes in the lamp's output via the ac-Stark shift.

  14. Gas convection caused by electron pressure drop in the afterglow of a pulsed inductively coupled plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Cunge, G.; Vempaire, D.; Sadeghi, N.

    2010-03-29

    Neutral depletion is an important phenomenon in high-density plasmas. We show that in pulsed discharges, the neutral depletion caused by the electron pressure P{sub e} plays an important role on radical transport. In the afterglow, P{sub e} drops rapidly by electron cooling. So, a neutral pressure gradient built up between the plasma bulk and the reactor walls, which forces the cold surrounding gas to move rapidly toward the reactor center. Measured drift velocity of Al atoms in the early afterglow of Cl{sub 2}/Ar discharge by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence is as high as 250 ms{sup -1}. This is accompanied by a rapid gas cooling.

  15. Measurements of the total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost in low-pressure inductive argon, helium, oxygen and nitrogen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Kwang; Ku, Ju-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-02-01

    Experimental measurements of the total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost, ɛT, were performed in a low-pressure inductive atomic gases (Ar, He) and molecular gases (O2, N2) discharge. The value of ɛT was determined from a power balance based on the electropositive global (volume-averaged) model. A floating harmonic method was employed to measure ion fluxes and electron temperatures at the discharge wall. In the pressure range 5-50 mTorr, it was found that the measured ɛT ranged from about 70 to 150 V for atomic gases, but from about 180 to 1300 V for molecular gases. This difference between atomic and molecular discharge is caused by additional collisional energy losses of molecular gases. For argon discharge, the stepwise ionization effect on ɛT was observed at relatively high pressures. For different gases, the measured ɛT was evaluated with respect to the electron temperature, and then compared with the calculation results, which were derived from collisional and kinetic energy loss. The measured ɛT and their calculations showed reasonable agreement.

  16. Plasma instabilities in electronegative inductive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakhtanov, Alexei Mikhail

    Plasma instabilities have been observed in low-pressure inductive discharges, in the transition between low density capacitive mode and high density inductive mode of the discharge when attaching gases such as SF6 and Ar/SF 6 mixtures are used. Oscillations of charged particles, plasma potential and light emitted from the plasma with the frequencies from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz are seen for gas pressures between 1 and 100 mTorr and the discharge power in the range of 75--1200 W. The region of instability increases as the plasma becomes more electronegative and the frequency of plasma oscillations increases as the power, pressure, and gas flow rate increase. The instability frequencies may also depend on the settings of a matching network. A volume-averaged (global) model of the instability has been developed, for a discharge containing time varying densities of electrons, positive ions, and negative ions, and time invariant excited states and neutral densities. The particle and energy balance equations are integrated to produce the dynamical behavior. As pressure or power is varied to cross a threshold, the instability goes through a series of oscillatory states to large scale relaxation oscillations between higher and lower density states. The model qualitatively agrees with experimental observations, and also shows a significant influence of the matching network. A stability analysis of an electronegative discharge has been performed, using a Hurwitz criterion, for a system of linearized particle and power balance differential equations. Capacitive coupling plays a crucial role in the instability process. A variable electrostatic (Faraday) shield has been used to control the capacitive coupling from the excitation coil to the plasma. The plasma instability disappears when the shielded area exceeds 65% of the total area of the coil. The global model of instability gives a slightly higher value of 85% for instability suppression with the same discharge

  17. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  18. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  19. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  20. Spectral Analysis and Metastable Absorption Measurements of High Pressure Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency Argon-Helium Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    University published a paper that showed that the excited states of the noble gases can be used to form an analogous laser system to the DPAL. Dr...Another method for studying the population of a certain excited state is Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). This method uses a laser ...four level lasers in a myriad of different transitions. The drawback is in the complicated kinetics of the excited states in the discharge and the

  1. Instabilities in Inductive Discharges with Electronegative Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    electronegative gases P. Chabert, H . Abada , and J.-P. Booth LPTP, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau cedex, France A.J. Lichtenberg, M.A. Lieberman, A. M...can exist in two inductive discharge modes: the capacitive (E) mode, for low power, and the g00 inductive ( H ) mode, for high power. As the power is -1...increased, transitions from capacitive to inductive modes D00 (E- H transitions) are observed [7,8]. When operating with Q. electropositive gases the

  2. Optical characteristics for capacitively and inductively radio frequency discharge and post-discharge of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tanışlı, Murat Şahin, Neslihan

    2016-01-15

    The optical properties for radiofrequency (RF) post-discharge of pure helium (He) with two different methods as capacitively and inductively have been presented using the modified Boltzmann method in comparison. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is often used in the diagnosis of laboratory plasma, such as gas discharge plasma. OES is a very useful method for calculating of the electron temperature in the plasma and the determination of different atoms and molecules. In this study, OES is applied for characterizations of capacitively and inductively RF He plasma at pressures between 0.62 and 2.2 mbar for newly reactor type. Plasmas are generated with an RF power generator at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and output powers of 100, 160, and 200 W. Spectra have been evaluated in the range 200–1200 nm by an optical spectrometer. At low pressure, the main spectral features reported are the wavelengths of the atomic He transitions at 388.87 and 728.13 nm. The atomic emission intensities showed a maximum in inductive system when the pressure is about 0.62 mbar. OES of capacitive discharge and inductive discharge is compared in detail. The transition for 587.56 nm is shown to be increased in time.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of a low-frequency inductive discharge of the transformer type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, M. V.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Sukhinin, G. I.; Ulanov, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electrophysical and thermophysical characteristics of a low-frequency inductive discharge of the transformer type were studied in argon within a wide range of discharge parameters: densities of discharge current from 0.1 to 0.8 A/cm2 and argon pressures from 15 to 6000 Pa. A simplified model of the low-frequency inductive discharge of the transformer type, based on simultaneous solution to the balance equations for electrons and metastable atoms at the axis of the gas-discharge tube and balance equations for gas temperature and electron energy, was developed. Dependence of electric field strength of the low-frequency inductive discharge of the transformer type on argon pressure and discharge current was calculated. It is shown that calculation results agree with the measurement data and describe their main features: descending voltage-current characteristic of discharge and local minimum in pressure dependence of electric field strength.

  4. Optical Properties of Inductively RF Discharge for Argon (Ar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanisli, Murat; Sahin, Neslihan; Mertadam, Sercan

    2015-11-01

    Different power supplies in laboratories can produce plasma, which is the fourth state of matter. In this study, the inductively radio frequency (RF) plasma of Ar at low pressure in the quartz glass reactor prepared for special design is obtained. Discharge properties of the generated plasma are examined with optical emission spectroscopy (OES). For RF power values, Ar was sent in certain periods and amounts to reactor in which were obtained the low pressure with vacuum pump. Plasma was generated and the data obtained from OES were composed for calculating of electron temperature. In this way, the electron transitions can also be investigated from data. In the presence of experimental data, the collisional radiative model can be used to obtain of the electron temperature. In addition, the various graphs of the plasma parameters are showed.

  5. Stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirokov, Alexandre V.

    There has been a considerable interest in non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges over the past decade due to increased number of industrial applications. Although non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges have been intensively studied for the past century the clear physical picture of these discharges is far from being complete. Spontaneous transition of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges to thermal discharge and discharge filamentation are among least understood plasma phenomena. The discharge stability and reliable control of plasma parameters are highly desirable for numerous applications. This study focuses on stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges with respect to filamentation and arcing. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APG) is the newest and the most promising addition to the family of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges. However this discharge is very susceptible to thermal instability which causes arcing, loss of uniformity and significant damage to electrodes. Suppression of thermal instability and effective control of discharge parameters is critical for industrial applications. A model was developed to understand transition to arc in atmospheric pressure glow discharges. APG discharges that operate in pure helium and in helium with addition of oxygen and nitrogen were considered in these studies. Simulation results indicate that arcing is the result of sheath breakdown rather than thermal instability. It was shown that although sheath breakdown is always followed by overheating the transition to arc in atmospheric glow discharges is not a result of thermal instability. In second part of this research interaction between plasma filaments in dielectric barrier discharges has been studied. This interaction is responsible for the formation of microdischarge patterns reminiscent of two-dimensional crystals. Depending on the application, microdischarge patterns may have a significant influence on DBD performance

  6. Runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to study the formation of a runaway electron (RAE) beam from an individual emission zone in atmospheric pressure air discharges with a highly overvolted interelectrode gap. It is shown that the formation of a RAE beam in discharges at high overvoltages is much contributed by avalanche processes.

  7. Inductive discharge as a method for direct detection of impurities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, R. N.; Churkin, D. S.; Zarubin, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on the excitation of atomic spectra of tap water vapor using an inductive discharge. It is shown that at a RF source frequency of 27 MHz and a plasma power output from 500 to 600 W, a steady discharge exists to pressures of 10-2 atm. Plasma temperature was determined by the Boltzmann plot method and was approximately 5500 K. At this temperature, it was possible to detect sodium ions dissolved in water. This suggests that an inductive discharge in water vapor can be used to determine the presence of impurities.

  8. Design of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A new plasma accelerator concept that employs electrodeless plasma preionization and pulsed inductive acceleration is presented. Preionization is achieved through an electron cyclotron resonance discharge that produces a weakly-ionized plasma at the face of a conical theta pinch-shaped inductive coil. The presence of the preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerators. The location of an electron cyclotron resonance discharge can be controlled through the design of the applied magnetic field in the thruster. A finite-element model of the magnetic field was used as a design tool, allowing for the implementation of an arrangement of permanent magnets that yields a small volume of preionized propellant at the coil face. This allows for current sheet formation at the face of the inductive coil, minimizing the initial inductance of the pulse circuit and maximizing the potential efficiency of the new accelerator.

  9. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, James E.

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  10. Nitrogen laser pumped by a longitudinal discharge from inductive and capacitative energy storage units

    SciTech Connect

    Baksht, E Kh; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    1998-12-31

    An experimental investigation was made of the influence of various pump-pulse generators on the output radiation power of a nitrogen laser ({lambda}=337.1 nm) pumped by a longitudinal discharge. In addition to a magnetic switch and a semiconductor circuit-breaker, use was made of generators with inductive energy storage, with intermediate inductive energy storage, and with capacitative energy storage. Pumping by an inductive energy storage unit reduced the influence of the discharge circuit inductance and broadened the range of the operating pressures at which lasing was possible. Peaking capacitors, connected in parallel with a discharge tube, reduced the energy losses in the circuit-breaker and could increase laser output radiation energy. (lasers)

  11. Effect of neutral gas heating on the wave magnetic fields of a low pressure 13.56 MHz planar coil inductively coupled argon discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jayapalan, Kanesh K. Chin, Oi-Hoong

    2014-04-15

    The axial and radial magnetic field profiles in a 13.56 MHz (radio frequency) laboratory 6 turn planar coil inductively coupled plasma reactor are simulated with the consideration of the effect of neutral gas heating. Spatially resolved electron densities, electron temperatures, and neutral gas temperatures were obtained for simulation using empirically fitted electron density and electron temperature and heuristically determined neutral gas temperature. Comparison between simulated results and measured fields indicates that neutral gas heating plays an important role in determining the skin depth of the magnetic fields.

  12. Effect of neutral gas heating on the wave magnetic fields of a low pressure 13.56 MHz planar coil inductively coupled argon discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayapalan, Kanesh K.; Chin, Oi-Hoong

    2014-04-01

    The axial and radial magnetic field profiles in a 13.56 MHz (radio frequency) laboratory 6 turn planar coil inductively coupled plasma reactor are simulated with the consideration of the effect of neutral gas heating. Spatially resolved electron densities, electron temperatures, and neutral gas temperatures were obtained for simulation using empirically fitted electron density and electron temperature and heuristically determined neutral gas temperature. Comparison between simulated results and measured fields indicates that neutral gas heating plays an important role in determining the skin depth of the magnetic fields.

  13. Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) Clamped Discharge Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    Lovberg, "Pulsed Inductive Thruster Technology", AFAL TR-87-012, April 1987. [2] Lyman Spitzer , Jr . "The Physics of Fully Ionized Gases" Interscience, New...Plasma (electron-ion) resistivity has the Spitzer dependence on temperature, with the coulomb factor In A equal to approximately 5: r7P = 10-3T-1 1

  14. Low-inductance pulse-discharge capacitor study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. R.

    1992-03-01

    The Capacitors Division at Sandia National Laboratories has for many years been actively involved in developing high reliability, low inductance, energy storage, pulse discharge capacitors. Development has concentrated on two dielectric systems; mica-paper and Mylar (both dry wrap and fill and FC40 liquid impregnation). Continuous design improvements are constantly being sought. For pulse discharge usage lowering the capacitor inductance can improve circuit performance. This paper describes recent efforts to improve the efficiency of low inductance, mica-paper capacitors by reducing the inductance through optimizing the component geometry. The study focused on a 0.2 micro-F, 4000 V mica-paper extended-foil capacitor design. The experimental matrix was a two-level, three factor with center points design, and was replicated four times to give reasonable statistics. The factors were the capacitor width, capacitor length, and electrode width, and with response functions of capacitor inductance and circuit performance. The capacitor inductance was measured by the resonance technique, and the circuit performance was evaluated by peak (discharge) current and rise time. Results show that the inductance can be minimized by choice of geometry with accompanying improvements in circuit performance.

  15. Low-inductance pulse-discharge capacitor study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Capacitors Division at Sandia National Laboratories has for many years been actively involved in developing high reliability, low-inductance, energy-storage, pulse-discharge capacitors. Development has concentrated on two dielectric systems; mica-paper and Mylar (both dry wrap and fill and FC40 liquid impregnation). Continuous design improvements are constantly being sought. For pulse discharge usage lowering the capacitor inductance can improve circuit performance. This paper describes recent efforts to improve the efficiency of low-inductance, mica-paper capacitors by reducing the inductance through optimizing the component geometry. The study focused on a 0.2 {mu}F, 4000 V mica-paper extended-foil capacitor design. The experimental matrix was a two-level, three factor with center points design, and was replicated four times to give reasonable statistics. The factors were the capacitor width, capacitor length, and electrode width, and with response functions of capacitor inductance and circuit performance. The capacitor inductance was measured by the resonance technique, and the circuit performance was evaluated by peak (discharge) current and rise time. Results show that the inductance can be minimized by choice of geometry with accompanying improvements in circuit performance.

  16. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  17. "Politically-Incorrect" Electron Behavior in Low Pressure RF Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    1996-10-01

    The main interaction of plasma electrons with electromagnetic fields for bounded plasma of an rf discharge occurs in the vicinity of its boundaries (in the rf sheath of a capacitive rf discharge and in the skin layer of an inductive one). On the other hand, due to plasma inhomogeneity, a dc ambipolar field is always present in the bounded plasma. in low pressure discharges the ambipolar potential well captures low energy electrons within the discharge center while high energy electrons freely overcome the ambipolar potential and reach the plasma boundaries where heating takes place. Being segregated in space, low energy electrons are discriminated from participation in the heating process. When Coulomb interaction between low and high energy electron groups is weak, their temperatures appear to be essentially different ( a low energy peak on the EEDF). In this presentation we present theoretical and experimental evidence of such an apartheid in the low and high energy electron populations of the EEDF in rf discharge and we outline discharge conditions where such abnormal EEDF behavior is possible.

  18. Design of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and construction of a thruster that employs electrodeless plasma preionization and pulsed inductive acceleration is described. Preionization is achieved through an electron cyclotron resonance discharge that produces a weakly-ionized plasma at the face of a conical theta pinch-shaped inductive coil. The presence of the preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages than those employed in other pulsed inductive accelerators that do not employ preionization. The location of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge is controlled through the design of the applied magnetic field in the thruster. Finite element analysis shows that there is an arrangement of permanent magnets that yields a small volume of resonant magnetic field at the coil face. Preionization in the resonant zone leads to current sheet formation at the coil face, which minimizes the initial inductance of the pulse circuit and maximizes the potential electrical efficiency of the accelerator. A magnet assembly was constructed around an inductive coil to provide structural support to the selected arrangement of neodymium magnets. Measured values of the resulting magnetic field compare favorably with the finite element model.

  19. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    calculations in glow discharge in argon and neon . A Monte Carlo simulation of the ions and Grant 033083 – Final report 7 the fast neutrals generated...in high pressure xenon or in rare gas mixtures containing xenon are of interest in the context of UV and VUV generation. Numerical experiments on...The shape of the calculated characteristic is similar to those measured by Schoenbach et al1 in argon and by Moselhy and Schoenbach9 in xenon . There

  20. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-07-10

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5{center_dot}10{sup 21} molecules/cm{sup 3}, 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm{sup 3}) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm{sup 3}) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved.

  1. Static current-voltage characteristics for radio-frequency induction discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Budyansky, A.; Zykov, A.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work was to obtain experimentally such characteristic of Radio-Frequency Induction Discharge (RFID) that can play the role of its current-voltage characteristic (CVC) and to explain the nature of current and voltage jumps arising in RF coils at exciting of discharge. Experiments were made in quartz 5.5, 11, 20 cm diam tubes with outer RF coil at pressures 10--100 mTorr, at frequency 13.56 MHz and discharge power to 500 W. In case of outer coil as analogue of discharge voltage it`s convenient to use the value of the RF voltage U{sub R}, induced around outer perimeter of discharge tube. It is evident that current and voltage jumps arising at exciting of discharge are due to low output resistance of standard generators and negative slope of initial part of CVC. Three sets of such dependencies for different pressures were obtained for each diameter of tubes. The influence of different metal electrodes placed into discharge volume on CVC`s shape has been studied also. Experimental results can explain the behavior of HFI discharge as a load of RF generator and give data for calculation of RF circuit.

  2. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  3. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  4. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  5. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge by...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge by...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge by...

  9. Modeling of small scale radio-frequency inductive discharges for electric propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistoco, Valerie F. M.

    This work is motivated by the increasing interest in small-scale radio-frequency ion thrusters for micro- and nanosatellite applications, in particular for stationkeeping. This specific type of thruster relies on an inductive discharge to produce positive ions that are accelerated by an external electric field in order to produce thrust. Analyzing the particle dynamics within the discharge vessel is critical for determining the performance of these thrusters, particularly as scaling down the size and thrust level of ion thrusters remains a major challenge. Until now the application of this type of propulsion system has been limited to large satellites and space platforms. The approach taken in this work was, first, to perform a simple analysis of the inductive discharge using a transformer model. However, the dimensions of the thruster and the pressure ranges at which it operates called for a different approach than those used in larger thrusters and reactors as the collisional domain and non-locality effects differ significantly. After estimating the non-locality effects by calculating the non-locality parameter, a kinetic description of the discharge was developed. From the input power, mass flow rate, and the properties of the gas used in the discharge, the density numbers, temperatures of the particles, and thrust are calculated. Simulation values are compared with experimental values obtained with the Miniature Radio-frequency Ion Thruster being developed at The Pennsylvania State University. The approach employed to model this small scale inductive discharge can be summarized as follows. First, conditions of operation and the various plasma parameters of the discharge were derived. Then, a one-dimensional kinetic model of an inductive discharge, using a Maxwellian electron distribution, was built. Results from this model were validated on data available in the literature. Finally, from the beam current derived from the 1-D model, using a two-grid ion optics

  10. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  11. Comparison of pressure dependence of electron energy distributions in oxygen capacitively and inductively coupled plasmas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hyong; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-04-01

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) were measured with increasing gas pressure in oxygen capacitively and inductively coupled plasmas. It was found that, in the capacitive discharge, abnormally low-energy electrons became highly populated and the EEDF evolved to a more distinct bi-Maxwellian distribution as the gas pressure was increased. This pressure dependence of the EEDF in the oxygen capacitive discharge is contrary to argon capacitively coupled plasma, where--at high gas pressure--low-energy electrons are significantly reduced due to collisional heating and the EEDF evolves to the Maxwellian. The highly populated low-energy electrons at high gas pressure, which was not observed in inductively coupled oxygen plasma, show that collisional heating is very inefficient in terms of the oxygen capacitive discharge. It appears that this inefficient collisional heating seems to be attributed to a low electric field strength at the center of the oxygen capacitive plasma.

  12. Measurement of suction and discharge pressure pulsations in waterflood facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wurzbach, W.M. Jr.; Happel, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent mechanical problems with reciprocating water injection pumps prompted a study of suction and discharge pressure conditions in the Red River Bull Bayou Unit, Red River Parish, La. Frequent failures in plunger pump components and discharge lines were occurring at several injection sites within the unit. Electronic surveillance equipment consisting of an oscilloscope and pressure transducers was utilized to locate and identify large suction and discharge pressure pulses. The severity of these pulses could not be identified with standard pressure gages. The data obtained with the electronic equipment indicated that cavitation was occurring on the suction side of the pumps due to insufficient net positive suction head. The large pressure pulsations caused by this cavitation problem were carried through the pump and amplified on the discharge side. Changes in the suction and discharge piping design eliminated cavitation and effectively reduced the peak pressure pulses.

  13. Ion flux, ion energy distribution and neutral density in an inductively coupled argon discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevolleau, T.; Fukarek, W.

    2000-11-01

    The dependence of ion flux, ion energy distribution and neutral density of a planar radiofrequency (RF) driven inductively coupled plasma source on pressure and power is analysed using a plasma monitor and a Faraday cup. The ion flux is about 7 mA cm-2 at 5 Pa and 300 W and increases as RF power and argon pressure increase. The ion energy distribution consists of a single peak with a full width at half maximum of 3 eV for a discharge power in the range from 50 to 300 W and for a pressure in the range from 0.5 to 5 Pa. This indicates that inductive coupling mainly drives the discharge while capacitive coupling between coil and plasma is weak. A significant decrease in Ar neutral density is observed when the plasma is ignited. The Ar depletion increases with increasing RF power and increasing Ar base pressure and reaches 30% at 5 Pa and 300 W. The contributions of the different mechanisms resulting in an Ar depletion are estimated and compared. The decrease in neutral density cannot be explained by the ionization of Ar atoms only but is significantly attributed to the heating of Ar atoms by collisions with energetic particles. The increase in neutral gas temperature is estimated and found to be in reasonable agreement with measurements of the gas temperature reported previously by other groups.

  14. Ion energy and angular distributions in inductively driven RF discharges in chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Riley, M.E.; Hamilton, T.W.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, the authors report values of ion energy distributions and ion angular distributions measured at the grounded electrode of an inductively-coupled discharge in pure chlorine gas. The inductive drive in the GEC reference cell produced high plasma densities (10{sup 11}/cm{sup 3} electron densities) and stable plasma potentials. As a result, ion energy distributions typically consisted of a single peak well separated from zero energy. Mean ion energy varied inversely with pressure, decreasing from 13 to 9 eV as the discharge pressure increased from 20 to 60 millitorr. Half-widths of the ion angular distributions in these experiments varied from 6 to 7.5 degrees, corresponding to transverse energies from 0.13 to 0.21 eV. Ion energies gradually dropped with time, probably due to the buildup of contaminants on the chamber walls. Cell temperature also was an important variable, with ion fluxes to the lower electrode increasing and the ion angular distribution narrowing as the cell temperature increased. Plasmas discharges are widely used to etch semiconductors, oxides and metals in the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  15. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  16. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  17. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  18. 46 CFR 153.964 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 153.964 Section 153.964... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.964 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  19. 46 CFR 153.964 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 153.964 Section 153.964... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.964 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  20. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50 Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  1. Corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry at reduced pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2004-11-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) normally operate at ambient pressure. In this work an IMS cell has been designed and constructed to allow the pressure to be reduced inside the IMS cell. In this cell, corona discharge was employed as the ionization source. Reducing pressure affected both the discharge and the performance of the IMS. The discharge current was observed to increase with reducing pressure while the ignition potential decreased. The ion current received at the collector plate was also increased about 50 times when the pressure was reduced from ambient pressure to 15 Torr. The higher ion current can lead to an extended dynamic range. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures and the results show that the drift times shift perfectly linear with pressure. This suggests that unlike temperature, pressure correction for ion mobility spectra is as simple as multiplying the drift times by a factor of 760/P.

  2. Coupling effects in inductive discharges with radio frequency substrate biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.; Schuengel, E.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2012-01-09

    Low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) operated in neon at 27.12 MHz with capacitive substrate biasing (CCP) at 13.56 MHz are investigated by phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy, voltage, and current measurements. Three coupling mechanisms are found potentially limiting the separate control of ion energy and flux: (i) Sheath heating due to the substrate biasing affects the electron dynamics even at high ratios of ICP to CCP power. At fixed CCP power, (ii) the substrate sheath voltage and (iii) the amplitude as well as frequency of plasma series resonance oscillations of the RF current are affected by the ICP power.

  3. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  4. Pulsed radio-frequency discharge inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for oxide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Yin, Zhibin; Hang, Wei; Li, Bin; Huang, Benli

    2016-08-01

    A direct solid sampling technique has been developed based on a pulsed radio-frequency discharge (RFD) in mixture of N2 and Ar environment at atmospheric pressure. With an averaged input power of 65 W, a crater with the diameter of 80 μm and depth of 50 μm can be formed on sample surface after discharge for 1 min, suggesting the feasibility of the pulsed RFD for sampling nonconductive solids. Combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), this technique allows to measure elemental composition of solids directly with relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~ 20%. Capability of quantitative analysis was demonstrated by the use of soil standards and artificial standards. Good calibration linearity and limits of detection (LODs) in range of 10- 8-10- 9 g/g were achieved for most elements.

  5. Recent studies on nanosecond-timescale pressurized gas discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatom, S.; Shlapakovski, A.; Beilin, L.; Stambulchik, E.; Tskhai, S.; Krasik, Ya E.

    2016-12-01

    The results of recent experimental and numerical studies of nanosecond high-voltage discharges in pressurized gases are reviewed. The discharges were ignited in a diode filled by different gases within a wide range of pressures by an applied pulsed voltage or by a laser pulse in the gas-filled charged resonant microwave cavity. Fast-framing imaging of light emission, optical emission spectroscopy, x-ray foil spectrometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were used to study temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge plasma density and temperature, energy distribution function of runaway electrons and dynamics of the electric field in the plasma channel. The results obtained allow a deeper understanding of discharge dynamical properties in the nanosecond timescale, which is important for various applications of these types of discharges in pressurized gases.

  6. Recent studies on nanosecond-timescale pressurized gas discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Yatom, S.; Shlapakovski, A.; Beilin, L.; Stambulchik, E.; Tskhai, S.; Krasik, Ya E.

    2016-10-05

    The results of recent experimental and numerical studies of nanosecond high-voltage discharges in pressurized gases are reviewed. The discharges were ignited in a diode filled by different gases within a wide range of pressures by an applied pulsed voltage or by a laser pulse in the gas-filled charged resonant microwave cavity. Fast-framing imaging of light emission, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray foil spectrometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were used to study temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge plasma density and temperature, energy distribution function of runaway electrons and dynamics of the electric field in the plasma channel. The results obtained allow a deeper understanding of discharge dynamical properties in the nanosecond timescale, which is important for various applications of these types of discharges in pressurized gases.

  7. Recent studies on nanosecond-timescale pressurized gas discharges

    DOE PAGES

    Yatom, S.; Shlapakovski, A.; Beilin, L.; ...

    2016-10-05

    The results of recent experimental and numerical studies of nanosecond high-voltage discharges in pressurized gases are reviewed. The discharges were ignited in a diode filled by different gases within a wide range of pressures by an applied pulsed voltage or by a laser pulse in the gas-filled charged resonant microwave cavity. Fast-framing imaging of light emission, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray foil spectrometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were used to study temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge plasma density and temperature, energy distribution function of runaway electrons and dynamics of the electric field in the plasma channel. The resultsmore » obtained allow a deeper understanding of discharge dynamical properties in the nanosecond timescale, which is important for various applications of these types of discharges in pressurized gases.« less

  8. Recent studies on nanosecond-timescale pressurized gas discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Yatom, S.; Shlapakovski, A.; Beilin, L.; Stambulchik, E.; Tskhai, S.; Krasik, Ya E.

    2016-10-05

    The results of recent experimental and numerical studies of nanosecond high-voltage discharges in pressurized gases are reviewed. The discharges were ignited in a diode filled by different gases within a wide range of pressures by an applied pulsed voltage or by a laser pulse in the gas-filled charged resonant microwave cavity. Fast-framing imaging of light emission, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray foil spectrometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were used to study temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge plasma density and temperature, energy distribution function of runaway electrons and dynamics of the electric field in the plasma channel. The results obtained allow a deeper understanding of discharge dynamical properties in the nanosecond timescale, which is important for various applications of these types of discharges in pressurized gases.

  9. Magnetic Control of Low Pressure Discharges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    electrodes. The discharge is driven by a 50 Ohm, 10 microsecond pulse forming network (PFN) through a spark gap switch. A matching load resistance of 50...controlled discharge with transient current- voltage curve that follows the load line of the dis- charge system. 19 -- v 0 -) 0~0 -o a c D 4 C) - c C CL 4-C...of magnetically controlled opening switch can be defined as the ratio of power delivered by the switch to the load divided by the magnetic power

  10. Comparison between low-pressure laboratory discharges and atmospheric sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo-Martinez, A.; Garcia-Villarreal, A.; Sobral, H.

    2017-01-01

    The discharge of a charged dielectric in low-pressure air has characteristics that resemble some of the features of mesospheric discharges. The dielectric discharges in steps when the pressure of the surrounding air is gradually reduced from nearly atmospheric to 0.01 torr. The setup employed here decouples the discharge from the power supply, and, thanks to that, unique properties of the discharge manifest themselves. For example, in the pressure interval 10-100 torr streamers are emitted from the surface of the dielectric but when the pressure decreases to 2-16 torr these are replaced by spherically symmetrical discharges that we call peonies. These have interesting properties, like (a) they do not produce electrical field, (b) they remain static, and (c) their size increases with decreasing pressure. The peonies are a type of discharge that has not been reported before. They resemble sprite beads and are assumed to consist of large avalanches that do not lead to the formation of a streamer. At further lower pressures, in the interval 0.01-0.1 torr, diffuse volume discharges were observed that have some morphological similarities with sprite halos and the top of columnar sprites. The spectrographic measurements carried out show that the discharges have bands from the first and second positive systems in N2 as well as lines of N2+. Quenching of the first negative system of N2 was observed at 3 torr. In this work it was also observed how a cosmic ray can go on to trigger a discharge inside the experimentation chamber.

  11. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  12. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  13. Discharge mode transition in a high-pressure RF capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S. Y.

    2005-10-01

    α and γ mode of a RF helium capacitive discharge were investigated at higher than 5 torr up to atmospheric pressure. The discharge source consisted of two parallel electrodes of same diameters of 60 mm for avoid the self-bias voltage. The discharge gap was fixed as 1 cm at (5 -- 200) torr and varied from 0.5 mm to 5 mm at atmospheric pressure. α and γ modes and the mode transition were observed with a nearly 40% voltage drop and a 55% V-I phase angle decrease. The relation between the mode transition voltage and the multiplication of pressure and distance (pd) looked similar to the Paschen curve. At atmospheric pressure, the mode transition occurred abruptly with an instantaneous arc generation, different from a smooth transition at lower pressures. At less than 3 mm gap, an abnormal glow discharge occurred, showing a linear current increase with respect to the voltage. At 3 mm gap, α mode excited as a normal glow discharge with a constant current density (17 mA/cm^2). At over 5 mm gap, either γ mode was excited or the discharge was extinguished. It means there is a critical (pd)cr value for α-mode generation at atmospheric pressure, like at lower pressures. From the experimental result and a simple electrical circuit model, we conclude that the transition between two modes resulted from the α-sheath breakdown.

  14. Relationship between the discharge mode and the spatial oxygen plasma distribution in a large size ferrite inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Hwang, Hye Ju; Cho, Jeong Hee; Chae, Hee Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-15

    The electrical characteristics and the spatial distribution of oxygen plasma according to the number of turns in ferrite inductively coupled plasmas (ferrite ICPs) are investigated. Through a new ICP model, which includes the capacitive coupling and the power loss of the ferrite material with the conventional ICP model, the variation of the oxygen discharge characteristics depending on the number of turns is simply understood by the electrical measurement, such as the antenna voltages and the currents. As the number of the turns increases, the capacitive coupling dominantly affects the spatial plasma distribution. This capacitive coupling results in a center focused density profile along the radial direction. In spite of the same discharge conditions (discharge chamber, neutral gas, and pressure), the spatial plasma distribution over 450 mm has drastic changes by increasing number of the turns. In addition, the effect of the negative species to the density profile is compared with the argon discharge characteristics at the same discharge configuration.

  15. Low-pressure glow discharge with a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Bogodielnyi, Illia

    2011-10-01

    We measured the breakdown curves of a dc glow discharge with hollow cathode and flat electrodes in the gap between the electrodes L = 100 mm. At low gas pressure, the left branches of the breakdown curves for the hollow cathode and the flat electrodes are identical. At high gas pressures, the right branch of the breakdown curve of the discharge with a hollow cathode is close to the breakdown curve for the distance between the plane electrodes, equal to the gap between the edge of the plates of the hollow cathode and flat anode. Current-voltage characteristics of the hollow cathode discharge were measured. At low gas pressure discharge is in the high-voltage (electron beam) form with ascending CVC. In the gas pressure range p > 0.1 Torr the discharge first burns in the glow mode. At higher current the discharge goes into the hollow cathode mode, filling the space between the plates, and it has an almost vertical CVC. The transition from a glow discharge mode into a hollow one possesses a hysteresis. At gas pressures p ~ 1 Torr the hollow cathode effect disappears, since the thickness of the cathode layer is small compared with the gap between the plates of the cathode.

  16. Two-dimensional simulation of discharge channels in atmospheric-pressure single dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui Wang, Dezhen

    2015-11-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the filaments (or discharge channels) in atmospheric-pressure discharge with one plate electrode covered by a dielectric layer. Under certain discharge parameters, one or more stable filaments with wide radii could be regularly arranged in the discharge space. Different from the short-lived randomly distributed microdischarges, this stable and thick filament can carry more current and have longer lifetime. Because only one electrode is covered by a dielectric layer in the simulation, the formed discharge channel extends outwards near the dielectric layer and shrinks inwards near the naked electrode, agreeing with the experimental results. In this paper, the evolution of channel is studied, and its behavior is like a streamer or an ionization wave, but the propagation distance is short. The discharge parameters such as voltage amplitude, electrode width, and N{sub 2} impurities content could significantly influence the number of discharge channel, which is discussed in the paper.

  17. Measurement of suction and discharge pressure pulsations in waterflood facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wurzbach, W.M.; Happel, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    Recent mechanical problems with reciprocating water injection pumps prompted a study of suction and discharge pressure conditions in the Red River Bull Bayou Unit, Red River Parish, Louisiana. Frequent failures in plunger pump components and discharge lines were occurring at several injection sites within the unit. Electronic surveillance equipment consisting of an oscilloscope and pressure transducers was utilized to locate and identify large suction and discharge pressure pulses. The severity of these pulses could not be identified with standard pressure gauges. The data obtained with the electronic equipment indicated that cavitation was occurring on the suction side of the pumps due to insufficient net positive suction head. The large pressure pulsations caused by this cavitation problem were carried through the pump and amplified on the discharge side. This resulted in excessive vibration and equipment overload. Subsequent changes in the suction and discharge piping design eliminated cavitation and effectively reduced the peak pressure pulses. These piping changes were done systematically to measure the effect of each change individually. The resulting measurements gave better insight to future piping design for both suction and discharge installations.

  18. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Kylián, O.; Rauscher, H.; Hasiwa, M.; Gilliland, D.

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O2 mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  19. Generation of high pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Naoki; Takashi, Ami; Yoshioka, Yoshio; Hanaoka, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    We succeeded in generating an atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) in air by using a simple DBD device that consists of alumina barriers and plane electrodes. So far, we applied the APTD to an ozonizer and found that the ozone generation efficiency was higher by the APTD mode than by the conventional DBD mode in larger specific input energy region. It is well known that an operation under an optimized high gas pressure is advantageous for efficient ozone generation from air. In this paper, we investigated whether the Townsend discharge (TD) in dry air in high pressure up to 0.17 MPa can be generated or not. From the observation results of current waveforms and discharge photographs, we found that (1) the discharge currents flow continuously and have only one peak in every half cycle in all gas pressure and (2) filamentary discharges are not recognized between barriers in all gas pressure. These features completely agree with the features of the APTD we reported. Therefore, we concluded that our TD can be generated even in dry air in the pressure range of 0.1 and 0.17 MPa. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  20. Mode transition and hysteresis in inductively coupled radio frequency argon discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Th.; Küllig, C.; Meichsner, J.

    2016-02-01

    This contribution presents experimental results about the mode transition of an inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz) argon discharge at different total gas pressures. In particular, the positive ion saturation current and the line integrated electron density are measured by Langmuir probe and 160 GHz microwave interferometer, respectively. The mode transition strongly depends on the total gas pressure and can appear stepwise or continuously. The space resolved positive ion saturation current is separately shown for the E- and H-mode at different total gas pressures. Therewith, the pressure dependency of the RF sheath thickness indicates a collisional sheath. The hysteresis phenomenon during the E-H and the inverse H-E transition is discussed within the framework of the matching situation for different total gas pressures. The hysteresis width is analyzed using the absorbed power as well as the coil voltage and current. As a result, the width strongly increases with pressure regarding the power and the coil voltage in the E-mode and remains constant in the H-mode. In addition, the phase shift between the coil voltage and current shows a hysteresis effect, too.

  1. Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.

    2008-03-19

    The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power {theta} necessary for sustaining an electron - ion pair, electron - neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer v{sub en}, and gas temperature T{sub g}. The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency {omega}/2{pi} = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature T{sub g} are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L {approx_equal} 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W - the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number.

  2. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  3. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Korolev, Yu. D. Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas’yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-06-15

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  4. E-H heating mode transition in inductive discharges with different antenna sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo-Chang Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of plasma density and the transition power for capacitive (E) to inductive (H) mode transition are studied in planar type inductively coupled plasmas with different antenna sizes. The spatial plasma distribution has a relatively flat profile at a low gas pressure, while the plasma profile is affected by the antenna size at higher gas pressure. The transition power for the E to H mode transition is shown to be critically affected by the antenna size. When the discharge is sustained by a small one-turn antenna coil, the transition power has a minimum value at Ar gas of 20 mTorr. However, the minimum transition power is shown at a relatively high gas pressure (40–60 mTorr) in the case of a large one-turn antenna coil. This change in the transition power can be understood by the thermal transport of the energetic electrons with non-local kinetics to the chamber wall. This non-local kinetic effect indicates that the transition power can also increase even for a small antenna if the antenna is placed near the wall.

  5. Ion energy and angular distributions in inductively coupled Argon RF discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Riley, M.E.; Meister, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    We report measurements of the energies and angular distributions of positive ions in an inductively coupled argon plasma in a GEC reference cell. Use of two separate ion detectors allowed measurement of ion energies and fluxes as a function of position as well as ion angular distributions on the discharge centerline. The inductive drive on our system produced high plasma densities (up to 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3} electron densities) and relatively stable plasma potentials. As a result, ion energy distributions typically consisted of a single feature well separated from zero energy. Mean ion energy was independent of rf power and varied inversely with pressure, decreasing from 29 eV to 12 eV as pressure increased form 2.4 m Torr to 50 mTorr. Half-widths of the ion angular distributions in these experiments varied from 5 degrees to 12.5 degrees, or equivalently, transverse temperatures varied form 0.2 to 0.5 eV with the distributions broadening as either pressure or RF power were increased.

  6. CH3 and CFx Detection in Low Pressure RF Discharges by Broadband Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, M. A.; Kim, J. S.; Sharma, S. P.

    1998-10-01

    The detection of reactive radicals in low-pressure radio-frequency (RF) discharges is of importance to the understanding of the chemical processes involved in discharge applications such as reactive ion etching (RIE) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Furthermore, the quantitative measurement of radical concentrations and their spatial distributions provide a test of theoretical models that describe the kinetics of such discharges and their ability to predict the overall reactor-scale performance. In this presentation, we describe preliminary studies of the quantitative detection of CH3 and CF2, which are the products of electron collisional dissociation of methane (CH4) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4), respectively, in low-pressure RF plasma discharges. The discharge studied is an inductively (transformer) coupled plasma (ICP) source, operating on either pure methane or pure tetrafluoromethane, in some cases, with argon dilution. Such discharges are commonly employed in RIE and PECVD applications, and these data contribute to the growing database on properties of such discharges, for which sophisticated models of their operation are presently under development at many laboratories. The detection method employed in these experiments relies on the relatively well studied, X -> B uv-absorption band of CH3 near 216 nm, and the A(0,2,0) -> X(0,0,0) uv-absorption band of CF2 at 234.3 nm.

  7. Triboelectric, Corona, and Induction Charging of Insulators as a Function of Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research has been performed that shows that the surface charge on an insulator after triboelectric charging with another insulator is rapidly dissipated with lowered atmospheric pressure. This pressure discharge is consistent with surface ions being evaporated off the surface once their vapor pressure is attained. In this paper we will report on the results of three different charging techniques (triboelectric, corona, and induction) performed on selected polymers with varying atmospheric pressure. This data will show that ion exchange between the polymer samples is the mechanism responsible for most of the surface charge on the polymer surfaces.

  8. Discharge parameters and dominant electron conductivity mechanism in a low-pressure planar magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, O.; Romanov, M.; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2009-06-15

    Parameters of a discharge sustained in a planar magnetron configuration with crossed electric and magnetic fields are studied experimentally and numerically. By comparing the data obtained in the experiment with the results of calculations made using the proposed theoretical model, conclusion was made about the leading role of the turbulence-driven Bohm electron conductivity in the low-pressure operation mode (up to 1 Pa) of the discharge in crossed electric and magnetic fields. A strong dependence of the width of the cathode sputter trench, associated with the ionization region of the magnetron discharge, on the discharge parameters was observed in the experiments. The experimental data were used as input parameters in the discharge model that describes the motion of secondary electrons across the magnetic field in the ionization region and takes into account the classical, near-wall, and Bohm mechanisms of electron conductivity.

  9. Modes of low-pressure longitudinal combined discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Kharchenko, Nadiia; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

    2007-10-01

    We studied in experiment the longitudinal combined (RF/DC) discharges. We applied across the electrodes the RF voltage and additionally DC voltage Udc simultaneously. Experiments were performed at the nitrogen pressure of p=0.01--5 Torr within the range of amplitude values of the RF voltage Urf < 2000 V, DC voltage Udc < 600V and f=13.56 MHz. The combined RF/DC discharges might exist in three modes. At low RF voltages the additional DC voltage makes a small contribution to the ionization rate of gas molecules within the plasma volume, and we observe the first mode of the combined RF/DC discharge -- ``non self-sustained RF discharge perturbed by the DC voltage''. When the RF voltage and the DC voltage are sufficiently large to induce the breakdown of the ``cathode'' layer, the discharge experiences the transition to the second mode -- ``combined discharge''. Just this mode is of considerable interest for plasma technology. The third mode may be obtained applying a small RF voltage to the burning DC discharge. We will call it conditionally ``non self-sustained DC discharge perturbed by the RF voltage''.

  10. Spatial distributions of plasma parameters in inductively coupled hydrogen discharges with an expansion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Li, Hong; Liu, Yang; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-07-01

    Spatial distributions of plasma parameters have been investigated by a Langmuir probe in a hydrogen inductively coupled plasma with an expansion region. The influence of the gas pressure and the radio-frequency power on the electron energy probability function (EEPF), electron density, and electron temperature has been presented. The results indicate that the EEPF evolves from a bi-Maxwellian distribution in the discharge driver region to a Maxwellian distribution in the expansion region at low pressures, whereas it is always characterized by a Maxwellian distribution at high pressures. Moreover, the electron density exhibits a bell-shaped profile in the driver region, while the electron temperature shows a relatively uniform distribution there, and they decrease to low values in the expansion region. In order to verify the experimental results, we use the COMSOL simulation software to calculate the electron density and electron temperature at different powers at 2 Pa. The simulated and measured axial distributions of the plasma properties agree well except for the absolute value, i.e., the calculated electron temperature is higher at all the RF powers, and the calculated electron density is underestimated at 2 kW, while a better agreement is obtained at low RF power.

  11. Runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharges at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.

    2010-09-01

    Breakdown of the gaps with a non-uniform electric field filled with nitrogen and air as well as with other gases under high-voltage nanosecond pulses was investigated. It is shown that conditions of obtaining a diffuse discharge without a source of additional ionization are extended at the voltage pulse duration decreasing. A volume discharge is formed due to the gap pre-ionization by runaway electrons and X-ray quanta. At a negative polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, a volume (diffuse) discharge formation is determined by pre-ionization with runaway electrons which are generated due to the electric field amplification near the cathode and in the gap. At a positive polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, the X-ray radiation, generated at the runaway electrons braking at the anode and in the gap, is of great importance in a volume discharge formation. A runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) has two characteristic stages. In the first stage, the ionization wave overlaps the gap during a fraction of a second. The discharge current is determined by the conductivity current in the dense plasma of the ionization wave and the displacement current in the remaining part of the gap. The second stage of the discharge can be related to the anomalous glow discharge with a high specific input power. During the second stage, the gap voltage decreases and the cathode spots formed as a result of explosive electron emission can participate in the electron emission from the cathode. At the increase of the voltage pulse duration and specific input power, the REP DD transforms into a spark discharge form. A REP DD is easily realized in various gases and at different pressures; see [1] and references in [1]. At pressure decrease was obtained the anode electrons beam current to rise (up to ~2 kA/cm2 in helium). At the REP DD, the anode is influenced by the plasma of a dense nanosecond discharge with the specific input power

  12. Modelling of an inductively coupled plasma torch with argon at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahouh, Hanene; Rebiai, Saida; Rochette, David; Vacher, Damien; Dudeck, Michel

    2014-05-01

    A fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the electromagnetic field, fluid flow and heat transfer in an inductively coupled plasma torch working at atmospheric pressure for argon plasma. The numerical simulation is carried out by using the finite element method based on COMSOL software. The two-dimensional profiles of the electric field, temperature, velocity and charged particle densities are demonstrated inside the discharge region. These numerical results are obtained for a fixed flow rate, frequency and electric power.

  13. Experiments and global model of inductively coupled rf Ar/N{sub 2} discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Takashi; Kasugai, Hiroki

    2010-08-15

    Experiments with a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy are carried out in inductively coupled rf (13.56 MHz) Ar/N{sub 2} discharges at three total pressures of 30, 60, and 110 mTorr, varying the Ar fractions from 50% to 95%. The electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) measured at all Ar fractions can be approximated using different exponentials in the bulk and high-energy regions, resulting in two temperature approximation of the measured EEPFs. The electron density slightly increases with increasing the Ar fraction at the Ar fractions below 70%, beyond which it relatively abruptly increases. On the other hand, the electron temperatures gradually decrease with the increase in the Ar fraction. The vibrational temperature does not strongly depend on the Ar fraction, whereas the rotational temperature gradually increases with the increase in the Ar fraction. The density of nitrogen atoms remains constant at the Ar fractions below 80%, beyond which it monotonically decreases with increasing the Ar fraction. A global model for electropositive plasma is used in order to investigate the plasma chemistry in Ar/N{sub 2} discharges assuming the Maxwellian electron energy distribution. The model results are compared with the experimental results, obtaining reasonably good agreement.

  14. Organic thin film deposition in atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, S.; Kogoma, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kodama, M.; Nomiyama, H.; Ichinohe, K.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization of a homogeneous glow discharge at atmospheric pressure has been studied since 1987. On flat surfaces, various plasma surface treatments and film depositions at atmospheric pressure have been examined. A practical application of the atmospheric pressure glow plasma on inner surfaces of flexible polyvinyl chloride tubes was tested for thin film deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene. Deposited film surfaces were characterized by ESCA and FT-IR/ATR measurements. Also SEM observation was done for platelet adhesion on the plasma treated polyvinyl chloride surface. These results showed remarkable enhancement in the inhibition to platelet adhesion on the inner surface of PVC tube, and homogeneous organic film deposition was confirmed. The deposition mechanism of polytetrafluoroethylene film in atmospheric pressure glow plasma is the same as the mechanism of film formation in the low pressure glow plasma, except for radical formation source. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Investigation of atmospheric pressure streamer discharges for methane reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachuilo, M. V.; Stefani, F.; Rosocha, L. A.; Raja, L. L.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen has several valuable uses in transportation: it can lower the coefficient of variation under lean burn conditions in internal combustion engines, and it is essential for the operation of fuel cells. Currently hydrogen can only be produced efficiently by reducing fossil fuels in large facilities. However, on-board production is desirable to reduce the infrastructure associated with storing and distributing hydrogen. Plasma dry reforming processes are viable candidates for onboard production. Our current work investigates the fundamental behavior of a single streamer discharge in methane. The electron temperature, and active species generation are determined through time resolved spectroscopy. This work will hopefully accelerate the development of non-thermal plasma based devices that include: dielectric barrier discharges, pulsed corona discharges, and other atmospheric-pressure plasma devices.

  16. On the role of helium molecules in atmospheric pressure discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Emile; Schregel, Christian; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Despite their intrinsic simplicity, helium plasma kinetics are still not fully understood and quantitatively described. This is particularly the case at high pressures when various molecular helium species (i.e. ions, excimer(s) and Rydberg states) are formed. In this contribution, the absolute density of helium Rydberg molecules is measured for the first time by a combination of laser photo-ionization and Thomson scattering experiments. The experiments are performed on a parallel plate, nanosecond pulsed, DC discharge at 700 mbar. The results are combined with electron and helium metastable densities measurements and compared with a kinetic model of the discharge. The source of He2 molecules in the discharge and afterglow phases are identified and discussed. The present experimental data and kinetic model solve several inconsistencies between reaction paths proposed in the literature.

  17. Electron and Negative Ion Densities in C(2)F(6) and CHF(3) Containing Inductively Coupled Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    HEBNER,GREGORY A.; MILLER,PAUL A.

    1999-12-07

    Electron and negative ion densities have been measured in inductively coupled discharges containing C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and CHF{sub 3}. Line integrated electron density was determined using a microwave interferometer, negative ion densities were inferred using laser photodetachment spectroscopy, and electron temperature was determined using a Langmuir probe. For the range of induction powers, pressures and bias power investigated, the electron density peaked at 9 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} (line-integrated) or approximately 9 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The negative ion density peaked at approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. A maximum in the negative ion density as a function of induction coil power was observed. The maximum is attributed to a power dependent change in the density of one or more of the potential negative ion precursor species since the electron temperature did not depend strongly on power. The variation of photodetachment with laser wavelength indicated that the dominant negative ion was F{sup -}. Measurement of the decay of the negative ion density in the afterglow of a pulse modulated discharge was used to determine the ion-ion recombination rate for CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and CHF{sub 3} discharges.

  18. Partial discharge detection and analysis in low pressure environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin

    Typical aerospace vehicles (aircraft and spacecraft) experience a wide range of operating pressures during ascending and returning to earth. Compared to the sea-level atmospheric pressure (760 Torr), the pressure at about 60 km altitude is 2 Torr. The performance of the electric power system components of the aerospace vehicles must remain reliable even under such sub-atmospheric operating conditions. It is well known that the dielectric strength of gaseous insulators, while the electrode arrangement remains unchanged, is pressure dependent. Therefore, characterization of the performance and behavior of the electrical insulation in flight vehicles in low-pressure environments is extremely important. Partial discharge testing is one of the practical methods for evaluating the integrity of electrical insulation in aerospace vehicles. This dissertation describes partial discharge (PD) measurements performed mainly with 60 Hz ac energization in air, argon and helium, for pressures between 2 and 760 Torr. Two main electrode arrangements were used. One was a needle-plane electrode arrangement with a Teflon insulating barrier. The other one was a twisted pair of insulated conductors taken from a standard aircraft wiring harness. The measurement results are presented in terms of typical PD current pulse waveforms and waveform analysis for both main electrode arrangements. The evaluation criteria are the waveform polarity, magnitude, shape, rise time, and phase angle (temporal location) relative to the source voltage. Two-variable histograms and statistical averages of the PD parameters are presented. The PD physical mechanisms are analyzed. For PD pattern recognition, both statistical methods (such as discharge parameter dot pattern representation, discharge parameter phase distribution, statistical operator calculations, and PD fingerprint development) and wavelet transform applications are investigated. The main conclusions of the dissertation include: (1) The PD current

  19. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Thrust Efficiency of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley; Polzin, Kurt; Emsellem, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA) [4, 5] is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and permanent magnets that are arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the inductive coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil is under investigation. The conical geometry serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [2, 3], however a conical coil imparts a direct radial acceleration of the current sheet that serves to rapidly decouple the propellant from the coil, limiting the direct axial electromagnetic acceleration in favor of an indirect acceleration mechanism that requires significant heating of the propellant within the volume bounded by the current sheet. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance

  20. Collisional and Radiative Processes in High-Pressure Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kurt

    2001-10-01

    High-pressure discharge plasmas (HPDPs) with operating pressures up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure have gained prominence in many areas of application such as EM absorbers and reflectors, remediation of waste streams, deposition and surface modification, surface cleaning and sterilization, and light source development. In particular, HPDPs are widely used as sources for the generation of non-coherent UV and VUV light such as excimer emissions in the spectral range from 50 nm to 300 nm using rare gases or rare gas admixed with other gases as the operating medium. In this talk we will discuss several common types of HPDPs (e.g. microhollow cathode discharge plasmas, dielectric barrier discharge plasmas, capillary dielectrode discharge plasmas) that are commonly used for the generation of non-coherent excimer emissions. The main focus of this talk will be on the elucidation of the underlying microscopic collisional and radiative processes in these plasmas that lead to the photon emission and that determine the efficiency and spectral characteristics of various sources. Processes of particular interest are the generation of intense, monochromatic atomic line emissions in the 90 - 130 nm range, in particular the H Lyman-alpha emission at 121.6 nm, from HPDPs in gas mixtures containing high-pressure He, Ne, or Ar with trace amounts (1which may have great potential in photolithography and related applications. The mechanism for the emission of these intense atomic VUV lines are near-resonant energy transfer processes from the excimer molecule to the diatomic gas (H2, O2, N2). This work was supported by the NSF and by DARPA/ARO and carried out in collaboration with P. Kurunczi, K.H. Schoenbach, M. Laroussi, M. Gupta, and N. Masoud. Helpful discussions with U. Kogelschatz and E. Kunhardt are gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Low pressure characterization of dielectric barrier discharge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Jignesh; Roy, Subrata

    2013-03-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge actuators tested for thrust inducement between 13 and 101 kPa ambient air pressure show that as the pressure decreases, the thrust increases to a maximum, then drops steadily approaching zero while the power consumption monotonically increases. The amplification in induced thrust at the peak ranges from a few percent to several folds of the thrust measured at atmospheric condition. The effect is more pronounced for thinner dielectrics at lower operating voltages than thicker dielectrics at higher operating voltages and is fairly independent of the ground electrode width. Results identify several optimal control parameters for high-altitude operations.

  2. High-pressure dc glow discharges in hollow diamond cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, B. S.; Turner, C.; May, P. W.

    2016-04-01

    We report the generation and characterization of dc helium microdischarges at several times atmospheric pressure in monolithic diamond hollow-cathode devices having cavity diameters on the order of 100 μm. I-V characteristics indicated operation in the glow discharge regime even at nearly 10 atm, while spectroscopic measurements of the N2 C3Πu  →  B3Πg emission returned rotational temperatures always around 420 K, with a pressure-dependent vibrational population distribution. The variation of breakdown voltage with pressure closely followed Paschen’s law, but with offsets in both axes that we tentatively ascribe to strong diffusive loss and a partial thermalization of electron energies under the high pressures considered here.

  3. A non-equilibrium diffuse discharge in atmospheric pressure air* A non-equilibrium diffuse discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Lu, Xinpei; Malott, Chad M.

    2003-02-01

    The generation and maintenance of non-thermal air plasmas at atmospheric pressure with low power requirements remain formidable challenges. Here, we report on a promising method allowing the production of an air plasma between a planar disc-shaped metal electrode and a second electrode made of a static volume of water contained in a shallow glass dish. Currently, we have used only tap water as one of the electrodes. However, other liquids with low conductivity could also be used. In this paper, the power requirements, gas temperature measurements, and atomic and molecular emission bands of the discharge will be presented. Potential applications of this atmospheric pressure discharge include decontamination, radiation sources, etc.

  4. Power measurements and coupler optimization in inductive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, V. A.; Alexandrovich, B. M.

    2017-08-01

    The power absorbed by the plasma is one of the key parameters which defines processes in any plasma source. This power, however, can be very different from the power at the rf power source output or the coupler terminals, which has been used in many publications to characterize the plasma. This article describes how to find the power absorbed by the plasma and the power lost in the coupler and matcher network for inductively coupled plasmas. In addition, several practical coupler configurations to reduce the coupler coil loss and minimize the rf plasma potential are discussed. We propose an effective and simple method to achieve that by the coupler coil splitting and insertion of the resonating capacitor in the middle of the coil. Our experimental data demonstrate this approach having superior coupler efficiency and substantially lower rf plasma potential.

  5. Ion energy distribution functions in inductively coupled RF discharges in mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Nichols, C.A.; Hamilton, T.W.

    1997-02-01

    Plasma discharges involving mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride are widely used to etch metals in the production of very-large-scale-integrated circuits. Energetic ions play a critical role in this process, influencing the etch rates, etch profiles, and selectivity to different materials. The authors are using a gridded energy analyzer to measure positive ion energy distributions and fluxes at the grounded electrode of high-density inductively-coupled rf discharges. In this paper, they present details of ion energies and fluxes in discharges containing mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of low pressure helium microwave driven discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinho, Susana; Felizardo, Edgar; Tatarova, Elena; Alves, Luis Lemos

    2016-09-01

    Surface wave driven discharges are reliable plasma sources that can produce high levels of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation (VUV and EUV). The richness of the emission spectrum makes this type of discharge a possible alternative source in EUV/VUV radiation assisted applications. However, due to challenging experimental requirements, publications concerning EUV radiation emitted by microwave plasmas are scarce and a deeper understanding of the main mechanisms governing the emission of radiation in this spectral range is required. To this end, the EUV radiation emitted by helium microwave driven plasmas operating at 2.45 GHz has been studied for low pressure conditions. Spectral lines from excited helium atoms and ions were detected via emission spectroscopy in the EUV/VUV regions. Novel data concerning the spectral lines observed in the 23 - 33 nm wavelength range and their intensity behaviour with variation of the discharge operational conditions are presented. The intensity of all the spectral emissions strongly increases with the microwave power delivered to the plasma up to 400 W. Furthermore, the intensity of all the ion spectral emissions in the EUV range decreases by nearly one order of magnitude as the pressure was raised from 0.2 to 0.5 mbar. Work funded by FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, under Project UID/FIS/50010/2013 and grant SFRH/BD/52412/2013 (PD-F APPLAuSE).

  7. Comparison of the B field dependency of plasma parameters of a weakly magnetized inductive and Helicon hydrogen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Gutmann, P.; Rauner, D.; Fantz, U.

    2016-06-01

    The discharge properties of a weakly magnetized inductively coupled hydrogen discharge (operating pressure 1 Pa) are evaluated by using optical emission spectroscopy. The behaviour of the electron density n e, temperature T e and the density ratio of atomic to molecular hydrogen n H/{{n}{{\\text{H}2}}} with varying magnetic field strength (up to 12 mT) is investigated. The results obtained from the OES measurements performed with a line of sight directed along the central axis of the cylindrical discharge vessel are compared to the case when the ICP antenna is replaced by a Nagoya-type-III Helicon antenna. In the ICP case, the electron temperature and density at the axis of the cylindrical discharge vessel decrease with increasing magnetic field due to the hindered radial electron diffusion. This results in a gradual transition from a homogeneous radial emission profile to a hollow profile with minimal emission in the discharge centre. Concerning the density ratio of atomic to molecular hydrogen, one obtains very high values of up to 0.32 at low B field and a decreasing behaviour with higher magnetic fields. For the Helicon case, the obtained values of n e and T e are virtually unaffected by the external magnetic field. Furthermore, a hollow radial emission profile is observed already at low B field strengths. In the Helicon setup one obtains an increasing trend for n H/{{n}{{\\text{H}2}}} with a maximum of about 0.2 at 12 mT.

  8. The effect of discharge chamber geometry on the ignition of low-pressure rf capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lisovskiy, V.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Booth, J.-P.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V.

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports measured and calculated breakdown curves in several gases of rf capacitive discharges excited at 13.56 MHz in chambers of three different geometries: parallel plates surrounded by a dielectric cylinder ('symmetric parallel plate'), parallel plates surrounded by a grounded metallic cylinder ('asymmetric parallel plate'), and parallel plates inside a much larger grounded metallic chamber ('large chamber'). The breakdown curves for the symmetric chamber have a multivalued section at low pressure. For the asymmetric chamber the breakdown curves are shifted to lower pressures and rf voltages, but the multivalued feature is still present. At higher pressures the breakdown voltages are much lower than for the symmetric geometry. For the large chamber geometry the multivalued behavior is not observed. The breakdown curves were also calculated using a numerical model based on fluid equations, giving results that are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements.

  9. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M.; Thong, K. L.

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  10. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M.; Thong, K. L.

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ˜15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  11. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  12. Electrode erosion in arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in an effort to measure and increase lifetime of electrodes in an arcjet thruster. The electrode erosion of various anode and cathode materials was measured after tests in an atmospheric pressure nitrogen arc discharge at powers less than 1 kW. A free-burning arc configuration and a constricted arc configuration were used to test the materials. Lanthanum hexaboride and thoriated tungsten had low cathode erosion rates while thoriated tungsten and pure tungsten had the lowest anode erosion rates of the materials tested. Anode cooling, reverse gas flow, and external magnetic fields were all found to reduce electrode mass loss.

  13. Electrode erosion in arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in an effort to measure and increase lifetime of electrodes in an arcjet thruster. The electrode erosion of various anode and cathode materials was measured after tests in an atmospheric pressure nitrogen arc discharge at powers less than 1 kW. A free-burning arc configuration and a constricted arc configuration were used to test the materials. Lanthanum hexboride and thoriated tungsten had low cathode erosion rates while thoriated tungsten and pure tungsten had the lowest anode erosion rates of the materials tested. Anode cooling, reverse gas flow, an external magnetic fields were all found to reduce electrode mass loss.

  14. Kinetic analysis of negative power deposition in inductive low pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Negative power deposition in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) is investigated by means of an analytical model which couples Boltzmann’s equation and the quasi-stationary Maxwell’s equations. Exploiting standard Hilbert space methods an explicit solution for both, the electric field and the distribution function of the electrons for a bounded discharge configuration subject to an unsymmetrical excitation is found for the first time. The model is applied to a low pressure ICP discharge. In this context particularly the anomalous skin effect and the effect of phase mixing is discussed. The analytical solution is compared with results from electromagnetic full wave particle in cell simulations. Excellent agreement between the analytical and the numerical results is found.

  15. Thrust Stand Measurements of the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. This type of pulsed thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Dis- charge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA), shown in Fig. 1, is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta-pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [1, 2]. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance (specific impulse, thrust efficiency) of the MAD-IPA thruster. Impulse data are obtained at various pulse energies, mass flow rates and inductive coil geometries. Dependencies on these experimental parameters are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma

  16. The influence of circuit inductance on the energy characteristics of electric discharge and deformation of plates in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of energy stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic deformation of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the deformation of plates by increasing the amount of energy spent in this process.

  17. Rotating spoke phenomena in low pressure E x B discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny

    2012-10-01

    The rotating spoke is azimuthal plasma non-uniformity which has been observed in a variety of low pressure cross-field discharges of cylindrical geometry [1-3]. The spoke can appear in different modes ranging from m=1 to higher order modes which propagate in the direction perpendicular to electric and magnetic fields with velocities of much lower than ExB velocity [2,3]. Although spoke phenomena is known for more than four decades, physical mechanism responsible for triggering of the spoke is still not understood. Recent studies of Hall thrusters and Penning-type magnetized plasma discharges demonstrated that the spoke is directly responsible for the enhancement of the electron cross-field transport in these devices [1,4]. A combination of time-resolving plasma measurements, including high speed imaging and probes suggest that for partially ionized magnetized plasma discharges, the spoke instability is triggered by ionization mechanism [4]. These experimental results are supported by recent particle-in-cell simulations. The advancement in understanding of the spoke mechanism enabled us to develop and demonstrate effective methods of spoke control, including mode, velocity and direction of the spoke, and spoke suppression [5]. Among practical implications of these results is the ability to develop more effective methods of plasma confinement and uniformity for magnetically-enhanced discharges and more efficient magnetized plasma thrusters. In collaboration with M. Griswold, L. Ellison, N. J. Fisch, K. Matyash, R. Schneider and A. Smolyakov.[4pt] [1] S. Jaeger, Th. Pierre, C. Rebont, Phys. Plasmas 16, 022304 (2009)[0pt] [2] J. B. Parker, Y. Raitses, N. J. Fisch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 091501 (2010)[0pt] [3] M. S. McDonald, A. D. Gallimore, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 39, 2952 (2011)[0pt] [4] C. L. Ellison, Y. Raitses, N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 19, 013503 (2012)[0pt] [5] M. E. Griswold, C. L. Ellison, Y. Raitses, N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 19, 053506 (2012).

  18. A time-resolved imaging and electrical study on a high current atmospheric pressure spark discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares, J. M.; Kohut, A.; Galbács, G.; Engeln, R.; Geretovszky, Zs.

    2015-12-01

    We present a time-resolved imaging and electrical study of an atmospheric pressure spark discharge. The conditions of the present study are those used for nanoparticle generation in spark discharge generator setups. The oscillatory bipolar spark discharge was generated between two identical Cu electrodes in different configurations (cylindrical flat-end or tipped-end geometries, electrode gap from 0.5 to 4 mm), in a controlled co-axial N2 flow, and was supplied by a high voltage capacitor. Imaging data with nanosecond time resolution were collected using an intensified CCD camera. This data were used to study the time evolution of plasma morphology, total light emission intensity, and the rate of plasma expansion. High voltage and high current probes were employed to collect electrical data about the discharge. The electrical data recorded allowed, among others, the calculation of the equivalent resistance and inductance of the circuit, estimations for the energy dissipated in the spark gap. By combining imaging and electrical data, observations could be made about the correlation of the evolution of total emitted light and the dissipated power. It was also observed that the distribution of light emission of the plasma in the spark gap is uneven, as it exhibits a "hot spot" with an oscillating position in the axial direction, in correlation with the high voltage waveform. The initial expansion rate of the cylindrical plasma front was found to be supersonic; thus, the discharge releases a strong shockwave. Finally, the results on equivalent resistance and channel expansion are comparable to those of unipolar arcs. This shows the spark discharge has a similar behavior to the arc regime during the conductive phase and until the current oscillations stop.

  19. Coupling mechanisms in inductive discharges with RF substrate bias driven at consecutive harmonics with adjustable relative phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Thomas; Berger, Birk; Schulze, Julian; Schuengel, Edmund; Koepke, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid combinations of inductive and capacitive RF discharges are commonly used for plasma etching because the inductive coupling ensures a high plasma density, while the capacitive coupling allows the control of the ion bombardment energy at the substrate. We experimentally study the coupling mechanisms between the two driving-voltage sources in such a plasma driven inductively at 13.56 MHz and capacitively at 27.12 MHz in argon and neon at low pressure. We find that the resulting DC self-bias can be controlled via the Electrical Asymmetry Effect by adjusting the relative phase between the two driving harmonics in the E-mode. Langmuir probe measurements and Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy (PROES) reveal that the addition of the applied RF-bias in the plasma acts as a catalyst for the transition between E- and H-mode. PROES measurements generally show that the electron power absorption dynamics are affected by the relative phase between the two driving voltage waveforms and by the ratio of the inductive to the capacitive driving powers. Finally, the ion flux-energy distribution function is measured at the RF-powered electrode and found also to be affected by coupling effects.

  20. Longitudinal discharge pumped low-pressure XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied output parameters of a XeCl and a N2 laser pumped by a longitudinal discharge with automatic spark UV preionisation. The output parameters of a low-pressure (30 Torr) XeCl laser operating with Ar, Ne and He as buffer gases or with no buffer gas have been optimised for the first time. The laser generated 5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.5 mW and output energy of 0.15 mJ. Under longitudinal discharge pumping, an output energy per unit volume of 1.8 J L-1 atm-1 was reached using helium as a buffer gas. With argon-containing and buffer-free mixtures, it was 1.5 J L-1 atm-1. The N2 laser generated 2.5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.35 mW and output energy of 0.05 mJ.

  1. Longitudinal discharge pumped low-pressure XeCl laser

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, A I

    2013-10-31

    We have studied output parameters of a XeCl and a N{sub 2} laser pumped by a longitudinal discharge with automatic spark UV preionisation. The output parameters of a low-pressure (30 Torr) XeCl laser operating with Ar, Ne and He as buffer gases or with no buffer gas have been optimised for the first time. The laser generated 5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.5 mW and output energy of 0.15 mJ. Under longitudinal discharge pumping, an output energy per unit volume of 1.8 J L{sup -1} atm{sup -1} was reached using helium as a buffer gas. With argon-containing and buffer-free mixtures, it was 1.5 J L{sup -1} atm{sup -1}. The N{sub 2} laser generated 2.5-ns FWHM pulses with an average power of 0.35 mW and output energy of 0.05 mJ. (lasers)

  2. A DSMC Study of Low Pressure Argon Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David B.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Work toward a self-consistent plasma simulation using the DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) method for examination of the flowfields of low-pressure high density plasma reactors is presented. Presently, DSMC simulations for these applications involve either treating the electrons as a fluid or imposing experimentally determined values for the electron number density profile. In either approach, the electrons themselves are not physically simulated. Self-consistent plasma DSMC simulations have been conducted for aerospace applications but at a severe computational cost due in part to the scalar architectures on which the codes were employed. The present work attempts to conduct such simulations at a more reasonable cost using a plasma version of the object-oriented parallel Cornell DSMC code, MONACO, on an IBM SP-2. Due to availability of experimental data, the GEC reference cell is chosen to conduct preliminary investigations. An argon discharge is chosen to conduct preliminary investigations. An argon discharge is examined thus affording a simple chemistry set with eight gas-phase reactions and five species: Ar, Ar(+), Ar(*), Ar(sub 2), and e where Ar(*) is a metastable.

  3. Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Pressure Surface Wave Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridenti, M. A.; Souza-Corrêa, J. A.; Amorim, J.

    2016-05-01

    By applying mass spectrometry techniques, we carried out measurements of ionic mass spectrum and their energy distribution in order to investigate an atmospheric argon discharge by using a surfatron surface-wave device. The mass and energy distribution measurements were performed with fixed flow rate (2.5 SLM) of pure argon gas (99.999%) and different Ar-O2 gas mixture compositions (99-1, 98-2 and 97-3). The mass spectra and energy distributions were recorded for Ar+, O+, O+ 2, N+ and N2 +. The axial distribution profiles of ionic mass and their energy were obtained for different experimental conditions as a function of the plasma length. The results showed that the peak of the positive ion energy distributions shifted to higher energies and also that the distribution width increased as the distance between the sampling orifice and the launcher gap was increased. It was also found that under certain experimental conditions the ion flux of atomic species were higher than the ion flux of their diatomic counterpart. The motivation of this study was to obtain a better understanding of a surface wave discharge in atmospheric pressure that may play a key role on new second generation biofuel technologies.

  4. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2015-05-18

    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322–6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  5. Kinetics of high pressure argon-helium pulsed gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, D. J.; Weeks, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    Simulations of a pulsed direct current discharge are performed for a 7% argon in helium mixture at a pressure of 270 Torr using both zero- and one-dimensional models. Kinetics of species relevant to the operation of an optically pumped rare-gas laser are analyzed throughout the pulse duration to identify key reaction pathways. Time dependent densities, electron temperatures, current densities, and reduced electric fields in the positive column are analyzed over a single 20 μs pulse, showing temporal agreement between the two models. Through the use of a robust reaction rate package, radiation trapping is determined to play a key role in reducing A r (1 s5) metastable loss rates through the reaction sequence A r (1 s5)+e-→A r (1 s4)+e- followed by A r (1 s4)→A r +ℏω . Collisions with He are observed to be responsible for A r (2 p9) mixing, with nearly equal rates to A r (2 p10) and A r (2 p8) . Additionally, dissociative recombination of A r2+ is determined to be the dominant electron loss mechanism for the simulated discharge conditions and cavity size.

  6. Bacterial Inactivation by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sanxi; Cheng, Cheng; Ni, Guohua; Meng, Yuedong; Chen, Hua

    2008-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli seeded in two media (agar and filter papers) were exposed to after-glow plasma emitted from a atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator in open air with a temperature of about 30-80 °C. In order to estimate the inactivation of microorganism using DBD plasma jet, various plasma conditions (such as treatment time and feed-gas composition of plasma jet) were changed. The results shown that the effective area of inactivation increased with the plasma treatment time as the bacteria seeded in Agar medium. The effective area of inactivation was much bigger than plasma jet treatment area after 5 min treatment. With the use of filter papers as the supporting media, the addition of reactive gases (oxygen, hydrogen peroxide vapor) into the plasma jet system, compared with only pure noble gas, led to a significant improvement in the bacterial Inactivation efficacy.

  7. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  8. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S. Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50 Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  9. Inductive Sensor Performance in Partial Discharges and Noise Separation by Means of Spectral Power Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Rojas-Moreno, Mónica Victoria; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel; Robles, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) detection is a standardized technique to qualify electrical insulation in machines and power cables. Several techniques that analyze the waveform of the pulses have been proposed to discriminate noise from PD activity. Among them, spectral power ratio representation shows great flexibility in the separation of the sources of PD. Mapping spectral power ratios in two-dimensional plots leads to clusters of points which group pulses with similar characteristics. The position in the map depends on the nature of the partial discharge, the setup and the frequency response of the sensors. If these clusters are clearly separated, the subsequent task of identifying the source of the discharge is straightforward so the distance between clusters can be a figure of merit to suggest the best option for PD recognition. In this paper, two inductive sensors with different frequency responses to pulsed signals, a high frequency current transformer and an inductive loop sensor, are analyzed to test their performance in detecting and separating the sources of partial discharges. PMID:24556674

  10. Thrust Stand Measurements Using Alternative Propellants in the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2011-01-01

    Storable propellants (for example water, ammonia, and hydrazine) are attractive for deep space propulsion due to their naturally high density at ambient interplanetary conditions, which obviates the need for a cryogenic/venting system. Water in particular is attractive due to its ease of handling and availability both terrestrially and extra-terrestrially. While many storable propellants are reactive and corrosive, a propulsion scheme where the propellant is insulated from vulnerable (e.g. metallic) sections of the assembly would be well-suited to process these otherwise incompatible propellants. Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters meet this criterion because they can be operated without direct propellant-electrode interaction. During operation of these devices, electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil creating a time-varying current in the coil that interacts with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, many pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA) is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta

  11. Low Pressure Experimental Simulation of Electrical Discharges Above and Inside a Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1996-01-01

    A low pressure laboratory experiment to generate sporadic electrical discharges in either a particulate dielectric or air, representing a competing path of preferred electrical breakdown, was investigated. At high pressures, discharges occurred inside the dielectric particulate; at low pressures, discharges occurred outside the dielectric particulate; at a transition pressure regime, which depends on conductivity of the dielectric particulate, discharges were simultaneously generated in both particulate dielectric and air. Unique use of a particulate dielectric was critical for sporadic discharges at lower pressures which were not identical in character to discharges without the particulate dielectric. Application of these experimental results to the field of atmospheric electricity and simulation of the above-cloud type discharges that have recently been documented, called jets and sprites, are discussed.

  12. Electron heating in the inductive discharge array (IDA): theoretical concept and first measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahr, Philipp; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Besides the common stochastic heating effect in inductively coupled plasmas, recently a novel heating mechanism was identified theoretically by Czarnetzki and Tarnev. It considers the movement of electrons in a plane parallel to the induced electric field lines, in contrast to the well-known case, when the considered electrons move perpendicular. To enable the possibility of non-local energy gain for electron in this parallel plane, a periodically structured electric field was proposed. To experimentally verify this hypothesis a new plasma source was designed and assembled. This source is named Inductive Discharge Array (IDA). The special spatial field structure is realized by a large electrode with an array of 6 x 6 small plane inductive coils. Due to the use of two separate electric circuits, both electric field structures mentioned in can be achieved. Here the theoretical background and the relevant design considerations are presented. In addition first experimental results are shown.

  13. The two-dimensional structure of the Penning discharge in a cylindrical chamber with axial magnetic field at a pressure of about 1 Torr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    The stationary Penning discharge has been numerically simulated using the diffusion-drift model in the pressure range p = 0.5-5 Torr at emf E of 100 and 200 V. The two-dimensional electrodynamic-discharge structure has been investigated in the calculation region between a cylindrical anode and two flat disk cathodes. Configurations of the discharge plasma and averaged azimuthal motion rates of electrons and ions have been obtained. The evolution of the plasma configuration at a change in pressure, emf, and magneticfield induction is discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic Investigations of Glow Discharges and the Emissions of Nonmetallic Elements in the Argon Inductively Coupled Plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Hugh Alan

    1988-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on hollow cathode discharges adapted from laser technology for use as a spectroscopic light source and the argon inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as an excitation source for nonmetal emission. High and low voltage aluminum and copper hollow cathode discharges were studied as a source of ionic and resonant atomic metal emission. The high voltage versions achieve strongly positive current-voltage behavior through utilization of the obstructed discharge phenomenon. The current-pressure-intensity-voltage relationships for low and high voltage copper hollow cathode discharges were studied with the inert gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The intensity for copper resonant atomic emission with the fill gases Ar, Kr, and Xe improved relative to neon in the high voltage lamp when compared to the low voltage lamp. Absorption measurements through the cathode bore show the ground state atom density to increase with the atomic weight of the fill gas at any given level of intensity, at the fill gas pressure yielding highest resonant atomic copper emission. The estimated ion/atom intensity ratio is increased with fill gases which have metastable or ionization energies greater than the excitation energy of the ion transition. A copper hollow cathode lamp incorporating a short positive column discharge in front of the cathode opening was investigated for its lineshape as measured spectroscopically and by its atomic absorption sensitivity. Incorporation of this positive column allowed higher intensities to be obtained at the same line quality as a commercial hollow cathode lamp. An enlarged cathode volume also improves the lineshape at a given intensity. Inductively coupled plasma spectra for the elements C, O, N, Cl, P, S, and Br were obtained in the vacuum ultraviolet utilizing a vacuum polychromator and SWR film. The detection limit for injected O_2 and N _2 detected electronically by the VUV emissions is 1.3 and 0.9 micrograms

  15. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge

    2014-01-15

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  16. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  17. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1984-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  18. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1984-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  19. A hybrid model in inductively coupled plasma discharges with bias source: Description of model and experimental validation in Ar discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-09-01

    Traditional fluid simulation and Particle-in-Cell/Monte-Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) are very time consuming in inductively coupled plasma. In this work, a hybrid model, i.e. global model coupled bidirectional with parallel Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) sheath model, is developed to investigate inductively coupled plasma discharge with bias source. The global model is applied to calculate plasma density in bulk plasma. The sheath model is performed to consistently calculate the electric field, ion kinetic and the sheath thickness above the bias electrode. Moreover, specific numbers of ions are tracked and ultimately ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) incident into bias electrode are obtained from MCC module. It is found that as the bias amplitude increases, the energy width of both IEDFs becomes wider, and the total outlines of IEDFs move towards higher energy. The results from the model are validated by experimental measurement and a qualitative agreement is obtained. The advantage of this model is that plasma density, ion flux and IEDF, which are widely concerned in the actual process, could be obtained within an hour. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No. 11205025 and 11335004) and (Grant No.11405018), the Important National Science and Technology Specific Project (Grant No. 2011ZX02403-001).

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: On the application of inductively coupled plasma discharges sustained in Ar/O2/N2 ternary mixture for sterilization and decontamination of medical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelmann, K.; Kylián, O.; Denis, B.; Rossi, F.

    2008-10-01

    Non-equilibrium low pressure-plasma discharges are extensively studied for their high potential in the field of sterilization and decontamination of medical devices. This increased interest in plasma discharges arises from, among other reasons, their capability not only to inactivate bacterial spores but also to eliminate, destroy or remove pathogenic biomolecules and thus to provide a one-step process assuring safety of treated instruments. However, recent studies have shown that optimal conditions leading to inactivation of spores and physical removal of pathogens differ significantly—the efficiency of spores sterilization is above all dependent on the UV radiation intensity, whereas high etching rates are connected with the presence of the etching agent, typically atomic oxygen. The aim of this contribution is to discuss and demonstrate the feasibility of Ar/N2/O2 low-pressure inductively coupled plasma discharges as an option to provide intense UV radiation while maintaining the high etching rates of biomolecules.

  1. Theory of instabilities in crossed-field discharges at low pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Abolmasov, Sergey N.; Samukawa, Seiji; Bizyukov, Alexander A.

    2007-09-15

    Anode layer thruster, Penning, cylindrical magnetron, and inverted-magnetron discharges all behave, at pressures below about 10{sup -4} Torr, as crossed-field discharges. At such low pressures, a crossed-field discharge is pure electron plasma and most of the discharge voltage appears across an electron sheath so that the electric field is orthogonal to the magnetic field. The principal difficulties in the practical use of these discharges in this pressure range arise from instabilities in the discharge, which are commonly attributed to diocotron instabilities in the electron sheath. On the contrary, this paper describes a theory of the electron sheath based on the classical expression for the cross-field mobility of electrons. The theory predicts that the observed instabilities, accompanied by appearance of pulses of excess energy electrons at the cathode(s) and nonlinearity in the discharge characteristics, are simply the result of periodic travel of the electron sheath through the discharge gap.

  2. Injection of plasma plume into radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Han, Qianhan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shi, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    The influence of a high voltage sub-microsecond pulsed plasma plume on a radio frequency discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied experimentally. The discharge characteristics and dynamics of pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge are characterized in terms of voltage and current waveforms and spatio-temporal evolution of discharge. It is found that the plasma bullet generated by pulsed discharge can inject into the radio frequency discharge region with the average travelling speed of 70 km/s. The radio frequency discharge intensity is elevated to be 3 times higher as the plasma bullet penetrating the interelectrode gap of radio frequency discharge. The enhancement is attributed to the injection of energetic electrons by the plasma bullet, which is demonstrated by the temporal evolution of discharge image intensity and optical emission spectroscopy intensity.

  3. Thomson scattering on high pressure Hg discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; de Vries, N.; Kieft, E. R.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.; Haverlag, M.

    2005-06-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) experiments have been performed on high-pressure Hg discharge lamps. These lamps were filled with different amounts of Hg (15, 30, 50 and 70 mg) and were operating at different powers (150, 200 and 240 W) with a square-wave ballast. As in the previous studies (Zhu X et al 2004 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37 736-43) a triple grating spectrograph was used to suppress the false stray light and Rayleigh scattered photons. This set-up had to be modified for this special application. The collective TS spectra have been fitted using both a calibration using Raman scattering and a form fitting procedure. It was found that the electron temperature fluctuates around a certain value that seems rather constant in the central region. The value of electron temperature (Te) varies between 5500 and 7600 K in the central region (r <= 0.3 R). The spatial-averaged Te value increases with the lamp power. The electron density was found to be of the order of 1021 m-3 which is high at the centre and decreases as r increases. The ne value also increases with the lamp power. Moreover the results of TS are compared with those from x-ray absorption measurement. The comparison shows that the plasmas in such lamps are not in local thermal equilibrium in the sense that T_e\

  4. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jie Jiang, Weiman; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jing; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-08-24

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation.

  5. The transition mechanisms of the E to H mode and the H to E mode in an inductively coupled argon-mercury mixture discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Yu; Zheng, Zhe; Xu, Liang; Wang, Pi; Cao, Jin-Xiang

    2015-10-15

    In our experiment, the transition points between the two operational modes of capacitive coupling (E mode) and inductive coupling (H mode) were investigated at a wide range of mercury vapor pressures in an inductively coupled plasma, varying with the input radio-frequency powers and the total filling pressures (10 Pa–30 Pa). The electron temperatures were calculated versus with the mercury vapor pressures for different values of the total filling pressures. The transition power points and electron density also were measured in this study. It is shown that the transition powers, whether the E to H mode transition or the H to E mode transition, are lower than that of the argon discharge, and these powers almost increase with the mercury vapor pressure rising. However, the transition electron density follows an inverse relationship with the mercury vapor pressures compared with the transition powers. In addition, at the lower pressures and higher mercury vapor pressures, an inverse hysteresis was observed clearly, which did not appear in the argon gas plasma. We suggest that all these results are attributed to the electron-neutral collision frequency changed with the additional mercury vapor pressures.

  6. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  7. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  8. Landau Damping and Anomalous Skin Effect in Low-pressure Gas Discharges: Self-consistent Treatment of Collisionless Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg V. Polomarov; Constantine E. Theodosiou

    2004-01-30

    In low-pressure discharges, where the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially nonlocal. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the nonlocal conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, nonuniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is reported. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. This system was applied to the calculation of collisionless heating in capacitively and inductively coupled plasmas. In particular, the importance of accounting for the nonuniform plasma density profile for computing the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated. The enhancement of collisionless heating due to the bounce resonance between the electron motion in the potential well and the external radio-frequency electric field is investigated. It is shown that a nonlinear and self-consistent treatment is necessary for the correct description of collisionless heating.

  9. Discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Liqun; Huang, Xiaojiang; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2010-11-15

    The discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge was studied in atmospheric helium at 20 kHz. The discharge was predominately ignited in positive half cycle of applied voltage with sinusoidal waveform. The temporal evolution of the discharge was investigated vertically along the discharge gap and radically on the dielectric surface by time resolved imaging. It is found that a discharge column with a diameter of 2 mm was ignited above the pin electrode and expanded toward a plate electrode. On the dielectric surface with space charge accumulation, plasma disk in terms of plasma ring was formed with radius up to 25 mm. The expansion velocity of plasma ring can reach a hypersonic speed of 3.0 km/s. The ionization wave due to electron diffusion is considered to be the mechanism for plasma ring formation and dynamics.

  10. Electrical Properties for Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharges of Helium and Neon at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanisli, Murat; Sahin, Neslihan; Demir, Suleyman

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the symmetric radio frequency (RF) electrode discharge is formed between the two electrodes placing symmetric parallel. The electrical properties of symmetric capacitive RF discharge of pure neon and pure helium have been obtained from current and voltage waveforms. Calculations are done according to the homogeneous discharge model of capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) using with the data in detail. Electrical properties of bulk plasma and sheath capacitance are also investigated at low pressure with this model. This study compares the electrical characteristics and sheath capacitance changes with RF power and pressure for helium and neon discharges. Also, the aim of the study is to see the differences between helium and neon discharges' current and voltage values. Their root-mean-square voltages and currents are obtained from Tektronix 3052C oscilloscope. Modified homogeneous discharge model of CCRF is used for low pressure discharges and the calculations are done using experimental results. It is seen that homogeneous discharge model of CCRF is usable with modification and then helium and neon discharge's electrical properties are investigated and presented with a comparison. Helium discharge's voltage and current characteristic have smaller values than neon's. It may be said that neon discharge is a better conductor than helium discharge. It is seen that the sheath capacitance is inversely correlation with sheath resistance.

  11. Nonlocal electron kinetics and spatial transport in radio-frequency two-chamber inductively coupled plasmas with argon discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-06-01

    A two-chamber inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system, in which an expansion region with large volume is attached to a main ICP (driver region with a small vessel), is investigated. In order to give a comprehensive knowledge of this kind of plasma source, the axially and radially resolved measurements of the electron density, effective electron temperature, and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for an argon discharge are systematically conducted by means of Langmuir probe for various powers and gas pressures. Moreover, a hybrid model within COMSOL Multiphysics is employed to validate the experimental results. It is found that the diffusion combined with the nonlocal electron kinetics plays a predominant role in two-chamber ICPs. Along the axial direction, both the electron density and the electron temperature peak at the center of the driver region and they decline towards both sides. The depletion of high-energy tails of EEPFs with axial distance demonstrates the cooling mechanism for energetic electrons in the expansion region. Along the radial direction, the spatial distribution of the electron density exhibits a bell shape for various powers and pressures. However, the radial distribution of the effective electron temperature varies gradually from a convex shape to a concave shape with increasing gas pressure, indicating the transition from nonlocal to local electron kinetics.

  12. Existence of solutions for electron balance problem in the stationary radio-frequency induction discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltukhin, V. S.; Solovyev, S. I.; Solovyev, P. S.; Chebakova, V. Yu

    2016-11-01

    A sufficient condition for the existence of a minimal eigenvalue corresponding to a positive eigenfunction of an eigenvalue problem with nonlinear dependence on the parameter for a second order ordinary differential equation is established. The initial problem is approximated by the finite element method. Error estimates for the approximate minimal eigenvalue and corresponding positive eigenfunction are derived. Problems of this form arise in modelling the plasma of a radio-frequency discharge at reduced pressure.

  13. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges interacting with liquid covered tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of plasmas with liquids is of increasing importance in biomedical applications. Tissues treated by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in plasma medicine are often covered by a thin layer of liquid, typically a blood serum like water with dissolved gases and proteins up to hundreds of micrometres thick. The liquid processes the plasma-produced radicals and ions prior to their reaching the tissue. In this paper, we report on a computational investigation of the interaction of DBDs in humid air with a thin water layer covering tissue. The water layer, 50-400 µm thick, contains dissolved O2aq (aq means an aqueous species) and alkane-like hydrocarbons (RHaq). In the model, the DBDs are operated with multiple pulses at 100 Hz followed by a 1 s afterglow. Gas phase reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) intersect the water-vapour saturated air above the liquid and then solvate when reaching the water. The photolysis of water by plasma-produced UV/VUV plays a significant role in the production of radicals. Without RHaq, O_{2aq}^{-} , ONOO_{aq}^{-} , NO_{3aq}^{-} and hydronium (H_{3} O_{aq}^{+} ) dominate the water ions with H_{3} O_{aq}^{+} determining the pH. The dominant RONS in the liquid are O3aq, H2O2aq, and HNOxaq. Dissolved O2aq assists the production of HNO3aq and HOONOaq during the afterglow. With RHaq, reactive oxygen species are largely consumed, leaving an R·aq (alkyl radical) to reach the tissue. These results are sensitive to the thickness of the water layer.

  14. Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Zalach, J.; Franke, St.

    2013-01-28

    The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

  15. Characterization of stationary and pulsed inductively coupled RF discharges for plasma sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, T.; Osiac, M.; O'Connell, D.; Kadetov, V. A.; Czarnetzki, U.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Halfmann, H.; Awakowicz, P.

    2005-05-01

    Sterilization of bio-medical materials using radio frequency (RF) excited inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) has been investigated. A double ICP has been developed and studied for homogenous treatment of three-dimensional objects. Sterilization is achieved through a combination of ultraviolet light, ion bombardment and radical treatment. For temperature sensitive materials, the process temperature is a crucial parameter. Pulsing of the plasma reduces the time average heat strain and also provides additional control of the various sterilization mechanisms. Certain aspects of pulsed plasmas are, however, not yet fully understood. Phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy and time resolved ion energy analysis illustrate that a pulsed ICP ignites capacitively before reaching a stable inductive mode. Time resolved investigations of the post-discharge, after switching off the RF power, show that the plasma boundary sheath in front of a substrate does not fully collapse for the case of hydrogen discharges. This is explained by electron heating through super-elastic collisions with vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules.

  16. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The pressurizing line has: (1) A pressure reducing valve that has a setting that is 90 percent or less of the tank's relief valve setting; and (2) A manual control valve between the pressure reducing valve and the tank. ...

  17. Novel charge/discharge method for lead acid battery by high-pressure crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoko; Maeda, Kouji; Moritoki, Masato; Fukui, Keisuke; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Miki, Hideo

    2013-06-01

    The electrical charging and discharging of a battery involves the crystallization of electrolytes or metal oxides on both electrodes. Crystallization technology that can control nucleation, growth, and distribution of solute crystals might be effective for improving battery properties. We performed charge/discharge cycling of a lead acid battery under high pressure. The charging efficiency at high pressure was compared with that at atmospheric pressure. Charging efficiency at high pressure was found to be higher than that at atmospheric pressure under a high charging current. Observation of the positive electrode by scanning electron microscopy revealed that high pressure caused the crystals on the electrode to become extremely fine.

  18. Modeling of Steady-State Non-Inductive ITB Discharges with Application to DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, H. E.; Lao, L. L.; Murakami, M.; Kinsey, J. E.

    2001-10-01

    Establishment of near steady-state high-performance discharges with internal transport barriers in the electron and ion heat and the toroidal momentum channels is investigated using the GLF23 and Weiland confinement models. A combination of neutral beam and electron cyclotron heating and current drive is used to optimally shape the current profile for near non-inductive steady-state operation. The GLF23 and Weiland confinement models have had some success in modeling DIII-D discharges and consequently represents our best choice for DIII-D AT scenario development at this time. By starting the modeling with actual high-performance DIII-D discharges, we expect to obtain experimentally realized results. The stability of our simulations is monitored with the BALOO and GATO codes and rf heating and current drive is modelled with TORAY-GA. This computationally instensive modeling approach requires concurrent computing methods in order to be used routinely. We discuss our efforts to date in producing a parallel computational transport environment.

  19. Characteristics of the Plasma Environment and Discharge Process in a High-Pressure Pulsed Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics and properties of a plasma generated in a pulsed arc discharge are investigated. Arc discharge plasmas are prevalent in the production and treatment of materials. Photodetectors and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are used to probe the plasmas and characterize their spectral responses. OES allows for species identification and provides information about the state of the plasma, such as the electron temperature. Discharges generated with inert gas such as argon, as well as with nitrogen and air, are studied and compared. In the case of reactive gases, OES also provides information on the possible reactions that took place. Microwave interferometry is used to measure the electron density to provide spatial information on the discharges. In addition, the measurement is synchronized with the discharge pulse to obtain temporal information, for instance, during the pulse initialization phase to investigate the arc discharge process prior to plasma generation, where optical information is absent. Together, this allows for the characterization of the pre-, during, and post-discharge processes.

  20. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved.

  1. 46 CFR 153.964 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system; (b) The pressurization medium is either the cargo vapor or a nonflammable, nontoxic gas inert to the cargo; and (c) The pressurizing line has: (1) A pressure reducing valve whose setting does not exceed 90% of the tank's relief valve setting and a manual control valve between the pressure reducing...

  2. 46 CFR 153.964 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system; (b) The pressurization medium is either the cargo vapor or a nonflammable, nontoxic gas inert to the cargo; and (c) The pressurizing line has: (1) A pressure reducing valve whose setting does not exceed 90% of the tank's relief valve setting and a manual control valve between the pressure reducing...

  3. Formation of an Apokampic Discharge Under Atmospheric Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, V. S.; Panarin, V. A.; Pechenitsyn, D. S.; Sosnin, É. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-09-01

    A new phenomenon is observed in a spark discharge developing under normal conditions in air in a discharge circuit with a capacitive decoupling. It consists in the current channel bending becoming a source of a 4-6 cm long plasma jet directed across the channel. The phenomenon is termed an apokampic discharge or an apokamp. Its emission spectrum contains the bands of electron-vibration transitions from the second positive group of molecular nitrogen. The conditions of formation of an apokamp are experimentally determined. A conclusion is drawn that in order construct a physical model of an apokamp, one has to take into account: 1) the presence of a local gas overheating in the site of the current channel bending, 2) the similarity of the current and voltage time dependences in the corona discharge and in the current channel (becoming a source of an apokamp), and 3) the length of the apokamp plasma jet.

  4. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  5. Discharge processes and an electrical model of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge in argon was generated using a needle-to-ring electrode configuration driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The electric discharge processes and discharge characteristics were investigated by inspecting the voltage-current waveforms, Lissajous curves and lighting emission images. The change in discharge mode with applied voltage amplitude was studied and characterised, and three modes of corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and jet discharge were identified, which appeared in turn with increasing applied voltage and can be distinguished clearly from the measured voltage-current waveforms, light-emission images and the changing gradient of discharge power with applied voltage. Based on the experimental results and discharge mechanism analysis, an equivalent electrical model and the corresponding equivalent circuit for characterising the whole discharge processes accurately was proposed, and the three discharge stages were characterised separately. A voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) associated with a resistance and a capacitance were used to represent the DBD stage, and the plasma plume and corona discharge were modelled by a variable capacitor in series with a variable resistor. Other factors that can influence the discharge, such as lead and stray capacitance values of the circuit, were also considered in the proposed model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  6. Wide-pressure-range coplanar dielectric barrier discharge: Operational characterisation of a versatile plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, J.; Bonaventura, Z.; SÅ¥ahel, P.; Zemánek, M.; Dvořáková, H.; Černák, M.

    2017-01-01

    Many plasma applications could benefit from the versatile plasma source operable at a wide-pressure-range, e.g., from the fraction of Pa to the super-atmospheric conditions. In this paper, the basic characteristics of wide-pressure-range plasma source based on the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge is given. The operational characteristics of this plasma source were measured in nitrogen at pressures ranging from 101 Pa (resp. 10-4 Pa) to 105 Pa. Measurements of the plasma geometry, breakdown voltage, and micro-discharges' behaviour revealed three operational regimes of this plasma source: "high pressure," "transitional" and "low-pressure" with vague boundaries at the pressures of approx. 10 kPa and 1 kPa. It was found that the plasma layer of coplanar dielectric barrier discharge could be expanded up to several centimetres to the half-space above the planar dielectric barrier when the gas pressure is reduced below 1 kPa, which provides an outstanding space to tailor the source for the specific applications. The proposed model of an effective gap distance in the Paschen breakdown criterion enabled us to explain the discharge behaviour fitting the experimental breakdown voltage data in the whole studied pressure range. Under the filament-forming conditions, i.e., at the pressure range from approx. 1-100 kPa, the active plasma volume could be varied through the micro-discharges' lateral thickness scaling with the inverse of the square-root of the gas pressure.

  7. Numerical study of effect of secondary electron emission on discharge characteristics in low pressure capacitive RF argon discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Yue Samir, Tagra; Ma, Zhaoshuai

    2014-08-15

    Based on the drift and diffusion approximation theory, a 1D fluid model on capacitively coupled RF argon glow discharge at low pressure is established to study the effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) on the discharge characteristics. The model is numerically solved by using a finite difference method and the numerical results are obtained. The numerical results indicate that when the SEE coefficient is larger, the plasma density is higher and the time of reaching steady state is longer. It is also found that the cycle-averaged electric field, electric potential, and electron temperature change a little as the SEE coefficient is increased. Moreover, the discharge characteristics in some nonequilibrium discharge processes with different SEE coefficients have been compared. The analysis shows that when the SEE coefficient is varied from 0.01 to 0.3, the cycle-averaged electron net power absorption, electron heating rate, thermal convective term, electron energy dissipation, and ionization all have different degrees of growth. While the electron energy dissipation and ionization are quite special, there appear two peaks near each sheath region in the discharge with a relatively larger SEE coefficient. In this case, the discharge is certainly operated in a hybrid α-γ-mode.

  8. Reuse, treatment, and discharge of the concentrate of pressure-driven membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Bruggen, Bart; Lejon, Liesbeth; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2003-09-01

    Application of pressure-driven membrane processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) results in the generation of a large concentrated waste stream, the concentrate fraction, as a byproduct of the purification process. Treatment of the concentrate is a major hurdle for the implementation of pressure-driven membrane processes since the concentrate is usually unusable and has to be discharged or further treated. This paper reviews possibilities to treat or discharge the concentrate: (i) reuse, (ii) removal of contaminants, (iii) incineration, (iv) direct or indirect discharge in surface water, (v) direct or indirect discharge in groundwater, and (vi) discharge on a landfill. General guidelines are given for the choice of a proper method as a function of the origin and composition of the water treated. Next, the further treatment of the concentrates in four application areas of pressure-driven membrane processes (drinking water industry, leather industry, and membrane treatment of landfill leachates and of textile process waters) is discussed.

  9. A volume averaged global model for inductively coupled HBr/Ar plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sang-Young; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young

    2015-09-01

    A global model for inductively coupled HBr/Ar plasma was developed. The model was based on a self-consistent global model had been developed by Kwon et al., and a set of chemical reactions in the HBr/Ar plasma was compiled by surveying theoretical, experimental and evaluative researches. In this model vibrational excitations of bi-atomic molecules and electronic excitations of hydrogen atom were taken into account. Neutralizations by collisions between positive and negative ions were considered with Hakman's approximate formula achieved by fitting of theoretical result. For some reactions that were not supplied from literatures the reaction parameters of Cl2 and HCl were adopted as them Br2 and HBr, respectively. For validation calculation results using this model were compared with experimental results from literatures for various plasma discharge parameters and it showed overall good agreement.

  10. Modeling of asymmetric pulsed phenomena in dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ha Yan; Wang Huijuan; Wang Xiaofei

    2012-01-15

    Asymmetric current pulses in dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges are investigated by a self-consistent, one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the glow mode and Townsend mode can coexist in the asymmetric discharge even though the gas gap is rather large. The reason for this phenomenon is that the residual space charge plays the role of anode and reduces the gap width, resulting in the formation of a Townsend discharge.

  11. Spectroscopic measurements in low temperature inductively coupled RF discharges in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebschman, Michael Lee

    1999-10-01

    Noninvasive spectroscopic measurements of density and temperature which are characteristic of plasma processing tools have been obtained on inductively driven low- density hydrogen plasma sources. These measurements allow full radial and axial profiles of electron density and temperature to be estimated from absolutely calibrated multichannel spectroscopic measurements of upper state densities and a collisional radiative model that accounts for both collisional and radiative processes. The electron temperature and density were estimated by minimizing the least square deviation of measured population of upper state densities and the prediction of the collisional radiative model. Profiles were obtained over a range of powers from 50 to 200 Watts and pressures from 5 to 50 mTorr in hydrogen in a small cylindrical source. Typical density and temperature measurement profiles have been plotted to characterize the apparatus. An elementary sensitivity analysis, which includes plasma opacity and non- Maxwellian electron distributions, showed that, for hydrogen at processing pressures, the accuracy of the technique is relatively unaffected by these perturbations. The molecular dissociation processes were found to be important in determining the steady state densities of atomic hydrogen but had little affect in populating the upper state hydrogen levels for the plasma conditions measured. A hydrogen working gas and simple geometry were chosen to simplify detailed comparisons with a 2D computational model (INDUCT95) which uses a fluid approximation for the plasma and neutral gas. The code calculates the inductive coupling of the 13.5MHz RIF source and collisional, radiative, and wall losses as well as a complete chemistry model for H2, H, H+, H 3+. Good qualitative agreement between the initial model calculations and experimental data have been obtained over part of the operational range. Lastly, to characterize the apparatus for use in wafer cleaning, radial profiles of the

  12. A study of the glow discharge characteristics of contact electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenzheng Sun, Guangliang Li, Chuanhui; Zhang, Rongrong

    2014-04-15

    Electric field distributions and discharge properties of rod-rod contact electrodes were studied under the condition of DBD for the steady generation of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma (APGD) in air. We found that under the effect of the initial electrons generated in a nanometer-scale gap, the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes yielded APGD plasma in air. Regarding the rod-rod cross-contact electrodes, increasing the working voltage expanded the strong electric field area of the gas gap so that both discharge area and discharge power increased, and the increase in the number of contact points kept the initial discharge voltage unchanged and caused an increase in the plasma discharge area and discharge power. A mesh-like structure of cross-contact electrodes was designed and used to generate more APGD plasma, suggesting high applicability.

  13. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  14. Low temperature plasma RF capacitive discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakki, A.; Fayrushin, I.; Kashapov, N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes Low temperature plasma RF capacitive discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure. The circuit has been done, to obtain output currentabout 90mA,and the maximum power was 100W, The frequency of the discharging was f = 40MHz.Twolamps (DУ-50) were used in power supply. Helium consumption was about 1.5l/m.

  15. Current-pressure dependencies of dc magnetron discharge in inert gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, A. O.; Mankelevich, Yu A.; Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    The current-pressure (I-P) characteristics of dc magnetron discharge in inert gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) for various constant discharge voltages were measured. Under certain conditions on I-P characteristic, the nonmonotonic region of local maximum followed by a minimum is observed. It is found that increasing mass of the working gas ions results in a shift of the local maximum to lower pressures. The spatial distribution of ions in the plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. Transformation of the discharge spatial structure with pressure was observed. A qualitative model of the observed trends is presented. It takes into account the pressure dependence of the discharge spatial structure, the capturing of secondary electrons by the cathode and charge exchange effects.

  16. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD ) in dry air by using a simple DBD device. So far, we have tried to apply the homogeneous DBD to an...specific input energy region. In this work, we investigated the effect of gas pressure (from 0.1 MPa to 0.2 MPa) on the ozone yield by homogeneous DBD . The...homogeneous DBD decreased with increasing the gas pressure. 1. Introduction The dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD ) is composed of many filamentary micro

  17. Fluid simulation of the bias effect in inductive/capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Li, Xue-Chun; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-11-15

    Computer simulations are performed for an argon inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with a capacitive radio-frequency bias power, to investigate the bias effect on the discharge mode transition and on the plasma characteristics at various ICP currents, bias voltages, and bias frequencies. When the bias frequency is fixed at 13.56 MHz and the ICP current is low, e.g., 6 A, the spatiotemporal averaged plasma density increases monotonically with bias voltage, and the bias effect is already prominent at a bias voltage of 90 V. The maximum of the ionization rate moves toward the bottom electrode, which indicates clearly the discharge mode transition in inductive/capacitive discharges. At higher ICP currents, i.e., 11 and 13 A, the plasma density decreases first and then increases with bias voltage, due to the competing mechanisms between the ion acceleration power dissipation and the capacitive power deposition. At 11 A, the bias effect is still important, but it is noticeable only at higher bias voltages. At 13 A, the ionization rate is characterized by a maximum at the reactor center near the dielectric window at all selected bias voltages, which indicates that the ICP power, instead of the bias power, plays a dominant role under this condition, and no mode transition is observed. Indeed, the ratio of the bias power to the total power is lower than 0.4 over a wide range of bias voltages, i.e., 0–300 V. Besides the effect of ICP current, also the effect of various bias frequencies is investigated. It is found that the modulation of the bias power to the spatiotemporal distributions of the ionization rate at 2 MHz is strikingly different from the behavior observed at higher bias frequencies. Furthermore, the minimum of the plasma density appears at different bias voltages, i.e., 120 V at 2 MHz and 90 V at 27.12 MHz.

  18. Experimental Determination of Spatial and Temporal Discharge Parameters for an Ambient Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bures, Brian; Bourham, Mohamed

    2004-11-01

    Ambient pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD's) are studied for a number of applications. Barrier discharges composed primarily of inert gases are potentially useful for the production of intense excimer light, sterilization of thermally sensitive materials and control of insects for quarantine. The neutral bremsstrahlung technique is used to determine spatial variations of electron density and electron temperature in a parallel plate, helium (99.9% by vol) dielectric barrier discharge operated at an average power density between 50 and 75 mW/cm^3. The applied frequency is varied between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. The time average electron density suggests a more intense discharge near the surface of the electrodes than the bulk of the discharge for all frequencies and power densities. When moving parallel to the electrodes, the electron temperature remains constant, while the electron density is constant within 20% of the average value. A monochromator tuned to a nitrogen ion line (391.4 nm) and a helium line (706.5 nm) has a more intense emission when the electrode is negatively biased.

  19. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  20. Surface modification of aluminum by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharges in different gases at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of an examination of aluminum samples exposed to runaway electron preionized diffuse discharges in air, nitrogen, and argon at atmospheric pressure. The changes in the chemical composition, structure, and hardness of the aluminum surface layers caused by the action of the discharge were investigated. It has been found that the oxygen and carbon concentrations in the surface layers depend on the number of discharge pulses and on the chemical composition of the working gas. The goal of the study was to find possible uses of runaway electron preionized diffuse discharges in research and industry.

  1. Characterization of millimetre magnitude atmospheric pressure streamer discharge in pin-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Yu, Z.; Yao, J.; Zhang, Z. T.

    2013-03-01

    The streamer regime of pin-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge in air was studied by means of fast photography, electrical measurement and photoelectricity. The fast photographs of positive streamer were obtained by CCD camera with micro lens. The exposure time is one microseconds. The images illustrate that the streamer is non-axisymmetric because of some random factors, such as surface charge position, space charge distribution, gas liquidity and so on. In fact, the streamer propagates along bend discharge channel. The bending degree increases with the electric field strengthen. By surveying a mass of images, the diameter of streamer, height of surface charge effect and scope of surface charge was estimate used to describe the shape of streamer.

  2. Numerical Simulations of an atmospheric pressure discharge using a two dimensional fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad M.; Turner, Miles M.

    2008-10-01

    We present numerical simulations of a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge using a two-dimensional fluid model with symmetric boundary conditions in pure helium and He-N2 gases at atmospheric pressure. The periodic stationary pattern of electrons and molecular helium ions density is shown at different times during one breakdown pulse for the pure helium gas. The temporal behavior of the helium metastables and excimers species density is examined and their influences on the discharge characteristics are exhibited for an APD. The atmospheric pressure discharge modes (APGD and APTD) are affected with small N2 impurities and the discharge mode structures are described under different operating conditions. The uniform and filamentary behavior of the discharge is controlled with the variable relative permittivity of the dielectric barrier material. The influence of nitrogen impurities plays a major role for the production of the filaments in the after glow phase of He-N2 discharge and the filaments are clearly observed with the increased recombination coefficient of nitrogen ions. The creation and annihilation mechanism of filaments is described with the production and destruction of nitrogen ions at different applied voltages and driving frequencies for a complete cycle. The results of the fluid model are validated by comparison with the experimental atmospheric pressure discharge results in He-N2 plasma discharge.

  3. Low-pressure electrical discharge experiment to simulate high-altitude lightning above thunderclouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, M. A.; Srivastava, V.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, extremely interesting high-altitude cloud-ionosphere electrical discharges, like lightning above thunderstorms, have been observed from NASA's space shuttle missions and during airborne and ground-based experiments. To understand these discharges, a new experiment was conceived to simulate a thundercloud in a vacuum chamber using a dielectric in particulate form into which electrodes were inserted to create charge centers analogous to those in an electrified cloud. To represent the ionosphere, a conducting medium (metallic plate) was introduced at the top of the chamber. It was found that for different pressures between approximately 1 and 300 mb, corresponding to various upper atmospheric altitudes, different discharges occurred above the simulated thundercloud, and these bore a remarkable similarity to the observed atmospheric phenomena. At pressures greater than 300 mb, these discharges were rare and only discharges within the simulated thundercloud were observed. Use of a particulate dielectric was critical for the successful simulation of the high-altitude lightning.

  4. Inductive Evolution and MHD in Local Helicity Injection Discharges on Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jayson L.

    Local Helicity Injection (LHI) is a promising non-solenoidal startup technique being investigated on the Pegasus ST. Quantifying the current drive available from LHI is important for projecting to larger devices. A lumped-parameter circuit model for LHI startup has been developed for interpretive analysis of LHI plasmas on Pegasus and a tool for projection. The model recreates I p(t) of outboard LHI discharges with varied shape evolution and LHI drive within +/-15 kA with simplistic assumed plasma resistivity. Outboard LHI plasmas are initialized on the low-field-side and expand to lower aspect ratio (A) and full size. At their initially small, high- A shape the injectors are most effective, but a Taylor relaxation current limit prevents Ip growth. As the plasma expands, the Taylor limit rises, but the injectors become less effective. However, the change in geometry induces large inductive voltages that add significant current drive. Plasma inductance models [38,60] have been re-calibrated to quantify these inductive effects for ultralow-A geometries. The majority ( 80%) of current drive in experiment is provided by the inductive effects from the shape evolution, with peak values as high as 6+ V. The available LHI drive typically falls to less than 0.5 V by the time the plasma reaches full size. Large (b/Bt 1--3 %), n=1 magnetic fluctuations are a signature of LHI plasmas. 3-D, resistive MHD simulations [68,69] predict this activity to be the result of motion and large-scale reconnection events of the injected current, and predict the reconnection to be an underlying method of current drive. Magnetic measurements are consistent with the injected current acting as a current stream line-tied to the injectors and undergoing an elliptical motion in the plasma edge on the low-field-side. This is likely the result of kink and magnetic island coalescence instabilities of the injected current, in partial agreement with simulation. Indirect evidence for the occurrence of

  5. Growth of arc in high-pressure, pulsed glow discharge by gas density depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Go; Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Wataru

    2000-10-01

    Effects of gas density depletion on arc formation of high-pressure, pulsed glow discharge have been investigated by eliminating the other factors which may affect the discharge stability, such as shock waves, residual ions, electrode heating, and discharge products. The gas density depletion has been simulated by utilizing a subsonic gas flow between the curved electrodes combined with a convergent nozzle and a divergent diffuser. A comparison has been made on the discharge in the aerodynamically created gas density depletion with the second discharge in the double-pulse discharge within a stable gas. We have found that the large gas density depletion, Δρ/ρ0˜-3.6% corresponding to a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of ˜50 Hz, tends to cause an arc-like filament or an arc without the shocks, ions, electrode heating, and products. However, the second discharge in the double-pulse discharge becomes an arc in much smaller gas density depletion (Δρ/ρ0˜-1.2% corresponding to PRR ˜3 Hz). Therefore, the collapse of high-pressure, pulsed glow discharge is most likely caused by some factor other than the gas density depletion.

  6. The induction of cytoplasmic petite mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Rosin, M P; Zimmerman, A M

    1977-08-01

    This study demonstrates that hydrostatic pressure is a potent inductive agent of the petite mutation in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The inductive capacity of this mutagen is dependent on the magnitude and the duration of the pressure treatment. Furthermore, the extent of petite induction varies with the growth stage of the culture. Induction occurs in pressure-treated (1-4 X 1-(4) lbf in.-2 or 9-66 X 10(4) kN m-2 for 4 h) log growth cultures but not in stationary or lag phase cultures. Petite induction and cell survival are also dependent on the particular strain of yeast which is pressure-treated. Tetrad analysis and complementation assays demonstrate that pressure-induced petite cells are cytoplasmic in nature. Moreover, induced petite cells show a wide range of suppressivity (2--99%) with a large proportion of the petite cells being highly suppressive.

  7. High pressure working mode of hollow cathode arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minoo, H.; Popovici, C.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of high pressure cathotrons is discussed. Methods of preheating either the gas or the cathode itself are detailed together with various geometries for the hollow cathode. Three special configurations were tested, and the results are analyzed.

  8. Neutral gas density depletion due to neutral gas heating and pressure balance in an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Tynan, George R.; Cattolica, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral gas temperature and total pressure have been measured for pure N2, He/5%N2 and Ar/5%N2 in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor, and a significant rise in the neutral gas temperature has been observed. When thermal transpiration is used to correct total pressure measurements, the total pressure remains constant regardless of the plasma condition. Neutral pressure is depleted due to the pressure balance when the plasma pressure (mainly electron pressure) becomes comparable to the neutral pressure in high density plasma. Since the neutral gas follows the ideal gas law, the neutral gas density profile was obtained from the neutral gas temperature and the corrected neutral pressure measurements. The results show that the neutral gas density at the centre of the plasma chamber (factor of 2-4 ×) decreases significantly in the presence of a plasma discharge. Significant spatial variation in neutral gas uniformity occurs in such plasmas due to neutral gas heating and pressure balance.

  9. Time evolution of nanosecond runaway discharges in air and helium at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-12-15

    Time- and space-resolved fast framing photography was employed to study the discharge initiated by runaway electrons in air and He gas at atmospheric pressure. Whereas in the both cases, the discharge occurs in a nanosecond time scale and its front propagates with a similar velocity along the cathode-anode gap, the later stages of the discharge differ significantly. In air, the main discharge channels develop and remain in the locations with the strongest field enhancement. In He gas, the first, diode 'gap bridging' stage, is similar to that obtained in air; however, the development of the discharge that follows is dictated by an explosive electron emission from micro-protrusions on the edge of the cathode. These results allow us to draw conclusions regarding the different conductivity of the plasma produced in He and air discharges.

  10. Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants -- Trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Tetsuji; Yamashita, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Senichi

    1996-03-01

    The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharged plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide--50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject high electric power in the gas and to decompose the contaminants. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was used to analyze discharge products of dense CFC-113 or trichloroethylene. Among the detected products were HCl, CClFO, and CHCl{sub 3}. Two different electrode configurations; the silent discharge (coaxial) electrode and the coil-electrode were also tested and compared to each other as a gas reactor.

  11. Discharge instabilities in high-pressure helium-fluorine laser gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Peters, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen

    2005-03-01

    Discharge instabilities in F2 based excimer gas lasers are investigated using a small-scale discharge system. After preionizing the gas volume, a fast rising voltage pulse initiates the discharge. The temporal development of the discharge is monitored via its fluorescence by an intensified CCD camera with a gating time of 10 ns. Homogeneous discharges are produced in gas mixtures of He/1mbar F2 and He/1mbar F2/30mbar Xe at a total pressure of 2 bar for pump pulse duratins up to 70 ns (FWHM). The addition of Xe to He/F2 mixture does not lead to discharge instabilities while the introduction of more F2 results in hotspot and filament formation.

  12. Time evolution of nanosecond runaway discharges in air and helium at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-12-01

    Time- and space-resolved fast framing photography was employed to study the discharge initiated by runaway electrons in air and He gas at atmospheric pressure. Whereas in the both cases, the discharge occurs in a nanosecond time scale and its front propagates with a similar velocity along the cathode-anode gap, the later stages of the discharge differ significantly. In air, the main discharge channels develop and remain in the locations with the strongest field enhancement. In He gas, the first, diode "gap bridging" stage, is similar to that obtained in air; however, the development of the discharge that follows is dictated by an explosive electron emission from micro-protrusions on the edge of the cathode. These results allow us to draw conclusions regarding the different conductivity of the plasma produced in He and air discharges.

  13. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media

    DOEpatents

    McLellan, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode (1) and cathode (2) to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source (3). An array of resistors (4) or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit (5) producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO.sub.2 laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  14. Radial Measurements of Gas Discharge Parameters of Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, R.; Hoyer, Y. D.; Barbosa, I. M.; Grigorov, K. G.; Sismanoglu, B. N.

    2013-07-01

    In this work Abel inversion technique was used for radial measurements of the microplasma in Ar-2%H2 flow at open atmosphere. The gas discharge parameters were investigated using spatially resolved high resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to allow acquisition of OH (A 2Σ+, ν = 0 →X 2Π, ν‧ = 0) rotational bands at 306.357 nm, Ar I 603.213 nm line and N2(C3∏u, ν = 0 →B3∏g, ν‧ = 0) second positive system with the band head at 337.13 nm. The nonthermal plasma was generated between microhollow anode ( 500 μm inner diameter) and a cathode copper foil, fed by direct current source for a current ranging from 20 mA to 100 mA (Townsend discharge from 20 mA to 30 mA, normal glow discharge from 30 mA to 80 mA at 210 V and abnormal discharge beyond 90 mA). The 1.5 mm length cylindrical-shape plasma has an outspread bright disk (negative glow region) near the cathode surface. Besides the gas temperature, the excitation temperature was measured radially for a current ranging from 20 mA to 100 mA, either from Boltzmann-plot of Ar I 4p - 4s and 5p - 4s transitions of excited argon or from Cu I two lines method of excited cuprum atoms released from the cathode surface. The measurements showed a nearly bell-shaped distribution of these temperatures, peaked at 120 μm from the center with the minimum at the plasma border. The average excitation temperature was about 8000 K (maximum 10,000 K) and the average rotational temperature was about 650 K (maximum 800 K) from 20 K to 100 K. For the N2 second positive system with Δν = -2 it was estimated the vibrational temperature for the bright disk (1500 K to 5000 K). Hβ line Stark broadening was employed to define the electron number density of the negative glow (1015cm-3).

  15. Efficient electric-discharge XeF laser pumped by a generator with an inductive energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Panchenko, Aleksei N; Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tel'minov, A E

    2006-05-31

    The parameters of discharge and laser radiation in an Ne-Xe-NF{sub 3} mixture excited by a double discharge from a generator with an inductive energy storage and a current interrupter based on semiconductor SOS diodes are studied. It is shown that a high-voltage prepulse formed by a generator with inductive energy storage increases considerably the stability and duration of volume discharge in mixtures with NF{sub 3}, and also increases the emission energy and pulse duration of laser radiation at the B-X transition of XeF{sup *} molecules. In the case of spark preionisation, radiation pulses with a total duration of up to 200 ns and the full width at half-maximum up to 100 ns are obtained. The maximum output energy of an XeF laser ({lambda} = 348, 351 and 353 nm) was 0.5 J for the electric efficiency up to 1.6%. (lasers)

  16. Electric and plasma characteristics of RF discharge plasma actuation under varying pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huimin, Song; Min, Jia; Di, Jin; Wei, Cui; Yun, Wu

    2016-03-01

    The electric and plasma characteristics of RF discharge plasma actuation under varying pressure have been investigated experimentally. As the pressure increases, the shapes of charge-voltage Lissajous curves vary, and the discharge energy increases. The emission spectra show significant difference as the pressure varies. When the pressure is 1000 Pa, the electron temperature is estimated to be 4.139 eV, the electron density and the vibrational temperature of plasma are 4.71×1011 cm-3 and 1.27 eV, respectively. The ratio of spectral lines which describes the electron temperature hardly changes when the pressure varies between 5000-30000 Pa, while it increases remarkably with the pressure below 5000 Pa, indicating a transition from filamentary discharge to glow discharge. The characteristics of emission spectrum are obviously influenced by the loading power. With more loading power, both of the illumination and emission spectrum intensity increase at 10000 Pa. The pin-pin electrode RF discharge is arc-like at power higher than 33 W, which results in a macroscopic air temperature increase. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472306, 51336011, and 51407197).

  17. Analysis of Physics Processes in the AC Plasma Torch Discharge under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. A.; Vasilieva, O. B.; Dudnik, J. D.; E Kuznetsov, V.; Kuchina, J. A.; Shiryaev, V. N.; Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of electrophysical processes in the electric discharge generated by a three-phase AC plasma torch when using a high pressure inert working gas. AC plasma torch design with end electrodes intended for work on inert gases at pressures up to 81 bar is studied. Current-voltage characteristics for different gas flow rates and pressures are presented. Physical processes characteristics of the arising voltage ripples which depend on various working parameters of the plasma torch have been investigated. Arc burning processes in the electric discharge chamber of the three-phase AC plasma torch at various working parameters were photographed.

  18. Hollow cathodes in high pressure arc discharges. [for arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Curran, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    An orified hallow cathode was tested at high pressure to improve lifetime and efficiency in arcjet thrusters. It is indicated that the arc would not operate with emission from the insert above 200 torr in nitrogen regardless of insert material, orifice diameter, or gas flow direction. Emission occurred from the insert in argon and xenon although it could not be ascertained whether diffuse or spot emission existed within the cathode. Over the extended range of configurations and operating parameters explored the desired diffuse emission mode could not be obtained at high enough pressures for orified hollow cathodes to operate in the range which is considered for arcjet applications.

  19. Application of Langmuir Probe Method to the Atmospheric Pressure Discharge Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Hiroto; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Ken

    2008-12-31

    The heat balance model in the probe tip applied to atmospheric pressure plasma is constructed. Considering the natural convective heat loss, the limitation of plasma density for probe application to such a plasma is estimated. The rough limit is about n{sub e} = 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}. Four kind of materials (Cu, SUS, W, Al) are used for probe tips, and are tested in DC atmospheric pressure discharge. Heat conductivity is found to be a more important property than melting point in design of probes in high pressure discharge. DC atmospheric pressure discharge plasma parameters are obtained with our test probes. Obtained density is the order of 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and does not contradict with the above density limitation. Change of space potential in air/Ar plasma is also confirmed.

  20. Dielectric barrier discharge for multi-point plasma-assisted ignition at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Shcherbanev, S A; Stepanyan, S A; Popov, N A; Starikovskaia, S M

    2015-08-13

    Nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge (nSDBD) is an efficient tool for a multi-point plasma-assisted ignition of combustible mixtures at elevated pressures. The discharge develops as a set of synchronously propagated from the high-voltage electrode charged channels (streamers), with a typical density up to a few streamers per millimetre of the length of the electrode. In combustible mixtures, nSDBD initiates numerous combustion waves propagating from the electrode. Very little is known about nSDBD at high pressures. This work presents a comparative experimental study of the surface dielectric barrier discharge initiated by high-voltage pulses (U=±(20-60) kV) of different polarities in air at elevated pressures (P=1-6 atm). Discharge morphology, deposited energy and velocity of the discharge front propagation are analysed. Differences between the discharges of positive and negative polarity, as well as the changes in the discharge morphology with changing of a gas mixture composition.

  1. Low-pressure planar magnetron discharge for surface deposition and nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Oleg; Romanov, Maxim; Wolter, Matthias; Kumar, Shailesh; Zhong Xiaoxia; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2010-05-15

    Current-voltage characteristics of the planar magnetron are studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. Based on the measured current-voltage characteristics, a model of the planar magnetron discharge is developed with the background gas pressure and magnetic field used as parameters. The discharge pressure was varied in a range of 0.7-1.7 Pa, the magnetic field of the magnetron was of 0.033-0.12 T near the cathode surface, the discharge current was from 1 to 25 A, and the magnetic field lines were tangential to the substrate surface in the region of the magnetron discharge ignition. The discharge model describes the motion of energetic secondary electrons that gain energy by passing the cathode sheath across the magnetic field, and the power required to sustain the plasma generation in the bulk. The plasma electrons, in turn, are accelerated in the electric field and ionize effectively the background gas species. The model is based on the assumption about the prevailing Bohm mechanism of electron conductivity across the magnetic field. A criterion of the self-sustained discharge ignition is used to establish the dependence of the discharge voltage on the discharge current. The dependence of the background gas density on the current is also observed from the experiment. The model is consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Operation Manual: Pressure Momentum Method of Discharge Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Scale Factors .... ............... ... A3 Al Table Al Manometer Conversion Factors Water Temperature Inches Deflection/psid, B OF Mercury, Hg * Meriam , Me...differential pressure (psid): psid = B- Specific gravity of Meriam = 2.95. Table A2 Water Density* Temperature Density3 OF slugs/ft3 32 1.940 40 1.940 50

  3. Transition characteristics of low-pressure discharges in a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Verboncoeur, John P.; Christlieb, Andrew J.; Wang, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Based on a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model, the transition processes of discharges in a hollow cathode at low pressure are observed by changing three parameters, i.e., applied voltage U0, gas pressure p, and external circuit ballast resistance Rb. The voltage-current characteristic curves, electron density distributions, and electric potential distributions of different discharge operating points in a hollow cathode are obtained. The transition processes are characterized by the voltage-current characteristic curves, the electron density distributions, and the electrical potential distributions. The transition modes observed from the voltage-current characteristics include the low-current abnormal mode, normal mode, and high-current abnormal mode. Increasing the applied voltage U0 can have a similar effect on the discharge transition processes to decreasing the ballast resistance. By increasing U0 from 200 V to 500 V and decreasing Rb from 5000 kΩ to 100 kΩ independently, it is observed that the discharge transfers from the outside to the inside of the hollow cavity, thus forming the virtual anode potential. By increasing the gas pressure p from 50 Pa to 5 kPa, the discharge also moves into the hollow cavity from the outside; however, a further increase in the gas pressure leads to the discharge escaping from the hollow cavity. Simulation results and characterizations for different parameters are presented for the transition properties of low-pressure discharges in a hollow cathode. It is verified that the hollow cathode discharge only exists under certain ranges of the above parameters.

  4. Density and temperature in an inductively amplified magnetron discharge for titanium deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, A.; Nouvellon, C.; Konstantinidis, S.; Dauchot, J. P.; Wautelet, M.; Hecq, M.

    2002-07-01

    In order to determine the titanium neutral density, a direct current (dc) plasma discharge, amplified by a radio-frequency (rf) coil, was studied by absorption spectrometry. The argon pressure varied from 5 to 40 mTorr. The dc and rf powers varied between 100 and 1500 W and 0 and 500 W, respectively. The plasma gas temperature necessary for the density calculation was evaluated by analyzing the N2 rotational spectrum in an Ar-N2 gas mixture. When increasing the rf power a decrease of titanium neutral density was found. This decrease is related to the increased titanium ion density. When using the rf coil, the titanium degree of ionization can be up to 90%. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  5. Formation of carbon nanoparticle using Ar+CH4 high pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, K.; Dong, X.; Iwashita, S.; Czarnetzki, U.; Shiratani, M.

    2014-06-01

    We have studied formation of carbon nanoparticles using Ar+CH4 high pressure nanosecond discharge non-thermal plasmas. Transition pressure from uniform glow discharges to filamentary ones was clarified to obtain conditions under which uniform glow discharges are sustained. We have produced nanoparticles using the glow discharges, and then we have collected nanoparticles on the grounded electrode by the filtered vacuum collection method. Size distribution analysis reveals that the CH4 concentration is an important parameter in controlling nanoparticle growth. We have also studied film deposition on the powered electrode and the grounded electrode. The deposition rate on the powered electrode is 7 times higher than that on the grounded electrode. Optical emission observations suggest that radical generation rate near the powered electrode is twice higher than that near the grounded electrode, leading to high deposition rate on the powered electrode.

  6. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  7. Simulation benchmarks for low-pressure plasmas: Capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M. M.; Kelly, S. J.; Derzsi, A.; Donko, Z.; Eremin, D.; Mussenbrock, T.; Lafleur, T.

    2013-01-15

    Benchmarking is generally accepted as an important element in demonstrating the correctness of computer simulations. In the modern sense, a benchmark is a computer simulation result that has evidence of correctness, is accompanied by estimates of relevant errors, and which can thus be used as a basis for judging the accuracy and efficiency of other codes. In this paper, we present four benchmark cases related to capacitively coupled discharges. These benchmarks prescribe all relevant physical and numerical parameters. We have simulated the benchmark conditions using five independently developed particle-in-cell codes. We show that the results of these simulations are statistically indistinguishable, within bounds of uncertainty that we define. We, therefore, claim that the results of these simulations represent strong benchmarks, which can be used as a basis for evaluating the accuracy of other codes. These other codes could include other approaches than particle-in-cell simulations, where benchmarking could examine not just implementation accuracy and efficiency, but also the fidelity of different physical models, such as moment or hybrid models. We discuss an example of this kind in the Appendix. Of course, the methodology that we have developed can also be readily extended to a suite of benchmarks with coverage of a wider range of physical and chemical phenomena.

  8. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events and transitions among the different types of discharges, were investigated using simultaneously optical and electrical diagnostics. The glow-type discharge shows sinusoidal-like voltage and current waveforms with a peak current of hundreds of milliamperes. The frequency of the emission intensity variation of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also be found to take place from spark-type discharges to glow-type discharges. Short-cutting events were often observed as the intermediate states formed during the spark-glow transition. Three different types of short-cutting events have been observed to generate new current paths between two plasma channel segments, and between two electrodes, as well as between the channel segment and the electrodes, respectively. The short-cut upper part of the plasma column that was found to have no current passing through can be detected several hundreds of microseconds after the short-cutting event. The voltage recovery rate, the period of AC voltage-driving signal, the flow rates and the rated input powers were found to play an important role in affecting the transitions among the different types of discharges.

  9. Mechanisms of sustaining a radio-frequency atmospheric pressure planar discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Deng, Xiaolong; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Leys, Christophe; Nikiforov, Anton Yu

    2017-07-01

    The time behavior of an atmospheric pressure planar discharge sustained in He gas was investigated experimentally and through two dimensional (2D) discharge simulation. The 30 mm long uniform α-mode discharge was observed at radio frequency (RF) input power below 35 W. The gas temperature of 375 ± 50 K in the discharge core was estimated by emission spectroscopy of OH(A-X) emission. A sheath region of about 100-150 μm width near both electrodes was observed during the whole RF cycle. However, there were differences in emission dynamics among various species detected in the discharge. OH(A) emission does not follow the RF voltage temporal variation. Strong He emission was always detected near the cathode, which was consistent with the 2D discharge simulation results. He-excited species production was found mainly due to the electron impact process. The simulation showed that both the electron and ion density vary from 1.88 × 1017 m-3 to 1.92 × 1017 m-3, and the electron temperature was about 1.85 eV in the plasma bulk. The ion temperature stayed close to the rotational temperature of OH radicals, and only increased near the sheath region to 0.65 eV. It was found that the mechanism of the sheath formation in atmospheric pressure discharge strongly correlates with the dynamics of the electron density and electron temperature variation in the gap, and the process is similar to low pressure RF capacitively coupled discharges. The high uniformity of the discharge and the upscale possibility to any desirable size are considered beneficial for industrial applications of the source, which is key for processes of thin coating deposition and polymer modification.

  10. Observation of Quartz Cathode-Luminescence in a Low Pressure Plasma Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Intense, steady-state cathode-luminescence has been observed from exposure of quartz powder to a low pressure rf-excited argon plasma discharge. The emission spectra (400 to 850 nm) associated with the powder luminescence were documented as a function of bias voltage using a spectrometer. The emission was broad-band, essentially washing out the line spectra features of the argon plasma discharge.

  11. Cleaning of niobium surface by plasma of diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ripenko, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Elements composition of niobium surface before and after plasma treatment by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge was investigated in atmospheric pressure nitrogen flow by means of an Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface characterizations obtained from Auger spectra show that plasma treatment by diffuse discharge after exposure of 120000 pulses provides ultrafine surface cleaning from carbon contamination. Moreover, the surface free energy of the treated specimens increased up to 3 times, that improve its adhesion property.

  12. 2D fluid simulations of discharges at atmospheric pressure in reactive gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Since a few years, low-temperature atmospheric pressure discharges have received a considerable interest as they efficiently produce many reactive chemical species at a low energy cost. This potential is of great interest for a wide range of applications as plasma assisted combustion or biomedical applications. Then, in current simulations of atmospheric pressure discharges, there is the need to take into account detailed kinetic schemes. It is interesting to note that in some conditions, the kinetics of the discharge may play a role on the discharge dynamics itself. To illustrate this, we consider the case of the propagation of He-N2 discharges in long capillary tubes, studied for the development of medical devices for endoscopic applications. Simulation results put forward that the discharge dynamics and structure depend on the amount of N2 in the He-N2 mixture. In particular, as the amount of N2 admixture increases, the discharge propagation velocity in the tube increases, reaches a maximum for about 0 . 1 % of N2 and then decreases, in agreement with experiments. For applications as plasma assisted combustion with nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, there is the need to handle the very different timescales of the nanosecond discharge with the much longer (micro to millisecond) timescales of combustion processes. This is challenging from a computational point of view. It is also important to better understand the coupling of the plasma induced chemistry and the gas heating. To illustrate this, we present the simulation of the flame ignition in lean mixtures by a nanosecond pulsed discharge between two point electrodes. In particular, among the different discharge regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, a ``spark'' regime has been put forward in the experiments, with an ultra-fast local heating of the gas. For other discharge regimes, the gas heating is much weaker. We have simulated the nanosecond spark regime and have observed shock waves

  13. Microwave discharges at low pressures and peculiarities of the processes in strongly non-uniform plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Yu A.

    2015-10-01

    Microwave discharges (MD) are widely used as a source of non-equilibrium low pressure plasma for different applications. This paper reviews the methods of microwave plasma generation at pressures from 10-2 approximately to 30 kPa with centimeter-millimeter wavelength microwaves on the basis of scientific publications since 1950 up to the present. The review consists of 16 sections. A general look at MDs and their application is given in the introduction, together with a description of a typical block-schema of the microwave plasma generator, classification of MD, and attractive features of MD. Sections 2-12 describe the different methods of microwave plasma generators on the basis of cavity and waveguide discharges, surface and slow wave discharges, discharges with distributed energy input, initiated and surface discharges, discharges in wave beams, discharges with stochastically jumping phases of microwaves, discharges in an external magnetic field and discharges with a combination of microwave field and dc and RF fields. These methods provide the possibility of producing nonequilibriun high density plasma in small and large chambers for many applications. Plasma chemical activity of nonequilibrium microwave plasma is analyzed in section 13. A short consideration of the history and status of the problem is given. The main areas of microwave plasma application are briefly described in section 14. Non-uniformity is the inherent property of the majority of electrical discharges and MDs are no exception. Peculiarities of physical-chemical processes in strongly non-uniform MDs are demonstrated placing high emphasis on the influence of small noble gas additions to the main plasma gas (section 15). The review is illustrated by 80 figures. The list of references contains 350 scientific publications.

  14. Laryngeal reflex mechanism during deglutition--observation of subglottal pressure and afferent discharge.

    PubMed

    Shin, T; Maeyama, T; Morikawa, I; Umezaki, T

    1988-11-01

    In this investigation, particular attention was paid to elucidate the laryngeal reflex mechanism of protective closure and the sensory function of the larynx during deglutition. For this purpose, three different experimental procedures were adopted: (1) subglottal pressure of felines was measured during deglutition using a pressure transducer; (2) subglottal pressure of human beings was measured during deglutition using a pressure transducer; and (3) afferent discharges from superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves of felines were recorded. The following conclusions appear justified. (1) Feline and human subglottal pressure during deglutition showed the following pattern. The pressure rises with onset of deglutition, temporarily drops during laryngeal elevation, rises again during the downward movement of the larynx, and drops again at the end of the glutition. This pattern was not affected by the resection of the unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve. (2) The superior laryngeal nerve is involved in the sensory function of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea. At least two types of afferent discharges from superficial and internal sensory nerves are suspected. Afferent discharges from the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the larynx and trachea are not as distinct as those of the superior laryngeal nerve, and this seems to correspond with various changes in the thorax. During deglutition, afferent discharges were recorded from superior to recurrent laryngeal nerves.

  15. Characteristics of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge with dielectric electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S. E-mail: shussainuos@yahoo.com; Qazi, H. I. A.; Badar, M. A.

    2014-03-15

    An experimental investigation to characterize the properties and highlight the benefits of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge (rf DBD) with dielectric electrodes fabricated by anodizing aluminium substrate is presented. The current-voltage characteristics and millisecond images are used to distinguish the α and γ modes. This atmospheric rf DBD is observed to retain the discharge volume without constriction in γ mode. Optical emission spectroscopy demonstrates that the large discharge current leads to more abundant reactive species in this plasma source.

  16. Sterilization of E. coli bacterium with an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Peng; Ding, Li-Li; Zhan, Ru-Juan

    2004-06-01

    The atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge (APSBD) in air has been used in killing Escherichia coli (E. coli). There is almost no bacterial colony in the sample after treatment by discharge plasma for 2 min. A diagnostic technique based on mass spectrum has been applied to the discharge gas and the mechanism of killing is discussed. Ozone and monatomic oxide are considered to be the major antimicrobial active species. There is almost no harmful by-product. The experiment proves that APSBD plasma is a very simple, effective and innocuous tool for sterilization.

  17. An expression for the h l factor in low-pressure electronegative plasma discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert, P.

    2016-04-01

    The positive ion flux exiting a low-pressure plasma discharge is a crucial quantity in global (volume-averaged) models. In discharges containing only electrons and positive ions (electropositive discharges), it is common to write this flux {Γ\\text{wall}}={{h}\\text{l}}{{n}\\text{i0}}{{u}\\text{B}} , where {{n}\\text{i0}} is the central positive ion density, {{u}\\text{B}} is the positive ion fluid speed at the sheath edge (the Bohm speed), and {{h}\\text{l}} is the positive ion edge-to-centre density ratio. There are well established formulae for {{h}\\text{l}} in electropositive discharges, but for discharges containing negative ions (electronegative discharges), the analysis is more complicated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a formula for the {{h}\\text{l}} factor in low-pressure electronegative discharges. We use the numerical solution of fluid equations with Boltzmann negative ions, including Poisson’s equation, as a guide to derive an analytical expression that can easily be incorporated in global models. The parameter space in which the derived expression is valid is discussed at the end of the paper.

  18. Analysis of GaAs using a combined r.f. glow discharge and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. S.; Saprykin, A. I.; Dietze, H.-J.

    1997-06-01

    A radiofrequency (r.f.) glow discharge ion source was coupled to a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer with reverse Nier-Johnson geometry. The glow discharge cell powered by a 13.56 MHz generator was connected directly to the interface of the mass spectrometer. The r.f. glow discharge ion source operates optimally at an argon pressure of 2.5 hPa and radiofrequency powers of 30 W. With increasing argon pressure more complex mass spectra were observed due to the higher molecular ion formation rate. The analytical performance of r.f. glow discharge mass spectrometry was investigated for the trace elemental analysis of semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals. Using ICP-MS after matrix separation for a better quantification of multielement determination of trace impurities, detection limits comparable to r.f. GDMS in the low ng/g concentration range are obtained.

  19. Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhi; Zhao Zhen; Li Xuehui

    2013-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

  20. Real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuxi; Wang, Xuanyin; Ge, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    The high pressure pneumatic system has been applied to special industries. It may cause errors when we analyze high pressure pneumatics under ideal gas assumption. However, the real gas effect on the performances of high pressure pneumatics is seldom investigated. In this paper, the real gas effects on air enthalpy and internal energy are estimated firstly to study the real gas effect on the energy conversion. Under ideal gas assumption, enthalpy and internal energy are solely related to air temperature. The estimation result indicates that the pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy of real pneumatic air obviously decrease the values of enthalpy and internal energy for high pressure pneumatics, and the values of pressure enthalpy and pressure internal energy are close. Based on the relationship among pressure, enthalpy and internal energy, the real gas effects on charging and discharging processes of high pressure pneumatics are estimated, which indicates that the real gas effect accelerates the temperature and pressure decreasing rates during discharging process, and decelerates their increasing rates during charging process. According to the above analysis, and for the inconvenience in building the simulation model for real gas and the difficulty of measuring the detail thermal capacities of pneumatics, a method to compensate the real gas effect under ideal gas assumption is proposed by modulating the thermal capacity of the pneumatic container in simulation. The experiments of switching expansion reduction (SER) for high pressure pneumatics are used to verify this compensating method. SER includes the discharging process of supply tanks and the charging process of expansion tank. The simulated and experimental results of SER are highly consistent. The proposed compensation method provides a convenient way to obtain more realistic simulation results for high pressure pneumatics.

  1. VUV Emissions from a High-Pressure Cylindrical Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martus, Kevin; Masoud, Nazieh; Becker, Kurt; Laroussi, Mounir

    2003-05-01

    High-pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) produce non-equilibrium plasmas that can be used in a variety of applications. The emissions from a high-pressure cylindrical DBD in a mixture of Ne and H2 (less than 0.5proposed as a light source for 121.6nm radiation. Neon resonance lines and excimer emissions as well as, Hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission lines have been analyzed from a cylindrical DBD plasma in this work. The discharge source consists of a 1/4" dielectric tube with two outer electrodes and the discharge is sustained by RF power at 13.56MHz. The discharge is contained inside the tube with pressures ranging from 1 to 760 Torr and a gas flow rate that is adjustable from 25 to 600 sccm. The emissions were analyzed using a Minuteman 302-V 0.2m VUV spectrometer with an CCD camera to detect the photons in the wavelength range from 50 150nm. Results of measurements of the relative intensity of the resonance lines and excimer emission for pure Neon and Neon-Hydrogen admixtures as a function of Hydrogen concentration, discharge pressure, gas flow rate, and RF power will be presented and discussed. Work supported by NSF and the WPUNJ Sabbatical Leave Program.

  2. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge deposition of thermo-sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Tang, X. L.; Wen, D.; Chen, Y.; Qiu, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a self-made atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge reactor on intermediate frequency is brought forward and developed, which is equipped with power supply of 1-20 KHz, and the working gas is argon. The experimental results show that is a very stable and uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD). Through a series of experiments, the waveforms of single pulse and multi-pulse glow discharge were both obtained. The voltage amplitude, discharge gap and dielectric material are studied, and the conditions of multi-pulse glow discharge are discussed as well. The novel methods of depositing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) coatings on the surface of glass slides and PS petri dish are provided by atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization. PNIPAAm can be obtained by plasma polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide using the self-made equipment of atmospheric pressure plasma vapor treatment. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. SEM analysis has revealed that the PNIPAAm coatings were formed on the surface of the smooth glass slides. Further evaluation by using XPS, it has shown the presence of PNIPAAm. The wettability can be significantly modified by changing of the temperatures at above and below of the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) from the data of the contact angle test. These results have advantage for further application on the thermo-sensitive textile materials.

  3. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-12-15

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  4. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  5. Influence of the voltage polarity on the properties of a nanosecond surface barrier discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Nudnova, M. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Starikovskii, A. Yu.

    2010-01-15

    The properties of a surface barrier discharge in atmospheric-pressure air at different polarities of applied voltage were studied experimentally. The influence of the voltage polarity on the spatial structure of the discharge and the electric field in the discharge plasma was determined by means of spectroscopic measurements. It is found that the energy deposited in the discharge does not depend on the voltage polarity and that discharges of positive polarity are more homogenous and the electric fields in them are higher.

  6. CFD investigation of thermal and pressurization performance in LH2 tank during discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Li, Cui; Zhao, Zhixiang

    2013-10-01

    Predictions of thermal and pressurization performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank during liquid discharge is of significance to the design and optimization of a rocket pressurization system. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model is introduced to simulate the pressurized discharge event of LH2 tank. The wall region together with the fluid region is simultaneously considered as the computational domain, and low-Re k-ε model is applied to account for the fluid-wall heat exchange effect. Liquid-vapor phase change effect is also involved in the model. Comparison of the numerical results with existing experimental data suggests that the CFD model has a good adaptability in pressurization computation. Detailed characteristics, such as pressurant gas requirement, pressure altering history, and temperature distribution inside the tank, can be obtained by the model. The difference of pressurant gas, selecting helium or vapor H2, may result in the variations in pressure and temperature histories. Pressurization by vapor H2 supplies a higher pressure and also a temperature rise, which is significant to consider the selection of pressurant gas. The influences of phase change effect and injector structure on pressurization behaviors are also analyzed. The computational results show that liquid-vapor phase change has a slight influence on the pressurization behaviors. Significant pressure decay at the beginning stage of process may occur in the case of no-diffuser injector application since the incoming gas is excessively cooled by cold LH2. The results show that the present CFD model has a good adaptability in the prediction of pressurization behaviors and is a useful tool for the design and optimization of a pressurization system.

  7. Experimental study of pulsed corona discharge in air at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunghsu; Singleton, Dan; Sanders, Jason; Kuthi, Andras; Gundersen, Martin A.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding of the dynamics of nanosecond scale pulse discharges in air at multiatmospheric pressure is essential for the development of transient plasma enhanced combustion in internal combustion engines. Here we report the result of our experimental investigation of cathode-directed streamer discharges in synthetic air at pressures ranging from 1 to 20 bar. Two pulse generators with maximum pulse amplitudes of 50 kV and 65 kV, pulse width of approximately 12 ns and 85 ns and pulse rise times of 5 ns and 50 ns are used to generate streamers. The electrodes are coaxial with various radial gaps up to 11.75 mm. The discharge chamber is evacuated and backfilled with synthetic dry air at room temperature. Optical data is obtained from PI-MAX 3 ICCD camera with 3 ns gate width. The streamer propagation velocity variation with applied voltage, different pressures and reduced electric field, E/P, will be shown. Preliminary results indicate that the (pd) similarity law is violated at high pressures in agreement with other recent experiments [1].[4pt] [1] ``Nanosecond Scale Discharge Dynamics in High Pressure Air,'' Pierre Tardiveau, Nicolas Moreau, Francois Jorand, Christian Postel, St'ephane Pasquiers, and Pierre Vervisch, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci., Vol. 36, No. 4, 2008.

  8. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  9. Effect of oxygen impurities on atmospheric-pressure surface streamer discharge in argon for large gap arc breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-10-01

    We report the results of a computational study that investigates the effect of impurities (molecular oxygen) on the development of argon surface streamers at atmospheric-pressure conditions. A continuous surface streamer has been proposed as a low-voltage mechanism to generate a conductive bridge for arc breakdown of a large interelectrode gap at high pressures. The streamer discharge model is based on the self-consistent, multispecies, continuum description of the plasma. Below a threshold voltage, no streamer discharge is observed and charge is localized only in the vicinity of the anode in the form of a localized corona. Above this voltage threshold in pure argon, a continuous conductive streamer successfully bridges the gap between two electrodes indicating high probability of transition to the arc. For small oxygen impurities (less than 5%), the threshold voltage is found to decrease by a few hundred volts compared to the threshold voltage in pure argon while the streamer induction time increases. No noticeable changes in the streamer conductivity is obtained for low impurities of oxygen in the above range. An increase of the oxygen density above the 5% impurity level causes a significant decrease in the continuous streamer conductivity and leads to a decrease in the probability of transition to arc.

  10. Probe diagnostics in low pressure dc discharge. Does the Langmuir Paradox exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery; Alexandrovich, Ben; Rahman, Abdur

    2006-10-01

    Maxwellian electron energy distributions in a highly non-equilibrium plasma of low pressure dc discharges is one the oldest and fascinating mysteries of gas discharge physics. There is extensive literature and many hypotheses attempting to explain this paradox, but the problem still remains unsolved. In this report we present results on the EEDF measurement in the positive column of a dc discharge in mercury vapor with differently oriented probes placed along the positive column over a wide range of discharge current showed that: a) - the EEDF is not Maxwellian, b) - is essentially anisotropic, c) - is not in equilibrium with discharge current (i.e. EEDF changes along the positive column), d) - the electron temperature inferred from the measured EEDF and that determined by the slope of the probe characteristic in semi-log scale are essentially different, e) - the linearity of the probe characteristic in semi-log scale (the sign of a Maxwellian EEDF) may occurs at essentially nonlinear dependence of the second derivative of the probe characteristic on the probe voltage in semi-log scale. The main conclusions of this study are: a) - the absence of Maxwellian EEDF in the low pressure dc discharge and b) - the Druyvesteyn method is not applicable for measurement of highly anisotropic EEDF typical for the Langmuir Paradox condition.

  11. Ion energy distributions in a pulsed dual frequency inductively coupled discharge of Ar/CF{sub 4} and effect of duty ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Anurag; Seo, Jin Seok; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2015-08-15

    Controlling time averaged ion energy distribution (IED) is becoming increasingly important in many plasma material processing applications for plasma etching and deposition. The present study reports the evolution of ion energy distributions with radio frequency (RF) powers in a pulsed dual frequency inductively discharge and also investigates the effect of duty ratio. The discharge has been sustained using two radio frequency, low (P{sub 2 MHz} = 2 MHz) and high (P{sub 13.56 MHz} = 13.56 MHz) at a pressure of 10 mTorr in argon (90%) and CF{sub 4} (10%) environment. The low frequency RF powers have been varied from 100 to 600 W, whereas the high frequency powers from 200 to 1200 W. Typically, IEDs show bimodal structure and energy width (energy separation between the high and low energy peaks) increases with increasing P{sub 13.56 MHz}; however, it shows opposite trends with P{sub 2 MHz}. It has been observed that IEDs bimodal structure tends to mono-modal structure and energy peaks shift towards low energy side as duty ratio increases, keeping pulse power owing to mode transition (capacitive to inductive) constant.

  12. Plasma etching of dielectric materials using inductively and capacitively coupled fluorocarbon discharges: Mechanistic studies of the surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Li

    Fluorocarbon (FC) plasmas are commonly used for dielectric materials etching. Our initial work was performed using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to produce FC discharges. We first examined the effect of CO addition to C4F8 or C4F8/Ar plasmas for selective etching of organosilicate glass (OSG), which is a typical low k (LK) material over etch stop layers. The chemical activity of CO when added to either C4F8 Or C4F8/80% Ar can be understood in terms of the CO dissociation energy threshold relative to energies of inelastic electron collision processes of the dominant feedgas component. We also studied the plasma etching behavior of 193 nm and 248 nm photoresist in FC discharges used for dielectric etching. We showed that ion-enhanced selective volatilization of carbonyl groups of the 193 nm photoresist polymer backbone which is absent for the 248 nm material, along with modulation of the ion-interaction with the photoresist material by fluorocarbon surface passivation, may be responsible for the introduction of pronounced surface roughness of 193 nm photoresists. Current industrial efforts are aimed primarily at capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) systems. A home-built dual frequency CCP reactor was used to investigate additional aspects of dielectric materials plasma etching. We designed a gap structure to simulate sidewall surface processes occurring during high aspect ratio trench etching. In particular, we showed that the FC film deposition rates measured using the gap structure qualitatively correlate with the trench sidewall angles produced in LK dielectrics in both C 4F8/Ar and CF4/H2 based gas chemistries: The lower the FC deposition rate on the sidewall, the more vertical the trench sidewall. This approach was used to study surface chemistry aspects of FC film deposition with and without ion bombardment. For the gap structure film deposition takes place without ion bombardment and we observed a novel FC film growth phenomenon in pure C4F8 plasmas

  13. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  14. Radiative heat transfer in plasma of pulsed high pressure caesium discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshin, V. F.

    2016-01-01

    Two-temperature many component gas dynamic model is used for the analysis of features of radiative heat transfer in pulsed high pressure caesium discharge plasma. It is shown that at a sufficiently high pressure the radial optical thickness of arc column is close to unit (τR (λ) ∼ 1) in most part of spectrum. In this case radiative heat transfer has not local character. In these conditions the photons which are emitted in any point of plasma volume are absorbed in other point remote from an emission point on considerable distance. As a result, the most part of the electric energy put in the discharge mainly near its axis is almost instantly redistributed on all volume of discharge column. In such discharge radial profiles of temperature are smooth. In case of low pressure, when discharge plasma is optically transparent for own radiation in the most part of a spectrum (τR(λ) << 1), the emission of radiation without reabsorption takes place. Radiative heat transfer in plasma has local character and profiles of temperature have considerable gradient.

  15. Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe

    2013-06-07

    Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

  16. A study of the influence of Hg(6(3)P2) population in a low-pressure discharge on mercury ion emission at 194.2 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Blasenheim, B. J.; Janik, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-pressure mercury-argon discharge, similar to the type existing in the mercury lamp for the trapped-ion standard, is probed with a new technique of laser spectroscopy to determine the influence of the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) population on discharge emission. The discharge is excited with inductively coupled rf power. Variations in the intensity of emission lines in the discharge were examined as lambda = 546.1 nm light from a continuous wave (CW) laser excited the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) to (7 3S (sub 1)) transition. The spectrum of the discharge viewed in the region of laser irradiation showed increased emission in lambda = 546.1, 435.8, 404.7, 253.7, and 194.2 nm lines. Other lines in Hg I exhibited a decrease in emission. When the discharge was viewed outside the region of laser irradiation, all lines exhibited an increased emission. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dominant mechanism for the excitation of higher lying levels of mercury is the the electron-impact excitation via the 3P(sub 2) level. The depopulation of this metastable is also responsible for the observed increase in the electron temperature when the laser irradiates the discharge. It is also concluded that the 3P(sub 2) metastable level of mercury does not play a significant role in the excitation of the 3P(sub 1/2) level of mercury ion.

  17. Dissociation of nitrogen in a pulse-periodic dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, N. A.

    2013-05-15

    Nitrogen molecule dissociation in a pulse-periodic atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge is numerically analyzed. It is shown that the quenching rate of predissociation states at atmospheric pressure is relatively low and the production of nitrogen atoms in this case can be adequately described using the cross section for electron-impact dissociation of N{sub 2} molecules taken from the paper by P.C. Cosby [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 9544 (1993)].

  18. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  19. Spectroscopic study of plasma evolution in runaway nanosecond atmospheric-pressure He discharges.

    PubMed

    Yatom, S; Stambulchik, E; Vekselman, V; Krasik, Ya E

    2013-07-01

    Time- and space-resolved visible-emission spectroscopy measurements are applied to study plasma parameters in nanosecond electrical discharges in He gas at pressure of 10(5) Pa, using a 150 kV, 5 ns duration high-voltage pulse. The plasma evolution during the discharge is investigated by applying line-shape analysis of several He I spectral transitions, with the Stark and opacity effects accounted for. The analysis shows that the discharge plasma is not in equilibrium and that significant electric fields of several kV/cm are present in the plasma during the discharge. Regions of plasma with significantly different electron densities are identified and a qualitative model of the plasma formation and evolution is proposed.

  20. Sterilisation of Hydroponic Culture Solution Contaminated by Fungi using an Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Kohji; Satoh, Kohki; Kanayama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Tagashira, Hiroaki; Shimozuma, Mitsuo; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Satoko; Kinoshita, Muneshige

    The hydroponic culture solution contaminated by fungi is sterilised by a DC corona discharge, and the sterilisation characteristics are investigated in this work. A DC streamer corona discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in air between needle clusters and a water bath containing contaminated solution by fungus such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or Fusarium sp.. It is found that the fungi are killed by the exposure of the corona discharge, and that the death rates of the fungi chiefly depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. It is also found that the number densities of the fungi decrease exponentially with the energy expenditure of the corona discharge, and that damping coefficients of the fungi densities depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. This suggests that the fungi are chiefly inactivated by electroporation.

  1. Methane conversion using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor at atmospheric pressure for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadir, N.; Khodja, K.; Belasri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we carried out a theoretical study of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) filled with pure methane gas. The homogeneous discharge model used in this work includes a plasma chemistry unit, an electrical circuit, and the Boltzmann equation. The model was applied to the case of a sinusoidal voltage at a period frequency of 50 kHz and under a gas pressure of 600 Torr. We investigated the temporal variation of electrical and kinetic discharge parameters such as plasma and dielectric voltages, the discharge current density, electric field, deposited power density, and the species concentration. We also checked the physical model validity by comparing its results with experimental work. According to the results discussed herein, the dielectric capacitance is the parameter that has the greatest effect on the methane conversion and H2/CH4 ratio. This work enriches the knowledge for the improvement of DBD for CH4 conversion and hydrogen production.

  2. Generation of large-area and glow-like surface discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ying; Bi, Zhenhua; Wang, Xueyang; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Liu, Dongping; Xia, Yang; Li, Bin

    2016-08-15

    A large-area (6 cm × 6 cm) air surface dielectric barrier discharge has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using well-aligned and micron-sized dielectric tubes with tungsten wire electrodes. Intensified CCD images with an exposure time of 5 ns show that the uniform surface air discharge can be generated during the rising and falling time of pulsed DC voltage. Current and voltage and optical measurements confirm the formation of glow-like air discharges on the surface of micron-sized dielectric tubes. Simulation results indicate that the microelectrode configuration contributes to the formation of strong surface electric field and plays an important role in the generation of uniform surface air discharge.

  3. Influence of oxygen traces on an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive argon plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shouzhe; Wu Qi; Yan Wen; Wang Dezhen; Uhm, Han S.

    2011-10-15

    An atmospheric-pressure capacitive discharge source driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz has been developed experimentally that is capable of producing a homogeneous and cold glow discharge in O{sub 2}/Ar. With respect to the influence of oxygen component when diluted into argon plasma discharge on the discharge characteristics, the measurements of the electrical parameters (impedance, phase angle, resistance, and reactance) are made systematically and the densities of the metastable and resonant state of argon are determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It is shown that the admixture of oxygen into argon plasma not only changes the electric characteristics but also alters the optical emission spectra greatly due to strong interaction between the oxygen content and the argon in the plasma environment.

  4. Pressure oscillation in the leakage annulus between a shrouded impeller and its housing due to impeller-discharge-pressure disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The perturbed flow in the leakage path between a shrouded-pump impeller and its housing is analyzed using experiences with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) wearing-ring seals. Analysis is based on a bulk-flow model which consists of the path-momentum, circumferential momentum, and continuity equations. The pressure oscillations in the leakage annulus are driven by a circumferential variation of the impeller discharge pressure. It is shown that the occurrence and nature of the pressure oscillations depend on the tangential-velocity ratio of the fluid entering the seal, the order of the Fourier coefficient, the closeness of the precessional frequency of the rotating pressure field to the first natural frequency of the fluid annulus, and the clearance of the wearing-ring seal. The results obtained may explain the internal melting observed on SSME HPFTP seal parts.

  5. High-pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Formulas for required preionization density and rate for homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    The requirements on preionization for the formation of spatially homogeneous pulsed avalanche discharges are examined. The authors derive two formulas which apply in the case of a slowly rising electric field, one which gives the required preionization density at breakdown, and one which gives the required preionization rate. These quantities are expressed as functions of the electrochemical properties of the gas, the neutral density, and the electric field rise time. They also treat the statistical effect that the electrons tend to form groups, in contrast to being randomly distributed in space, during the prebreakdown phase. This process is found to increase the required preionization rate significantly, typically by a factor of five for a discharge at atmospheric pressure. Homogeneous high-pressure discharges have been used for laser excitation, and have also been proposed for chemical plasma processing (ozone production) because of their good scaling properties and high efficiency.

  6. Absolute atomic oxygen density profiles in the discharge core of a microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knake, Nikolas; Niemi, Kari; Reuter, Stephan; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Winter, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    The micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet is an rf driven (13.56 MHz, ˜20 W) capacitively coupled discharge producing a homogeneous plasma at ambient pressure when fed with a gas flow of helium (1.4 slm) containing small admixtures of oxygen (˜0.5%). The design provides excellent optical access to the plasma core. Ground state atomic oxygen densities up to 3×1016 cm-3 are measured spatially resolved in the discharge core by absolutely calibrated two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The atomic oxygen density builds up over the first 8 mm of the discharge channel before saturating at a maximum level. The absolute value increases linearly with applied power.

  7. Active Oxygen Species Generator by Low Pressure Silent Discharge and its Application to Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ikeda, Akira; Tanimura, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Koji; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu

    We have proposed the new water treatment using the active oxygen species such as an atomic oxygen with the oxidation power that is stronger than ozone. Based on the results of simulations we designed the silent discharge type active oxygen generator with a water ejector, which is operated on the discharge conditions of low pressure of 6.6kPa. and high temperature of about 200°C. The experimental results are as follows. (1) The yield of the active oxygen increases with the increase of the discharge tube temperature and the decrease of the gas pressure. (2) The life time of active oxygen is tens msec. (3) The active oxygen oxidizes efficiently the formic acid compared with ozone. It is assumed from these results that the active oxygen species having a strong oxidation power is generated.

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges: A Low-Cost System for Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Graz, I.; Schwoediauer, R.; Bauer, S.; Gruber, H.; Romanin, C.

    2005-10-17

    Plasma treatment is a common way for modifying the surface of a material. A simple but effective source for a low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma is dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as silent discharges. DBDs are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating (dielectric) layer in the discharge gap between two metal electrodes. When a high voltage is applied to the DBD configuration, tiny breakdown channels are formed in the discharge gap. These microdischarges are characterized as a weakly ionized plasma containing electrons with energies up to 10 eV and ions at room temperature. The energetic electrons provide an effective tool for chemical surface modification. Typical setups for DBD treatments consist of vacuum chambers and vacuum equipment, and so are very cost-intensive. Atmospheric pressure discharges provide a possibility for low-cost surface chemistry, because the setup consists only of the discharge set-up in normal air or in a specified inert gas atmosphere and a high-voltage amplifier coupled with a frequency generator. Silent discharges in air increase the wettability of polymer foils such as PTFE and FEP, sufficient for cell growth and further for surface-chemical binding of proteins onto the polymer. Thereby a simple and low-cost process to achieve protein chips for biomedical applications may be envisaged.

  9. Generation of atmospheric-pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzheng; Ma, Chuanlong; Li, Zhiyi; Wang, Tahan; Tian, Jia

    2017-05-01

    To generate an atmospheric-pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (APHDBD) in air, a line-plane electrode with a floating-voltage electrode, which consists of a high-voltage electrode, floating-voltage electrode, air-gap, barrier dielectric, and metal electrode, is proposed. Studies of the electric field of the line-plane electrode with a floating-voltage electrode show that strong electric field areas beneficial for generating initial discharges are formed near the contact point between the high-voltage electrode and the floating-voltage electrode. These areas can provide sufficient and evenly distributed initial electrons for the air-gap with relatively uniform and low electric fields. Thus, a filamentary discharge in the air-gap can be inhibited. Experiments show that the floating-voltage electrode makes it easy to reduce the initial discharge voltage and improve the uniformity of discharge. When the air-gap is 2-8 mm, the discharge occurs in the APHDBD mode, and when it is 9 mm, it changes from diffuse-like to corona discharge.

  10. Absorption in transverse nanosecond discharge in He and a He/Kr mixture at atmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Neimet, Y.Y.; Khodanich, A.I.

    1995-09-01

    Spectra of nonstationary absorption in a transverse nanosecond discharge in pure He and in a He/Kr mixture were investigated. The pressure of gases was varied from 1 to 3 atm. The absorption in plasma was studied in the spectral range from 430 to 447 nm. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The dependence of extracted current on discharge gas pressure in neutral beam ion sources on HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. L.; Cao, J. Y.; Rao, J.; Lei, G. J.; Jiang, S. F.; Liu, H.; Yu, L. M.; Xie, W. M.; Li, M.; Yang, X. F.; Zou, G. Q.; Lu, D. L.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-02-15

    The discharge gas pressure is a key factor to influence the extracted current of ion source. In this paper, the dependence of extracted current on discharge gas pressure was investigated in detail at different arc discharge currents. The discharge gas pressure with a very broad range (0.1 Pa-2.7 Pa) was scanned for the first time. It is turned out that, with the increasing of discharge gas pressure, the extracted current increases and the arc voltage decreases at different arc currents; however, when the discharge gas pressure exceeds a certain value, the extracted current decreases. For the same discharge gas pressure, the higher the arc current, the higher the arc voltage and the extracted current are. The arc efficiency was also calculated, and its dependence on gas pressure was almost the same with the dependence of extracted current on gas pressure, but at the same discharge gas pressure, the lower the arc current, the higher the arc efficiency is and the lower the extracted current is.

  12. Improvement of discharge pumping for pulsed high-pressure gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikin, Alexei A.; Galaktionov, Imar I.; Belov, Sergei N.; Kanatenko, Michael A.; Podmoshensky, Ivan V.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an upgrading technique using anisotropic-resistive (AR) electrodes and radionucide pre-ionization for discharge pumping of pulsed high-pressure gas lasers. Plutonium-238, polonium-210 and krypton-85 radionucide alpha and beta radiation sources were effectivelyused for pre-ionization in the volumetric discharge setup. These sources feature high stability, versatility and simplicity as compared to traditional UV irradiation and electron beam ionization techniques. The use of AR electrodes makes it possible to suppress efficiently electrode instabilities in volumetric discharges with various power modes of operation and to increase energy input in an active medium by a factor of 2-3 due to extended discharge duration in the volumetric phase. With the use of the AR cathode as an alternative to a metal one, a commercially available photo-ionization 2 laser gained two-fold increase in generation energy. It also showed a stable operation of the volumetric discharge in Ar, Kr, Xe mixtures with He at atmospheric pressure and allowed us to obtain generation in An, Kr!, Xe! spectral lines.

  13. Modeling of the spatiotemporal behavior of an argon glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Markus M.; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2009-10-01

    The spatiotemporal behavior of gas discharges is described by means of a fluid model which comprises the coupled set of balance equations for the densities of electrons, ions and neutral particles, the electron energy balance equation as well as Poisson's equation for the electric potential. This system of equations is numerically solved using a stabilized finite element method. The discharge voltage required for the solution of Poisson's equation is determined from the solution of the external electric circuit equations taking into account the time-dependent capacity and resistance of the plasma. In the present contribution first results related to an argon plasma at atmospheric pressure in a discharge configuration designed to generate small homogeneous high-pressure glow dischargesfootnotetextW. B"otticher et al., Appl. Phys. B 54 (1992) 295 are presented. Main features of the temporal evolution of the discharge, which can be divided into Townsend, ignition, quasi-steady-state and recombination phase, are discussed. It is found that the cathode-fall thickness and current density in the quasi-steady state are of the order of the values given by the similarity laws for normal glow discharges.

  14. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Atmospheric Pressure He/2%H2O Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Graves, D. B.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure micro-discharges in contact with liquid surfaces are of increasing interest, especially in the bio-medical field. We conduct 1D3v particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a voltage-driven 1 mm width atmospheric pressure He/2% H2O plasma discharge in series with an 0.5 mm width liquid H2O layer and a 1mm width quartz dielectric layer. A previously developed two-temperature hybrid global model of atmospheric pressure He/H2O discharges was used to determine the most important species and collisional reactions to use in the PIC simulations. We found that H13O6+, H5O3-, and electrons were the most prominent charged species, while most of the metastable helium He* was quenched via Penning ionization. The ion-induced secondary emission coefficient γi was assumed to be 0.15 at all surfaces. A series of simulations were conducted at 27.12 MHz with Jrf ~ 800-2200 A/m2. The H2O rotational and vibrational excitation losses were so high that electrons reached the walls at thermal temperatures. We also simulated a much lower frequency case of 50 kHz with Vrf = 10 kV. In this case, the discharge ran in a pure time-varying γ-mode. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science Contract DE-SC0001939.

  15. [Spectroscopic investigation of the argon plasma discharge in quartz capillary at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Tong; Li, Shou-Zhe; Guo, Qing-Chao; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Wang, De-Zhen; Ma, Teng-Cai

    2010-05-01

    An arc plasma discharge with a long length of 20 cm was generated in a quartz capillary between two hollow needle electrodes in argon at atmospheric pressure with use of the sinusoidal power supply operating at 45 kHz, which was characterized by a very high electron density. The spectroscopic method of optical emission was employed to diagnose the characteristic parameters of the arc plasma discharge in the quartz capillary. The gas temperature was determined by simulating the OH A-X(0, 0) vibrational band around 300 nm and comparison with measured spectrum by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electron density was measured by means of Stark broadening of the profile of Hbeta at 486.1 nm. The electron temperature was determined using a Boltzmann plot method. The experiment results show that in the argon arc plasma discharge generated in the quartz capillary at atmospheric pressure, the gas temperature of plasma is about (1 100 +/- 50)K, the electron density at the gas temperature of 1 100 K is approximately 10(14) cm(-3), and the corresponding electron temperature is (14 515 +/- 500)K. This work has accumulated some significant experimental parameters for the treatment of inner surface of large length-to-radius-ratio insulated dielectric tube using plasma, and the results are of great importance to the applications of this type of atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge.

  16. Nanosecond-timescale high-pressure gas discharge in a microwave pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlapakovski, Anatoli; Beilin, Leonid; Krasik, Yakov

    2016-09-01

    The results of experimental and numerical studies of the microwave plasma discharge initiated by a nanosecond laser pulse are presented. The discharge is ignited in the pressurized gas filling the switch, which opens the charged resonant cavity, so that the accumulated microwave energy is rapidly released into a load. Fast-framing optical imaging showed that the plasma in the switch appears as filaments expanding along the RF electric field. The temporal evolution of the plasma density was derived from time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. With increasing microwave energy in the cavity, the plasma appears earlier in time after the laser beam enters the switch and its density rises more steeply reaching values which exceed 1016 cm-3 at a gas pressure of 2 .105 Pa. Numerical simulations were conducted using the gas conductivity model of plasma and representation of discharge origin by setting initial population of seed electrons treated by PIC algorithm. The results showed good agreement with the experiments and explained how the self-consistent dynamics of the plasma and RF fields determines the quality of microwave output pulses. In addition, the dynamics of the microwave energy absorption in the discharge plasma was studied. It was shown that at a high pressure, even with an unlimited rate of ionization, a significant portion of the stored energy, 20%, is lost. This work was partially supported by the BSF Grant No. 2012038.

  17. A tomographic visualization of electric discharge sound fields in atmospheric pressure plasma using laser diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Tsuda, Ryoichi; Sonoda, Yoshito; Danuta Stryczewska, Henryka

    2013-02-01

    The phase modulation of transparent gas can be detected using Fraunhofer diffraction technique, which we call optical wave microphone (OWM). The OWM is suitable for the detection of sonic wave from audible sound to ultrasonic wave. Because this technique has no influence on sound field or electric field during the measurement, we have applied it to the sound detection for the electric discharges. There is almost no research paper that uses the discharge sound to examine the electrical discharge phenomenon. Two-dimensional visualization of the sound field using the OWM is also possible when the computerized tomography (CT) is combined. In this work, coplanar dielectric barrier discharge sin different gases of Ar, N2, He were characterized via the OWM as well as applied voltage and discharge current. This is the first report to investigate the influence of the type of the atmospheric gas on the two-dimensional sound field distribution for the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge using the OWM with CT. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  18. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, D. P.; Tyata, R. B.; Shrestha, R.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-03-05

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ∼ 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  19. CF, CF{sub 2} and SiF Densities in Inductively Driven Discharges Containing C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and CHF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    HEBNER,GREGORY A.

    2000-06-12

    Laser induced fluorescence was used to measure the spatially resolved CF, CF{sub 2} and SiF radical density in inductively driven discharges containing fluorocarbon gases. Measurements of the spatially resolved CF density were performed in C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and CHF{sub 3} containing discharges as functions of inductive power, pressure and bias condition on a silicon substrate. In addition, CF rotational temperatures were calculated, assuming saturated spectra. Measurements of the spatially resolved CF{sub 2} and SiF density were performed in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and CHF{sub 3} containing discharges as functions of inductive power, pressure and bias condition. SiF rotational temperatures were also estimated. As the induction coil power was increased, the SiF density in the center (r = 0 cm) increased while the CF{sub 2} density decreased and the CF density slightly decreased. In all cases, the radical density in the center of the glow increased with pressure changes from 5 to 30 mTorr while changes in the bias power had little influence on any of the measured radical densities. The spatial distribution of the CF and SiF density peaked in the center of the discharge. The CF{sub 2} density had a local maximum in the center of the plasma with a decreasing density at the edge of the glow. However, the CF{sub 2} density outside the glow region was a factor of 2--6 higher than the density inside the glow region, depending on the gas. CF and SiF rotational temperatures were between 450 and 750 K.

  20. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  1. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-15

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of {approx}0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  2. Dynamics of a wire-to-cylinder atmospheric pressure high-voltage nanosecond discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of a wire-to-cylinder atmospheric pressure high-voltage nanosecond discharge is studied by the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model in cylindrical coordinates. The x-ray photons emitted from the anode are found to be inconsequential to the generation of dense plasma in the gap. Rather, the electron impact ionization resulting from acceleration of naturally occurring background electrons in the discharge gap are enough to explain the generation of high-density (∼10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3}) non-equilibrium plasma. The influence of the high-voltage rise time on the plasma parameters is discussed.

  3. Plate-like Dusty Structures in an e-Beam Sustained Glow Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Anatoly V.; Babichev, Valery N.; Pal', Alexander F.; Starostin, Andrey N.

    2005-10-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the dusty plasma created by the injection of dust particles into the atmospheric pressure gas ionized by an electron beam of 85-120 keV energy. The beam current density was varied within 0.1-1.0 mA/cm2. The electron gun operated in the stationary regime. The behavior of dusty particles lighted by a laser ``knife'' was observed with a digital video camera. Stable plate-like structures were observed in the cathode sheath of non-self-sustained discharge. Numerical simulation was performed by using the non-local model of the non-self-sustained discharge.

  4. Characteristics of liquid flow induced by atmospheric-pressure DC glow discharge in contact with liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the characteristics of liquid flow induced by atmospheric-pressure dc glow discharge in contact with a liquid. The spatiotemporal development of liquid flow was visualized by the schlieren method, and the temperature distribution was measured using microencapsulated thermotropic liquid crystal particles dispersed in a liquid. We confirmed the appearance of specific downward liquid flow immediately below the dc glow discharge. The characteristics of downward liquid flow were reproduced by fluid simulation considering a downward driving force at the plasma–liquid interface. Our results suggest that the probable driving force for the downward liquid flow was the momentum transfer of charged species at the liquid surface.

  5. Effects of inner materials on the sensitivity and phase depth of wireless inductive pressure sensors for monitoring intraocular pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheol-In; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Mi Jeung; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we developed wireless, inductive, pressure sensors with high sensitivity and investigated the effects of the inner materials (copper or ferrite) on the performance of the sensors. The proposed sensor is comprised of two parts, i.e., the top and the bottom parts. The top part includes a micro coil and a capacitor for the wireless transfer of data, and the bottom part includes the inner materials and a thick or thin flexible membrane to induce changes in the inductance. An anchor is used to assemble the top and bottom parts. The behavior of the sensor with copper was based on the eddy current effect, and, as the pressure increased, its resonance frequency increased, while its phase depth decreased exponentially. The principle of the sensor with ferrite was related to the effective permeability between a ferrite and a coil, and its response was the opposite of that with copper, i.e., as the pressure increased, the resonance frequency decreased linearly, and the phase depth increased linearly. These different operational mechanisms can be explained by the changes in the equations of inductance presented in this paper. After characterizing four different types of inductive pressure sensors in ambient air, one type of inductive pressure sensor was used to monitor the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a rabbit's eye as a biomedical application. The results showed that, in the animal tests, the measured responsivity and sensitivity were 16.7 kHz/mmHg and 1340 ppm/mmHg, respectively. These data indicate that the proposed sensor is a good candidate for monitoring IOP.

  6. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  7. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  8. Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency glow discharges operated with argon added ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wenting; Li Guo; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Wang Huabo; Zeng Shi; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying

    2007-06-15

    Rf, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, thin film deposition, disinfection and sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics are presented for the rf APGD plasmas generated with pure argon or argon-ethanol mixture as the plasma-forming gas and using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes. The experimental results show that the breakdown voltage can be reduced significantly when a small amount of ethanol is added into argon, probably due to the fact that the Penning ionization process is involved, and a pure {alpha}-mode discharge can be produced more easily with the help of ethanol. The uniformity of the rf APGDs of pure argon or argon-ethanol mixtures using bare metallic electrodes is identified with the aid of the intensified charge coupled device images.

  9. Apparatus for atmospheric pressure pin-to-hole spark discharge and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynin, Danil V.; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gennady

    2016-12-06

    Disclosed herein are atmospheric pressure pin-to-hole pulsed spark discharge devices and methods for creating plasma. The devices include a conduit for fluidically communicating a gas, a plasma, or both, therethrough, portion of the conduit capable of being connected to a gas supply, and a second portion of the conduit capable of emitting a plasma; a positive electrode comprising a sharp tip; and a ground plate electrode. Disclosed are methods for treating a skin ulcer using non-thermal plasma include flowing a gas through a cold spark discharge zone simultaneously with the creation of a pulsed spark discharge to give rise to a non-thermal plasma emitted from a conduit, the non-thermal plasma comprising NO; and contacting a skin ulcer with said non-thermal plasma for sufficient time and intensity to give rise to treatment of the skin ulcer.

  10. [Glow Discharge Characteristics of Hollow Needle-Plate Electrode in Atmospheric Pressure Argon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-hua; Jia, Peng-ying; Di, Cong; Li, Xue-chen; Yang, Fan

    2015-09-01

    Atmosphere pressure uniform plasma has the broad application prospect in the industrial field. Using hollow needle cathode-plate anode device excited by direct-current voltage, a uniform and stable glow discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in ambient air with argon used as working gas. The influence of the experimental parameters (including gas flow rate and the gas gap width) on discharge has been investigated by optical method. It can be found that a glow-discharge plasma column can bridge the two electrodes. The plasma column is uniform, and no filaments can be discerned. Near the plate electrode, the diameter of the plasma column is largest of all positions. The maximal diameter of the plasma column increases with increasing the discharge current or the gas flow rate. Through electrical method, the voltage-current characteristic has been investigated. It has been found that the discharge voltage decreases with increasing the current which is similar with the characteristic of glow discharge in low pressure. It increases with increasing the gas gap width or the gas flow rate. By analyzing the optical emission spectrum scanning from 330 to 450 nm emitted from the direct-current glow discharge, the molecular vibrational temperature and the intensity ratio of spectral lines I391.4/I337.1 have been investigated as functions of the gas flow rate and gas gap width. Results indicate that both the vibrational temperature and the intensity ratio of spectral lines I391.4/I337.1 decrease with increasing the gas flow rate or the gas gap width. In addition, the molecular vibrational temperature and the intensity ratio of spectral lines I391.4/I337.1 have been investigated in spatial resolution along the direction of gas flow (plasma column axial), and give a qualitative analysis as well. It is found that the vibrational temperature and the average electron energy increase with increasing the distance from the hollow needle cathode. These results are important to

  11. Pulsed positive discharges in air at moderate pressures near a dielectric rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinova, A.; Trienekens, D.; Ebert, U.; Nijdam, S.; Christen, T.

    2016-10-01

    We study pulsed positive discharges in air in a cylindrically symmetric setup with an electrode needle close (about 1 mm) above the top of a dielectric cylindrical rod of 4 mm in diameter mounted at its bottom on a grounded plate electrode. We present ICCD (intensified charge-coupled device) pictures and evaluations of experiments as well as simulations with a fluid discharge model; the simulations use cylindrical symmetry. In the experiments, there is an initial inception cloud phase, where the cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and later a streamer phase, where it is broken spontaneously. At 75-150 mbar, discharges with cylindrical symmetry are not attracted to the dielectric rod, but move away from it. The dielectric rod plays the sole role of an obstacle that shades (in the context of photoionization) a cone-shaped part of the inception cloud; the cone size is determined by the geometry of the setup. The material properties of the dielectric rod, such as its dielectric permittivity and the efficiency of the photon induced secondary electron emission do not have a noticeable effect. This is due to the abundance of photoionization in air, which supplies a positive discharge with free electrons and allows it to propagate along the electric field lines. Using some simple field calculations, we show that field enhancement due to dielectric polarization does not play a significant role in our geometry as long as the discharge maintains its cylindrical symmetry. The field component towards the rod is insufficiently enhanced to cause the discharge to move towards the rod. Any additional electrons produced by the dielectric surface do not influence this discharge morphology. This interpretation is supported by both experiments and simulations. At higher pressures (400-600 mbar) or for larger gaps between the needle and the dielectric rod, the inception cloud reaches its maximal radius within the gap between needle and rod and destabilizes there. In those cases

  12. Transport of ionized metal atoms in high-power pulsed magnetron discharges assisted by inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinidis, S.; Dauchot, J.P.; Ganciu, M.; Hecq, M.

    2006-01-09

    Transporting metallic ions from the magnetron cathode to the substrate is essential for an efficient thin-film deposition process. This letter examines how inductively coupled plasma superimposed onto a high-power pulsed magnetron discharge can influence the mobility of titanium ions. To this effect, time-resolved optical emission and absorption spectrometry are conducted and the current at the substrate is measured. With this new hybrid technique, ions are found to reach the substrate in two successive waves. Metal ions, only present in the second wave, are found to accelerate proportionally to the power supplied to the inductively coupled plasma. All the measurements in this study are made at 10 and 30 mTorr, with 10 {mu}s long pulses at the magnetron cathode.

  13. Investigation of the electrical discharge parameters in electrodeless inductive lamps with a re-entrant coupler and magnetic core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statnic, Eugen; Tanach, Valentin

    2006-08-01

    The inductively coupled fluorescent lamp with a cored induction coil placed in a re-entrant cavity is in fact a coaxial transformer operated in the radiofrequency range between 100 kHz and a few MHz. The magnetic coupling coefficient k between the primary coil and the plasma ring is relatively low because of the open magnetic circuit. The acting mutual inductance M enables us to quantify the interaction between the magnetic field produced by the primary coil current I1 and the opposing magnetic field produced by the powerful plasma current I2. A contra-electromotive force jωMI2 is induced in the induction coil L1, defining the primary voltage V1 = I1(R1 + jω L1) - jωMI2. The current I1 induces in the secondary conductive plasma the driving electromotive force jωMI1 supplying the secondary load consisting of the average plasma resistance R2 and the secondary inductance L2, according to the equation jωMI2 = I2(R2 + jωL2). It is the aim of this paper to find a model to determine k on the basis of the measured primary parameters V1, I1, P1, L1, R1 and finally all electrical inaccessible parameters, such as M, V2, I2, phiv2, L2, R2, in order to optimize the discharge and lamp efficacy. The complex characteristic of plasma inductance for this type of lamp is analysed and clarified. Some reflexive basic relations verifying the correctness of the inferred plasma parameters are also developed. The described experiments are related to a lamp working at about 2.6 MHz.

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics of a pulsed discharge in high-pressure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treshchalov, A. B.; Lissovskii, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    Results of investigation of high-pressure argon plasma excited by a high-current pulsed volume discharge are presented. The plasma diagnostics employs spatiotemporal dependences of the emission intensity in the VUV — visible range. A homogenous discharge is observed at pressures up to 10 atm. It is found that the spectrum of the UV — visible photorecombination continuum is sensitive to the discharge constriction. Change in the shape of the spectrum is caused bythe change of the type of positive charge carriers upon passing of the discharge from the uniform phase (molecular Ar2+ ions) to the arc phase (atomic Ar+ ions). Experimental data and model calculations show that the electron heating after the main excitation pulse is a highly undesirable process. It slows down the recombination flow in the plasma, which results in stretching of all the kinetic processes for all excited components in time, and hence in a decrease in the peak values of their concentrations. Electron collision-induced mixing effi-ciently converts the reservoir of long-lived Ar2* molecules in the triplet state into rapidly emitting singlet excimers. It is this mechanism that dominates the production of singlet Ar2* excimer molecules. The threshold concentration needed to obtain lasing at a wavelength of 127 nm on Ar2* excimers (1Σ+u(v=0)) was, according to calculations, about 5×1015 cm-3 for the gain 0.05 cm-1. This concentration can be achieved in the case of homogeneous pulsed discharge pumping with the peak electron concentration 2.×1016 cm-3 at the argon pressure 10 atm.

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics of a pulsed discharge in high-pressure argon

    SciTech Connect

    Treshchalov, A B; Lissovskii, A A

    2010-05-26

    Results of investigation of high-pressure argon plasma excited by a high-current pulsed volume discharge are presented. The plasma diagnostics employs spatiotemporal dependences of the emission intensity in the VUV - visible range. A homogenous discharge is observed at pressures up to 10 atm. It is found that the spectrum of the UV - visible photorecombination continuum is sensitive to the discharge constriction. Change in the shape of the spectrum is caused bythe change of the type of positive charge carriers upon passing of the discharge from the uniform phase (molecular Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ions) to the arc phase (atomic Ar{sup +} ions). Experimental data and model calculations show that the electron heating after the main excitation pulse is a highly undesirable process. It slows down the recombination flow in the plasma, which results in stretching of all the kinetic processes for all excited components in time, and hence in a decrease in the peak values of their concentrations. Electron collision-induced mixing effi-ciently converts the reservoir of long-lived Ar{sub 2}* molecules in the triplet state into rapidly emitting singlet excimers. It is this mechanism that dominates the production of singlet Ar{sub 2}* excimer molecules. The threshold concentration needed to obtain lasing at a wavelength of 127 nm on Ar{sub 2}* excimers ({sup 1{Sigma}+}{sub u(v=0)}) was, according to calculations, about 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} for the gain 0.05 cm{sup -1}. This concentration can be achieved in the case of homogeneous pulsed discharge pumping with the peak electron concentration 2.x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at the argon pressure 10 atm.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Plasma and Surface Modification of PET Textile by APGDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Biao; Chen, Ru; Xu, Yin; Deng, Xiang; Shi, Qingjun

    2002-11-01

    Comparing with traditional chemistry method, surface modification of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics by using of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Plasma (APGDP) has many advantages, such as low cost, low pollution and low energy consumption. So it has huge application in textile industry due to no requirement for vacuum system. In this paper, the generation and the characteristics of APGDP on a homemade device were investigated experimentally. The volt-ampere characteristic and the Lissajous figure demonstrated that, different from dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), there is no filaments appeared between electrodes. It is a glow discharge in one atmospheric pressure. Furthermore we investigated the surface modification of PET by APGDP. The relationship between PET characteristics (wettability, critical surface tension, timing-effect, dyeablity etc.) and various discharge parameters are discussed. At last, the measurements of ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Refraction-Fourier Transform Infarared Spectroscopy) and dyeing properties are demonstrated, and the mechanism of modification is analyzed basically. Key words: APGDP£¬Surface modification , PET

  17. Ionization instability induced striations in atmospheric pressure He/H2O RF and DC discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2017-04-01

    One-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a 1 mm gap atmospheric pressure He/2%{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} rf capacitive discharge showed standing striations in the bulk (Kawamura et al 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054009). We found that these striations were consistent with an ionization instability induced by non-local electron kinetics. We developed a theoretical instability criterion in good agreement with the numerical results which showed that discharges with larger bulk recombination rates tend to be more unstable. We also determined a critical wavelength such that shorter wavelengths are suppressed by diffusion while longer wavelengths may be restricted by the gap width. In this paper, we extend the gap size of the atmospheric pressure He/2%{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} discharges in the PIC simulations to 2 and 4 mm and drive them by either dc or rf current sources. We compare the results to the 1 mm gap rf simulations and theoretical model in Kawamura et al (2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054009). We find that wider gap discharges tend to be more unstable as they can accommodate a wider range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the mixture of the various excited modes in the wider gaps can lead to distinctly non-sinusoidal spatial oscillations.

  18. Non-Thermal Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Glow-Like Discharge Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhengshi; Yao, Congwei; Zhang, Guanjun

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a cold plasma source that promises various innovative applications, and the uniform APPJ is more favored. Glow discharge is one of the most effective methods to obtain the uniform discharge. Compared with the glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure, pure helium APPJ shows partial characteristics of both the glow discharge and the streamer. In this paper, considering the influence of the Penning effect, the electrical and optical properties of He APPJ and Ar/NH3 APPJ were researched. A word “Glow-like APPJ” is used to characterize the uniformity of APPJ, and it was obtained that the basic characteristics of the glow-like APPJ are driven by the kHz AC high voltage. The results can provide a support for generating uniform APPJ, and lay a foundation for its applications. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307133, 51125029, 51221005) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Nos. xjj2012132, xkjc2013004)

  19. Plasma polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, K.; Wydeven, T.

    1979-01-01

    The polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge has been studied. Partial pressures of ethylene up to 4 kN/sq m were used with helium as a diluent. Deposition rates (on glass slides) were the same throughout the discharge volume over a wide range of operating conditions. These rates were in the 1-2 A/sec range. The films were clear, soft, and showed good adhesion to the glass substrates. Oligomers large enough to visibly scatter 637.8-nm light were observed in the gas phase under all conditions in which film deposition occurred. The experimental results suggest that Brownian diffusion of these oligomers was the rate-limiting step in the film deposition process.

  20. Dissociation of carbon-dioxide at high-pressure using nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Taemin; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of the conversion of CO2 into CO and O2 using nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in a high pressure reactor capable of exceeding the supercritical point. The electrode configuration consists of a pin-to-plane geometry with the plane electrode covered by dielectric material (SiO2) . The products of CO2 splitting are measured using mass spectrometry. The energy efficiency is determined for a range of residence times, pulse frequency and energy, and reactor pressures. The extent of CO2 conversion is found to be dependent on the duration of the processing time, reaching an equilibrium level that is linearly-dependent on the discharge pulse energy. The results are compared with our previous experiment conducted in the absence of the dielectric layer.

  1. Plasma polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, K.; Wydeven, T.

    1979-01-01

    The polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge has been studied. Partial pressures of ethylene up to 4 kN/sq m were used with helium as a diluent. Deposition rates (on glass slides) were the same throughout the discharge volume over a wide range of operating conditions. These rates were in the 1-2 A/sec range. The films were clear, soft, and showed good adhesion to the glass substrates. Oligomers large enough to visibly scatter 637.8-nm light were observed in the gas phase under all conditions in which film deposition occurred. The experimental results suggest that Brownian diffusion of these oligomers was the rate-limiting step in the film deposition process.

  2. Numerical Modeling of the Atmospheric-Pressure Helium Plasma Formed During Spark-to-Glow Discharge Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    Results of numerical experiment on modeling of the atmospheric-pressure plasma formed during the spark-to-glow discharge transition in helium in low-current non-stationary plasmatron are presented. The numerical experiment is performed using the developed 2D physical and mathematical plasma model in the drift-diffusion approximation. Results of numerical calculation of the dynamics of discharge evolution are confirmed by the experimental data on the atmospheric-pressure plasma dynamics formed in the plasmatron during the spark-to-glow discharge transition. It is demonstrated that with preset initial conditions characteristic for spark breakdown, further discharge evolution leads to the formation of the near-cathode zone of the potential drop and the pulsed behavior of the electric current of the discharge. After the current pulse, the discharge transforms into the quasi-stationary mode with parameters characteristic for the glow discharge with monotonically increasing electric current and transverse dimensions of the plasma column.

  3. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Vibration-Induced Electrostatic Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the ESD evaluation and a separate paper addresses the impact problem. A challenge to straight forward assessment existed due to the unavailability of triboelectric data characterizing the static charging characteristics of the propellants within the TPC. The approach examined the physical limitations for charge buildup within the TPC system geometry and evaluated it for discharge under simulated vibrations used to qualify components for launch. A facsimile TPC was fabricated using SS 301 for the case and surrogate worst case materials for the propellants based on triboelectric data. System discharge behavior was evaluated by applying high voltage to the point of discharge in air and by placing worst case charge accumulations within the facsimile TPC and forcing discharge. The facsimile TPC contained simulated propellant grains and lycopodium, a well characterized indicator for static discharge in dust explosions, and was subjected to accelerations equivalent to the maximum accelerations possible during launch. The magnitude of charge generated within the facsimile TPC system was demonstrated to lie in a range of 100 to 10,000 times smaller than the spark energies measured to ignite propellant grains in industry standard discharge tests. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in

  4. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Yuki; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Akiyama, Hidenori; Lukes, Petr; Akiyama, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports physical characteristics of water surface discharges. Discharges were produced by metal needle-to-water surface geometry, with the needle electrode driven by 47 kV (FWHM) positive voltage pulses of 2 µs duration. Propagation of discharges along the water surface was confined between glass plates with 2 mm separation. This allowed generation of highly reproducible 634 mm-long plasma filaments. Experiments were performed using different atmospheres: air, N2, and O2, each at atmospheric pressure. Time- and spatially-resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that early spectra of discharges in air and nitrogen atmospheres were dominated by N2 2nd positive system. N2 radiation disappeared after approx. 150 ns, replaced by emissions from atomic hydrogen. Spectra of discharges in O2 atmosphere were dominated by emissions from atomic oxygen. Time- and spatially-resolved emission spectra were used to determine temperatures in plasma. Atomic hydrogen emissions showed excitation temperature of discharges in air to be about 2  ×  104 K. Electron number densities determined by Stark broadening of the hydrogen H β line reached a maximum value of ~1018 cm-3 just after plasma initiation. Electron number densities and temperatures depended only slightly on distance from needle electrode, indicating formation of high conductivity leader channels. Direct observation of discharges by high speed camera showed that the average leader head propagation speed was 412 km · s-1, which is substantially higher value than that observed in experiments with shorter streamers driven by lower voltages.

  5. 1D simulation of runaway electrons generation in pulsed high-pressure gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, V. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Semeniuk, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The results of theoretical modelling of runaway electron generation in the high-pressure nanosecond pulsed gas discharge are presented. A novel hybrid model of gas discharge has been successfully built. Hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches are used simultaneously to describe the dynamics of different components of low-temperature discharge plasma. To consider motion of ions and low-energy (plasma) electrons the corresponding equations of continuity with drift-diffusion approximation are used. To describe high-energy (runaway) electrons the Boltzmann kinetic equation is included. As a result of the simulation we obtained spatial and temporal distributions of charged particles and electric field in a pulsed discharge. Furthermore, the energy spectra calculated runaway electrons in different cross-sections, particularly, the discharge gap in the anode plane. It is shown that the average energy of fast electrons (in eV) in the anode plane is usually slightly higher than the instantaneous value of the applied voltage to the gap (in V).

  6. Quantitative investigation of xenon consumption and recovery during low pressure ac discharges in rare gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafast, H.; Redlich, L.; Linke, H.-P.

    2006-11-01

    Xe gas in low pressure discharge tubes (20 mm diameter, 800 mm length, commercial hollow electrodes at 650 mm distance, 50 Hz, 60 mA) was quantitatively determined using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The temporal Xe gas evolution over 5 to 20 h of gas discharge revealed the consumption and recovery of Xe gas to be dependent on the prevailing gas composition. The net consumption in the standard Xe/He(2.0/98) gas mixture was much faster than that in Xe/Kr/He(1.9/93/5). Xe recovery during discharges in 'preloaded' tubes refilled with pure gas revealed an increasing efficiency in the sequence He < Ne < Ar < Kr, being most efficient with the first refilling. The temporal evolution of Xe gas was simulated by a kinetic model based on two equilibria between Xe gas and Xe incorporated in the glass tube walls (1) and the electrodes (2). It is concluded that the experimental setup, the elaborated measurement procedures and the kinetic model provide a good basis for further quantitative investigations. The net Xe gas consumption during discharge, which is presently limiting the tube lifetime, may be reduced particularly by improving the discharge gas composition and the electrode materials.

  7. Mechanisms for negative reactant ion formation in an atmospheric pressure corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.

    2009-06-02

    In an effort to better understand the formation of negative reactant ions in air produced by an atmospheric pressure corona discharge source, the neutral vapors generated by the corona were introduced in varying amounts into the ionization region of an ion mobility spectrometer/mass spectrometer containing a 63Ni ionization source. With no discharge gas the predominant ions were O2- , however, upon the introduction of low levels of discharge gas the NO2- ion quickly became the dominant species. As the amount of discharge gas increased the appearance of CO3- was observed followed by the appearance of NO3-. At very high levels, NO3- species became effectively the only ion present and appeared as two peaks in the IMS spectrum, NO3- and the NO3-•HNO3 adduct, with separate mobilities. Since explosive compounds typically ionize in the presence of negative reactant ions, the ionization of an explosive, RDX, was examined in order to investigate the ionization properties with these three primary ions. It was found that RDX forms a strong adduct with both NO2- and NO3- with reduced mobility values of 1.49 and 1.44 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. No adduct was observed for RDX with CO3- although this adduct has been observed with a corona discharge mass spectrometer. It is believed that this adduct, although formed, does not have a sufficiently long lifetime (greater than 10 ms) to be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer.

  8. NO2 production in a high pressure pulsed microwave discharge designed for VOC removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, A.; Dantier, A.; Mechtchanov, A.; Roepcke, J.; Golubovski, Y.; Ionikh, Y.; Porokhova, I.

    2002-10-01

    Non thermal pulsed microwave discharges represent an alternative to Dielectric Barrier Discharges for the removal of atmospheric pollutants. However, due to the relatively high peak power density injected in the plasma and to the high chemical efficiency of such a microwave plasma source, toxic nitrogen oxides may also be generated as undesirable by-products. Tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is used for highly sensitive and non intrusive diagnostic of undesirable NO2 produced by the discharge itself. The influence of the pulsed discharge parameters (pressure, peak power, pulse duration and frequency) on the generation of NO2 production is studied. It is showed that NO2 density increases monotoneously with the injected mean energy and the use of short pulses is a mean to limit its production. The time resolved measurements of the gas temperature are performed which shows that the heating of the gas occurs within 0.1ms. Finally, efficiency of such a discharge for VOC removal is studied.

  9. Formation and characteristics of patterns in atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Mao, Zhiguo; Li, Sen; Chen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The patterns in radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (RF DBD) are studied at atmospheric pressure of argon (Ar) or helium (He) mixed with nitrogen (N2) gas. When a small amount of N2 is mixed with He or Ar gas, discharge patterns are formed. In a N2/He gas mixture, besides the filament discharge that forms patterns, a glow background discharge is also observed, whereas only the filament discharge forms patterns in a N2/Ar gas mixture. The resolution of the hexagonal pattern as a function of applied power and gas flow rate is then explored. On the basis of spatial-temporal images taken using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), we find that there is no interleaving of two transient hexagon sublattices in N2/Ar or N2/He plasma in RF DBD patterns, which are totally different from those in which surface charges dominated in the mid-frequency DBD plasma. This supports our hypothesis that the bulk charges dominate the pattern formation in RF DBD.

  10. Numerical simulation of a direct current glow discharge in atmospheric pressure helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zeng-Qian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xue-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Characteristics of a direct current (DC) discharge in atmospheric pressure helium are numerically investigated based on a one-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the discharge does not reach its steady state till it takes a period of time. Moreover, the required time increases and the current density of the steady state decreases with increasing the gap width. Through analyzing the spatial distributions of the electron density, the ion density and the electric field at different discharge moments, it is found that the DC discharge starts with a Townsend regime, then transits to a glow regime. In addition, the discharge operates in a normal glow mode or an abnormal glow one under different parameters, such as the gap width, the ballast resistors, and the secondary electron emission coefficients, judged by its voltage-current characteristics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575050 and 10805013), the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project, the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2016201042 and A2015201092), and the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. LJRC011).

  11. Operation of a Solid-Rod Cathode in a Low-Pressure Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodfellow, K. D.

    1996-01-01

    Cathode erosion is one of the life-limiting mechanisms in several classes of electric thrusters. Since cathode erosion depends strongly on the cathode temperature, a quantitative understanding of the effects of cathode operation in the cathode temperature is required. A pure tungsten cathode was sucessfully operated in an argon discharge at pressures of 1.5 and 3.0 kPa and current levels of 600, 1000 and 1400 A.

  12. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  13. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. H.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2008-10-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ~ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  14. Characteristics of long-gap AC streamer discharges under low pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yaqi; Li, Weiguo; Xia, Yu; Yuan, Chuangye

    2017-10-01

    The generation and propagation of a streamer is a significant physical process of air gap discharge. Research on the mechanism of streamers under low-pressure conditions is helpful for understanding the process of long-gap discharge in a high-altitude area. This paper describes laboratory investigations of streamer discharge under alternating current (AC) voltage in a low pressure test platform for a 60 cm rod-plane gap at 30 kPa, and analyzes the characteristics of streamer generation and propagation. The results show that the partial streamer and breakdown streamer all occur in the positive half-cycle of AC voltage near the peak voltage at 30 kPa. The partial streamer could cause the distortion of current and voltage waveform, and it appears as the branching characteristic at the initial stage. With the extension of the streamer, the branching and tortuosity phenomena become gradually obvious, but the branching is suppressed when the streamer crosses the gap. The low-pressure condition has little influence on the tortuosity length and the tortuosity number of the streamer, but affect the diameter of streamer obviously.

  15. On the role of metastable states in low pressure oxygen discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Hannesdóttir, H.

    2017-03-01

    We use the one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 to explore the spatio-temporal evolution of the electron heating mechanism in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge in the pressure range 10 - 200 mTorr. The electron heating is most significant in the sheath vicinity during the sheath expansion phase. We explore how including and excluding detachment by the singlet metastable states O2(a1 Δg) and O2(b1Σ+g) influences the heating mechanism, the effective electron temperature and electronegativity, in the oxygen discharge. We demonstrate that the detachment processes have a significant influence on the discharge properties, in particular for the higher pressures. At 10 mTorr the time averaged electron heating shows mainly ohmic heating in the plasma bulk (the electronegative core) and at higher pressures there is no ohmic heating in the plasma bulk, that is electron heating in the sheath regions dominates.

  16. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  17. Positive corona discharge in N_2 + CH_4 mixture at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, G.; Skalny, J. D.; Mason, N. J.; Zahoran, M.; Orszagh, J.

    2008-07-01

    Titan is considered as one of the few places in Solar system, where atmospheric and surface conditions could have produced organic molecules as precursors of higher hydrocarbons, nitriles or amino acids. Most of laboratory simulations of Titan's atmosphere were carried out at lower pressures presenting stratospheric conditions but there is poor knowledge about simulated reactions of Titan's troposphere. In our work an experimental investigation of products in positive coaxial corona discharge fed by mixture of N_2 and CH_4 with ratio of N_2:CH_4=98:2 in stationary regime has been made using UV spectroscopy. The measurements have been carried out at pressure of 1 bar and ambient temperature. The discharge reactor used for the treatment of the gas mixture consisted of a brass cylinder with diameter of 16 mm and length of 70 mm. A stainless steel and tungsten wires of diameter of 0.125 mm was centred inside the metal cylinder and was connected to the high voltage power supply. Coaxial corona discharge was generated by a Glassman high voltage power supply. The mixing ratio of methane and nitrogen was regulated by a MKS flow controllers. The reactor was placed in a Shimadzu VUV spectrometer for the in-situ measurements of absorbance of synthesized compounds. The measurements were focused on the UV analysis of time evolution of C_2H_2 and C_2H_4 concentrations and EMS study of deposited compounds on discharge electrodes (Figure 1). After a certain time a yellow- orange layer was formed on the active discharge electrode causing sparks and forming a dense rose-like spots on the covered electrode surface (Figure 2). Figure 1: EMS study of electrode surface. Figure 2: EMS picture of a treated electrode.

  18. VUV-VIS spectroscopic diagnostics of a pulsed high-pressure discharge in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treshchalov, A. B.; Lissovski, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    High-pressure argon plasma, excited by a high-current pulsed volume discharge, has been investigated. Spatial-time VUV-VIS emission kinetics were used for the plasma diagnostics. A homogeneous discharge was obtained at a pressure of up to 10 bar. It was revealed that the spectral shape of the UV-VIS photorecombination continuum is a sensitive diagnostic tool for the constriction of the discharge. This shape changes because of the difference of the positive charge carriers in the arc (atomic Ar+ ions) and homogeneous (molecular Ar_{2}^{+} ions) phases of the discharge. The intensity of this continuum is proportional to the square of the electron density. The experimental data and modelling show that the heating of electrons after the main excitation pulse is a very undesirable process. It suppresses the recombination flow in plasma, thus the kinetics of all excited species are spread in time with a decrease in the Ar_{2}^{\\ast } excimers densities. The electron collision-induced mixing effectively converts the reservoir of long-lived triplet Ar_{2}^{\\ast } molecules to fast-emitted singlet excimers. This mechanism is dominant in the production of singlet excimers. A realistic threshold density for the lasing of Ar_2^{\\ast}({{}^{1}\\Sigma_u})_{(v=0)} excimers of about 5 × 1015 cm-3 was estimated (the gain coefficient is 0.05 cm-1). This criterion could be realized in 10 bar of Ar by a homogeneous single pulse discharge pumping with a peak electron density of 2.4 × 1016 cm-3.

  19. Analytical model of atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive Penning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric and near-atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive discharges have wide applications. An analytic equilibrium solution is developed based on a homogeneous, current-driven discharge model that includes sheath and electron multiplication effects and contains two electron populations. A simplified chemistry is used with four unknown densities: hot electrons, warm electrons, positive ions and metastables. The dominant electron-ion pair production is Penning ionization, and the dominant ion losses are to the walls. The equilibrium particle balances are used to determine a single ionization balance equation for the warm electron temperature, which is solved, both approximately within the α- and γ-modes, and exactly by conventional root-finding techniques. All other discharge parameters are found, the extinction and α-γ transitions are determined, and a similarity law is given, in which the equilibrium for a short gap at high pressure can be rescaled to a longer gap at lower pressure. Within the α-mode, we find the scaling of the discharge parameters with current density, frequency, gas density and gap width. The analytic results are compared to hybrid and particle-in-cell (PIC) results for He/0.1%N2, and to hybrid results for He/0.1%H2O. For nitrogen, a full reaction set is used for the hybrid calculations and a simplified reaction set for the PIC simulations. For the chemically complex water trace gas, a set of 209 reactions among 43 species is used. The analytic results are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the more elaborate hybrid and PIC calculations.

  20. Characteristics of High-Pressure Microwave Glow Discharge in a Microgap Aimed at VUV Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro

    2004-09-01

    In continuous high-pressure discharge at high plasma densities, the gas and electron temperatures tend to be in equilibrium and the current path tends to constrict. However, using microdischarge with microwave excitation, we can produce a cw high-density non-equilibrium plasma extending one-dimensionally over some length. We are studying such a plasma aiming at producing a high-brightness VUV excimer light source. The plasma is produced in a microgap ( ˜ 100 μm) between two 10-mm-long knife-edge electrodes at a very high power deposition ( ˜ MW/cm^3). VUV emission from Ar2 and Xe2 was confirmed using discharge with Ar/He and Xe/He mixture gases. To understand the properties of the microgap discharge, detailed optical diagnostics are being carried out. Spatially resolved Thomson and Raman scattering measurements showed that the electron density in a 100 W He discharge is 3× 10^14 cm-3 and the gas temperature is 1200K. The gas temperature was also studied as a function of the gas flow rate through the microgap using N2 C^3Π-B^3Π optical emission. A rather surprising result is that the gas temperature is relatively insensitive to the gas flow rate even if the flow is rapid enough to replace the gas in the microgap within the characteristic time of diffusive heat conduction to the wall. This suggests the existence of a rapid heat transport mechanism in the discharge other than diffusive heat conduction. The existence of an extremely large gas-temperature garadient between the plasma and the wall may induce a rapid convective heat transport. A computational study of the heat transport mechanism in the microgap discharge is also in progress (Work supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of Priority Areas [15075205] from MEXT Japan)

  1. VUV Emission Characteristics of High-Pressure Microgap Discharge Excited by Microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, A.; Kano, T.; Sugiyama, T.

    2002-10-01

    It was shown that a stable atmospheric-pressure nonthermal air plasma could be produced at a high density (>10^15cm-3) in the microgap ( ˜ 100 μm) between two knife edge electrodes by using microwave excitation [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 (2001) L238]. In the present work, Ar2 and Xe2 excimer emission characteristics of the microgap discharge were studied. The apparatus was installed in a pressure chamber and the total gas pressure was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 atm. Admixture of He with Ar or Xe was necessary to obtain a uniform discharge extending along the electrode length. The Ar2 emission ( ˜130 nm) or Xe2 emission ( ˜170 nm) dominated in the optical emission in the VUV region, but their intensities depended only weakly on the microwave power as well as on the total pressure. To understand the reasons for the results and to increase the VUV emission intensity, measurements of the gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density are in progress, as well as a modification of the apparatus for introducing gas flow through the microgap.

  2. Effects of impedance matching network on the discharge mode transitions in a radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Z. F.; Yuan, G. Y.; Gao, W.; Sun, J. C.

    2008-06-15

    In inductively coupled plasma sources, discharge transitions from electrostatic mode (E mode) to electromagnetic mode (H mode) and from H mode to E mode occur. In previous studies, only a few works paid attention to the effects of the impedance matching network. Cunge et al. [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 8, 576 (1999)] investigated the E-H and H-E mode transitions under two different impedance matching situations, but no physical mechanism or interpretation was presented. This issue is remained to be systematically and quantitatively investigated, and the underlying mechanism to be unveiled. In this paper, the effects of the impedance matching network were experimentally studied in electropositive argon gas by varying the series capacitance in an inversely L-shaped matching network. The positive and negative feedback regions are established according to the effect of varying the series capacitance on the output power of the rf power supply. It was found that under the same experimental parameters, the discharge mode transitions are apt to be discontinuous and continuous in the positive and negative feedback regions, respectively. In addition, the critical coil rf current (or applied power) at the mode transition, the hysteretic loop width, and the difference in applied power during the discharge mode transition vary with the series capacitance. The critical coil rf current at the E-H mode transition is not always higher than that at the H-E mode transition.

  3. Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Air at Atmospheric Pressure -- Experiment and Theory of Regime Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and inter-electrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. Notably, there is a minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime that increases with decreasing gas temperature. A theory is developed to describe the Corona-to-Glow (C-G) and Glow-to-Spark (G-S) transitions for NRP discharges. The C-G transition is shown to depend on the Avalanche-to-Streamer Transition (AST) as well as the electric field strength in the positive column. The G-S transition is due to the thermal ionization instability. The minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime can be understood by considering that the applied voltage of the AST must be lower than that of the thermal ionization instability. This is a previously unknown criterion for generating glow discharges, as it does not correspond to the Paschen minimum or to the Meek-Raether criterion.

  4. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  5. Comparative study of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Sarinont, Thapanut; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Attri, Pankaj; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    We are comparing several non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications. Here we measured discharge period dependence of pH value and 750 nm absorbance of KI-starch solution of deionized water after plasma irradiation with two discharge devices; a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet device and a scalable DBD device. The pH and the absorbance of KI-starch solution are useful indicator of their oxidizability. We have obtained a map of the absorbance and proton concentration [H+] which is deduced from pH value. For the scalable DBD, the range of the absorbance is between 0.7 and 1.3 and that of [H+] is between 10-7 and 10-5 mol/L. For the DBD jet, the range of the absorbance and [H+] are 2.0-3.2 and 10-4-10-3 mol/L, respectively. Measured data for both devices shows same tendency in the map, while the range of values for the scalable DBD is smaller than that for the DBD jet. The results indicate the oxidazability for the scalable DBD is much weaker than that for the DBD jet.

  6. Decomposition Characteristics of Acetone in a DC Corona Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takahiro; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori

    Decomposition characteristics of acetone in a DC corona discharge generated between a multi-needle and a plane electrodes in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure are investigated mainly by infrared absorption spectroscopy in this work. It is found that CO2, CO, CH4, HCHO, HCOOH and HCN are the by-products of acetone in the corona discharge, and that CO, CH4, HCHO, HCOOH and HCN are intermediate products, which tend to be decomposed in the corona discharge. CO2 is found to be the major and end-product. It is also found that acetone is chiefly inverted to CO2 via CO at high oxygen concentration (20%) and via CO and CH4 at relatively low oxygen concentration (0.2%), in addition to the direct conversion from acetone to CO2. As the oxygen concentration increases, the percentages of carbon atoms contained in deposit on the plane electrode and the wall of the discharge chamber increases. Further, the decomposition process of acetone is deduced from the examination of rate constants for the reactions in the gaseous phase.

  7. Electron beam injection experiments - The beam-plasma discharge at low pressures and magnetic field strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.; Leinbach, H.; Kellogg, P.; Monson, S.; Hallinan, T.; Garriott, O. K.; Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J.; Daly, P.; Baker, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes electron beam injection experiments which clarify observational results obtained in rocket flights. A column of enhanced density plasma, exceeding the density expected from ionization by primary beam electrons, was observed in a large vacuum system at low magnetic fields (1 to 1.5 G) and low ambient pressures (10 to the minus 6 to 10 to the minus 5 torr). The peak luminosity of the discharge was about 10 times that of the beam alone, and the radius increased by a factor of three. In the absence of the discharge, RF emission is observed at 1.1 to 1.2 times the cyclotron frequency, and a strong band of RF noise with upper frequency cutoff at about the cyclotron frequency is observed in the discharge mode, along with higher frequency noise at or near the plasma frequency. The onset of the plasma discharge is critically dependent on beam current. The described results agree with observations obtained at much higher densities and magnetic fields in fusion research studies.

  8. Degradation of palm oil refinery wastewaters by non-thermal gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Mountapmbeme-Kouotou, P; Laminsi, S; Acayanka, E; Brisset, J-L

    2013-07-01

    The gliding electric discharge in humid air is a source of activated species forming (e.g. (•)OH, (•)NO and their derivatives H2O2, ONO2H and NO3H) which are present in a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. These species are able to degrade organic pollutants in palm oil refinery wastewaters (PORW). The increase in acidity (pH decrease), conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) of PORW samples exposed to the discharge are reported. More than 50% TOC abatement is obtained for 15 min treatment in batch conditions with a laboratory reactor. The organic pollutants of PORW, i.e. mainly fatty acids are degraded according to a pseudo first-order reaction (k* = 0.06 min(-1)). Post discharge reactions are also observed after having switched off the discharge, which suggests that the pseudo first-order (k ≈ 0.05 min(-1)) degradation reactions should be attributed to the diffusion of soluble reactive species, e.g. H2O2 and ONOOH in the liquid target.

  9. Development of a dielectric barrier discharge enhanced plasma jet in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuechen; Chang Yuanyuan; Jia Pengying; Xu Longfei; Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long

    2012-09-15

    A plasma jet equipped with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is developed to generate diffuse air plasma with fairly large gap and cross sectional area. The diffuse air plasma has two discharge modes under different gap widths from the nozzle to the ground plate electrode. For large gap width, a diffuse plume fills the whole space between the nozzle and the plate electrode after coaxial DBD is ignited when the applied voltage reaches a certain value. Rather than diffuse plasma plume, a bright plasma column bridges the nozzle and the plate electrode with further increasing the applied voltage under small gap width. By optical and electrical measurement, results show that the macroscopically diffuse discharge in air is obtained by the superimposition of radially distributed streamers that appear at different cycles of the applied voltage, and the bright plasma column belongs to atmospheric pressure glow discharge. The molecular vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are given as functions of the peak value of the applied voltage.

  10. Measurement of metastable Ar atom density in atmospheric-pressure microgap discharge using laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2006-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure Ar glow discharge in a microgap between two knife-edge electrodes (10-mm length, 100-μm gap separation) driven by 2.45-GHz microwave is being studied aiming at an application to VUV excimer light source. One of the knife-edge electrodes has a gas sink at its ridge, enabling introducing gas flow through the discharge plasma. The density of metastable Ar atoms, which are precursors of excimer molecules, is studied using laser absorption spectroscopy. The beam of a tunable diode laser at wavelengths around 696.5 nm is arranged to pass through the microgap obliquely to have an absorption path length of ˜1 mm. At a microwave power of 10 W, the observed absorption at the line center was ˜10% with a pressure broadened line width of ˜13 GHz, giving metastable Ar atom density of 3x10^13 cm-3. In a similar condition, the electron density measured using a laser Thomson scattering technique was 3x10^14 cm-3. The behavior of metastable atom density for varying discharge conditions is under investigation. (Work supported by Grant-in-aid 15075205 from MEXT Japan.)

  11. Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2006-02-15

    Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

  12. Characteristics and plasma parameters of a short-wavelength low-pressure discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Malinina, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the working optical characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of a short-wavelength, electric discharge exciplex-halogen UV-VUV lamp employing a mixture of argon and chlorine with a total pressure of P = 0.5 10 kPa. The lamp operates on a system of broadened electron-vibrational bands of ArCl (175 nm) and chlorine (200, 258 nm) molecules, which overlap to form a continuum in the spectral range of 160 260 nm. It is established that the optimum mixtures are those with p(Ar) - p(Cl2) = (2 4)-(0.15 0.30) kPa. The average output power of the short-wavelength radiation is 1 2 W at an efficiency of ˜5%. The electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) and the discharge plasma parameters have been calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation for a gas mixture with the experimentally determined optimum composition in the range of E/ P values from 1 to 200 V/(cm Torr), where E is the electric field strength and P is the total gas pressure. Using the obtained EDFs, the electron transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for the main elementary processes, and rate constants of electron processes are determined.

  13. Two-Dimensional Electron Density Measurement of Positive Streamer Discharge in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.

  14. Low-current medium-pressure RF discharge with electron photoemission in the electrode sheath and penetration of the sheath electrons into the discharge column

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, I. Ya.; Koptev, A. V.

    2007-12-15

    A model is developed for simulating a low-current moderate-pressure RF discharge with allowance for such characteristic discharge properties as the existence of two sheaths near both electrodes throughout the RF field period; the formation of an electron cloud at the sheath boundary that periodically fills the sheath and leaves it, depending on the phase of the applied RF voltage; the production by the sheath electrons of metastable gas particles that interact with the cloud electrons during subsequent field periods, followed by the excitation of metastable states to the emitting levels; the formation of a sheath in a low-current RF discharge due to the overlap of the secondary electron avalanches triggered by electron photoemission from the electrode surface; and the conditions under which the sheath electrons penetrate into the positive column and accumulate there, which makes, thereby making a low-current RF discharge similar to a non-self-sustained discharge. The parameters of the sheath in a low-current RF discharge are determined by the conditions under which the electron photoemission current from the electrode surface in the sheath is self-sustaining and, like the parameters of the positive discharge column, depend on the sort of gas, the gas pressure, the frequency of the applied RF field, and the interelectrode distance. The results of calculating the parameters of the sheath and column of a low-current RF discharge for nitrogen and helium at different pressures, as well as for different field frequencies and interelectrode distances, are presented and are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Comparison of three computational models for predicting pressurization characteristics of cryogenic tank during discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Yanzhong, Li; Kang, Zhu; Yonghua, Jin

    2015-01-01

    In order to select an effective approach to predict the pressurization characteristics of cryogenic tank during rocket launching, three computational models, defined as 0-D, 1-D and CFD models, are used to obtain the pressure evolution and thermal performance of a cryogenic tank during pressurized discharge period. Several pressurization cases are computed by all of the three models to evaluate their predictive abilities and effects, respectively. The comparative study shows that for the case with a diffuser-type injector at the tank inlet, the consistent results by the three models are obtained in the most of period, except that 1-D model has a peak departure prediction of pressure value at the beginning of process. All of the three models can be used to predict the pressurization performance, and their predictive abilities could be validated with one another. The CFD model is the unique suitable model to display the pressurization performance including physical distribution in radial direction especially for the system with no-diffuser-type injector. Based on the analysis, the application selection of three models for different cases is accomplished. The 0-D model is the priority selection for a simple pressure prediction of tank ullage, even for the situation that severe temperature distribution exists in the ullage range. The 1-D model is the optimal selection as considering both the convenience and the time consumption for the constant-pressure cases. But it is not recommended in a constant-inlet flux cases for its distinct predicting deviation at the beginning of the process. When the detailed distributions within the tank are concerned, the CFD model is the unique selection. The results of this paper may be beneficial to the model selection and optimization analysis of a pressurization system.

  16. Energetic Ion Beam Production by a Low-Pressure Plasma Focus Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L. K.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-03-30

    Energetic ion beam emissions in a 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus operating at low-pressure regime are investigated. Deuterium gas is used and the discharge is operated in a low-pressure regime of below 1 mbar. Formation of the current sheath during the breakdown phase at the back wall is assisted by a set delayed trigger pulse. Energetic and intense ion beams with good reproducibility have been obtained for the operating pressure ranging from 0.05 mbar to 0.5 mbar. Deuteron beam is determined by time resolved measurement by making use of three biased ion collectors placed at the end on direction. The average energies of deuteron beams are resolved by using time-of flight method. Correlation between the ion emissions and the current sheath dynamics is also discussed.

  17. Fluid modeling of plasma dynamics in pulsed RF capacitive glow discharges in low pressure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yue; Jia, Wenzhu; Zhou, Yanwen

    2017-08-01

    Based on the drift-diffusive approximation, one-dimensional fluid modeling is carried out for the pulsed RF capacitive glow discharges in low pressure argon. Investigated are the effects of various discharge parameters, such as the duty cycle ratio and frequency of the pulsed modulation, and the material properties of the electrode, on the plasma characteristics such as the electron recombination rate, during both the initial and the steady state phases of the discharge. The modeling results show that, after switching off the applied voltage during the pulsed modulation of the RF discharge, the electron density increases first and then decreases. This phenomenon is particularly pronounced before the discharge reaches steady state. Meanwhile, independent of whether the discharge has reached steady state or not, right after the applied voltage is switched on during each modulation period, the electron and ion densities and the metastable argon atom density, as well as their generation rate, experience a time delay (phase lag) with respect to the applied voltage. The results also show that, at the initial phase of the pulsed modulation, during the steady state discharge, the electron temperature in the center of the bulk plasma is almost not affected by the applied voltage, or by the material properties of the electrode such as the secondary electron emission rate. The electron density, however, does increase with these parameters, resulting in increased power density dissipation of the plasma. On the other hand, at fixed applied voltage, the central electron temperature of the bulk plasma is reduced by increasing several parameters, including the modulation duty ratio, the distance between two electrodes, and the modulation frequency, as well as the electron recombination rate due to different choices of the electrode material. This eventually leads to a reduction of the dissipated power density in the plasma. In particular, with the increase of the modulation duty

  18. Effect of a DC external electric field on the properties of a nonuniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at reduced pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Yu. A.; Krashevskaya, G. V.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Titov, A. Yu.; Epshtein, I. L.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a dc external electrical field on the properties of a highly nonuniform electrode microwave discharge in hydrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr was studied using optical emission spectroscopy and selfconsistent two-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the negative voltage applied to the antenna electrode with respect to the grounded chamber increases the discharge radiation intensity, while the positive voltage does not affect the discharge properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data.

  19. Induction of rice mutations by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xuncheng; Zheng, Feng; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an extreme thermo-physical factor that affects the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins and induces mutagenesis in microorganisms. Our previous studies showed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h retarded the germination and affected the viability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds, increased the tolerance of rice plants to cold stress and altered gene expression patterns in germinating rice seeds. However, the mutagenic effect of HHP on rice remains unknown. In this study, exposure to 25, 50, 75 or 100 MPa for 12 h HHP could efficiently induce variation in rice plants. Furthermore, presoaking time and HHP strength during HHP treatment affected the efficiency of mutation. In addition, the Comet assay revealed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h induced DNA strand breakage in germinating seeds and may have been the source of mutations. Our results suggest that HHP is a promising physical mutagen in rice breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic Ignition of Pulsed Gas Discharges in Air of Low Pressure in a Coaxial Plasma Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, Karlheinz; Norwood, Joseph, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the breakdown voltage of a coaxial system of electrodes has been investigated by earlier workers. For low values of gas pressure times electrode spacing, the breakdown voltage is decreased by the application of the magnetic field. The electron cyclotron radius now assumes the role held by the mean free path in nonmagnetic discharges and the breakdown voltage becomes a function of the magnetic flux density. In this paper the dependence of the formative time lag as a function of the magnetic flux density is established and the feasibility of using a magnetic field for igniting high-voltage, high-current discharges is shown through theory and experiment. With a 36 microfarad capacitor bank charged to 48,000 volts, a peak current of 1.3 x 10( exp 6) amperes in a coaxial type of plasma gun was achieved with a current rise time of only 2 microseconds.

  1. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  2. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21 cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130 MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  3. A sensitive gas chromatography detector based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ansgar T; Last, Torben; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we present a novel concept for a gas chromatography detector utilizing an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization which is initialized by a dielectric barrier discharge. In general, such a detector can be simple and low-cost, while achieving extremely good limits of detection. However, it is non-selective apart from the use of chemical dopants. Here, a demonstrator manufactured entirely from fused silica capillaries and printed circuit boards is shown. It has a size of 75×60×25mm(3) and utilizes only 2W of power in total. Unlike other known discharge detectors, which require high-purity helium, this detector can theoretically be operated using any gas able to form stable ion species. Here, purified air is used. With this setup, limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range have been obtained for acetone.

  4. Simulation of a runaway electron avalanche developing in an atmospheric pressure air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    To gain a better understanding of the operation of atmospheric pressure air discharges, the formation of a runaway electron beam at an individual emission site on the cathode has been numerically simulated. The model provides a description of the dynamics of the fast electrons emitted into an air gap from the surface of the emission zone by solving numerically two-dimensional equations for the electrons. It is supposed that the electric field at the surface of the emission zone is enhanced, providing conditions for continuous acceleration of the emitted electrons. It is shown that the formation of a runaway electron beam in a highly overvolted discharge is largely associated with avalanche-type processes and that the number of electrons in the avalanche reaches 50% of the total number of runaway electrons.

  5. Growth Control of Dry Yeast Using Scalable Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of plasma irradiation on the growth of dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using a scalable atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device. NO of 380 ppm, NO2 of 10 ppm and O3 of 560 ppm were detected 1 mm below the discharges, which were produced by the DBD plasmas. DBD plasma irradiation of 10 to 100 s enhances the growth of yeast in the lag phase, whereas that of 120 and 150 s suppresses the growth. O3, NO2, photons, and heat generated by the plasma irradiation are not responsible for the growth enhancement of the dry yeast. Plasma etching has little effect on the growth of dry yeast cells. NO plays a key role in the growth enhancement of dry yeast cells.

  6. C3 as the dominant carbon cluster in high pressure discharges in graphite hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Sohail Ahmad; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Khan, Sabih-ud-Din; Khalid, Rahila; Aleem, Abid; Ahmad, Shoaib

    2007-03-01

    Results are presented that have been obtained while operating the graphite hollow cathode duoplasmatron ion source in dual mode under constant discharge current. This dual mode operation enabled us to obtain the mass and emission spectra simultaneously. In mass spectra C3 is the main feature but C4 and C5 are also prominent, whereas in emission spectra C2 is also there and its presence shows that it is in an excited state rather than in an ionic state. These facts provide evidence that C3 is produced due to the regeneration of a soot forming sequence and leave it in ionic state. C3 is a stable molecule and the only dominant species among the carbon clusters that survives in a regenerative sooting environment at high-pressure discharges.

  7. Experimental observation of phase-flip transitions in two inductively coupled glow discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Neeraj; Mukherjee, S.; Sen, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar

    2016-12-01

    We report an experimental observation of a phase-flip transition in the frequency synchronization of two dc glow discharge plasma sources that are coupled in a noninvasive fashion. When the fundamental oscillation frequency of the potential fluctuations of one of the sources is progressively increased, by raising its discharge voltage, a frequency pulling regime is observed, followed by a synchronized regime that shows a frequency jump phenomenon. The jump is associated with a phase-flip transition that takes the synchronized state from an in-phase to an antiphase state. When the process is reversed, the transition takes place at a different frequency, thereby exhibiting a hysteresis effect. A heuristic model, consisting of two van der Pol oscillators that are coupled to each other through a dynamic common medium, eminently captures the essential features of our experimental observations.

  8. Spatial distribution of the electron component parameters in the nitrogen plasma of a low-pressure electrode microwave Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Yu. A. Krashevskaya, G. V. Gogoleva, M. A.

    2016-01-15

    Spatial distributions of charged particle concentration, electron temperature, and DC potential in an electrode microwave discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr have been measured using the double electric probe method. It has been shown that, near the electrode/antenna, the charged particle concentration exceeds a critical value. The concentration and heterogeneity of the discharge increase with increasing microwave power.

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Zalach, J.; Franke, St.; Schoepp, H.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.; Zissis, G.

    2011-03-15

    Modern high-pressure discharge lamps are forced to provide instant light and hot relight capabilities - if possible at lower power units. A detailed understanding of the warm-up of high-pressure discharge lamps is therefore required. Complex fluid model codes were developed for the past years including more and more processes like two-dimensional treatment of convection trying to provide a more comprehensive and consistent description of high-pressure discharge lamps. However, there is a lack of experimental data to examine the performance of these models. This work provides a very complete set of geometrical, electrical, spectroscopic, and thermographic data according to the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp that is compared to the results of a state of the art fluid code. Quantitative agreement is achieved for single parameters like wall temperatures. But the paper also reveals the need for further investigations and improvements of the code.

  10. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A. Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  11. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A.; Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-01

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  12. Simulation study of one-dimensional self-organized pattern in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui Wang, Dezhen

    2015-04-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the one-dimensional self-organized patterns in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by sinusoidal voltage in argon. Under certain conditions, by changing applied voltage amplitude, the transversely uniform discharge can evolve into the patterned discharge and the varied self-organized patterned discharges with different numbers and arrangements of discharge channels can be observed. Similar to the uniform atmospheric-pressure DBD, the patterned discharge mode is found to undergo a transition from Townsend regime, sub-glow regime to glow regime with increasing applied voltage amplitude. In the different regimes, charged particles and electric field display different dynamical behaviors. If the voltage amplitude is increased over a certain value, the discharge enters an asymmetric patterned discharge mode, and then transforms into the spatially chaotic state with out-of-order discharge channels. The reason for forming the one-dimensional self-organized pattern is mainly due to the so-called activation-inhibition effect resulting from the local high electron density region appearing in discharge space. Electrode arrangement is the reason that induces local high electron density.

  13. Particle Densities of the Atmospheric-Pressure Argon Plasmas Generated by the Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jie; Li, Li; Wang, Yunuan; Xiu, Xianwu; Wang, Chao; Song, Yuzhi

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric-pressure argon plasmas have received increasing attention due to their high potential in many industrial and biomedical applications. In this paper, a 1-D fluid model is used for studying the particle density characteristics of the argon plasmas generated by the pulsed dielectric barrier discharges. The temporal evolutions of the axial particle density distributions are illustrated, and the influences of changing the main discharge conditions on the averaged particle densities are researched by independently varying the various discharge conditions. The calculation results show that the electron density and the ion density reach two peaks near the momentary cathodes during the rising and the falling edges of the pulsed voltage. Compared with the charged particle densities, the densities of the resonance state atom Arr and the metastable state atom Arm have more uniform axial distributions, reach higher maximums and decay more slowly. During the platform of the pulsed voltage and the time interval between the pulses, the densities of the excited state atom Ar* are far lower than those of the Arr or the Arm. The averaged particle densities of the different considered particles increase with the increases of the amplitude and the frequency of the pulsed voltage. Narrowing the discharge gap and increasing the relative dielectric constant of the dielectric also contribute to the increase of the averaged particle densities. The effects of reducing the discharge gap distance on the neutral particle densities are more significant than the influences on the charged particle densities. supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (No. ZR2015AQ008), and Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program of China (No. J15LJ04)

  14. Developing a diagnostic tool for measuring maximum effective temperature within high pressure electrodeless discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Michael; Preston, Barry; Mucklejohn, Stuart; Santos, Monica; Lister, Graeme

    2016-09-01

    Here we present an investigation into the feasibility of creating a diagnostic tool for obtaining maximum arc temperature measurements within a high pressure electrodeless discharge; utilizing integrating sphere measurements of optically thin lines emitted from mercury atoms within commercially available high pressure mercury lamp arc tubes. The optically thin lines chosen were 577 nm and 1014 nm from a 250 W high pressure mercury lamp operated at various powers. The effective temperature could be calculated by considering the relative intensities of the two optically thin lines and comparison with the theoretical ratio of the temperature dependent power emitted from the lines derived from the atomic spectral data provided by NIST. The calculations gave effective arc temperatures of 5755, 5804 and 5820 K at 200, 225, 250 W respectively. This method was subsequently used as a basis for determining maximum effective arc temperature within microwave-driven electrodeless discharge capsules, with varying mercury content of 6.07, 9.4 and 12.95 mg within 1 × 10-6 m3 giving maximum effective temperatures of 5163, 4768 and 4715 K respectively at 240 W.

  15. Microplasma discharge vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Joshua M; Gann, Reuben N; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H(2) gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV.

  16. Treatment of polycarbonate by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, K. G.; Hamia, Y. A. A.; Mota, R. P.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Nascente, P. A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Generally most plastic materials are intrinsically hydrophobic, low surface energy materials, and thus do not adhere well to other substances. Surface treatment of polymers by discharge plasmas is of great and increasing industrial application because it can uniformly modify the surface of sample without changing the material bulk properties and is environmentally friendly. The plasma processes that can be conducted under ambient pressure and temperature conditions have attracted special attention because of their easy implementation in industrial processing. Present work deals with surface modification of polycarbonate (PC) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The treatment was performed in a parallel plate reactor driven by a 60Hz power supply. The DBD plasmas at atmospheric pressure were generated in air and nitrogen. Material characterization was carried out by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy of the polymer surface was calculated from contact angle data by Owens-Wendt method using distilled water and diiodomethane as test liquids. The plasma-induced chemical modifications are associated with incorporation of polar oxygen and nitrogen containing groups on the polymer surface. Due to these surface modifications the DBD-treated polymers become more hydrophilic. Aging behavior of the treated samples revealed that the polymer surfaces were prone to hydrophobic recovery although they did not completely recover their original wetting properties.

  17. Modeling of inductively coupled plasma SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar plasma discharge: Effect of O{sub 2} on the plasma kinetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pateau, Amand; Rhallabi, Ahmed Fernandez, Marie-Claude; Boufnichel, Mohamed; Roqueta, Fabrice

    2014-03-15

    A global model has been developed for low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures. This model is based on a set of mass balance equations for all the considered species, coupled with the discharge power balance equation and the charge neutrality condition. The present study is an extension of the kinetic global model previously developed for SF{sub 6}/Ar ICP plasma discharges [Lallement et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 18, 025001 (2009)]. It is focused on the study of the impact of the O{sub 2} addition to the SF{sub 6}/Ar gas mixture on the plasma kinetic properties. The simulation results show that the electron density increases with the %O{sub 2}, which is due to the decrease of the plasma electronegativity, while the electron temperature is almost constant in our pressure range. The density evolutions of atomic fluorine and oxygen versus %O{sub 2} have been analyzed. Those atomic radicals play an important role in the silicon etching process. The atomic fluorine density increases from 0 up to 40% O{sub 2} where it reaches a maximum. This is due to the enhancement of the SF{sub 6} dissociation processes and the production of fluorine through the reactions between SF{sub x} and O. This trend is experimentally confirmed. On the other hand, the simulation results show that O(3p) is the preponderant atomic oxygen. Its density increases with %O{sub 2} until reaching a maximum at almost 40% O{sub 2}. Over this value, its diminution with O{sub 2}% can be justified by the high increase in the loss frequency of O(3p) by electronic impact in comparison to its production frequency by electronic impact with O{sub 2}.

  18. Electron density modulation in a pulsed dual-frequency (2/13.56 MHz) dual-antenna inductively coupled plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Sirse, Nishant; Mishra, Anurag; Yeom, Geun Y.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2016-09-15

    The electron density, n{sub e}, modulation is measured experimentally using a resonance hairpin probe in a pulsed, dual-frequency (2/13.56 MHz), dual-antenna, inductively coupled plasma discharge produced in argon-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} (90–10) gas mixtures. The 2 MHz power is pulsed at a frequency of 1 kHz, whereas 13.56 MHz power is applied in continuous wave mode. The discharge is operated at a range of conditions covering 3–50 mTorr, 100–600 W 13.56 MHz power level, 300–600 W 2 MHz peak power level, and duty ratio of 10%–90%. The experimental results reveal that the quasisteady state n{sub e} is greatly affected by the 2 MHz power levels and slightly affected by 13.56 MHz power levels. It is observed that the electron density increases by a factor of 2–2.5 on increasing 2 MHz power level from 300 to 600 W, whereas n{sub e} increases by only ∼20% for 13.56 MHz power levels of 100–600 W. The rise time and decay time constant of n{sub e} monotonically decrease with an increase in either 2 or 13.56 MHz power level. This effect is stronger at low values of 2 MHz power level. For all the operating conditions, it is observed that the n{sub e} overshoots at the beginning of the on-phase before relaxing to a quasisteady state value. The relative overshoot density (in percent) depends on 2 and 13.56 MHz power levels. On increasing gas pressure, the n{sub e} at first increases, reaching to a maximum value, and then decreases with a further increase in gas pressure. The decay time constant of n{sub e} increases monotonically with pressure, increasing rapidly up to 10 mTorr gas pressure and at a slower rate of rise to 50 mTorr. At a fixed 2/13.56 MHz power level and 10 mTorr gas pressure, the quasisteady state n{sub e} shows maximum for 30%–40% duty ratio and decreases with a further increase in duty ratio.

  19. Afterglow emission from xenon, krypton, and argon dimers in nanosecond volume discharge at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2006-10-01

    The emission characteristics of plasma of a volume discharge initiated by electron avalanche beams in heavy inert gases at pressures up to 1.5 bar have been studied. It is established that more than 90% of the energy radiated in the wavelength range from 120 to 850 nm is emitted from xenon, krypton, and argon dimers. In the case of excited xenon plasma, an output radiation power of ˜300 kW and an energy of 45 mJ per cubic centimeter were obtained.

  20. Polishing of Optical Media by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Inert Gas Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, C.; Weihs, T.; Luca, A.; Wieneke, S.; Viöl, W.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, surface smoothing of optical glasses, glass ceramic and sapphire using a low-power dielectric barrier discharge inert gas plasma at atmospheric pressure is presented. For this low temperature treatment method, no vacuum devices or chemicals are required. It is shown that by such plasma treatment the micro roughness and waviness of the investigated polished surfaces were significantly decreased, resulting in a decrease in surface scattering. Further, plasma polishing of lapped fused silica is introduced. Based on simulation results, a plasma physical process is suggested to be the underlying mechanism for initialising the observed smoothing effect.

  1. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duten, X.; Redolfi, M.; Aggadi, N.; Vega, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  2. Imprinting of double-sided microstructures with rapid induction heating and gas-assisted pressuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Yang-Min; Kao, Ching-Chieh; Ke, Kun-Cheng; Yang, Sen-Yeu

    2017-09-01

    Many components need microstructures on both upper and lower surfaces for integrating and enhancing functions. For the replication of microstructures on the polymeric substrate, hot embossing is an inexpensive and flexible method. However, the cycle time is too long and the embossing pressure is not uniform. This study is devoted to developing an innovative hot embossing system, which integrates induction heating and gas-assisted pressuring for the imprinting of double-sided microstructures. In this study, a wrapped coil for induction heating was designed, implemented, and tested. Then, an apparatus with wrapped coils for induction heating and gas pressuring for hot embossing was designed and constructed in a chamber. Experiments showed that the cycle time can be reduced to 4 min. V-cut patterns and microlens array had been successfully replicated on both surfaces of the polycarbonate substrates. The replication rates were above 95%. This study proves the potential of induction heating gas-assisted embossing for rapid replication of double-sided microstructures for industrial applications.

  3. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  4. Dynamics of the water molecule density in a discharge chamber filled with a low-pressure humid gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bernatskiy, A. V. Ochkin, V. N.; Bafoev, R. N.; Antipenkov, A. B.

    2016-10-15

    The dynamics of the H{sub 2}O molecule density in a metal gas-discharge chamber filled with low-pressure water vapor or its mixtures with noble gases was investigated by manometric and spectral methods. Regimes both with and without discharge excitation were studied. In the absence of a discharge, the molecule density dynamics is governed by the heterogeneous interaction of molecules with the chamber walls. In the presence of a discharge, in addition to the heterogeneous interaction, fast plasmachemical molecule dissociation also contributes to the initial stage of H{sub 2}O molecule loss. The role of heating of the chamber walls is discussed.

  5. Numerical optimization of the electrical characteristics of an EUV laser on 3 p-3 s transition in neonlike argon ions in low-inductance capillary-type discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtsev, V. A.; Kalinin, N. V.; Vaganov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of low-inductance capillary-type discharge have been determined by numerical model calculations, which ensure high efficiency of energy supply to a plasma column with an aspect ratio of 1: 100. The EUV argon laser based on this discharge provides a gain of g + > 1 cm-1 on the operating transition and ensures single-pass spontaneous lasing with g + l > 25 (where l is the active medium length).

  6. Air Purification Effect of Positively and Negatively Charged Ions Generated by Discharge Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nojima, Hideo

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, the air purification effect of positively and negatively charged ions generated by discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure is reported. We have developed a novel ion generation device which consists of a cylindrical glass tube and attached inner and outer mesh electrodes. With the application of AC voltage between the electrodes, positively charged ions and negatively charged ions have been generated at atmospheric pressure. The ion densities of 3.0× 104--7.0× 104 counts/cm3 have been obtained with the AC voltage of 1.8-2.3 kV (effective value). We have examined the air purification properties of this device. By the operation of this device, the initial oxygen nitride (NO) density of 10 ppm in 1 m3 (in cigarette smoke) was decreased to 1 ppm after 30 min. The number of suspended germs in air has been significantly reduced by the use of this type of ion generation device.

  7. Power supply improvements for ballasts-low pressure mercury/argon discharge lamp for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Zegaoui, A.; Djahbar, A.; Allouache, H.; Hemici, K.; Kessaissia, F. Z.; Bouchrit, M. S.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    The low-pressure electrical discharges established in the mercury rare gas mixtures are the basis of many applications both in the field of lighting and for industrial applications. In order to select an efficient high frequency power supply (ECG -based PWM inverter), we present and discuss results obtained in the simulation of three kinds of power supplies delivering a 0.65 A - 50KHz sinusoidal current dedicated to power low pressure UV Mercury - Argon lamp used for effect germicide on water treatment thus allowing maximum UVC radiation at 253.7 nm. Three ballasts half-bridge configurations were compared with criteria based on resulting germicide efficiency, electrical yield and reliability, for example the quality of the sinusoidal current with reduced THD, and finally, we also considered in this analysis the final economic aspect.

  8. A modified resistance equation for modeling underwater spark discharge with salinity and high pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Pengfei; Roy, Subrata

    2014-05-07

    This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions.

  9. Spectroscopic measurement of radiation of high-pressure mercury discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Ling; Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2005-06-15

    Compact size and high efficiency are important features for projection systems. As the most often used sources for projection optics, short arc lamps are characterized by their impressive economy and the ability to produce extremely bright light from small dimensional sources. In this contribution the old principle of back reflection towards the sources is applied to a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp with a reflector to improve the radiance of the source by 35% at a certain reduced solid angle. Increasing the optical thickness of sources is equivalent to reducing the total phase space (etendue) of emitted radiation by the same factor, which is very useful for compacting sources. In addition, by comparing the forward radiation and the back-reflected radiation obtained from spectroscopic measurements, we calculate the absorptivity, emissivity, absorption, and emission coefficients of the plasma of the arc lamp based on Kirchhoff's Law and Planck's equation which is necessary for determining its temperature and pressure.

  10. Theoretical Study of Plasma Parameters Dependence on Gas Temperature in an Atmospheric Pressure Argon Microwave Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2008-03-19

    The gas temperature is an important parameter in many applications of atmospheric pressure microwave discharges (MW). That is why it is necessary to study the influence of that temperature on the plasma characteristics. Our investigation is based on a self-consistent model including the wave electrodynamics and gas-discharge kinetics. We adopt a blocks' energy structure of the argon excited atom. More specifically, we consider 7 different blocks of states, namely 4s, 4p, 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, and 6s. Each block k is characterized by its effective energy uk (derived as an average energy of all levels in the block), as well as its effective g-factor and population. The argon dimmer, atomic and molecular ions are also taken into account in the model. We solve the Boltzmann equation in order to get the electron energy distribution function and the necessary rate constants of the elementary processes. The collisional-radiative part of the model is based on 87 processes. As a result we obtain the electron and ions' number densities, mean electron energy, mean power for sustaining an electron--ion pair in the discharge bulk, as well as the population of the excited blocks of states of the argon atom as functions of the gas temperature.

  11. Array of surface-confined glow discharges in atmospheric pressure helium: Modes and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Liu, D. X. E-mail: mglin5g@gmail.com; Nie, Q. Y.; Li, H. P.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G. E-mail: mglin5g@gmail.com

    2014-05-19

    Array of atmospheric pressure surface discharges confined by a two-dimensional hexagon electrode mesh is studied for its discharge modes and temporal evolution so as to a theoretical underpinning to their growing applications in medicine, aerodynamic control, and environmental remediation. Helium plasma surface-confined by one hexagon-shaped rim electrode is shown to evolve from a Townsend mode to a normal and abnormal glow mode, and its evolution develops from the rim electrodes as six individual microdischarges merging in the middle of the hexagon mesh element. Within one hexagon element, microdischarges remain largely static with the mesh electrode being the instantaneous cathode, but move towards the hexagon center when the electrode is the instantaneous anode. On the entire array electrode surface, plasma ignition is found to beat an unspecific hexagon element and then spreads to ignite surrounding hexagon elements. The spreading of microdischarges is in the form of an expanding circle at a speed of about 3 × 10{sup 4} m/s, and their quenching starts in the location of the initial plasma ignition. Plasma modes influence how input electrical power is used to generate and accelerate electrons and as such the reaction chemistry, whereas plasma dynamics are central to understand and control plasma instabilities. The present study provides an important aspect of plasma physics of the atmospheric surface-confined discharge array and a theoretical underpinning to its future technological innovation.

  12. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  13. Quantitative measurements of ground state atomic oxygen in atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Kong, M. G.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Leys, C.; Nikiforov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The generation of atomic oxygen in an array of surface micro-discharge, working in atmospheric pressure He/O2 or Ar/O2 mixtures, is investigated. The absolute atomic oxygen density and its temporal and spatial dynamics are studied by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. A high density of atomic oxygen is detected in the He/O2 mixture with up to 10% O2 content in the feed gas, whereas the atomic oxygen concentration in the Ar/O2 mixture stays below the detection limit of 1013 cm-3. The measured O density near the electrode under the optimal conditions in He/1.75% O2 gas is 4.26  ×  1015 cm-3. The existence of the ground state O (2p 4 3 P) species has been proven in the discharge at a distance up to 12 mm away from the electrodes. Dissociative reactions of the singlet O2 with O3 and deep vacuum ultraviolet radiation, including the radiation of excimer \\text{He}2\\ast , are proposed to be responsible for O (2p 4 3 P) production in the far afterglow. A capability of the surface micro-discharge array delivering atomic oxygen to long distances over a large area is considered very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets beyond ground electrode as charge overflow in a dielectric barrier discharge setup

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian

    2010-08-15

    With a proper combination of applied voltage and the width of ground electrode, atmospheric pressure plasma jets extending beyond the ground electrode, whether it sits on the downstream or the upstream side, can be equally obtained with a dielectric barrier discharge setup, which can be ascribed to the overflow of deposited charges [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013308 (2009)]. Here, we show that, by using narrower ground electrodes, such an overflow jet can be successfully launched at a much reduced voltage (down to below 10 kV). Moreover, by using transparent and triadic ground electrodes, development of charge overflow beneath the ground electrode was temporally and spatially resolved. Temporal evolution of discharge currents measured on the severed ground electrode helps establish the propagation dynamics of discharges along the dielectric surface beneath ground electrode, and also reinforces the conception that the streamer's head is in connection to the active electrode via a conducting channel. A small propagation velocity of 3.3x10{sup 3} m/s was measured for the ''overflow'' jet inside the dielectric tube. The availability of such overflow jets is enormously advantageous concerning their application to living bodies, to which the high voltage at active electrode is lethally dangerous.

  15. Hydrogen Generation in a Microhollow Cathode Discharge in an Atmospheric-Pressure Ammonia-Argon Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qui, Hongwei; Martus, K.; Lee, W.; Becker, K.

    2003-10-01

    A micro hydrofuel reformer for H2 generation has been developed using a single microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) with a mixture of ammonia (NH3) and argon (Ar) as the operating gas. The MHCD was constructed from two pieces of thin metal separated by a mica spacer with a single hole, roughly 0.1 mm in diameter, through the three layers. The efficiency of the MHCD reactor for H2 generation from NH3 was analyzed by monitoring the products formed in the discharge in a mass spectrometer. Using a gas mixture of a few percent NH3 in Ar at one atmosphere, the single-hole MHCD reactor achieved an ammonia conversion of 20%. The effects of NH3 partial pressure and discharge power on the hydrogen production were investigated. We also explored the possibility of using a plasma reactor consisting of a 2-dimensional array of MHCDs operated in parallel. Work supported by the NSF, the William Paterson University ART Program, and the NJCST.

  16. Precise energy and temperature measurements in dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault-Caron, Mylène; Gagnon, Hervé; Nisol, Bernard; Piyakis, Konstantinos; Wertheimer, Michael R.

    2015-08-01

    A specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cell and associated equipment has been used to carry out precise measurements of electrical energy, {{E}\\text{g}} , dissipated per discharge cycle of the applied ac voltage, Va over the frequency range 5  ⩽  f   ⩽  50 kHz. Twin pairs of several different dielectric materials (2.54 cm diameter discs, thicknesses = 2.0 or ca. 0.1 mm) with relative permittivities between 2.1  ⩽  K{{'}{}}   ⩽  9.5 were used as dielectric barriers in DBDs of four different gases: He, Ne, Ar and N2. Much of the work relates to the study of atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma in flowing He gas; five separate thermometers (including fiber-optic probes immune to high voltage and high-frequency electromagnetic fields) have enabled us to perform a detailed calorimetric (heat balance) investigation in He APGD, believed to be the first of its kind. Fair agreement in the overall energy balance, which includes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light emission, lends strong support to the validity of both measurements and methodology. The latter includes refined algorithms that permit rapid data acquisition and processing. The present results are compared with literature, allowing several important conclusions/recommendations to emerge.

  17. Radiation properties of low-pressure discharges in rare-gas mixtures containing xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortchakov, S.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2005-02-01

    Glow discharges in mixtures of xenon with other rare gases can be used as alternatives to mercury-containing UV/VUV radiation sources and fluorescent lamps. The advantages of such sources are environmental compatibility, instant light output after switching on, and less pronounced temperature dependence. However, the optimum choice of the gas composition with respect to the maximum efficiency and power of the xenon resonance radiation as well as to a stable discharge operation still remains an open question. The dc cylindrical positive column of low-pressure discharges in rare-gas mixtures is studied by a detailed self-consistent kinetic description. The influence of the buffer gases helium, neon and argon as well as the appropriate choice of the xenon admixture are revealed by analysing different triple-gas mixtures. Changes in the global power budget and the radial structure of the plasma are discussed. A mixture of He and about 1-2% Xe arises as an optimum composition.

  18. The Effect of High-Pressure Arc Discharge Plasma on the Degradation of Chlorpyrifos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meiqiang; Ma, Tengcai; Zhang, Jialiang; Huang, Mingjing; Ma, Buzhou

    2006-11-01

    A study is conducted to determine the effect of a kind of high-pressure arc discharge plasma on the degradation rate and kinetic equations of chlorpyrifos in different solvents with the treated times and concentrations as variables. The degradation rate was sorted in different solvents as water, methanol, acetone and then acetoacetate. The tendencies of the degradation rates with treated time in water and methanol were optimally fitted with first-order kinetics equations while those in acetone and acetoacetate were fitted with zeroth-order kinetics equations. The difference was attributed to the stronger polarity of water and methanol. The weak correlation of the degradation rates with time was mainly because the high-temperature of the arc discharge tube and the chemically-active species generated by the discharge. The degradation half-life was extended with increase of chlorpyrifos concentration. A degradation half-life less than 3 min was achieved for chlorpyrifos in water and methanol when the initial concentration was less than 300 μg/ml.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets beyond ground electrode as charge overflow in a dielectric barrier discharge setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Ji, Ailing; Cao, Zexian

    2010-08-01

    With a proper combination of applied voltage and the width of ground electrode, atmospheric pressure plasma jets extending beyond the ground electrode, whether it sits on the downstream or the upstream side, can be equally obtained with a dielectric barrier discharge setup, which can be ascribed to the overflow of deposited charges [J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013308 (2009)]. Here, we show that, by using narrower ground electrodes, such an overflow jet can be successfully launched at a much reduced voltage (down to below 10 kV). Moreover, by using transparent and triadic ground electrodes, development of charge overflow beneath the ground electrode was temporally and spatially resolved. Temporal evolution of discharge currents measured on the severed ground electrode helps establish the propagation dynamics of discharges along the dielectric surface beneath ground electrode, and also reinforces the conception that the streamer's head is in connection to the active electrode via a conducting channel. A small propagation velocity of 3.3×103 m/s was measured for the "overflow" jet inside the dielectric tube. The availability of such overflow jets is enormously advantageous concerning their application to living bodies, to which the high voltage at active electrode is lethally dangerous.

  20. High-voltage nanosecond pulses in a low-pressure radio-frequency discharge.

    PubMed

    Pustylnik, M Y; Hou, L; Ivlev, A V; Vasilyak, L M; Couëdel, L; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E; Fortov, V E

    2013-06-01

    An influence of a high-voltage (3-17 kV) 20 ns pulse on a weakly-ionized low-pressure (0.1-10 Pa) capacitively coupled radiofrequency (RF) argon plasma is studied experimentally. The plasma evolution after pulse exhibits two characteristic regimes: a bright flash, occurring within 100 ns after the pulse (when the discharge emission increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude over the steady-state level), and a dark phase, lasting a few hundreds μs (when the intensity of the discharge emission drops significantly below the steady-state level). The electron density increases during the flash and remains very large at the dark phase. 1D3V particle-in-cell simulations qualitatively reproduce both regimes and allow for detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. It is found that the high-voltage nanosecond pulse is capable of removing a significant fraction of plasma electrons out of the discharge gap, and that the flash is the result of the excitation of gas atoms, triggered by residual electrons accelerated in the electric field of immobile bulk ions. The secondary emission from the electrodes due to vacuum UV radiation plays an important role at this stage. High-density plasma generated during the flash provides efficient screening of the RF field (which sustains the steady-state plasma). This leads to the electron cooling and, hence, onset of the dark phase.

  1. Study of a Filamentary Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Zeghondy, Barbar; Guaitella, Olivier; Bourdon, Anne; Rousseau, Antoine

    2006-10-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressure have many applications, for instance ozone production, surface treatment, and waste gas treatment. Generally, such a discharge is filamentary but it can be diffuse under particular conditions. Understanding the formation of the filament, which is an ionization wave or so-called ``streamer'', is very hard theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. This is due, first, to the non-linearity of the equations concerned, and second, because of the scaling in space and time of this phenomenon: a streamer has a radius on the order of a few microns, and propagates through distances of several centimeters in a few nanoseconds. In this study we will present the results obtained in experiments and in simulations for a plane-to-plane DBD. We electrically characterized this device and have observed collective effects that are still poorly understood. A point-to-plane DBD has also been studied for producing a much more localized discharge. In parallel with the experimental study we have developed a numerical model based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) to introduce an electrode having a complex geometry into a structured Cartesian mesh. The first results of the code will be discussed.

  2. Reconsideration of basic concepts for the low-pressure discharge maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivarova, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The Schottky condition and the concept for the ambipolar field known as bases of the low-pressure discharge maintenance are reconsidered. Whereas the Schottky condition results in a value of the electron temperature independent of the plasma density, the discussed generalized form of the Schottky condition relates - due to the nonlinear processes in the charged particle balance - the electron temperature to the plasma density, thus, ensuring self-consistency of the plasma description. The concept for equality of the electron and ion fluxes resulting into the ambipolar field is the second issue discussed. Localization of the power input outside the high plasma-density region, a common case in many rf plasma sources, breaks it down by transforming the ambipolar field into a vortex, non-conservative, field. Since the dc field in the discharge should be a potential (conservative) field, it appears to be composed by two vortex field: the ambipolar field and a field related to a vortex dc current, the latter driven by a deviation from the Boltzmann distribution of the electron density. In addition, due to the steady-state magnetic field self-induced by the vortex current in the discharge, the plasma appears magnetized without having an external magnetic field applied.

  3. Particle modelling of magnetically confined oxygen plasma in low pressure radio frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Benyoucef, Djilali; Yousfi, Mohammed

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this paper is the modelling and simulation of a radio frequency (RF) discharge in oxygen at low pressure and at room temperature, including the effect of crossed electric and magnetic fields for generation and confinement of oxygen plasma. The particle model takes into account one axial dimension along the electric field axis and three velocity components during the Monte Carlo treatment of the collisions between charged particles and background gas. The simulation by this developed code allows us not only to determine the electrodynamics characteristics of the RF discharge, but also to obtain kinetics and energetic description of reactive oxygen plasma at low pressure. These information are very important for the control of the deep reactive-ion etching technology of the silicon to manufacture capacitors with high density and for the deposition thick insulating films or thick metal to manufacture micro-coils. The simulation conditions are as follows: RF peak voltage of 200 V, frequency of 13.56 MHz, crossed magnetic field varying from 0 to 50 Gauss, and oxygen pressure of 13.8 Pa. In the presence of magnetic field, the results show an increase of the plasma density, a decrease of the electron mean energy, and also a reduction of the ratio between electron density and positive ion density. Finally in order to validate, the results are successfully compared with measurements already carried out in the literature. The conditions of comparison are from 100 to 300 V of the peak voltage at 13.56 MHz under a pressure of 13.8 Pa and a gap distance of 2.5 cm.

  4. [Influence of pressure on plasma temperature in air/argon dielecteic barrier discharge].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Fang; Qi, Yu-Yan; Li, Li-Chun; Hao, Ya-Juan; Gao, Rui-Ling; Zhao, Zeng-Chao; Li, Xue-Chen

    2008-01-01

    Electron excitation temperature and molecule vibrational temperature in argon/air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at different gas pressure with water electrodes were studied by using optical emission spectra. The spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm(2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772.42 nm(2P2 --> 1S3) were chosen to calculate electron excitation temperature by the relative intensity ratio method. The emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3 pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)) were measured at the same time. The molecule vibration temperature was estimated by the emission intensities of different bands with delta(nu) = -1, delta(nu) = -2, and delta(nU) = -3 in nitrogen band of second positive system, using Boltzmann's plot method. In addition, the relative line intensities of nitrogen (0-0) band of first negative system at 391.4 nm and (0-0) band of second positive system at 337.1 nm were also measured to study the variation of electron energy. It was found that the electron excitation temperature decreased from 4 700 to 3 300 K and the molecule vibrational temperature decreased from 3 200 to 2 900 K with increasing gas pressure from 20 to 60 kPa. Besides, the ratio of I(N2+)/I(N2) also decreased with pressure increasing from 20 to 60 kPa, indicating that the average electron energy decreases with the gas pressure increasing. These results are of great importance to the study of plasma dynamics of dielectric barrier discharge and also to the underlying industrial applications.

  5. A hybrid model of radio frequency biased inductively coupled plasma discharges: description of model and experimental validation in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Wei; Gao, Fei; Lieberman, M. A.; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid model, i.e. a global model coupled bidirectionally with a parallel Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) sheath model, is developed to investigate an inductively coupled discharge with a bias source. This hybrid model can self-consistently reveal the interaction between the bulk plasma and the radio frequency (rf) bias sheath. More specifically, the plasma parameters affecting characteristics of rf bias sheath (sheath length and self-bias) are calculated by a global model and the effect of the rf bias sheath on the bulk plasma is determined by the voltage drop of the rf bias sheath. Moreover, specific numbers of ions are tracked in the rf bias sheath and ultimately the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) incident on the bias electrode is obtained. To validate this model, both bulk plasma density and IEDF on the bias electrode in an argon discharge are compared with experimental measurements, and a good agreement is obtained. The advantage of this model is that it can quickly calculate the bulk plasma density and IEDF on the bias electrode, which are of practical interest in industrial plasma processing, and the model could be easily extended to serve for industrial gases.

  6. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Kaufman, M. C.; Luce, T. C.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Politzer, P. A.; Porkolab, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.; Zeng, L.

    2014-02-01

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ˜2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  7. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; ...

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ~2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedlymore » strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. As a result, the AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.« less

  8. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Kaufman, M. C.; Luce, T. C.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Politzer, P. A.; Porkolab, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.; Zeng, L.

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ~2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. As a result, the AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  9. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Austin, M. E.; Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.; Porkolab, M.; Turco, F.

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  10. Characterization of the large area plane-symmetric low-pressure DC glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avtaeva, S.; Gorokhovsky, V.; Myers, S.; Robertson, S.; Shunko, E.; Zembower, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Electron density and temperature as well as nitrogen dissociation degree in the low-pressure (10-50 mTorr) large area plane-symmetric DC glow discharge in Ar-N2 mixtures are studied by probes and spectral methods. Electron density measured by a hairpin probe is in good agreement with that derived from the intensity ratio of the N2 2nd positive system bands IC , 1 - 3/IC , 0 - 2 and from the intensity ratio of argon ions and atom lines IArII/IArI, while Langmuir probe data provides slightly higher values of electron density. Electron density in the low-pressure DC glow discharge varies with the discharge conditions in the limits of 108-1010 cm- 3. The concept of electron temperature can be used in low-pressure glow discharges with reservations. The intensity ratio of (0-0) vibrational bands of N2 1st negative and 2nd positive systems I391.4/I337.1 exhibits the electron temperature of 1.5-2.5 eV when argon fraction in the mixture is higher than nitrogen fraction and this ratio quickly increases with nitrogen fraction up to 10 eV in pure nitrogen. The electron temperature calculated from Langmuir probe I-V characteristics assuming a Maxwellian EEDF, gives Te 0.3-0.4 eV. In-depth analysis of the EEDF using the second derivative of Langmuir probe I-V characteristics shows that in a low-pressure glow discharge the EEDF is non-Maxwellian. The EEDF has two populations of electrons: the main background non-Maxwellian population of ;cold; electrons with the mean electron energy of 0.3-0.4 eV and the small Maxwellian population of ;hot; electrons with the mean electron energy of 1.0-2.5 eV. Estimations show that with electron temperature lower than 1 eV the rate of the direct electron impact ionization of N2 is low and the main mechanism of N2 ionization becomes most likely Penning and associative ionization. In this case, assumptions of the intensity ratio IN2+ , 391/IN2 , 337 method are violated. In the glow discharge, N2 dissociation degree reaches about 7% with the argon

  11. Influence of Discharge Parameters on Tuned Substrate Self-Bias in an Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhenfeng; Sun, Jingchao; Wang, Younian

    2005-12-01

    The tuned substrate self-bias in an rf inductively coupled plasma source is controlled by means of varying the impedance of an external LC network inserted between the substrate and the ground. The influencing parameters such as the substrate axial position, different coupling coils and inserted resistance are experimentally studied. To get a better understanding of the experimental results, the axial distributions of the plasma density, electron temperature and plasma potential are measured with an rf compensated Langmuir probe; the coil rf peak-to-peak voltage is measured with a high voltage probe. As in the case of changing discharge power, it is found that continuity, instability and bi-stability of the tuned substrate bias can be obtained by means of changing the substrate axial position in the plasma source or the inserted resistance. Additionally, continuity can not transit directly into bi-stability, but evolves via instability. The inductance of the coupling coil has a substantial effect on the magnitude and the property of the tuned substrate bias.

  12. Peri-infarct Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Facilitates Induction of Spreading Depolarization Associated with Epileptiform Discharges

    PubMed Central

    Lapilover, EG; Lippman, K.; Salar, S.; Maslarova, A.; Dreier, JP; Heinemann, U.; Friedman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies showed that spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur abundantly in patients following ischemic stroke and experimental evidence suggests that SDs recruit tissue at risk into necrosis. We hypothesized that BBB opening with consequent alterations of the extracellular electrolyte composition and extravasation of albumin facilitates generation of SDs since albumin mediates an astrocyte transcriptional response with consequent disturbance of potassium and glutamate homeostasis. Here we show extravasation of Evans blue-albumin complex into the hippocampus following cortical photothrombotic stroke in the neighbouring neocortex. Using extracellular field potential recordings and exposure to serum electrolytes we observed spontaneous SDs in 80 % of hippocampal slices obtained from rats 24 h after cortical photothrombosis. Hippocampal exposure to albumin for 24 h through intraventricular application together with serum electrolytes lowered the threshold for the induction of SDs in most slices irrespective of the pathway of stimulation. Exposing acute slices from naive animals to albumin led also to a reduced SD threshold. In albumin-exposed slices the onset of SDs was usually associated with larger stimulus-induced accumulation of extracellular potassium, and preceded by epileptiform activity, which was also observed during the recovery phase of SDs. Application of ifenprodil (3μM), an NMDA-receptor type 2 B antagonist, blocked stimulus dependent epileptiform discharges and generation of SDs in slices from animals treated with albumin in-vivo. We suggest that BBB opening facilitates the induction of peri-infarct SDs through impaired homeostasis of K+. PMID:22782081

  13. Maximization of the working domain of an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (APTD) using a current-source static converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, M. C.; Bonnin, X.; Naudé, N.; Piquet, H.; Belinger, A.; Gherardi, N.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of a square- wave current inverter power supply, and to describe its effect on the working domain of an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (ATPD) in nitrogen. The results show that it allows a substantial increase of the percentage of time during which the discharge is ON (on-time) and therefore of the power delivered to the discharge, reaching almost 10 W/cm2 in pure nitrogen. Moreover, the increase of the on-time of the discharge implies a decrease of the extinction off-time between two discharges, and thus an increase of the memory effect from one discharge to the following one, as it is monitored by using electrical and optical measurements. This leads to a larger working domain of the ATPD, even when adding impurities in nitrogen.

  14. Study on the characteristics of barrier free surface discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Pang; Qiaogen, Zhang; Kun, He; Chunliang, Liu

    2016-05-15

    Nanosecond pulsed plasma has an enormous potential in many applications. In this paper, the characteristics of barrier free nanosecond pulsed surface discharge are investigated by the use of an actuator with a strip-strip film electrode configuration, including the effect of electrode width and the gap distance on the plasma morphology and electrical characteristics at atmospheric pressure. It was found that it is relative easier to generate a quasi uniform discharge with a thinner electrode width and a smaller gap distance. The underlying physical mechanism was also discussed. Besides that, the influence of airflow on repetitive pulsed surface discharge was examined. By comparing to the discharge produced by two different pulse waveforms in airflows, we found that the discharge driven by a faster pulse behaves more stable. Finally, a model was developed to analyze the interaction of the airflow and the discharge channels.

  15. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C6H5CH3) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C6H5CH3 removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N2: O2: H2O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C6H5CH3 decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C6H5CH3 is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  16. Ion kinetics and self pulsing in DC microplasma discharges at atmospheric and higher pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamud, Rajib; Farouk, Tanvir I.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure microplasma devices have been the subject of considerable interest and research during the last decade. Most of the operation regime of the plasma discharges studied fall in the ‘abnormal’, ‘normal’ and ‘corona’ modes—increasing and a ‘flat’ voltage current characteristics. However, the negative differential resistance regime at atmospheric and high pressures has been less studied and possesses unique characteristics that can be employed for novel applications. In this work, the role of ion kinetics especially associated with trace impurities; on the self pulsing behavior has been investigated. Detailed numerical simulations have been conducted with a validated model for a helium-nitrogen feed gas mixture. Different oscillatory modes were observed where the discharge was found to undergo complete or partial relaxation. Trace amount of nitrogen was found to significantly alter the pulsing characteristics. External parameters influencing these self oscillations are also studied and aspects of the ion kinetics on the oscillatory behavior are discussed.

  17. CFD simulation of pressure and discharge surge in Francis turbine at off-design conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, D.; Avdyushenko, A.; Panov, L.; Bannikov, D.; Cherny, S.; Skorospelov, V.; Pylev, I.

    2012-11-01

    A hybrid 1D-3D CFD model is developed for the numerical simulation of pressure and discharge surge in hydraulic power plants. The most essential part - the turbine itself - is simulated directly using 3D unsteady equations of turbulent motion of fluid-vapor mixture, while the rest of the hydraulic system is simulated in frames of 1D hydro-acoustic model. Thus the model accounts for the main factors responsible for excitation and propagation of pressure and discharge waves in hydraulic power plant. Boundary conditions at penstock inlet and draft tube outlet are discussed in detail. Then simulations of dynamic behavior at part load and full load operating points are performed. It is shown that the numerical model is able to capture self-excited oscillations in full load conditions. The influence of penstock length and flow structure behind the runner are investigated. The presented approach seems to be a promising tool for prediction and investigation the dynamic behavior in hydraulic power plants.

  18. Efficacy of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge for inactivating airborne pathogens

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Mangado, Jaione; Dey, Avishek; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; ...

    2017-07-05

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained attention in recent years for several environmental applications. This technology could potentially be used to deactivate airborne microorganisms, surface-bound microorganisms, and biofilms. Here, the authors explore the efficacy of the atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to inactivate airborne Staphylococcus epidermidis and Aspergillus niger that are opportunistic pathogens associated with nosocomial infections. This technology uses air as the source of gas and does not require any process gas such as helium, argon, nitrogen, or hydrogen. Moreover, the effect of DBD was studied on aerosolized S. epidermidis and aerosolized A. niger spores via scanning electron microscopymore » (SEM). The morphology observed on the SEM micrographs showed deformations in the cellular structure of both microorganisms. Cell structure damage upon interaction with the DBD suggests leakage of vital cellular materials, which is a key mechanism for microbial inactivation. The chemical structure of the cell surface of S. epidermidis was also analyzed by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy before and after DBD exposure. Our results from surface analysis revealed that reactive oxygen species from the DBD discharge contributed to alterations on the chemistry of the cell membrane/cell wall of S. epidermidis.« less

  19. A diffuse plasma jet generated from the preexisting discharge filament at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Yonggang; Zhang, Tongyi; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang

    2017-07-01

    A diffuse plasma jet was realized by expanding the preexisting argon filamentary discharge into a diffuse one at atmospheric pressure. Examination of emission spectra from the plasma jet shows that the emission intensities of OH and Ar increase with the argon flow near the quartz tube nozzle, while the N 2 emission intensity first increases, then decreases, and finally approximately remains unchanged with the increase in the argon flow of interest. It is also found that with the argon flow set at 0.4 l/min, most of the reactive species are gathered close to the nozzle, the OH and Ar emission intensities decrease quickly after the plasma propagates out of the nozzle, but the N 2 emission is able to propagate over a larger distance. These distinct spectral emission features of OH, N 2 , and Ar are attributed to the different generation and quenching mechanisms of their corresponding excited states, i.e., OH ( A <2Σ + ) , N 2 ( C 3Π μ ) , and Ar ( 4 p ) / Ar ( 4 s ) in the argon plasma jet. Additionally, the formation of the diffuse plasma jet has been clarified by observing the discharge burning phase and solving the Poisson equation for the electric field distribution in an argon cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge. The filamentary discharge deposits charged particles onto the dielectric. The positive surface charges in the positive half cycle induce a relatively high field in the local region close to the dielectric. The relatively high field and the high pre-ionization in this local region play a key role in initiating the diffuse positive corona.

  20. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2003, an interest to investigation of e-beams generation in gas-filled diodes with high pressures has been rekindled. In 2005, the advanced recording methods of electron beams and the use of digital oscilloscopes with wide bandwidth provided the measurements of the beam current duration with time resolution of sim 100 ps. In this paper, the recent measurement results on duration and amplitude of a beam, generated at a nanosecond discharge in different gases have been summarized (Tarasenko et al. 2005, Baksht et al. 2007, Tarasenko et al. 2008). Voltage pulses sim 25, sim 150 and sim 250 kV in amplitude were applied to the gas gap with inhomogeneous electric field. It is presented that the current of supershort avalanche electrons beam (SAEB) recording through a area with a small diameter the pulse duration behind a foil from the gas diode with air at atmospheric pressure is no more than 90 ps. For recording, the pulse shape it is necessary to use a small-sized coaxial collector, loaded to a high-frequency cable, and the same collector is used for taking the charge density distribution over the foil surface in order to determine the SAEB amplitude. The electron distribution over the foil section should be compared with a per pulse distribution. In these experiments, we have compared the distributions obtained per pulse on a RF-3 and luminophore films, placed behind a foil. Besides that, intensity distribution of X-ray radiation at the gas diode output was recorded by using a multi-channel detection device based on microstrip arsenide-gallium detectors of ionizing radiation. An analysis of those data shows that at the beam current duration (FWHM) of sim 90 ps the beam current amplitude behind the 10- mu m thickness Al-foil at atmospheric pressure of air is sim 50 A. Discharge formation and SAEB generation in sulfur hexafluoride and xenon at pressure of 0.01-2.5 atm and helium of 10^-4 - 12 atm have been investigated. The beam of runaway electrons behind 45 mu m

  1. DC negative corona discharge in atmospheric pressure helium: transition from the corona to the ‘normal’ glow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nusair; Antao, Dion S.; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2014-06-01

    Direct current (dc) negative corona discharges in atmospheric pressure helium are simulated via detailed numerical modeling. Simulations are conducted to characterize the discharges in atmospheric helium for a pin plate electrode configuration. A self-consistent two-dimensional hybrid model is developed to simulate the discharges and the model predictions are validated with experimental measurements. The discharge model considered consists of momentum and energy conservation equations for a multi-component (electrons, ions, excited species and neutrals) gas mixture, conservation equations for each component of the mixture and state relations. A drift-diffusion approximation for the electron and the ion fluxes is used. A model for the external circuit driving the discharge is also considered and solved along with the discharge model. Many of the key features of a negative corona discharge, namely non-linear current-voltage characteristics, spatially flat cathode current density and glow-like discharge in the high current regime are displayed in the predictions. A transition to the ‘normal’ glow discharge from the corona discharge regime is also observed. The transition is identified from the calculated current-voltage characteristic curve and is characterized by the radial growth of the negative glow and the engulfment of the cathode wire.

  2. Low-Pressure Small-Radius Hydrogen Discharge as a Volume-Production Based Source of Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Paunska, Tsvetelina V.; Shivarova, Antonia P.; Tarnev, Khristo Ts.

    2011-09-26

    The two-dimensional model of low-pressure discharges presented in the study provides description of hydrogen discharge maintenance in a free-fall regime with account for the volume produced negative ions in the discharge. The factors determining the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters, including that of the negative ions, in discharges with a localized rf power deposition and, respectively, with regions with remote plasma maintenance, are discussed. In agreement with previous one-dimensional models of hydrogen discharges maintained in a free-fall regime, the results show that small radius discharges sustain high density of volume-produced negative ions in the discharge center. This accumulation of the negative ions in the central part of the discharge where the rf power deposition is localized results from substantial influx of negative ions produced all over the discharge volume, i.e. from a nonlocal behavior of the discharge strongly predominating over the local balance of the ions associated with the elementary processes (collisions).

  3. Characteristics of a micro-gap argon barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Qi; Jia, Pengying; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Dong, Lifang

    2017-03-01

    Using two water electrodes, a micro-gap dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage is investigated in atmospheric pressure argon. Through electrical and optical measurements, it is found that, at a lower driving frequency, a stepped discharge mode is obtained per half voltage cycle. Moreover, the duration and amplitude of the current plateau increase with the increase in the applied peak voltage. With the increase in the driving frequency, the stepped discharge mode transits into a pulsed one after a multi-peak mode. During this process, a diffuse discharge at a lower frequency transits into a filamentary one at a higher frequency. Temporal evolutions of the discharges are investigated axially based on fast photography. It is found that the stepped mode is in atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) regime. However, there is a transition from APTD to atmospheric pressure glow discharge for the pulsed mode. Spectral intensity ratio of 391.4 nm to 337.1 nm is used to determine the averaged electron energy, which decreases with increasing peak voltage or driving frequency.

  4. A freely localized discharge excited by intense microwave beams in high-pressure gases. Physics and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In the paper the recent successes of IAP microwave discharge group in studies of a discharge excited by intense converging microwave beams in high-pressure gases are presented. This discharge as a source of nonequilibrium freely localized plasma is very promising for a lot of applications in industry such as surface treatment, thin film deposition and super-pure plasma chemistry. But its successful application depends on the understanding of the physical processes which define dynamics, complicated discharge structure and plasma parameters. In the experiments the microwaves of wavelength 8-mm, pulse power 400 kW, pulse duration 50--500 microsecond, pulses repetition frequency 0.1--10 Hz are used. The main discharge properties in different gases at pressure 100--760 Torr are investigated. Numerical simulation of the discharge dynamics, taking into account heating and displacement of the gas in the nonisobaric case, permits them to generalize the existing results of experimental studies, and to discover new effects associated with the appearance of the plasma filament. Thus, they have shown that ultraviolet (UV) emission call be stimulated from the plasma filament. The efficient generation of UV radiation in a high-pressure discharge shows that its application in plasma chemical reactors for clearing air of industrial pollution (e.g., freon) is promising.

  5. An induction heating diamond anvil cell for high pressure and temperature micro-Raman spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Keiji; Noguchi, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    A new external heating configuration is presented for high-temperature diamond anvil cell instruments. The supporting rockers are thermally excited by induction from an externally mounted copper coil passing a 30 kHz alternating current. The inductive heating configuration therefore avoids the use of breakable wires, yet is capable of cell temperatures of 1100 K or higher. The diamond anvil cell has no resistive heaters, but uses a single-turn induction coil for elevating the temperature. The induction coil is placed near the diamonds and directly heats the tungsten carbide rockers that support the diamond. The temperature in the cell is determined from a temperature-power curve calibrated by the ratio between the intensities of the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines of silicon. The high-pressure transformation of quartz to coesite is successfully observed by micro-Raman spectroscopy using this apparatus. The induction heating diamond anvil cell is thus a useful alternative to resistively heated diamond anvil cells.

  6. Vibrational excitation in O2and Cl2inductively-coupled plasmas and DC discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul; Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickael; Annusova, Adriana; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-09-01

    Low-energy electrons can interact with molecules via resonances to cause vibrational excitation with large cross-sections. Such processes can absorb significant energy from the plasma electrons, affecting the electron energy distribution and potentially (via vibration-translation (VT) energy transfer) causing substantial gas heating. The presence of vibrationally excited molecules may significant increase the rates of collisional processes, including electron dissociative attachment and electron impact dissociation into neutral atoms. However, the cross-sections of these processes are often poorly known since they are extremely difficult to measure directly, and reliable theoretical calculations are only now appearing for simple diatomic molecules. We have measured the vibrational distributions in discharges in pure O2 and pure Cl2, using high-sensitivity ultra-broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. In O2 plasmas significant vibrational excitation is observed, up to v'' =18, with a tail temperature of around 8000K. In Cl2 excitation is only observed up to v'' =3, and the distribution appears to be in local equilibrium with the gas translational temperature (up to 1500K). We are developing a detailed self-consistent 0D global model of these systems including vibrational excitation. Work performed in the LABEX Plas@par project, with financial state aid (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 and ANR-13-BS09-0019).

  7. A comparative summary on streamers of positive corona discharges in water and atmospheric pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Motomura, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    From an intention of summarizing present understandings of positive corona discharges in water and atmospheric pressure gases, we tried to observe streamers in those media by reproducing and complementing previously reported results under a common experimental setup. We used a point-to-plane electrode configuration with different combinations of electrode gap (7 and 19 mm length) and pulsed power sources (0.25 and 2.5 ɛs duration). The general features of streamers were similar and the streamer-to-spark transition was also observed in both the media. However, in the details large differences were observed due to inherent nature of the media. The measured propagation speed of streamers in water of 0.035 × 106 ms-1 was much smaller than the speed in gases (air, N2 and Ar) from 0.4 to 1.1 × 106 ms-1 depending on species. In He the discharge looked glow-like and no streamer was observed. The other characteristics of streamers in gases, such as inception voltage, number of branches and thickness did also depend on the species. The thickness and the length of streamers in water were smaller than those in gases. From the volumetric expansion of a streamer in water after the discharge, the molecular density within the streamer medium was estimated to be rarefied from the density of water by about an order of magnitude in the active discharge phase. We derived also the electron density from the analysis of Stark broadened spectral lines of H and O atoms on the order of 1025 m-3 at the earlier time of the streamer propagation. The analyzed background blackbody radiation, rotational temperature of OH band emission and population density of Cu atomic lines yielded a consistent temperature of the streamer medium between 7000 and 10 000 K. Using the present data with a combination of the analysis of static electric field and previously reported results, we discuss the reason for the relatively low streamer inception voltage in water as compared to the large difference in the

  8. A comparative study on continuous and pulsed RF argon capacitive glow discharges at low pressure by fluid modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yue; Jia, Wenzhu; Zhou, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    Based on the plasma fluid theory and using the drift-diffusion approximation, a mathematical model for continuous and pulsed radial frequency (RF) argon capacitive glow discharges at low pressure is established. The model is solved by a finite difference method and the numerical results are reported. Based on the systematic analysis of the results, plasma characteristics of the continuous and pulsed RF discharges are comparatively investigated. It is shown that, under the same condition for the peak value of the driving potential, the cycle-averaged electron density, the current density, and other essential physical quantities in the continuous RF discharge are higher than those from the pulsed RF discharge. On the other hand, similar plasma characteristics are obtained with two types of discharges, by assuming the same deposited power. Consequently, higher driving potential is needed in pulsed discharges in order to maintain the same effective plasma current. Furthermore, it is shown that, in the bulk plasma region, the peak value of the bipolar electric field from the continuous RF discharge is greater than that from the pulsed RF discharge. In the sheath region, the ionization rate has the shape of double-peaking and the explanation is given. Because the plasma input power depends on the driving potential and the plasma current phase, the phase differences between the driving potential and the plasma current are compared between the continuous and the pulsed RF discharges. It is found that this phase difference is smaller in the pulsed RF discharge compared to that of the continuous RF discharge. This means that the input energy coupling in the pulsed RF discharge is less efficient than the continuous counterpart. This comparative study, carried out also under other conditions, thus can provide instructive ideas in applications using the continuous and pulsed RF capacitive glow discharges.

  9. Inductive passive sensor for intraparenchymal and intraventricular monitoring of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Behfar, Mohammad H; Abada, Emily; Sydanheimo, Lauri; Goldman, Ken; Fleischman, Aaron J; Gupta, Nalin; Ukkonen, Leena; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-08-01

    Accurate measurement of intracranial hypertension is crucial for the management of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Catheter-based intraventricular ICP measurement is regarded as the gold standard for accurate ICP monitoring. However, this method is invasive, time-limited, and associated with complications. In this paper, we propose an implantable passive sensor that could be used for continuous intraparenchymal and intraventricular ICP monitoring. Moreover, the sensor can be placed simultaneously along with a cerebrospinal fluid shunt system in order to monitor its function. The sensor consists of a flexible coil which is connected to a miniature pressure sensor via an 8-cm long, ultra-thin coaxial cable. An external orthogonal-coil RF probe communicates with the sensor to detect pressure variation. The performance of the sensor was evaluated in an in vitro model for intraparenchymal and intraventricular ICP monitoring. The findings from this study demonstrate proof-of-concept of intraparenchymal and intraventricular ICP measurement using inductive passive pressure sensors.

  10. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-02-15

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.

  11. Numerical prediction of the pressure fluctuations on small discharge condition of a pump-turbine at pump mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y. Y.; Xiao, Y. X.; Zhu, W.; An, S. H.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-01-01

    The operational stability of the pump turbine at the pump mode will be greatly influenced by large pressure fluctuations when operated in the small-discharge conditions. Therefore, it is significant to analyse the flow characteristic under the small discharge operating conditions deeply. Study of the internal flow in the small discharge condition has been investigate in great detail combined with model experiments in this paper. The SST k-ω turbulence model is adopted to perform three-dimensional numerical simulation of the entire pump-turbine flow passage at optimal guide vanes opening. The numerical simulation results match well with experimental data. Then internal flow under the small discharge condition is analysed. The results show that the dominant frequency inside the flow passage is a relative low frequency. In addition, there are obvious complex flow phenomena inside the draft tube, runner and diffuser domains, such as secondary flow, backflow and even vortex, leading to strong unsteady flow and significant pressure fluctuation.

  12. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-05-15

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times.

  13. Fabricating TiO2 Nanocolloids by Electric Spark Discharge Method at Normal Temperature and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-09-19

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off Time (Toff) were respectively set at 50 and 100 s, 100 and 100 s, 150 and 100 s, and 200 and 100 s to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in Ton increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between Ton and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  14. [Spectrum of dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure intensified by mixing a little argon].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-fang; Mao, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Lian-shui; Ran, Jun-xia

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, the spectrum of dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure was measured by using the special setup with two water electrodes. The variation of spectrum was studied when a little argon was mixed. Nitrogen molecular spectrum (C3 IIu(v' = 0 ) --> B3 IIg(v" = 0-4)) and nitrogen atomic spectrum(4d(4) D7/2 --> 3p(4)P1/2(0)) were found in the range of 300-800nm. After a little argon was mixed, the breakdown voltage of discharge obviously decreased. The spectral line intensities of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen atoms increased. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of spectral line was obviously broadened. Because Stark broadening is a linear function of electron density, it can be seen that electron density increased after a little argon was mixed with the air, which caused the probability of excitation collision of N2 and N with electrons to increase, and the number of N2 and N excited to higher excitation state to increase. So the intensity of spectrum was intensified.

  15. A low power miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge based atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya Deepak, G.; Joshi, N. K.; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prakash, Ram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge plasma based atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been generated in a floating helix and floating end ring electrode configuration using argon and helium gases. This configuration is subjected to a range of supply frequencies (10-25 kHz) and supply voltages (2-6 kV) at a fixed rate of gas flow rate (i.e., 1 l/min). The electrical characterization of the plasma jet has been carried out using a high voltage probe and current transformer. The current-voltage characteristics have been analyzed, and the consumed power has been estimated at different applied combinations for optimum power consumption at maximum jet length. The obtained optimum power and jet length for argon and helium gases are 12 mW and 32 mm, and 7.7 mW and 42 mm, respectively. It is inferred that besides the electrode configurations, the discharge gas is also playing a significant role in the low power operation of the cold plasma jet at maximum jet length. The obtained results are interpreted on the basis of penning processes.

  16. OH radical production in an atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Nikiforov, A.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Kong, M. G.; Leys, C.

    2016-11-01

    The generation of OH radicals from an array of surface micro-discharges working in atmospheric pressure He/Ar/H2O mixtures is investigated. The absolute OH density and its temporal-and-spatial dynamics are detected by UV broadband absorption spectroscopy (UV-BAS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The measured absolute density of OH(X) state is about 1021 m-3 in Ar/H2O mixture reaching a peak at 0.05% of H2O. In the case of He/H2O mixtures however, the peaking at ~1019 m-3 is approximately two orders of magnitude lower and decreases monotonously with increasing H2O content. From a control standpoint, the ratio of the Ar/He mixture may be adjusted to tune the OH density over two orders of magnitude and to modulate the H2O content dependence of the OH density. The capability of modulating the OH radical production over a large density range is of practical interest for many applications such as atmospheric chemistry and biochemistry. With the array of atmospheric micro-discharges sustained over a large electrode area, a uniform distribution of its OH density can be achieved in a plane parallel to the electrodes thus enabling spatially controlled surface treatment of large samples.

  17. Current/Pressure Profile Effects on Tearing Mode Stability in DIII-D Hybrid Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Park, J. M.; Murakami, M.; La Haye, R. J.; Na, Yong-Su

    2015-11-01

    It is important to understand the onset threshold and the evolution of tearing modes (TMs) for developing a high-performance steady state fusion reactor. As initial and basic comparisons to determine TM onset, the measured plasma profiles (such as temperature, density, rotation) were compared with the calculated current profiles between a pair of discharges with/without n=1 mode based on the database for DIII-D hybrid plasmas. The profiles were not much different, but the details were analyzed to determine their characteristics, especially near the rational surface. The tearing stability index calculated from PEST3, Δ' tends to increase rapidly just before the n=1 mode onset for these cases. The modeled equilibrium with varying pressure or current profiles parametrically based on the reference discharge is reconstructed for checking the onset dependency on Δ' or neoclassical effects such as bootstrap current. Simulations of TMs with the modeled equilibrium using resistive MHD codes will also be presented and compared with experiments to determine the sensibility for predicting TM onset. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Improvement of wettability and absorbancy of textile using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Bhagirath; Subedi, Deepak Prasad; Khanal, Raju

    2017-08-01

    In this study, cotton textile samples, commonly used in making quilt covers were subjected to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge treatment to study their surface wettability and absorbancy. Samples were treated in the discharge using a rotatory mechanism and the effects of plasma treatment were examined by contact angle measurement and weight measurement. Air plasma treatment was successful in incorporating hydrophilic functional groups on the textile surface due to which wettability as well as absorbancy immediately after the treatment were highly improved. Effects of plasma treatment started to appear only after 20 cycles (9 mins) and got saturated after 24 cycles (10.8 mins) of treatment. The contact angle reduced from 137 ° (untreated sample) to a value less than 30 ° while absorbancy increased by more than two times as compared to untreated sample. Also, the aging behavior of the plasma treated samples were studied for about a week after plasma treatment. It was observed that the induced oxygen containing groups re-oriented into the bulk of the material during their storage in the environment due to which initial properties of the samples recovered gradually. Our results indicate that low temperature plasma can be successfully applied to modify the properties of textiles and textile industries could utilize this by standardization.

  19. Evaluation of pathogen inactivation on sliced cheese induced by encapsulated atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation induced by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, air discharge) produced in a rectangular plastic container and the effect of post-treatment storage time on inactivation were evaluated using agar plates and cheese slices. When agar plates were treated with plasma, populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes showed 3.57, 6.69, and 6.53 decimal reductions at 60 s, 45 s, and 7 min, respectively. When the pathogens tested were inoculated on cheese slices, 2.67, 3.10, and 1.65 decimal reductions were achieved at the same respective treatment times. The post-treatment storage duration following plasma treatment potently affected further reduction in pathogen populations. Therefore, the newly developed encapsulated DBD-plasma system for use in a container can be applied to improve the safety of sliced cheese, and increasing post-treatment storage time can greatly enhance the system's pathogen-inactivation efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen generation in a microhollow cathode discharge in high-pressure ammonia-argon gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, H.; Martus, K.; Lee, W. Y.; Becker, K.

    2004-04-01

    We explored the feasibility of using a single flow-through microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) as a non-thermal plasma source for hydrogen (H2) production for portable fuel cell applications. The MHCD device consisted of two thin metal electrodes separated by a mica spacer with a single-hole, roughly 100 [mu]m in diameter, through all three layers. The efficiency of the MHCD reactor for H2 generation from NH3 was analyzed by monitoring the products formed in the discharge in a mass spectrometer. Using a gas mixture of up to 10% NH3 in Ar at pressures up to one atmosphere, the MHCD reactor achieved a maximum ammonia conversion of slightly more than 20%. The overall power efficiency of the MHCD reactor reached a peak value of about 11%. The dependence of NH3 conversion and power efficiency on the residence time of the gas in the MHCD plasma was studied. Experiments using pulsed excitation of the MHCD plasma indicated that pulsing can increase the power efficiency. Design and operating criteria are proposed for a microplasma-based H2 generator that can achieve a power efficiency above the break-even point, i.e., a microplasma reactor that requires less electrical power to generate and maintain the plasma than the power that can be obtained from the conversion of the H2 generated in the microplasma reactor.

  1. Influences of impedance matching network on pulse-modulated radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, W. G.; Xu, K.; Sun, B.; Ding, Z. F.

    2012-08-15

    Pulse-modulated RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APDGs) were investigated in recent years to reduce the thermal accumulation and extend the operation region of the stable alpha glow mode. Different pulse-modulated voltage and current waveforms were acquired in previous experiments, but no attention was paid to the interpretation. We investigated this issue and associated phenomenon via positive and negative feedback effects derived from varying the series capacitor in the inversely L-shaped matching network used in our pulse-modulated RF APGD source. The evolutions of pulse-modulated RF waveforms were found to be associated with the feedback region and the pulsed plasma absorbed RF power. In the positive feedback region, pulse-modulated RF APGDs are relatively stable. In the negative feedback region, wide spikes as well as undershoots occur in RF voltage and current waveforms and the plasma absorbed RF power. In case of a high RF power discharge with a low modulation frequency, the pulse-modulated RF APGD is extinguished and re-ignited due to the enhanced undershoot during the initial pulse phase. The pulse-modulated RF APGD can transit from positive to negative feedback region in a range of series capacitance. Experimental results are discussed by the aid of equivalent circuit, negative and positive feedback effects.

  2. Simulation of spatio-temporal variation of OH radical density in atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2017-06-01

    The spatio-temporal variation of OH radical density in an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge is investigated via two-dimensional numerical simulation. The behaviours of OH are characterized in four regions in the inter-electrode gap, namely the ‘Hot anode’, ‘Secondary streamer’, ‘Primary streamer’, and ‘Near-cathode’ regions. In these regions, temporal variations of averaged reduced electric field, electron density, and gas temperature differ and they affect the temporal variation of OH density. In all regions, a relatively large amount of OH is produced by the dissociation reactions of H2O with electronically excited nitrogen molecules and oxygen atom rather than the direct electron-impact dissociation reactions. In the Hot anode and Secondary streamer regions, the instantaneous density of OH just after the discharge is high. However, the subsequent OH decay rates differ in these regions owing to the difference in gas temperatures. The reaction mechanism is discussed by dividing the effect of the diffusion-convection term and chemical reaction term in the continuous equation for OH radical density.

  3. Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Metel, A. S.

    2012-03-15

    Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

  4. Reaction of Small Insects to an Ambient Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bures, Brian; Gray, Travis; Bourham, Mohamed; Roe, R. Michael; Long, Shengyou; Donohue, Kevin

    2003-10-01

    Ambient Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD's) are commonly studied for rapid sterilization of surfaces. In an effort to expand the application of DBD's to larger biological species, small insect species are directly exposed to a large gap(5 cm) DBD composed primarily of helium gas. In order to control the temperature, the electrodes are actively cooled and the current density remains low (<1 mA/cm^2). A direct measurement of the gas temperature by electrically insulated thermocouples shows that the ambient temperature in the discharge volume is below the threshold for thermal damage to the insect (40 ^oC). A microwave interferometer is used to measure the line average, time average, electron density. The electron density is between 10^8 and 10^10 cm-3 for the operating conditions of interest. Under these operating conditions, optical emission spectroscopy shows only a significant emission of helium lines with some emission of molecular nitrogen lines. Under these operational conditions green peach aphids and western flower thrips show a reduction in population by at least 50% with a 60 s exposure time. The goal of this research is to replace currently existing chemical and thermal insect control techniques with the more rapid plasma techniques for quarantine applications.

  5. A low power miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Divya Deepak, G; Joshi, N K; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prakash, Ram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge plasma based atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been generated in a floating helix and floating end ring electrode configuration using argon and helium gases. This configuration is subjected to a range of supply frequencies (10-25 kHz) and supply voltages (2-6 kV) at a fixed rate of gas flow rate (i.e., 1 l/min). The electrical characterization of the plasma jet has been carried out using a high voltage probe and current transformer. The current-voltage characteristics have been analyzed, and the consumed power has been estimated at different applied combinations for optimum power consumption at maximum jet length. The obtained optimum power and jet length for argon and helium gases are 12 mW and 32 mm, and 7.7 mW and 42 mm, respectively. It is inferred that besides the electrode configurations, the discharge gas is also playing a significant role in the low power operation of the cold plasma jet at maximum jet length. The obtained results are interpreted on the basis of penning processes.

  6. Removal of volatile organic compounds in the confined space using atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Toyoura, T.; Matsui, M.; Kishimoto, T.

    2013-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated as hazardous pollutants. Thus, the control of VOCs in the atmosphere is one of the most important environmental problems. Removal of VOCs has been generally carried out by conventional methods such as absorption, adsorption and incineration. There are some researches on development of removal system using atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas. In this study, the plasma process is applied to removal of VOCs in the confined space such as an underwater vehicle because of low operating temperature and compact system. A copper wire is helically wound outside a glass tube, and a tungsten rod is inserted inside the glass tube. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced inside the glass tube by a high-voltage bipolar power supply for the removal of VOC. The DBD plasma decomposed hexane with the initial concentration of 30 ppm diluted by nitrogen, air and humid air. As the result, the removal efficiency of hexane diluted by nitrogen, air and humid air was 15%, 45% and 80%, respectively. Thus, it is considered that O and OH radicals are effective for removal of hexane. Optimization of the electrodes and the applied voltage waveforms for the enhancement of removal efficiency and the reduction of second products such as ozone will be investigated.

  7. Advanced fluid modeling and PIC/MCC simulations of low-pressure ccrf discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M. M.; Kählert, H.; Sun, A.; Bonitz, M.; Loffhagen, D.

    2017-04-01

    Comparative studies of capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in helium and argon at pressures between 10 and 80 Pa are presented applying two different fluid modeling approaches as well as two independently developed particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) codes. The focus is on the analysis of the range of applicability of a recently proposed fluid model including an improved drift-diffusion approximation for the electron component as well as its comparison with fluid modeling results using the classical drift-diffusion approximation and benchmark results obtained by PIC/MCC simulations. Main features of this time- and space-dependent fluid model are given. It is found that the novel approach shows generally quite good agreement with the macroscopic properties derived by the kinetic simulations and is largely able to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the discharge behavior even at conditions when the classical fluid modeling approach fails. Furthermore, the excellent agreement between the two PIC/MCC simulation codes using the velocity Verlet method for the integration of the equations of motion verifies their accuracy and applicability.

  8. Glyphosate contaminated soil remediation by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma and its residual toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Ren, Jingyu; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate was one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Remediation of glyphosate-contaminated soil was conducted using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The feasibility of glyphosate degradation in soil was explored, and the soil leachate toxicity after remediation was assessed via a seed germination test. The experimental results showed that approximately 93.9% of glyphosate was degraded within 45min of DBD plasma treatment with an energy yield of 0.47gkWh(-1), and the degradation process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Increasing the discharge voltage and decreasing the organic matter content of the soil were both found to facilitate glyphosate degradation. There existed appropriate soil moisture to realize high glyphosate degradation efficiency. Glyphosate mineralization was confirmed by changes of total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO4(3-) and NO3(-). The degradation intermediates including glycine, aminomethylphosphonic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, PO4(3-) and NO3(-), CO2 and CO were observed. A possible pathway for glyphosate degradation in the soil using this system was proposed. Based on the soil leachate toxicity test using wheat seed germination, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects following high-efficiency glyphosate degradation.

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge for Point-of-Use Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Alexander; Byrns, Brandon; Shannon, Steven; Knappe, Detlef

    2012-10-01

    Treatment of biological and chemical contaminants is an area of growing global interest where atmospheric pressure plasmas can make a significant contribution. Addressing key challenges of volume processing and operational cost, a large volume 162 MHz coaxial air-plasma source has been developed.footnotetextByrns (2012) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 (2012) 195204 Because of VHF ballasting effects, the electric discharge is maintained at a steady glow, allowing formation of critical non-equilibrium chemistry. High densities, ne = 10^11-10^12, have been recorded. The atmospheric nature of the device permits straightforward and efficient treatment of water samples. [H^+] concentrations in 150 milliliter tap water samples have been shown to increase by 10^5 after five minutes of discharge exposure. Recent literature has demonstrated that increasing acidity is strongly correlated with a solution's ability to deactivate microbial contaminants.footnotetextTraylor (2011) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 (2011) 472001 The work presented here will explore the impact of treatment gas, system configuration, and power density on water disinfection and PFC abatement. An array of plasma diagnostics, including OES and electrical measurements, are combined with post-process water analysis, including GC-MS and QT analysis of coliform and E.coli bacteria. Development of volume processing atmospheric plasma disinfection methods offers promise for point-of-use treatments in developing areas of the world, potentially supplementing or replacing supply and weather-dependent disinfection methods.

  10. Discharge modes of a DC operated atmospheric pressure air plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen; Pei, Xuekai; Kredl, Jana; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    By flowing air or nitrogen through a microhollow cathode discharge geometry an afterglow plasma jet can be generated at atmospheric pressure in air. The plasma jet has been successfully used for the inactivation of bacteria and yeast. The responsible reaction chemistry is based on the production of high concentrations of nitric oxide. Production yields depend in particular on gas flow rate and energy dissipated in the plasma. The same parameters also determine different modes of operation for the jet. A true DC operation is achieved for low to moderate gas flow rate of about 1 slm and discharge currents on the order of 10 mA. When increasing the gas flow rate to 10 slm the operation is changing to a self-pulsing mode with characteristics similar to the ones observed for a transient spark. By increasing the current a DC operation can be achieved again also at higher gas flow rates. The parameter regimes for different modes of operation can be described by the reduced electric field E/N.

  11. Elimination of diazinon insecticide from cucumber surface by atmospheric pressure air-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Dorraki, Naghme; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Ghomi, Hamid; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-12-06

    The food industry is in a constant search for new technologies to improve the commercial sterilization process of agricultural commodities. Plasma treatment may offer a novel and efficient method for pesticide removal from agricultural product surfaces. To study the proposed technique of plasma food treatment, the degradation behavior of diazinon insecticide by air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated. The authors studied the effect of different plasma powers and treatment times on pesticide concentration in liquid form and coated on the surface of cucumbers, where the diazinon residue was analyzed with mass spectroscopy gas chromatography. Our results suggest that atmospheric pressure air-DBD plasma is potentially effective for the degradation of diazinon insecticide, and mainly depends on related operating parameters, including plasma treatment time, discharge power, and pesticide concentrations. Based on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and electrons in the plasma with the diazinon molecule, two degradation pathway of diazinon during plasma treatment are proposed. It was also found that produced organophosphate pesticides are harmless and less hazardous compounds than diazinon.

  12. Discoloration of Congo Red by Rod-Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge Processes at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haixia; Fang, Zhi; Zhou, Tong; Lu, Chen; Xu, Yanhua

    2016-05-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with a rod-plate electrode configuration was used for the oxidative decomposition of Congo red dye in an aqueous solution. Plasma was generated in the gas space above the water interface under atmospheric pressure. Discharge characteristics were analyzed by voltage-current waveforms. Effects of applied voltage, initial conductivity, and initial concentration were also analyzed. Congo red discoloration increased with increased applied voltage and decreased conductivity. The initial conductivity significantly influenced the Congo red discoloration. Under the same conditions, the highest discoloration rate was obtained at 25 mg/L. The presence of ferrous ions in the solutions had a substantial positive effect on Fenton dye degradation and flocculation. At an applied voltage of 20 kV, about 100% of dye was degraded after 4 min of Fe2+/DBD treatment. Results showed that adding a certain dosage of hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater could enhance the discoloration rate. Possible pathways of Congo red discoloration by DBD plasma were proposed based on GC/MS, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy analyses. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Nos. BK20131412, BK20150951)

  13. Induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases is proportional to the amount of pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giovanni; Perrino, Cinzia; Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; Belardo, Lorena; di Pietro, Elisa; Franzone, Anna; Capretti, Giuliana; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pironti, Gianluigi; Cannavo, Alessandro; Sannino, Anna; Izzo, Raffaele; Chiariello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Pressure overload has been shown to induce mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and reactivate the atrial natriuretic factor in the heart. To test the sensitivity of these signals to pressure overload, we assayed the activity of MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and p38 in protein lysates from the left ventricle (LV) or white blood cells (WBC) isolated from aortic banded mice with varying levels of pressure overload. In separated mice we measured atrial natriuretic factor mRNA levels by Northern blotting. As expected, a significant induction of atrial natriuretic factor mRNA levels was observed after aortic banding, and it significantly correlated with the trans-stenotic systolic pressure gradient but not with the LV weight:body weight ratio. In contrast, a significant correlation with systolic pressure gradient or LV weight:body weight ratio was observed for all of the MAPK activity detected in LV samples or WBCs. Importantly, LV activation of MAPKs significantly correlated with their activation in WBCs from the same animal. To test whether MAPK activation in WBCs might reflect uncontrolled blood pressure levels in humans, we assayed extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and p38 activation in WBCs isolated from normotensive volunteers, hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure values, or hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure values. Interestingly, in hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure values, LV mass and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were significantly reduced compared with those in hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure values. These results suggest that MAPKs are sensors of pressure overload and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in WBCs might be used as a novel surrogate biomarker of uncontrolled human hypertension.

  14. The interrelation of neural discharge, intra-articular pressure, and joint angle in the knee of the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Nade, S; Newbold, P J

    1986-01-01

    Single- and multi-unit recordings were obtained from the medial articular nerve (m.a.n.) of knee joints in the anaesthetized dog. The single-unit recordings were confined to low threshold (group I and II) articular mechanoreceptors. Multi-unit recordings revealed that the m.a.n. discharge was maximal in extension, submaximal in flexion, and minimal at intermediate angles, i.e. a U-shaped profile. Subatmospheric intra-articular pressures do not appear to influence the m.a.n. discharge. Intra-articular infusion of even small quantities of fluid, although not affecting the U-shaped profile, reversed the m.a.n. discharge pattern with maximum neural activity occurring in flexion and being submaximal in extension. Recordings from single units indicated that the enhanced discharge after fluid infusion was a result of increased discharge frequency and 'recruitment' of individual afferents. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3746677

  15. [Measurement of molecular vibrational temperature in dielectric barrier discharge in argon/air at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Fang; Liu, Feng; Li, Shu-Feng; Ran, Jun-Xia; He, Ya-Feng; Li, Xue-Chen; Pang, Xue-Xia

    2006-05-01

    Vibrational temperature of N2 (C 3IIu) molecules in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon/air at atmospheric pressure, in which the water electrodes were employed, was measured by using a method of spectrum diagnosis. Emission spectral lines of the N2 second positive band system(C 3IIu --> B 3IIg) and the sequences of vibrational bands with deltav = -1, deltav = -2 and deltav = -3 were used in the calculation. The experiment results show that the molecular vibrational temperature of N2 is in the range from 1 938 K to 2 720 K, and it increases almost linearly with increasing the air content in gas mixture. These results are of great importance to the study of plasma dynamics of DBD.

  16. Plasma discharge in N2 + CH4 at low pressures - Experimental results and applications to Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Henry, Todd J.; Schwartz, Joel M.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from laboratory continuous-flow plasma-discharge experiments designed to simulate the formation of hydrocarbons and nitriles from N2 and CH4 in the atmosphere of Titan. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry data were obtained in experiments lasting up to 100 h at temperature 295 K and pressure 17 or 0.24 mbar, modeling (1) cosmic-ray-induced processes in the Titan troposphere and (2) processes related to stratospheric aurorae excited by energetic electrons and ions from the Saturn magnetosphere, respectively. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs, and the 0.24-mbar yields are incorporated into an eddy-mixing model to give stratospheric column abundances and mole fractions in good agreement with Voyager IRIS observations.

  17. Plasma discharge in N2 + CH4 at low pressures - Experimental results and applications to Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Henry, Todd J.; Schwartz, Joel M.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from laboratory continuous-flow plasma-discharge experiments designed to simulate the formation of hydrocarbons and nitriles from N2 and CH4 in the atmosphere of Titan. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry data were obtained in experiments lasting up to 100 h at temperature 295 K and pressure 17 or 0.24 mbar, modeling (1) cosmic-ray-induced processes in the Titan troposphere and (2) processes related to stratospheric aurorae excited by energetic electrons and ions from the Saturn magnetosphere, respectively. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs, and the 0.24-mbar yields are incorporated into an eddy-mixing model to give stratospheric column abundances and mole fractions in good agreement with Voyager IRIS observations.

  18. A strategy towards the next generation of low pressure discharge lamps: lighting after mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsinelis, S.; Zissis, G.; Fokitis, E.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we describe the design of a strategy based on a number of selection rules that could potentially lead us to the identification of materials that will replace mercury and play the role of the active medium in low pressure discharge lamps. The selection rules focus on the emission and thermodynamic characteristics of species as well as safety considerations and the strategy is by no means a complete solution but a logical approach to the solution based on available sources and databases. We experimentally test the first candidates with promising results and we describe trends seen in the periodic table in terms of emissions and the limitations posed by the stoichiometry of the plasma reactions.

  19. Plasma-photocatalyst interaction: Production of oxygen atoms in a low pressure discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaitella, O.; Gatilova, L.; Rousseau, A.

    2005-04-01

    A pulsed dc low pressure discharge in air (210 Pa) is used to study the mechanisms of activation of a photocatalytic material (TiO2) under plasma exposure. It is first shown that the presence of TiO2 inside the plasma region leads to a strong increase of the reduced electric field. Time resolved measurement of the atomic oxygen density is performed by actinometry during a 10 ms pulse at a low repetition rate (1 Hz) with and without TiO2 pellets inside the plasma region. The presence of TiO2 pellets strongly increases the O atom density during the first millisecond, but this effect saturates for longer exposure times.

  20. The role of photoionization in negative corona discharge: The influences of temperature, humidity, and air pressure on a corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. Y.; Lu, B. X.; Wang, M.; Guo, Q. F.; Feng, Q. K.

    2017-10-01

    The swarm parameters of the negative corona discharge are improved to calculate the discharge model under different environmental conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity, and air pressure are studied using a conventional needle-to-plane configuration in air. The electron density, electric field, electron generation rate, and photoelectron generation rate are discussed in this paper. The role of photoionization under these conditions is also studied by numerical simulation. The photoelectrons generated in weak ionization region are proved to be dominant.

  1. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N{sub 2}: O{sub 2}: H{sub 2}O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  2. Discharge characteristics of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma column generated with a single-electrode configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shouzhe; Huang Wentong; Zhang Jialiang; Wang Dezhen

    2009-07-15

    An atmospheric-pressure argon discharge plasma column is generated by making use of a single-electrode configuration with the power supply operating at a frequency of 45 kHz. It is observed that corona, glowlike plume, and filamentary discharges evolve individually with increasing applied voltage. It is in the filamentary state with average electron density of order 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} that plasma column grows up in the tube with increasing applied voltage. Its discharge characteristics are determined by measuring electrical parameters (voltage, conduction current, and average absorbed power) and optical emission spectroscopy.

  3. Method for real-time measurement of nitrogen atom density in atmospheric pressure post-discharge flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinuma, Gaku; Inanaga, Yasutaka; Noda, Seiji; Tanimura, Yasuhiro; Kuzumoto, Masaki; Tabata, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Kensuke

    2008-08-01

    A method has been developed for real-time measurement of nitrogen atom density in atmospheric pressure post-discharge flows. In this method, nitric oxide is supplied to the downstream of a nitrogen discharge as a reactant. Our chemical simulation has revealed that the injected nitric oxide is consumed mainly by reductive reaction with nitrogen atoms or oxidative reaction with oxygen atoms. The number density of atomic nitrogen is determined almost instantaneously through the measurement of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide densities with a gas analyser. The experimental verification was carried out with a dielectric barrier discharge unit as a nitrogen atom source, and the results showed good agreement with simulation predictions.

  4. Influence of Surface Material on the BCl Density in Inductively Coupled Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M.G.; Hamilton, T.W.; Hebner, G.A.

    1999-03-15

    The relative density of BCl radicals has been measured in a modified Applied Materials DPS metal etch chamber using laser-induced fluorescence. In plasmas containing mixtures of BCl{sub 3} with Cl{sub 2}, Ar and/or N{sub 2}, the relative BCl density was measured as a function of source and bias power, pressure, flow rate, BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} ratio and argon addition. To determine the influence of surface materials on the bulk plasma properties, the relative BCl density was measured using four different substrate types; aluminum, alumina, photoresist, and photoresist-patterned aluminum. In most cases, the relative BCl density was highest above photoresist-coated wafers and lowest above blanket aluminum wafers. The BCl density increased with increasing source power and the ratio of BCl{sub 3} to Cl{sub 2}, while the addition of N{sub 2} to a BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} plasma resulted in a decrease in BCl density. The BCl density was relatively insensitive to changes in the other plasma parameters.

  5. Gas and plasma dynamics of RF discharge jet of low pressure in a vacuum chamber with flat electrodes and inside tube, influence of RF discharge on the steel surface parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoliubova, V. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Researches results of the characteristics of the RF discharge jet of low pressure and the discharge influence on the surface modification of high speed and structural steels are introduced in the article. Gas dynamics, power and energy parameters of the RF low pressure discharge flow in the discharge chamber and the electrode gap are studied in the presence of the materials. Plasma flow rate, discharge power, the concentration of electrons, the density of RF power, the ion current density, and the energy of the ions bombarding the surface materials are considered for the definition of basic properties crucial for the process of surface modification of materials as they were put in the plasma jet. The influence of the workpiece and effect of products complex configuration on the RF discharge jet of low pressure is defined. The correlation of the input parameters of the plasma unit on the characteristics of the discharge is established.

  6. Application of diffuse discharges of atmospheric pressure formed by runaway electrons for modification of copper and stainless steel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F. Shulepov, M. A.; Erofeev, M. V.

    2015-12-15

    The results of studies devoted to the influence of a runaway electron pre-ionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) formed in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure on the surface of copper and stainless steel are presented. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses were used to obtain REP DD in different gases at high pressures in a chamber with a flat anode and a cathode possessing a small radius of curvature. This mode of discharge was implemented owing to the generation of runaway electrons and X-rays. The conditions under which the surface of copper and stainless steel was cleaned from carbon and oxidized are described.

  7. Application of diffuse discharges of atmospheric pressure formed by runaway electrons for modification of copper and stainless steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.; Erofeev, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studies devoted to the influence of a runaway electron pre-ionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) formed in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure on the surface of copper and stainless steel are presented. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses were used to obtain REP DD in different gases at high pressures in a chamber with a flat anode and a cathode possessing a small radius of curvature. This mode of discharge was implemented owing to the generation of runaway electrons and X-rays. The conditions under which the surface of copper and stainless steel was cleaned from carbon and oxidized are described.

  8. Control of the eITB formation and performance in fully non-inductively sustained ECCD discharges in TCV

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.A.; Behn, R.; Bottino, A.; Camenen, Y.; Coda, S.; Fable, E.; Goodman, T.P.; Martynov, An.; Nikkola, P.; Pochelon, A.; Sauter, O.; Zucca, C.

    2005-09-26

    The X2 ECH antennas on TCV are used to sustain and tailor the plasma current profile, forming either a centrally peaked or hollow profile. During the transition from peaked to hollow profile, an eITB is observed to form rapidly and in a localized region, which correlates with the appearance of a zero shear flux surface off-axis according to the ASTRA transport code. The barrier position can be controlled via the co-ECCD off-axis deposition location, and the barrier strength with central heating or counter-ECCD (increasing the depth of the hollow current profile), achieving H-factors of up to {<=}6. In these discharges, the current in the ohmic transformer coil is held constant to avoid an inductively driven current contribution. After the eITB is created, a small amount of ohmically driven counter (co-) current has been added as a perturbative current source, transferring only a few kW of ohmic power compared to 1.4MW of ECCD. The ohmic current increases (decreases) the eITB performance demonstrating the clear dependence of the eITB on the current profile.

  9. Selective fibronectin adsorption against albumin and enhanced stem cell attachment on helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge treated titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Inho; Vagaska, Barbora; Joo Park, Bong; Lee, Mi Hee; Jin Lee, Seung; Park, Jong-Chul

    2011-06-01

    Successful tissue integration of implanted medical devices depends on appropriate initial cellular response. In this study, the effect of helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge (He-APGD) treatment of titanium on selective protein adsorption and the initial attachment processes and focal adhesion formation of osteoprogenitor cells and stem cells were examined. Titanium disks were treated in a self-designed He-APGD system. Initial attachment of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated by MTT assay and plasma membrane staining followed by morphometric analysis. Fibronectin adsorption was investigated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay. MSCs cell attachment to treated and non-treated titanium disks coated with different proteins was verified also in serum-free culture. Organization of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions was evaluated microscopically. He-APGD treatment effectively modified the titanium surfaces by creating a super-hydrophilic surface, which promoted selectively higher adsorption of fibronectin, a protein of critical importance for cell/biomaterial interaction. In two different types of cells, the He-APGD treatment enhanced the number of attaching cells as well as their attachment area. Moreover, cells had higher organization of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. Faster acceptance of the material by the progenitor cells in the early phases of tissue integration after the implantation may significantly reduce the overall healing time; therefore, titanium treatment with He-APGD seems to be an effective method of surface modification of titanium for improving its tissue inductive properties.

  10. High Non-inductive Fraction H-mode Discharges Generated by High-harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hosea, J.; Kessel, C. E.; LeBlanc, B; Mueller, D.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    A deuterium H-mode discharge with a plasma current of 300 kA, an axial toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T, and a calculated non-inductive plasma current fraction of 0.7 1 has been generated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment by 1.4MW of 30MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius 0.4. Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current, and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside a normalized minor radius 0.2. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Numerical modelling of high-pressure arc discharges: matching the LTE arc core with the electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnyak, M.; Cunha, M. D.; Bauchire, J.-M.; Benilov, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    A widely used approach to simulation of high-pressure arc discharges is based on the system of magneto-hydrodynamic equations written in the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this work, boundary conditions on the surface of the electrodes are formulated with the use of equations of balance of energy in the non-equilibrium near-electrode layers that separate the LTE bulk plasma and the electrodes. As an example, numerical simulations of a free-burning arc in atmospheric-pressure argon plasma in the current range from 20 to 200 A are reported. Simulation results are in reasonably good agreement with those given by more sophisticated models and with the experiment. Simulations performed for cathodes of slightly different geometries have predicted a strong effect produced by details of the cathode geometry over the distribution of the current density along the cathode surface and therefore over the plasma temperature, an interesting and potentially important result that is worth further numerical investigation and experimental verification.

  12. Preparation of Copper Nanoparticles Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure and its Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Lanbo; Zhang, Xiuling; Xu, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) cold plasma at atmospheric pressure was used for preparation of copper nanoparticles by reduction of copper oxide (CuO). Power X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of the copper oxide samples treated by DBD plasma. Influences of H2 content and the treating time on the reduction of copper oxide by DBD plasma were investigated. The results show that the reduction ratio of copper oxide was increased initially and then decreased with increasing H2 content, and the highest reduction ratio was achieved at 20% H2 content. Moreover, the copper oxide samples were gradually reduced by DBD plasma into copper nanoparticles with the increase in treating time. However, the average reduction rate was decreased as a result of the diffusion of the active hydrogen species. Optical emission spectra (OES) were observed during the reduction of the copper oxide samples by DBD plasma, and the reduction mechanism was explored accordingly. Instead of high-energy electrons, atomic hydrogen (H) radicals, and the heating effect, excited-state hydrogen molecules are suspected to be one kind of important reducing agents. Atmospheric-pressure DBD cold plasma is proved to be an efficient method for preparing copper nanoparticles.

  13. Electrical and optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure, uniform, large-area processing, dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeniou, A.; Puač, N.; Škoro, N.; Selaković, N.; Dimitrakellis, P.; Gogolides, E.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2017-04-01

    A printed-circuit-board (PCB) based atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) capable of uniform processing over a large area was constructed consisting of two parallel plates. The first perforated plate is comprised of four layers: a RF powered metal layer, a polymeric dielectric layer, a floating metal grid and another dielectric layer. The second, grounded, plate was fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate with surface of 100  ×  100 mm2 and thickness of 2 mm. The PCB based atmospheric pressure DBD was characterized by (a) measuring electrical characteristics of the device using derivative I–V probes, (b) ICCD imaging and (c) optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Optical and electrical characteristics, as well as plasma uniformity were measured by changing He flow rate and input power, while keeping the gap between the PCB and the FTO glass plate ground electrode constant at 2 mm. The plasma uniformity strongly depends on the applied power and on the flow rate of the buffer gas. When increasing the flow rate, the intensity of the nitrogen-dominated emission drops, while emission of helium and oxygen lines increases. The source allows low temperature, uniform plasma operation over a wide area of 100  ×  100 mm2, which could be essential for numerous applications. Examples of etching rate and hydrophilization are demonstrated.

  14. Production and Study of Titan's Aerosols Analogues with A RF Low Pressure Plasma Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Szopa, C.; Cernogora, G.; Correia, J.J.; Boufendi, L.; Jolly, A.

    2005-10-31

    The atmosphere of Titan, the biggest satellite of Saturn, contains aerosols produced by the organic chemistry induced by the photochemistry of N2 and CH4, the major gaseous atmospheric compounds. In spite of their importance for the properties of the Titan's atmosphere, and for organic chemistry, only few direct information are available about them because of the limitations of the observational techniques, and their processes of formation and growth are not understood. In order to bring answers to these questions, we developed a new type of laboratory simulation to produce analogues of Titan's aerosols (known as tholins) with a low pressure Radio Frequency plasma discharge. The main originality of this experiment (named PAMPRE) comes from its ability to produce particles in volume, as they are maintained in levitation by electrostatic forces compensating gravity, whereas the other experiments produce tholins on the reactors walls or a substrate. We initiated our investigations by a study of the properties of the produced particles as a function of the plasma operating conditions (i.e. amount of CH4 in N2, injected RF power, pressure, and gas flow). We here present the results of this study.

  15. Dependency of Tearing Mode Stability on Current and Pressure Profiles in DIII-D Hybrid Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Park, J. M.; Murakami, M.; La Haye, R. J.; Na, Y.-S.; SNU/ORAU; ORNL; Atomics, General; SNU; DIII-D Team

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the physics of the onset and evolution of tearing modes (TMs) in tokamak plasmas is important for high- β steady-state operation. Based on DIII-D steady-state hybrid experiments with accurate equilibrium reconstruction and well-measured plasma profiles, the 2/1 tearing mode can be more stable with increasing local current and pressure gradient at rational surface and with lower pressure peaking and plasma inductance. The tearing stability index Δ', estimated by the Rutherford equation with experimental mode growth rate was validated against Δ' calculated by linear eigenvalue solver (PEST3); preliminary comprehensive MHD modeling by NIMROD reproduced the TM onset reasonably well. We present a novel integrated modeling for the purpose of predicting TM onset in experiment by combining a model equilibrium reconstruction using IPS/FASTRAN, linear stability Δ' calculation using PEST3, and fitting formula for critical Δ' from NIMROD. Work supported in part by the US DoE under DE-AC05-06OR23100, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DEFC02-04ER54698.

  16. The glow discharge inception and post-discharge relaxation of charged and neutral active particles in synthetic air at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, A. P.; Marković, V. Lj; Stamenković, S. N.; Stankov, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    The study of dc glow discharge inception and post-discharge relaxation of charged and neutral active particles in synthetic air at low pressure is presented. The breakdown time delay dependence as a function of relaxation time \\overline{{{t}\\text{d}}}(τ ) (the memory curve) is measured and modelled from milliseconds to the saturation region determined by the cosmic rays and natural radioactivity level. Due to fast conversion \\text{N}2++{{\\text{O}}2}\\to {{\\text{N}}2}+\\text{O}2+ , relaxation of dc discharge in synthetic air in the time interval from one to about ninety milliseconds is dominated by the diffusion decay of molecular oxygen {{O}}_2^ + ions. The change of regimes, from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit, is investigated and the variation of effective diffusion coefficients is determined. The late relaxation is explained by the kinetics of nitrogen atoms, recombining on the surfaces of gas discharge tube and stainless steel electrodes and relevant surface recombination coefficients are determined.

  17. Field-emitting Townsend regime of surface dielectric barrier discharges generated in CO2 emerging at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, David; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in CO2 from atmospheric pressure up to supercritical conditions (Tc = 304.13 K, pc = 7.4 MPa) generated using 10-kHz ac excitation are studied experimentally. Two discharge regimes are obtained: the standard and field-emitting Townsend regimes. The former resembles typical surface DBDs that have streamer-like characteristics, but the latter has not been reported previously. Here we present an analysis of the electrical and optical diagnostics of the field-emitting Townsend discharge regime using current-voltage and charge-voltage measurements, imaging, optical emission spectroscopy, and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Using an electrical model, it is possible to calculate the discharge-induced capacitances of the plasma and the dielectric, as well as the space-averaged values of the surface potential and the potential drop across the discharge. The model also accounts for the space-averaged Laplacian field by including the capacitance due to the fringe electric field from the electrode edge. The electrical characteristics are similar to those of atmospheric-pressure Townsend DBDs, i.e. self-sustained DBDs with minimal space-charge effects. The purely continuum emission spectrum is due to electron-neutral bremsstrahlung, with a corresponding average electron temperature of 2600 K. Raman spectra of CO2 near the critical point demonstrate that the discharge increases the average gas temperature by less than 1 K. This work was supported financially in part by MEXT and JSPS.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by atmospheric-pressure glow discharge plasma-assisted electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Naoki; Yoshida, Taketo; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    For the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), we used plasma-assisted electrolysis in which atmospheric-pressure DC glow discharge using a liquid electrode is combined with electrolysis. The solution surface is exposed to positive ions or electrons in plasma. To synthesize magnetic NPs, aqueous solutions of FeCl2 or an iron electrode immersed in liquid was used to supply iron ions in the liquid. Magnetic NPs were synthesized at the plasma-liquid interface upon the electron irradiation of the liquid surface. In the case of using aqueous solutions of FeCl2, the condition of magnetic NP synthesis depended on the gas species of plasma and the chemical agent in the liquid for controlling oxidization. The amount of magnetic NPs synthesized using plasma is not very large. On the other hand, in the case of using an iron electrode immersed in NaCl solution, magnetic NPs were synthesized without using FeCl2 solutions. When plasma-assisted electrolysis was operated, the iron electrode eluted Fe cations, resulting in the formation of magnetic NPs at the plasma-liquid interface. Magnetic NP synthesis depended on the concentration of NaCl solution and discharge current. The magnetic NPs were identified to be magnetite. By using this method, more magnetite NPs were synthesized than in the case of plasma-assisted electrolysis with FeCl2 aqueous solutions. The pH of the liquid used in plasma-assisted electrolysis was important for the synthesis of magnetite NPs.

  19. Thermal and hydrodynamic effects of nanosecond discharges in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D. A.; Shneider, M. N.; Lacoste, D. A.; Laux, C. O.

    2014-06-01

    We present quantitative schlieren measurements and numerical analyses of the thermal and hydrodynamic effects of a nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharge in atmospheric pressure air at 300 and 1000 K. The plasma is created by voltage pulses at an amplitude of 10 kV and a duration of 10 ns, applied at a frequency of 1-10 kHz between two pin electrodes separated by 2 or 4 mm. The electrical energy of each pulse is of the order of 1 mJ. We recorded single-shot schlieren images starting from 50 ns to 3 µs after the discharge. The time-resolved images show the shock-wave propagation and the expansion of the heated gas channel. Gas density profiles simulated in 1D cylindrical coordinates have been used to reconstruct numerical schlieren images for comparison with experimental ones. We propose an original method to determine the initial gas temperature and the fraction of energy transferred into ultrafast gas heating, using a comparison of the contrast profiles obtained from experimental and numerical schlieren images. This method is found to be much more sensitive to these parameters than the direct comparison of measured and predicted shock-wave and heated channel radii. The results show that a significant fraction of the electric energy is converted into gas heating within a few tens of ns. The values range from about 25% at a reduced electric field of 164 Td to about 75% at 270 Td, with a strong dependance on the initial gas temperature. These experiments support the fast heating processes via dissociative quenching of N2(B3 Πg, C3 Πu) by molecular oxygen.

  20. Laser diagnostics on atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas, including cryoplasmas, in environments around room and cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Noritaka; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Yasui, Ryoma; Sakai, Osamu; Terashima, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Cryoplasmas, the plasma gas temperature (T g) of which can be controlled continuously below room temperature, show various unique and advantageous properties depending on T g. Recently, the T g dependence of plasma chemistry related to metastable helium (Hem) has been revealed in helium cryoplasmas. However, T g was only estimated by thermal calculation from the temperature outside the plasmas. In this study, for better evaluation of T g, near-infrared laser heterodyne interferometry (NIR-LHI) measurements were conducted in atmospheric pressure helium pulsed discharge plasmas at around room and cryogenic ambient temperatures (T a). The maximum difference between T g and T a was evaluated as 47 K at T a  =  300 K with 282 mW power consumption. To further investigate the T g dependence of plasma chemical reactions related to Hem, laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) was performed on the same discharge plasmas to measure the Hem density and lifetime. The Hem lifetime was longer at lower T g, i.e. the lifetime at T g  =  145 K (9.6 µs) was seven times longer than that at T g  =  386 K (1.4 µs). By comparing the results with the numerically simulated rates of Hem quenching reactions taking T g into account, the mechanism of the Hem quenching reaction was revealed to vary with T g even though the main quenching reaction was a three-body collision at all T g. In this manner, the combination of NIR-LHI with LAS led directly to the T g dependence of Hem quenching reactions.

  1. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by a pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.; Leem, S. H.

    2010-07-01

    By using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz, we were able to induce apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The apoptotic changes in cells with plasma treatment were detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence staining assay. A significant portion of these cells was observed to exhibit the apoptotic fragmentation. Helium plasma with additive O2 gas was found to be effective in the induction of apoptosis. This plasma jet provides an effective mode of human breast cancer cell therapy.

  2. Two-dimensional simulation of argon dielectric barrier discharge excited by a Gaussian voltage at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Lei, Bingying; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Li, Yongfang; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang

    2017-04-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of discharges in atmospheric pressure argon (Ar) dielectric barrier discharge driven by a Gaussian voltage. The simulation results show that a discharge with multiple current pulses occurs each half-cycle in the gas gap. A transition from the Townsend mode to the glow mode is observed with the increasing applied voltage each half-cycle at a lower driving frequency (7.5 kHz). It is also found that the glow mode survives all the discharge phases at a higher driving frequency (12.5 kHz and 40 kHz). The change in the discharge mode with the driving frequency mainly lies in the fact that a lot of charged particles created in the discharge gap have no enough time to drift and diffuse around, and then these particles are assembled in the discharge space at higher frequency. Additionally, the spatial distributions of the electron density indicate that a center-advantage discharge is ignited at the driving frequencies of interest, resulting in the radial non-uniformity of discharge because of the edge effects. However, this overall non-uniformity is weakened with the driving frequency increased to 40 kHz, at which concentric ring patterns are observed. These distinct behaviors are mainly attributed to the fact that many charged particles generated are trapped in the gas gap and then accumulated to make the extension along the radial direction due to the charged particles transport and diffusion, and that the effective overlapping of a large number of avalanches induced by the increased "seed" electron density with the driving frequency. Meanwhile, the surface charged particles accumulated on the dielectric barriers are also shown to play a role in the formation of the discharge structure.

  3. On anomalous temporal evolution of gas pressure in inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Chang, H. Y.; You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Seong, D. J.

    2013-04-01

    The temporal measurement of gas pressure in inductive coupled plasma revealed that there is an interesting anomalous evolution of gas pressure in the early stage of plasma ignition and extinction: a sudden gas pressure change and its relaxation of which time scales are about a few seconds and a few tens of second, respectively, were observed after plasma ignition and extinction. This phenomenon can be understood as a combined result between the neutral heating effect induced by plasma and the pressure relaxation effect for new gas temperature. The temporal measurement of gas temperature by laser Rayleigh scattering and the time dependant calculations for the neutral heating and pressure relaxation are in good agreement with our experimental results. This result and physics behind are expected to provide a new operational perspective of the recent plasma processes of which time is very short, such as a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition/etching, a soft etch for disposal of residual by-products on wafer, and light oxidation process in semiconductor manufacturing.

  4. Characterization of Inductively Coupled Plasmas in High Power, High Pressure Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Kenney, Jason; Agarwal, Ankur; Nichols, Michael; Rogers, James; Rauf, Shahid

    2015-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) are widely used in the microelectronic industry for thin film etching. ICPs have typically been operated at low gas pressures (<50 mTorr) and they have been well-characterized in this regime. Several applications requiring high etch rates (e.g., vertical NAND etch) have recently extended the use of ICPs to the high power (>4000 W) and high pressure (>100 mTorr) regime. ICP operation in this high-power, high-pressure regime imposes a tremendous challenge of achieving good plasma uniformity over large substrates. This necessitates a good theoretical understanding of the underlying physics, thorough experimental characterization, and more accurate numerical models for hardware design guidance. In this study, we will focus on the characterization of ICP in the high-power, high-pressure regime. Computational modeling is done using CRTRS, our in-house 2D/3D plasma model. The fluid plasma model is coupled to a circuit model to self-consistently account for the capacitive coupling from the coils that is expected to dominate in this operating regime. Properties of Ar plasma will be discussed and compared with experiments. The impact of critical operating parameters such as ICP power, pressure, flow rate, and current ratio (in multi-coil antenna structures) on plasma characteristics will be examined. Results in relevant processing gases will also be discussed.

  5. Effect of magnetic field on carbon nanotubes and graphene structure synthesized at low pressure via arc discharge process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, M. S.; Chaudary, K. T.; Haider, Z.; Zin, A. F. M.; Ali, J.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted vast attention due to the rising demand for various nanotechnology applications. The possibility of preparing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and graphene on large scale are demonstrated using direct current arc discharge with transverse magnetic field effect at low ambient pressure. In this work, we study, the effect of external transverse magnetic effect on structural perfection of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotube. High quality carbon-nanotube were synthesized by arc discharge plasma in Hydrogen ambient at pressure 1 mbar in presence of external transverse magnetic field. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by electron microscopy, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. A significant increase in the quantity and quality of carbon nanotube and graphene in the presence of transverse magnetic field during arc discharge process.

  6. Study of nanosecond discharges in different H2 air mixtures at atmospheric pressure for plasma-assisted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Anne; Kobayashi, Sumire; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Tholin, Fabien; Popov, Nikolay

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents 2D simulations of nanosecond pulsed discharges between two point electrodes in different H2/air mixtures and in air at atmospheric pressure. A fluid model is coupled with detailed kinetic schemes for air and different H2/air mixtures to simulate the discharge dynamics. First, as the positive and negative ionization waves propagate in the interelectrode gap, it has been observed that in H2/air mixtures with equivalence ratios between 0.3 and 2, major positive ions produced by the nanosecond discharge are N2+,O2+and HN2+.The discharge dynamics is shown to vary only slightly for equivalence ratios of the H2/air mixture between 0.3 and 2. Then, as the discharge transits to a nanosecond spark discharge, we have studied the different chemical reactions that lead to fast gas heating and to the production of radicals, as O,H and OH. Both thermal and chemical effects of the nanosecond spark discharge are of interest for plasma assisted combustion applications. This work has been supported by the project DRACO (Grant No. ANR-13-IS09-0004) and the french russian LIA Kappa.

  7. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2014-02-15

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge.

  8. Student Award Finalist - Simulation of the reignition of atmospheric pressure air discharges behind dielectric obstacles: comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechereau, Francois; Bourdon, Anne

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, experimental studies on plasma assisted catalysis for flue gas treatment have shown a significant reduction of pollutants at a low energetic cost. Catalyst supports are either random or organized two phase media such as pellets, monoliths or porous media. Then, in plasma reactors, atmospheric pressure discharges have to interact with many obstacles and to propagate in microcavities and pores. To better understand the discharge dynamics in these complex structures, experiments have been carried out at LPGP (Orsay, France) in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric plane obstacle placed in the discharge path. In this work, we have carried out discharge simulations in the experimental geometry. We have compared the dynamics of the discharge ignited at the point and its impact on the dielectric surface. Then, we have compared the conditions of a discharge reignition behind the dielectric obstacle. A good qualitative agreement with experiments has been obtained but to improve the quantitative comparison, we have carried out a detailed parametric numerical study. In this work, we will focus on the influence of the level of seed charges on the discharge reignition and discuss several physical processes that could have an impact on the level of seed charges. ALVEOPLAS project (Grant No. ANR-08-BLAN-0159-01).

  9. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: "Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges" and "Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe Kortshagen; Joachim Heberlein; Steven L. Girshick

    2009-06-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  10. Collisional-radiative model of helium microwave discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Alves, L. L.; Gadonna, K.; Belmonte, T.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a stationary collisional-radiative model to describe the behavior of helium microwave discharges (2.45 GHz), produced in cylindrical geometry (1 mm radius) at atmospheric pressure. The model couples the rate balance equations for the charged particles (electrons, He+ and He2+ions), the He(n <= 6) excited states and the He2*excimers, to the two-term homogeneous and stationary electron Boltzmann equation,. The latter is solved using a coherent set of electron cross sections, adjusted to ensure good predictions of the swarm parameters and the Townsend ionization coefficient. The model was solved for typical 5x1014 cm-3 electron density and 2500 K gas temperature, yielding [He2+]/[He+] ~ 0.92 and [He2*]/[He] ~ 3.4x10-8. Results show also that the He2+ions are produced mainly from the 3-body conversion of He+ ions and lost by the corresponding reverse reaction together with diffusion and dissociative recombination. The He2*is produced by a 3-body reaction involving the 23P states and by the electron-stabilized recombination of He2+and is lost by electron dissociation. This paper presents a stationary collisional-radiative model to describe the behavior of helium microwave discharges (2.45 GHz), produced in cylindrical geometry (1 mm radius) at atmospheric pressure. The model couples the rate balance equations for the charged particles (electrons, He+ and He2+ions), the He(n <= 6) excited states and the He2*excimers, to the two-term homogeneous and stationary electron Boltzmann equation,. The latter is solved using a coherent set of electron cross sections, adjusted to ensure good predictions of the swarm parameters and the Townsend ionization coefficient. The model was solved for typical 5x1014 cm-3 electron density and 2500 K gas temperature, yielding [He2+]/[He+] ~ 0.92 and [He2*]/[He] ~ 3.4x10-8. Results show also that the He2+ions are produced mainly from the 3-body conversion of He+ ions and lost by the corresponding reverse reaction together

  11. Plasma-chemical reactor based on a low-pressure pulsed arc discharge for synthesis of nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Lepeshev, A. A.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    A reactor for producing nanopowders in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge has been developed. As a plasma source, a pulsed cold-cathode arc evaporator has been applied. The design and operating principle of the reactor have been described. Experimental data on how the movement of a gaseous mixture in the reactor influences the properties of nanopowders have been presented.

  12. Using line broadening to determine the electron density in an argon surface-wave discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Christova, M.; Christov, L.; Castanos-Martinez, E.; Moisan, M.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.

    2008-10-22

    Broadening due to collisions with charged particles (Stark broadening ) and neutral atoms, was determined for Ar I 522.1, 549.6 and 603.2 nm spectral lines from the spectral series 3p{sup 5}nd-3p{sup 5}4p, in order to evaluate the electron density in a surface-wave discharge at atmospheric pressure.

  13. Influence of air pressure on the detailed characteristics of corona current pulse due to positive corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Li, Dayong; Chen, Bo; Fu, Yuke

    2016-12-01

    Air pressure is one of the main factors affecting the corona discharge and influence of air pressure should be carefully investigated. In order to obtain the influence of air pressure on the detailed characteristics of corona current pulse, such as pulse amplitude, rise time, pulse width, duration time, and pulse repetition frequency, a systematic investigation is carried out though a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode structure with a corona point on the conductor. The electrodes are put into a pressure chamber for adjusting the air pressure. The results show that pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air pressure, while rise time, pulse width, duration time, and pulse repetition frequency decrease significantly at the same ratio between applied voltage and onset voltage (U/U0). Empirical formulas for the pulse amplitude, rise time, pulse width, and duration time varying with air pressure are first established. On the basis of the development of positive corona discharge, the influence of air pressure on the typical time intervals and experimental results are qualitatively explained.

  14. Plasma diagnostics and modeling of direct current microplasma discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang

    High pressure (100s of torr) microplasma (length scale 100s of micrometer) non-equilibrium discharges have potential applications as chemical microreactors, sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and excimer radiation sources. Experimental and theoretical studies of these microplasmas can provide critical information on fundamental discharge characteristics, and help extend the window of stable discharge operation. Spatially resolved measurements (resolution ˜ 6 mum) were taken across a 200 mum slot-type microdischarge in atmospheric pressure helium or argon. Small amounts of actinometer gases were added to the flow for optical emission spectroscopy measurements. Gas temperature profiles were determined from N2 emission rotational spectroscopy. Stark splitting of the hydrogen Balmer-beta (Hbeta ) line was used to investigate the electric field distribution in the cathode sheath region. Electron densities were evaluated from the analysis of the spectral line broadenings of Hbeta emission. The measured gas temperature was in the range of 350--650 K in He, and 600--1200 K in Ar, both peaking near the cathode and increasing with power. The electron density in the bulk plasma was in the range (3-7)x1013 cm -3 in He, and (1-4)x1014 cm-3 in Ar. The measured electric field in He peaked at the cathode and decayed to small values over a distance of ˜50 mum (sheath edge) from the cathode. The experimental data were also used to validate a self-consistent one-dimensional plasma model. By a combination of measurements and simulation it was found that the dominant gas heating mechanism in DC microplasmas was ion Joule heating. Simulation results also predicted the existence of electric field reversals in the negative glow under operating conditions that favor a high electron diffusion flux emanating from the cathode sheath. The electric field adjusted to satisfy continuity of the total current. Also, the electric field in the anode layer was self adjusted to be

  15. Inductively coupled microfluidic pressure meter for in vivo monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid shunt function.

    PubMed

    Song, S-H; Gillies, G T; Begley, M R; Utz, M; Broaddus, W C

    2012-04-01

    A microfluidic pressure sensor with inductively coupled, wireless readout capability has been developed for integration into cerebrospinal fluid shunt valve implants. The sensor consists of a deformable PDMS film that is bonded over a microfluidic reservoir, forming a fluidic capacitor. Deflection of the capacitor membrane is detected remotely through a shift in the resonance frequency of a micro-fabricated LC circuit. Sensors were fabricated by a combination of conventional MEMS technologies and rapid soft lithography. A direct pattern transfer technique was used to pattern the deformable PDMS film with a metal coating for the capacitive readout. The mechanical response of the fluidic capacitor was characterized by measuring the deflection of the PDMS film using an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI), and wireless sensing was demonstrated by the shift in resonance frequency of the sensor via an inductively coupled antenna. The sensor transduces pressure into a change in resonant frequency with sensitivity > 3.4 ppm Pa⁻¹ and responsivity 4.6 kHz Pa⁻¹, over a dynamic range of 0~3 kPa.

  16. Sterilization of beehive material with a double inductively coupled low pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priehn, M.; Denis, B.; Aumeier, P.; Kirchner, W. H.; Awakowicz, P.; Leichert, L. I.

    2016-09-01

    American Foulbrood is a severe, notifiable disease of the honey bee. It is caused by infection of bee larvae with spores of the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Spores of this organism are found in high numbers in an infected hive and are highly resistant to physical and chemical inactivation methods. The procedures to rehabilitate affected apiaries often result in the destruction of beehive material. In this study we assess the suitability of a double inductively coupled low pressure plasma as a non-destructive, yet effective alternative inactivation method for bacterial spores of the model organism Bacillus subtilis on beehive material. Plasma treatment was able to effectively remove spores from wax, which, under protocols currently established in veterinary practice, normally is destroyed by ignition or autoclaved for sterilization. Spores were removed from wooden surfaces with efficacies significantly higher than methods currently used in veterinary practice, such as scorching by flame treatment. In addition, we were able to non-destructively remove spores from the highly delicate honeycomb wax structures, potentially making treatment of beehive material with double inductively coupled low pressure plasma part of a fast and reliable method to rehabilitate infected bee colonies with the potential to re-use honeycombs.

  17. A nonlocal radiation transport and 1-D Boltzmann model for low pressure Hg-Ar discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzese, J.; Giuliani, J.; Petrov, G.

    2003-10-01

    A 1-D, steady state model for a low-pressure Ar-Hg plasma has been recently developed and used to study a positive column discharge with properties similar to the conventional mercury fluorescent lamp [1]. The model consists of the Boltzmann equation for the EEDF including the spatial gradient term self-consistently coupled to a collisional-radiative equilibrium description of 5 Ar and 11 Hg species, as well as the gas thermal balance equation and an equation for the ambipolar potential. The effect of radiation trapping on the resonant level populations was initially treated with effective lifetimes following the conventional Holstein theory. The description of the averaged plasma properties was found to be satisfactory, but some model predictions were not in accordance with radially resolved measurements. The model was then substantially improved by incorporating a 1-D radiation transport model. The latter includes the isotope structure of 254 and 185 nm lines, the effects of foreign gas collisional broadening, partial frequency redistribution of the emission profile of 185 nm line, Voigt profiles for all other lines, and nonlocal photopumping. The radiation transport model is self-consistently coupled with the kinetic part of the model through species population dynamics. [1] G. M. Petrov and J. Giuliani, J. Appl. Phys. vol. 94 (2003)

  18. Liquid-phase reactions induced by atmospheric pressure glow discharge with liquid electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally investigated some of the initial reactions in a liquid induced by electron or positive-ion irradiation from an atmospheric-pressure dc glow discharge in contact with the liquid. We used an H-shaped glass reactor to observe the effects of electron irradiation and positive-ion irradiation on the liquid-phase reaction separately and simultaneously. Aqueous solutions of NaCl, AgNO3, HAuCl4, and FeCl2 are used as the electrolyte. Solutions of AgNO3 and HAuCl4 are used for the generation of Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively. Solution of FeCl2 is used for the generation of ferromagnetic particles. Experimental results showed that electron irradiation of the liquid surface generates OH- in water and that positive-ion irradiation of the liquid surface generates H+ in water even without the dissolution of gas-phase nitrogen oxide. A possible reaction process is qualitatively discussed. We also showed that the control of reductive and oxidative environment in the liquid is possible not only by the gas composition for the plasma generation but also by the liquid composition.

  19. Study of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet of Argon Generated by Column Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Kinandana, A. W.; Winarto, P.; Muhlisin, Z.; Nasrudin

    2016-11-01

    An atmospheric of argon plasma jet was generated by using column dielectric barrier discharge has been investigated. In this study, argon gas was passed through the capillary column by regulating the flow rate of gas. This atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was generated by a sinusoidal AC high voltage in the range of 0.4 kV to 10 kV and at frequencies of 15 kHz and 26 kHz. APPJ has been produced with flow rate of argon gas from 1 litter/min - 10 litters/min. The electric current has been taken with variation of voltage and each interval argon gas flow rate of 1 litter/min. The results show that electric current increase linearly and then it trends to saturation condition by the increasing of applied voltage. We found also that the length of the plasma jet increase by augmenting of applied voltage both for frequencies of 15 kHz and 26 kHz. Furthermore, our results show that length of plasma jet optimum for flow rate of argon gas of 2 litters/minute. In addition, we obtained that the larger applied voltage, the greater the temperature of the plasma jet.

  20. CFC-11 destruction by microwave torch generated atmospheric-pressure nitrogen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Zakrzewski, Zenon; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2002-09-01

    A novel plasma method and its application for destruction of Freons using a moderate-power (several hundred watts) microwave torch discharge (MTD) in atmospheric-pressure flowing nitrogen are presented. The capability of the MTD to decompose Freons is demonstrated using a chlorofluorocarbon CCl3F (Freon CFC-11) as an example. The gas flow rate and microwave power (2.45 GHz) delivered to the MTD were 1-3 litre min-1 and 200-400 W, respectively. Concentration of the CFC-11 in the nitrogen was up to 50%. The results show that the decomposition efficiency of CFC-11 is up to 100% with the removal rate of several hundred g h-1 and energy efficiency of about 1 kg kWh-1. This impressive performance, superior to that of other methods, is achieved without generating any significant unwanted by-products. As a result of this investigation, a relatively low-cost prototype system for Freon destruction based on a moderate-power MTD and a scrubber is proposed.

  1. Surface diffuse discharge mechanism of well-aligned atmospheric pressure microplasma arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren-Wu, Zhou; Ru-Sen, Zhou; Jin-Xing, Zhuang; Jiang-Wei, Li; Mao-Dong, Chen; Xian-Hui, Zhang; Dong-Ping, Liu; Kostya (Ken, Ostrikov; Si-Ze, Yang

    2016-04-01

    A stable and homogeneous well-aligned air microplasma device for application at atmospheric pressure is designed and its electrical and optical characteristics are investigated. Current-voltage measurements and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) images show that the well-aligned air microplasma device is able to generate a large-area and homogeneous discharge at the applied voltages ranging from 12 kV to 14 kV, with a repetition frequency of 5 kHz, which is attributed to the diffusion effect of plasma on dielectric surface. Moreover, this well-aligned microplasma device may result in the uniform and large-area surface modification of heat-sensitive PET polymers without damage, such as optimization in hydrophobicity and biocompatibility. In the biomedical field, the utility of this well-aligned microplasma device is further testified. It proves to be very efficient for the large-area and uniform inactivation of E. coli cells with a density of 103/cm2 on LB agar plate culture medium, and inactivation efficiency can reach up to 99% for 2-min treatment. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015A030313005), and the Fund from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  2. Effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma on the biological activity of naringin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-10-01

    The biological activity of naringin treated with atmospheric pressure plasma was evaluated to investigate whether exposure to plasma can be used as a method to improve the biological activity of natural materials. Naringin was dissolved in methanol (at 500 ppm) and transferred to a container. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, ambient air) was then generated. Treatment with the plasma for 20 min increased the radical-scavenging activity, FRAP value, and the total phenolic compound content of naringin from 1.45% to 38.20%, from 27.78 to 207.78 μM/g, and from 172.50 to 225.83 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the tyrosinase-inhibition effect of naringin increased from 6.12% to 83.30% upon plasma treatment. Naringin treated with plasma exhibited antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, especially Salmonella Typhimurium; an activity that was absent before plasma treatment. Structural modifications induced in the naringin molecule by plasma might be responsible for improving the biological activity of naringin.

  3. Gene Transfection Method Using Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Gene transfection which is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells is expected to play an important role in medical treatment because the process is necessary for gene therapy and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional transfection methods have some problems, so we focus attention on promising transfection methods by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge (AP-DBD) plasmas. AP-DBD He plasmas are irradiated to the living cell covered with genes. Preliminarily, we use fluorescent dye YOYO-1 instead of the genes and use LIVE/DEAD Stain for cell viability test, and we analyze the transfection efficiency and cell viability under the various conditions. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is strongly dependence on the plasma irradiation time and cell viability rates is high rates (>90%) regardless of long plasma irradiation time. These results suggest that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and electric field generated by the plasma affect the gene transfection. In addition to this (the plasma irradiation time) dependency, we now investigate the effect of the plasma irradiation under the various conditions.

  4. Simulation for spatio-temporal variation of chemically active species in an atmospheric pressure streamer discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Takaahshi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of radical density in an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge has been investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulation. Behaviors of radicals are characterized by four areas as ``Hot anode region'', ``Secondary streamer region'', ``Primary streamer region'', and ``Near-cathode region''. Although the reduced electric field in ``Hot anode region'' is relatively high, the gas temperature also increases and the ozone destruction process proceed. On the other hand, in ``Near-cathode region'', the high-energy radicals such as N(4S) is effectively produced because the instantaneous value of reduced electric field is high. Behaiviour of OH is also investigated. The results show that OH is effectively produced in ``Secondary streamer region'' and is not effective in ``Hot anode region''. This is because the reduced electric filed in ``Secondary streamer region'' is sufficiently high for the dissociation of H2O by O(D) and N2(a) and the gas temperature in ``Hot anode region'' is too high for the production of OH.

  5. Electron heating and particle fluxes in dual frequency atmospheric-pressure helium capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dingxin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Chen; Rong, Mingzhe; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, a 1D fluid model has been used to study the electron heating and particle transport in dual frequency atmospheric-pressure helium capacitive discharge with a high-frequency (HF) voltage of 10 MHz and a low-frequency (LF) voltage of 1 MHz. The electric field is decoupled to three components: the HF, the LF and the direct current (DC) ones, and they have much different effects on the plasmas. The eletrons in plasma bulk are mainly heated by the HF electric field, while in plasma sheath they are heated and cooled by the LF and DC electric fields, respectively. With a fixed total input power, the increase of LF power leads to great enhancement of the electrode fluxes of electrons and ions, especially for the energetic electrons of T e  >  2 eV, because more power is dissipated in the vicinity of electrodes and the inelastic collision is more pronounced. Therefore, the particle transport on the treated sample can be greatly enhanced without additional gas heating in dual frequency plasmas, which meets the application requirements more compared to the single frequency plasmas.

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation particle introduction to a liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge ionization source

    SciTech Connect

    Carado, Anthony J.; Quarles, C. Derrick; Duffin, Andrew M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Eiden, Gregory C.; Koppenaal, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the use of a compact, liquid sampling – atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source to ionize metal particles within a laser ablation aerosol. Mass analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific Exactive Mass Spectrometer which utilizes an orbitrap mass analyzer capable of producing mass resolution exceeding M/ΔM > 160,000. The LS-APGD source generates a low-power plasma between the surface of an electrolytic solution flowing at several µl min-1 through a fused silica capillary and a counter electrode consisting of a stainless steel capillary employed to deliver the laser ablation particles into the plasma. Sample particles of approximately 100 nm were generated with an Applied Spectra femtosecond laser located remotely and transported through 25 meters of polyurethane tubing by means of argon carrier gas. Samples consisted of an oxygen free copper shard, a disk of solder, and a one-cent U.S. coin. Analyte signal onset was readily detectable relative to the background signal produced by the carrier gas alone. The high mass resolution capability of the orbitrap mass spectrometer was demonstrated on the solder sample with resolution exceeding 90,000 for Pb and 160,000 for Cu. In addition, results from a laser ablation depth-profiling experiment of a one cent coin revealed retention of the relative locations of the ~10 µm copper cladding and zinc rich bulk layers.

  7. Ionization Capabilities of Hydronium Ions and High Electric Fields Produced by Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge.

    PubMed

    Sato, Natsuhiko; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharge (APCD) was applied to the ionization of volatile organic compounds. The mass spectra of analytes having aromatic, phenolic, anilinic, basic and aliphatic in nature were obtained by using vapor supply and liquid smear supply methods. The vapor supply method mainly gave protonated analytes [A+H](+) caused by proton transfer from hydronium ion H3O(+), except for benzene, toluene and n-hexane that have lower proton affinity. The use of the liquid smear supply method resulted in the formation of molecular ion A(·+) and/or dehydride analyte [A-H](+), according to the nature of analytes used. The formation of A(·+) without fragment ions could be explained by the electron tunneling via high electric fields 10(8) V/m at the tip of the corona needle. The dehydride analytes [A-H](+) observed in the mass spectra of n-hexane, di- and tributylamines may be explained by the hydride abstraction from the alkyl chains by the hydronium ion. The hydronium ion can play the two-roles for analytes, i.e., the proton donor to form [A+H](+) and the hydride acceptor to form [A-H](+).

  8. Processes of discharge ignition in long tubes at low gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishpanov, A. I.; Meshchanov, A. V.; Kalinin, S. A.; Ionikh, Y. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Electrical breakdown resulting in the ignition of a low-pressure low-current glow discharge is investigated in long (length much larger than the diameter) tubes. New features characterizing the breakdown are found. Breakdown begins with synchronous sharp drop of the anode voltage and the peak in the anode current, which is not accompanied by the current at the grounded cathode. This proves the existence of the first (initial) breakdown occurring between the high-voltage electrode and the nearby section of the tube wall. Simultaneously, an ionization wave starts from the anode. The cathode current initiates noticeably later, at the moment when the ionization wave reaches the cathode. The distribution of the breakdown statistic delay time is governed by the Laue law. This study has revealed a profound effect on the breakdown of illumination of the tubes by visible-spectrum light. Illumination diminishes the average breakdown delay time; for the breakdown mode when breakdown occurs at the pulse leading edge this leads to a decrease in the average breakdown voltage. The long-wavelength threshold of the effect is 520 nm. Electron photodesorption from the wall surface is supposed to be the mechanism of the effect. Quantum efficiency for this process is 0.6 × 10-9. Unlike in most previous studies, all the measurements were carried out with unshielded tubes; screening of the tube by a grounded shield has a strong influence on the breakdown characteristics.

  9. Account of near-cathode sheath in numerical models of high-pressure arc discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, M. S.; Almeida, N. A.; Baeva, M.; Cunha, M. D.; Benilova, L. G.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-06-01

    Three approaches to describing the separation of charges in near-cathode regions of high-pressure arc discharges are compared. The first approach employs a single set of equations, including the Poisson equation, in the whole interelectrode gap. The second approach employs a fully non-equilibrium description of the quasi-neutral bulk plasma, complemented with a newly developed description of the space-charge sheaths. The third, and the simplest, approach exploits the fact that significant power is deposited by the arc power supply into the near-cathode plasma layer, which allows one to simulate the plasma-cathode interaction to the first approximation independently of processes in the bulk plasma. It is found that results given by the different models are generally in good agreement, and in some cases the agreement is even surprisingly good. It follows that the predicted integral characteristics of the plasma-cathode interaction are not strongly affected by details of the model provided that the basic physics is right.

  10. Structural characterization of synthetic polymers using thermal-assisted atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Yueming; Zhen, Cheng; Li, Yafeng; Xiong, Caiqiao; Wang, Jiyun; Li, Huayi; Nie, Zongxiu

    2012-11-07

    With the development of material science and the practical needs of the polymer industry, rapid characterization of synthetic polymers using mass spectrometry is of sustainable interest. Herein a new method for characterizing synthetic polymers using thermal-assisted atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry (TA-APGD-MS) is established. After illustration of the mechanism of ion formation, typical polymer samples such as polystyrene (PS), polyoxymethylene (POM) and poly (butanediol succinate) (PBS) were directly characterized at the molecular level using TA-APGD-MS. The thermal degradation products of synthetic polymers including monomer units and/or other fragments were rapidly detected by tandem mass spectrometry, providing rich information about the chemical composition for the structural characterization of homo- and co-polymers. The result suggests that TA-APGD-MS allows direct and rapid analysis of both synthetic homo-polymers and co-polymers under ambient conditions without any sample pretreatment. This method features high throughput, high sensitivity and rich information, showing promising applications in polymer science.

  11. Electric field development in γ-mode radiofrequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Zdeněk; Josepson, Raavo; Cvetanović, Nikola; Obradović, Bratislav; Dvořák, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Time development of electric field strength during radio-frequency sheath formation was measured using Stark polarization spectroscopy in a helium γ-mode radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) atmospheric pressure glow discharge at high current density (3 A cm-2). A method of time-correlated single photon counting was applied to record the temporal development of spectral profile of He I 492.2 nm line with a sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. By fitting the measured profile of the line with a combination of pseudo-Voigt profiles for forbidden (2 1P-4 1F) and allowed (2 1P-4 1D) helium lines, instantaneous electric fields up to 32 kV cm-1 were measured in the RF sheath. The measured electric field is in agreement with the spatially averaged value of 40 kV cm-1 estimated from homogeneous charge density RF sheath model. The observed rectangular waveform of the electric field time development is attributed to increased sheath conductivity by the strong electron avalanches occurring in the γ-mode sheath at high current densities.

  12. Three-dimensional Modelling of Two-phase Flow involving Droplets and Atmospheric Pressure Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. M.; Stallard, C. P.; Dowling, D. P.; Turner, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    We employ a three-dimensional coupled fluid-droplet model (FD3d) to describe the complex mechanism of droplet-plasma interaction that occurs when a liquid precursor is injected through a nebulizer into an atmospheric pressure discharge (APD). The formation of conducting channels in the APD plasma illustrates that the electron concentration around the pulse of droplets emitted by the nebulizer is perturbed by the influence of different gas impurities due to the impact of Penning ionization. The development of the sheath potential around the pulse of HMDSO droplets is significantly stronger in the case of He-air than a He-N2 gas mixture, which illustrates the contribution of oxygen impurities. The volumetric density profiles of ionic species are discussed by describing the complex situation of two-phase flow at distinct driving frequencies (5 - 100 kHz). The uniform structure of APD plasma is formed by considering an appropriate size distribution of droplets because the non-uniformities grow due to the existence of larger radii of droplets. The comparison of numerical modelling results of droplet size distributions is performed with experimental measurements using laser diffraction particle size analysis technique. The desired properties of surface coating applications can be predicted by controlling various parameters mentioned in the fluid-droplet model. Science Foundation Ireland under Grant No. 08/SRC/I1411.

  13. Investigation of reactive plasma species created in SO2 by an inductively coupled RF discharge in E- and H-mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2016-10-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and mass spectrometry were used to investigate the gas phase and surface reactions in inductively coupled SO2 plasma at various radiofrequency discharge powers up to 1000 W and gas pressures from 30 to 100 Pa. At such conditions, the plasma was created either in E- or in H-mode. In the E-mode, extensive radiation in the UV range was observed due to transitions of SO2 and SO molecules to the ground electronic states, whereas the other spectral features were marginal. At elevated powers, an abrupt transition to the H-mode occurred, where the total radiation increased for several orders of magnitude. Strong hysteresis was observed in the behaviour of all OES spectral features at the transitions between the E- and H-modes. In the H-mode, the atomic lines prevailed because of the relaxation of highly excited O and S atoms to the lower excited states, indicating high density of atoms. UV continuum was very weak and governed only by transitions of the SO radicals to the ground state. Thus, it was concluded that in the E-mode, predominantly SO and O radicals are formed during the partial dissociation of SO2 molecules, whereas in the H-mode, high dissociation to S and O atoms occurred, leading to the negligible concentration of SO2. However, in the flowing afterglow, the final gas composition was predominantly always SO2. The concentration of O2 was only approximately 3%, whereas the concentration of SO3 was marginal. This was explained by the recombination of the reactive plasma species formed in the plasma back to SO2 molecules on the surfaces of the remote plasma reactor.

  14. Gas pressure and electron density at the level of the active zone of hollow cathode arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minoo, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the longitudinal variations of the partial pressures of electrons, ions, and neutral particles is proposed as a result of an experimental study of pressure variations at the level of the active zone as a function of the various discharge parameters of a hollow cathode arc. The cathode region where the temperature passes through its maximum is called active zone. The proposed model embodies the very important variations which the partial electron and neutral particles pressures undergo at the level of the active zone.

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain ...

  16. Influence of the excitation frequency on the density of helium metastable atoms in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, J.-S.; Sadeghi, N.; Margot, J.; Massines, F.

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric-pressure helium can be sustained over a wide range of excitation frequencies (from, but not restricted, 25 kHz to 15 MHz). The aim of the present paper is to identify the specific characteristics of the discharge modes that can be sustained in this frequency range, namely, the atmospheric-pressure Townsend-like discharge (APTD-L) mode, the atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) mode, the Ω mode, the hybrid mode, and the RF-α mode. This is achieved experimentally, by measuring the density of helium metastable atoms, which are known to play a driving role on the discharge kinetics. This density is measured by means of two absorption spectroscopy methods, one using a spectral lamp and the other one using a diode laser as a light source. The first one provides the time-averaged atom densities in the singlet He(21S) and triplet He(23S) metastable states, while with the second one we access the time-resolved density of He(23S) atoms. Time-averaged measurements indicate that the He(23S) density is relatively low in the APTD-L, the Ω and the RF-α modes ( <4 ×1016 m-3 ) slightly higher in the APGD mode ( 2 -7 ×1016 m-3 ), and still higher ( >1 ×1017 m-3 ) in the hybrid mode. The hybrid mode is exclusively observed for frequencies from 0.2 to 3 MHz. However, time-resolved density measurement shows that at 1 MHz and below, the hybrid mode is not continuously sustained. Instead, the discharge oscillates between the Ω and the hybrid mode with a switching frequency about the kilohertz. This explains the significantly lower power required to sustain the plasma as compared to above 1 MHz.

  17. Determination of the electron temperature in plane-to-plane He dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Levasseur, O.; Naudé, N.; Gherardi, N.; Massines, F.; Margot, J.; Stafford, L.

    2016-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements coupled with a collisional-radiative model were used to characterize a plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure operated in nominally pure helium. The model predicts the population densities for the n  =  3 levels of He excited by electron impact processes from either ground or metastable states and takes into account excitation transfer processes between He n  =  3 levels as well as all relevant radiative decays and quenching reactions. Time-resolved OES measurements indicate that line ratios from He n  =  3 triplet states (for example, 587.5 nm-to-706.5 nm) and singlet states (for example, 667.8 nm-to-728.1 nm) first sharply rise as the discharge ignites and then slowly decrease as it extinguishes. Assuming that n  =  3 levels are first populated only by electron impact on ground state He atoms and then only by electron impact on metastable He atoms as the discharge current and thus the metastable number density rise, triplet and singlet line ratios predicted by the model become in each opposite case solely dependent on the electron temperature T e (assuming Maxwellian electron energy distribution function). The values of T e deduced from the analysis of both ratios were relatively high early in the discharge cycle (around 1.0-1.4 eV) and then much lower near discharge extinction (around 0.15 eV). For analysis of time-integrated (or cycle-averaged) OES measurements, the electron temperatures were closer to the 0.15 eV values near the end of the discharge cycle, in good agreement with the values expected from theoretical predictions in the positive columns of He glow discharges at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Cathode fall thickness of abnormal glow discharges between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yangyang; Luo, Haiyun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-02-15

    In order to investigate the influence of electrode radius on the characteristics of cathode fall thickness, experiments of low-pressure (20 Pa ≤ p ≤ 30 Pa) abnormal glow discharge were carried out between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii keeping gap distance unchanged. Axial distributions of light intensity were obtained from the discharge images captured using a Charge Coupled Device camera. The assumption that the position of the negative glow peak coincides with the edge of cathode fall layer was verified based on a two-dimensional model, and the cathode fall thicknesses, d{sub c}, were calculated from the axial distributions of light intensity. It was observed that the position of peak emission shifts closer to the cathode as current or pressure grows. The dependence of cathode fall thickness on the gas pressure and normalized current J/p{sup 2} was presented, and it was found that for discharges between electrodes in large radius the curves of pd{sub c} against J/p{sup 2} were superimposed on each other, however, this phenomenon will not hold for discharges between the smaller electrodes. The reason for this phenomenon is that the transverse diffusions of charged particles are not the same in two gaps between electrodes with different radii.

  19. Ozone production in parallel multichannel dielectric barrier discharge from oxygen and air: the influence of gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dingkun; Wang, Zhihua; Ding, Can; He, Yong; Whiddon, Ronald; Cen, Kefa

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of gas pressure (0.1 Mpa-0.2 Mpa) on ozone generation in a parallel multichannel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with a narrow gap (0.2 mm). In addition to determining ozone concentration and ozone yield characteristics with gas pressure variation, this paper examines the possible reasons leading to the inconsistency with previous reported results. All the experimental results are plotted on the basis of specific input energy (SIE) in order to conduct the comparison within identical power density. By reviewing the experimental results, the possible cause leading to the inconsistency concerning gas pressure dependences of ozone generation was found using different comparison bases. Results show that ozone generation is slightly suppressed with an increase of gas pressure with an initial increase in SIE. The results of the ozone yield show that an increase of gas pressure would have a favorable effect on ozone production efficiency with an SIE larger than 400 J l-1 in oxygen while ozone yield reaches the maximum at 0.14 Mpa with an SIE larger than 150 J l-1 in air. Increasing gas pressure would lead to a higher critical SIE value at which ozone yield firstly decreases with an increase of SIE both in oxygen and air. The results of nitrogen oxide byproducts show that both NO x byproducts emission and the discharge poisoning effect are suppressed by increasing gas pressure in air plasmas.

  20. Experimental study of the processes accompanying argon breakdown in a long discharge tube at a reduced pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshchanov, A. V.; Ionikh, Yu. Z.; Shishpanov, A. I.; Kalinin, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the breakdown stage of a low-pressure discharge (1 and 5 Torr) in a glass tube the length of which (75 cm) is much larger than its diameter (2.8 cm). Breakdowns occurred under the action of positive voltage pulses with an amplitude of up to 9.4 kV and a characteristic rise time of 2-50 μs. The discharge current in the steady-state mode was 10-120 mA. The electrode voltage, discharge current, and radiation from the discharge gap were detected simultaneously. The dynamic breakdown voltage was measured, the prebreakdown ionization wave was recorded, and its velocity was determined. The dependence of the discharge parameters on the time interval between voltage pulses (the socalled "memory effect") was analyzed. The memory effect manifests itself in a decrease or an increase in the breakdown voltage and a substantial decrease in its statistical scatter. The time interval between pulses in this case can reach 0.5 s. The effect of illumination of the discharge tube with a light source on the breakdown was studied. It is found that the irradiation of the anode region of the tube by radiation with wavelengths of ≤500 nm substantially reduces the dynamic breakdown voltage. Qualitative explanations of the obtained results are offered.

  1. Experimental study of the processes accompanying argon breakdown in a long discharge tube at a reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Meshchanov, A. V.; Ionikh, Yu. Z. Shishpanov, A. I.; Kalinin, S. A.

    2016-10-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the breakdown stage of a low-pressure discharge (1 and 5 Torr) in a glass tube the length of which (75 cm) is much larger than its diameter (2.8 cm). Breakdowns occurred under the action of positive voltage pulses with an amplitude of up to 9.4 kV and a characteristic rise time of 2–50 μs. The discharge current in the steady-state mode was 10–120 mA. The electrode voltage, discharge current, and radiation from the discharge gap were detected simultaneously. The dynamic breakdown voltage was measured, the prebreakdown ionization wave was recorded, and its velocity was determined. The dependence of the discharge parameters on the time interval between voltage pulses (the socalled “memory effect”) was analyzed. The memory effect manifests itself in a decrease or an increase in the breakdown voltage and a substantial decrease in its statistical scatter. The time interval between pulses in this case can reach 0.5 s. The effect of illumination of the discharge tube with a light source on the breakdown was studied. It is found that the irradiation of the anode region of the tube by radiation with wavelengths of ≤500 nm substantially reduces the dynamic breakdown voltage. Qualitative explanations of the obtained results are offered.

  2. Plasma-assisted decomposition of methanol and trichloroethylene in atmospheric pressure air streams by electrical discharge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.

    1995-09-01

    Experiments are presented on the plasma-assisted decomposition of dilute concentrations of methanol and trichloroethylene in atmospheric pressure air streams by electrical discharge processing. This investigation used two types of discharge reactors, a dielectric-barrier and a pulsed corona discharge reactor, to study the effects of gas temperature and electrical energy input on the decomposition chemistry and byproduct formation. Our experimental data on both methanol and trichloroethylene show that, under identical gas conditions, the type of electrical discharge reactor does not affect the energy requirements for decomposition or byproduct formation. Our experiments on methanol show that discharge processing converts methanol to CO{sub {ital x}} with an energy yield that increases with temperature. In contrast to the results from methanol, CO{sub {ital x}} is only a minor product in the decomposition of trichloroethylene. In addition, higher temperatures decrease the energy yield for trichloroethylene. This effect may be due to increased competition from decomposition of the byproducts dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene. In all cases plasma processing using an electrical discharge device produces CO preferentially over CO{sub 2}.

  3. Plasma-assisted decomposition of methanol and trichloroethylene in atmospheric pressure air streams by electrical discharge processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, M. C.; Merritt, B. T.; Penetrante, B. M.; Vogtlin, G. E.; Wallman, P. H.

    1995-09-01

    Experiments are presented on the plasma-assisted decomposition of dilute concentrations of methanol and trichloroethylene in atmospheric pressure air streams by electrical discharge processing. This investigation used two types of discharge reactors, a dielectric-barrier and a pulsed corona discharge reactor, to study the effects of gas temperature and electrical energy input on the decomposition chemistry and byproduct formation. Our experimental data on both methanol and trichloroethylene show that, under identical gas conditions, the type of electrical discharge reactor does not affect the energy requirements for decomposition or byproduct formation. Our experiments on methanol show that discharge processing converts methanol to COx with an energy yield that increases with temperature. In contrast to the results from methanol, COx is only a minor product in the decomposition of trichloroethylene. In addition, higher temperatures decrease the energy yield for trichloroethylene. This effect may be due to increased competition from decomposition of the byproducts dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene. In all cases plasma processing using an electrical discharge device produces CO preferentially over CO2.

  4. Ionic wind generation by a wire-cylinder-plate corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, Dorian F.; Ferret, Antoine; Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-11-15

    A wire-cylinder-plate electrode configuration is presented to generate ionic wind with a dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The objective of the work is to maximize the power supplied to the flow in order to increase acceleration while avoiding breakdown. Thus, the proposed experimental setup addresses the problem of decoupling the mechanism of ion generation from that of ion acceleration. Using a wire-plate configuration as a reference, we have focused on improving the topography of the electric field to (1) separate the ionization and acceleration zones in space, and (2) guide the trajectory of charged particles as parallel to the median axis as possible. In the proposed wire-cylinder-plate setup, a dc corona discharge is generated in the space between a wire and two cylinders. The ions produced by the corona then drift past the cylinders and into a channel between two plates, where they undergo acceleration. To maximize the ionic wind it is found that the geometric configuration must be as compact as possible and that the voltage applied must be right below breakdown. Experimentally, the optimized wire-plate reference setup provides a maximum flow velocity of 8 m s{sup -1}, a flow rate per unit electrode length of 0.034 m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and a thrust per unit electrode length of 0.24 N m{sup -1}. The wire-cylinder-plate configuration provides a maximum flow velocity of 10 m s{sup -1}, a flow rate per unit electrode length of 0.041 m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and a thrust per unit electrode length of 0.35 N m{sup -1}. This 46% increase in thrust is obtained by increasing the electric power per unit electrode length by only 16% (from 175 to 210 W m{sup -1}), which confirms the gain in efficiency obtained with the decoupled system. In comparison with a simple wire-wire corona configuration, the wire-cylinder-plate configuration increases the ionic wind velocity by up to a factor of 3, and the thrust by an order of magnitude.

  5. Advanced Research on the Electrode Area of a Low Pressure Hg-Ar Discharge Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianou

    The phenomenon of electrical discharge in low pressure Hg-Ar vapor has been under continuous investigation since it was first discovered. Because much work has been done in the positive column, it is, therefore, that the electrode area of the lamp is the main focus of this thesis. To simulate the interface phenomena on a electrode surface, samples, with optically smooth tungsten-barium interfaces were fired in a high vacuum furnace at different temperatures. Measurements were made using surface characterization techniques. It is found that no Ba_3WO _6 is formed on the surface as previously reported in the powder mixing experiments, and the interface consists mainly of BaWO_4. It was discovered in the early 1950's that vaporization of the barium from the cathode in a fluorescent lamp could be reduced tremendously with the addition of 5% of ZrO _2 to the coating mix. However, the reason for this is poorly understood. A possible explanation has been found, and number of tests have been completed to simulate the formation of BaZO_3 under different lamp operating conditions. The measurements and simulation of barium atom and ion number densities are presented. Barium emitted from the electrode surface has a strong interaction with the local plasma. The number density distributions depend mainly on the discharge conditions. A Monte Carlo computer simulation for the barium ion number density is described and the results from the simulation compared to the experimental results obtained by absorption method. It is clear that the ion distribution and phosphor contamination in the electrode area are two closely related issues. XPS is used to measure the chemical composition on the phosphor surface of the lamp. A discussion of calibration methods and the possible compounds forming on the phosphors is then presented. A number of questions have been raised concerning the safety of the lamp and its affects on health related to radiation generated in the electrode area. Typically

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Gas Flow Rate on the Electrical Behavior of an Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Jet Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, C. Y.; Chin, O. H.

    2011-03-30

    The dielectric barrier discharge configuration used consists of a hemispherical electrode insulated by 1 mm thick borosilicate glass and a grounded plate with a hole through which the jet is formed externally in the surrounding air. The effect of gas flow rate on the behavior of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier jet discharge was studied for different air-gap distance and drive voltage, V{sub DD}, to the MOSFET. It is found that at higher rate of nitrogen gas flow, the current spikes reduce in number when the driving voltage and air-gap distance are kept constant.

  7. Second derivative Langmuir probe measurements in Faraday dark space in Argon d.c. gas discharge at intermediate pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, M.; Popov, Tsv K.; Todorovand, J.; Naydenova, Tsv G.

    2006-07-01

    In a d.c. discharge tube with sectional cathodes and a common grid anode, second derivative Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the Faraday dark space in argon gas discharge at intermediate pressures. Experimental results for different radial probe positions and different distances from the cathode in axial direction are presented. It is shown that the electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian. Taking into account the electron depletion caused by their sinking on the probe surface, an extension of the Druyvesteyn formula is applied for more accurate determination of the electron temperature value, T, the electron density, n, and the plasma potential, Upl, from the experimental results acquired.

  8. Transport Equations Resolution By N-BEE Anti-Dissipative Scheme In 2D Model Of Low Pressure Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kraloua, B.; Hennad, A.

    2008-09-23

    The aim of this paper is to determine electric and physical properties by 2D modelling of glow discharge low pressure in continuous regime maintained by term constant source. This electric discharge is confined in reactor plan-parallel geometry. This reactor is filled by Argon monatomic gas. Our continuum model the order two is composed the first three moments the Boltzmann's equations coupled with Poisson's equation by self consistent method. These transport equations are discretized by the finite volumes method. The equations system is resolved by a new technique, it is about the N-BEE explicit scheme using the time splitting method.

  9. A pulse-modulated nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure microwave argon plasma discharge preionized by a kilohertz excited plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shouzhe; Xu Maochun; Zhang Xin; Zhang Jialiang

    2012-04-23

    A pulse-modulated nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure microwave argon surface wave plasma is generated by means of a preionization discharge with a single-electrode plasma jet driven by a power supply of 50 kHz. It is found that the electron induced Saha-like balance dominates excitation process in the plasma discharge through the electron temperature varying with the microwave input power and the applied voltage of kilohertz power supply. The microwave pulse-modulating effect on nonequilibrium characteristics of dual-frequency exciting argon surface wave plasma is studied by spectroscopic measurement of the excitation temperature and gas temperature.

  10. Analysis of four dental alloys following torch/centrifugal and induction/ vacuum-pressure casting procedures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey A; Luo, Qing; Hefti, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown casting methodology to influence the as-cast properties of dental casting alloys. It is important to consider clinically important mechanical properties so that the influence of casting can be clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how torch/centrifugal and inductively cast and vacuum-pressure casting machines may affect the castability, microhardness, chemical composition, and microstructure of 2 high noble, 1 noble, and 1 base metal dental casting alloys. Two commonly used methods for casting were selected for comparison: torch/centrifugal casting and inductively heated/ vacuum-pressure casting. One hundred and twenty castability patterns were fabricated and divided into 8 groups. Four groups were torch/centrifugally cast in Olympia (O), Jelenko O (JO), Genesis II (G), and Liberty (L) alloys. Similarly, 4 groups were cast in O, JO, G, and L by an inductively induction/vacuum-pressure casting machine. Each specimen was evaluated for casting completeness to determine a castability value, while porosity was determined by standard x-ray techniques. Each group was metallographically prepared for further evaluation that included chemical composition, Vickers microhardness, and grain analysis of microstructure. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine significant differences among the main effects. Statistically significant effects were examined further with the Tukey HSD procedure for multiple comparisons. Data obtained from the castability experiments were non-normal and the variances were unequal. They were analyzed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant results were further investigated statistically with the Steel-Dwass method for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The alloy type had a significant effect on surface microhardness (P<.001). In contrast, the technique used for casting did not affect the microhardness of the test specimen (P=.465). Similarly, the interaction between the alloy and casting

  11. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  12. Three distinct modes in a surface micro-discharge in atmospheric pressure He + N{sub 2} mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Liu, Dingxin He, Tongtong; Li, Qiaosong; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2015-12-15

    A surface micro-discharge in atmospheric pressure He + N{sub 2} mixtures is studied in this paper with an emphasis on the discharge modes. With the N{sub 2} admixture increasing from 0.1% to 20%, the discharge evolves from a spatially diffuse mode to a filamentary mode during positive half-cycles of the applied voltage. However during the negative half-cycles, an additional patterned mode emerges between the diffuse and the filamentary modes, which has not been reported before to exist in surface micro-discharges. In the diffuse and patterned modes, the plasmas cover almost the entirety of the mesh area during one cycle after plasma ignition in all mesh elements, and the discharge power increases linearly with the applied voltage. In contrast, plasma coverage of the mesh area is only partial in the filamentary mode and the plasma is more unstable with the discharge power increasing exponentially with the applied voltage. As the surface micro-discharge evolves through the three modes, the density of excited species changes significantly, for instance, the density of N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) drops by ∼20-fold from [N{sub 2}] = 0.2% to 20%. The N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) is predicted to be generated mainly through successive processes of Penning ionization by helium metastables and electron-impact excitation of N{sub 2}{sup +}(X), the latter is most responsible for the density decrease of N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) because much more N{sub 2}{sup +}(X) is converted to N{sub 4}{sup +}(X) as the increase of N{sub 2} fraction. Also, the electron density and electron temperature decrease with the discharge mode transition.

  13. Anomalous memory effect in the breakdown of low-pressure argon in a long discharge tube

    SciTech Connect

    Meshchanov, A. V.; Korshunov, A. N.; Ionikh, Yu. Z.; Dyatko, N. A.

    2015-08-15

    The characteristics of breakdown of argon in a long tube (with a gap length of 75 cm and diameter of 2.8 cm) at pressures of 1 and 5 Torr and stationary discharge currents of 5–40 mA were studied experimentally. The breakdown was initiated by paired positive voltage pulses with a rise rate of ∼10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} V/s and duration of ∼1–10 ms. The time interval between pairs was varied in the range of Τ ∼ 0.1–1 s, and that between pulses in a pair was varied from τ = 0.4 ms to ≈Τ/2. The aim of this work was to detect and study the so-called “anomalous memory effect” earlier observed in breakdown in nitrogen. The effect consists in the dynamic breakdown voltage in the second pulse in a pair being higher than in the first pulse (in contrast to the “normal” memory effect, in which the relation between the breakdown voltages is opposite). It is found that this effect is observed when the time interval between pairs of pulses is such that the first pulse in a pair is in the range of the normal memory effect of the preceding pair (under the given conditions, Τ ≈ 0.1–0.4 s). In this case, at τ ∼ 10 ms, the breakdown voltage of the second pulse is higher than the reduced breakdown voltage of the first pulse. Optical observations of the ionization wave preceding breakdown in a long tube show that, in the range of the anomalous memory effect and at smaller values of τ, no ionization wave is detected before breakdown in the second pulse. A qualitative interpretation of the experimental results is given.

  14. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (Trot), excitation temperature (Texc), electron number density (ne), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ~ 1000 K and ~ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ~ 3 × 1015 cm- 3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (< 1 mm3 volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction.

  15. Glow Discharge Plasma Demonstrated for Separation Control in the Low-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David e.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2004-01-01

    Flow separation in the low-pressure turbine (LPT) is a major barrier that limits further improvements of aerodynamic designs of turbine airfoils. The separation is responsible for performance degradation, and it prevents the design of highly loaded airfoils. The separation can be delayed, reduced, or eliminated completely if flow control techniques are used. Successful flow control technology will enable breakthrough improvements in gas turbine performance and design. The focus of this research project was the development and experimental demonstration of active separation control using glow discharge plasma (GDP) actuators in flow conditions simulating the LPT. The separation delay was shown to be successful, laying the foundation for further development of the technologies to practical application in the LPT. In a fluid mechanics context, the term "flow control" means a technology by which a very small input results in a very large effect on the flow. In this project, the interest is to eliminate or delay flow separation on LPT airfoils by using an active flow control approach, in which disturbances are dynamically inserted into the flow, they interact with the flow, and they delay separation. The disturbances can be inserted using a localized, externally powered, actuating device, examples are acoustic, pneumatic, or mechanical devices that generate vibrations, flow oscillations, or pulses. A variety of flow control devices have been demonstrated in recent years in the context of the external aerodynamics of aircraft wings and airframes, where the incoming flow is quiescent or of a very low turbulence level. However, the flow conditions in the LPT are significantly different because there are high levels of disturbances in the incoming flow that are characterized by high free-stream turbulence intensity. In addition, the Reynolds number, which characterizes the viscous forces in the flow and is related to the flow speed, is very low in the LPT passages.

  16. The breakdown process in an atmospheric pressure nanosecond parallel-plate helium/argon mixture discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2016-02-01

    The breakdown process in an atmospheric pressure nanosecond helium/argon mixture discharge with parallel-plate electrodes is investigated by temporally and spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The spatially resolved electric field is obtained from the Stark splitting of the He i 492.1 nm line. Using the emissions from the He ii 468.6 nm, He i 667.8 nm, and Ar i 750.4 nm lines and a collisional-radiative model, the spatially resolved T e, high and T e, low (representing the effective T e in the high energy and low energy part of the EEDF, respectively) are obtained. It is found that, compared with the average electric field provided by the external pulser, the electric field is greatly enhanced at certain location and is significantly weakened at other places. This observation shows the effect of the ionization wave propagation, as predicted in [1, 2]. The value of T e, high is much larger than that of T e, low, which indicates that an elevated high energy tail in the EEDF is built up under the influence of strong electric field during the breakdown process. Initially, the spatial distribution of the T e, low and the T e, high generally follows that of the electric field. However, at the end of the breakdown period, the location of the highest T e, low and T e, high is shifted away from the cathode sheath, where the electric field is strongest. This indicates the existence of a non-local effect and is supported by the result from a simple Monte-Carlo simulation.

  17. Protein destruction by a helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge: Capability and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Kong, M. G.

    2007-04-01

    Biological sterilization represents one of the most exciting applications of atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD). Despite the fact that surgical instruments are contaminated by both microorganisms and proteinaceous matters, sterilization effects of APGD have so far been studied almost exclusively for microbial inactivation. This work presents the results of a detailed investigation of the capability of a helium-oxygen APGD to inactivate proteins deposited on stainless-steel surfaces. Using a laser-induced fluorescence technique for surface protein measurement, a maximum protein reduction of 4.5 logs is achieved by varying the amount of the oxygen admixture into the background helium gas. This corresponds to a minimum surface protein of 0.36 femtomole/mm{sup 2}. It is found that plasma reduction of surface-borne protein is through protein destruction and degradation, and that its typically biphasic reduction kinetics is influenced largely by the thickness profile of the surface protein. Also presented is a complementary study of possible APGD protein inactivation mechanisms. By interplaying the protein inactivation kinetics with optical emission spectroscopy, it is shown that the main protein-destructing agents are excited atomic oxygen (via the 777 and 844 nm emission channels) and excited nitride oxide (via the 226, 236, and 246 nm emission channels). It is also demonstrated that the most effective protein reduction is achieved possibly through a synergistic effect between atomic oxygen and nitride oxide. This study is a useful step toward a full confirmation of the efficacy of APGD as a sterilization technology for surgical instruments contaminated by prion proteins.

  18. Protein destruction by a helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge: Capability and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Kong, M. G.

    2007-04-01

    Biological sterilization represents one of the most exciting applications of atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD). Despite the fact that surgical instruments are contaminated by both microorganisms and proteinaceous matters, sterilization effects of APGD have so far been studied almost exclusively for microbial inactivation. This work presents the results of a detailed investigation of the capability of a helium-oxygen APGD to inactivate proteins deposited on stainless-steel surfaces. Using a laser-induced fluorescence technique for surface protein measurement, a maximum protein reduction of 4.5 logs is achieved by varying the amount of the oxygen admixture into the background helium gas. This corresponds to a minimum surface protein of 0.36 femtomole/mm2. It is found that plasma reduction of surface-borne protein is through protein destruction and degradation, and that its typically biphasic reduction kinetics is influenced largely by the thickness profile of the surface protein. Also presented is a complementary study of possible APGD protein inactivation mechanisms. By interplaying the protein inactivation kinetics with optical emission spectroscopy, it is shown that the main protein-destructing agents are excited atomic oxygen (via the 777 and 844 nm emission channels) and excited nitride oxide (via the 226, 236, and 246 nm emission channels). It is also demonstrated that the most effective protein reduction is achieved possibly through a synergistic effect between atomic oxygen and nitride oxide. This study is a useful step toward a full confirmation of the efficacy of APGD as a sterilization technology for surgical instruments contaminated by prion proteins.

  19. Dissociation degree of nitrogen molecule in low-pressure microwave-discharge nitrogen plasma with various rare-gas admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Kei; Nezu, Atsushi; Matsuura, Haruaki; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The dissociation degree of nitrogen molecules is examined in a microwave discharge nitrogen-rare gas mixture plasma with a total discharge pressure of 1 Torr, by actinometry measurement. Although the spectral line from the excited nitrogen atoms is overlapped by the band spectrum of the N2 first positive system (1PS), the subtraction of the 1PS spectrum fitted theoretically can successfully extract the atomic nitrogen line, which enables actinometry measurement. The nitrogen dissociation degree decreases with increasing mixture ratio of Ar to Kr, whereas it increases with He, which is attributed to the variations in the electron temperature and density. When we dilute the nitrogen with neon, however, we find an anomalous increase in the nitrogen dissociation degree by several orders of magnitude even at a downstream region in the discharge tube. The reason for the dissociation enhancement upon adding neon is discussed in terms of atomic and molecular processes in the plasma.

  20. Effect of external floating electrode for enhancing efficiency of generating an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukasaki, Katsuki; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Toyota Technological Institute Team

    2015-09-01

    To make a plasma source which can generate a microplasma at low power without using an ignitor (ex. high-voltage power supply), we have used an electrically floating electrode inside a glass tube surrounded by an antenna coil of inductive coupling. Helium gas was fed into the glass tube. When VHF power was supplied to the antenna coil, the floating electrode reached electrically high potential and an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled microplasma was generated. The ignition power depended on the length of the floating electrode further. The longer the length was, the less ignition power was. To make the plasma source compact, the floating electrode was moved outside the glass tube (O.D. 1.5mm, I.D. 1mm) while only a part of floating electrode (Ni wire, 10mm, ϕ 0.3mm) was remained inside the glass tube. Both the cable and Ni wire was magnetically connected to each other through the wall of glass tube. With changing the cable length, ignition power was measured. The ignition power varied with the unit of half wavelength of the VHF. The wavelength resonance effect decreased the ignition power. This study was supported by MEXT program for Forming Strategic Research Infrastructure (S1101028) Japan.