Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando
A multiresidue quantitative screening method covering 39 antibiotics from 7 different families by ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is described. Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, penicillins and chloramphenicol are simultaneously detected in liver tissue. A simple sample treatment method consisting of extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) cartridge was developed. The methodology was validated, in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC, by evaluating the following required parameters: decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), specificity, repeatability and reproducibility. The precision, in terms of the relative standard deviation, was under 22% for all of the compounds, and the recoveries were between 80% and 110%. The CCα and CCβ were determined according to the maximum residue limit (MRL) or the minimum required performance limit (MRPL), when established.
Wang, Jing; Pan, Hefang; Liu, Zhengzheng; Ge, Fei
A novel method has been developed for the determination of alkylphenols in soil by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography employing small particle sizes, combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Soil samples were extracted with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and then cleaned with solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were separated on C18 column (1.7 microm, 50 mm x 2.1mm) with a gradient elution and a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile, and then detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Compared with traditional liquid chromatography, it took ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography much less time to analyze alkylphenols. Additionally, the ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method produces satisfactory reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy. The average recoveries of the three target analytes were 74.0-103.4%, with the RSD<15%. The calibration curves for alkylphenols were linear within the range of 0.01-0.4 microg/ml, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. When 10 g soil sample was used for analysis, the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three alkylphenols were all 1.0 microg/kg.
Han, Zheng; Zheng, Yunliang; Chen, Na; Luan, Lianjun; Zhou, Changxin; Gan, Lishe; Wu, Yongjiang
A new separation and quantification method using liquid chromatography under ultra-high-pressure in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Lindera aggregata. The analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column (50mmx2.1mm, 1.7microm particle size; Waters, Milford, MA, USA) utilizing a gradient elution profile and a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 10mM ammonium acetate adjusted to pH 3 with acetic acid and (B) acetonitrile. An electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem interface in the positive mode was employed prior to mass spectrometric detection. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 17.1-856ng for boldine, 42.4-2652ng for norboldine, 6.1-304ng for reticuline and 0.5-50ng for linderegatine, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 99.2 to 101.4% with RSDs< or =2.7%. Then, four L. aggregata samples from different batches were analyzed using the established method. The results indicated that ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provided improved chromatographic parameters resulting in significantly increased sample throughput including lower solvent consumption and lower limits of quantitation (LOQs) for most of target analytes compared to previous method employing conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. So, the established method was validated, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four alkaloids in L. aggregata.
Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.
Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian
4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.
Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda
Few methods are available for comprehensive organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) detection in water and wastewater. Gas chromatography has been employed previously, but this approach is less selective, not amenable for use with deuterated standards and can suffer unfavorable fragmentation. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) has become the most promising platform, already applied successfully for analysis of selected PFRs in some environmental matrices like water and wastewater. However, the presence of some interferences from the dissolvent, the equipment and the used materials should be taken into account. The procedure involves: •The first determination of PFRs by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS using a trap column to distinguish the interferences coming from the instrument and mobile phases.•The optimization of the LC separation to distinguish all target compounds and their interferences.•This method coupled to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) improve the detection and quantification of PFRs.
Pan, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Ping-Gu
Matrix-dependent signal suppression often occurs in quantitative analysis by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In this study, we investigated three calibration methods for compensation of signal suppression on chloramphenicol (CAP) quantification in chicken muscle. The data showed that the spiking recoveries by solvent standard calibration with a stable isotope labelled internal standard (SIL-IS) and matrix-matched standard calibration with a SIL-IS were significantly higher than by external matrix-matched standard calibration (P < 0.05). When the SIL-IS was used, standards prepared in the mobile phase solvent showed no significant difference as those prepared in the matrix (P > 0.05). The limit of detection (LOD) for external matrix matched standard calibration was 0.1 μg kg(-1), and that for SIL-IS calibration (including matrix matched and solvent dissolved standard) was 0.03 μg kg(-1).
Nieto, Antonio; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Pocurull, Eva
This paper describes a method for the determination of a group of personal care products including four UV filters, four preservatives and two antimicrobials in sewage sludge. The method combines pressurized liquid extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Most of the parameters that affect the extraction step such as temperature, pressure, static extraction time, number of cycles, purge time and flush volume were optimized using a fractional experimental design. In the chromatographic step, the compounds were detected by using tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer with electrospray ionization in positive and negative modes. The use of small diameter particles (1.8 microm) in the chromatographic column allowed the compounds to be eluted in 9 min. The entire process took a total of 39 min. All recoveries were higher than 72% except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (a UV filter), whose recovery was 30%. The repeatability and reproducibility between days expressed as RSD (%) (n=3) were less than 8% and 13%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs were lower than 8 microg/kg and 12.5 microg/kg of dry weight (d.w.), respectively. When the method was applied to determine the compounds in sewage sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant, triclosan (an antimicrobial) and octocrylene (a UV filter) showed the highest levels, 1490 microg/kg (d.w.) and 1842 microg/kg (d.w.), respectively. This paper describes for the first time the determination of parabens and two UV filters (octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid and benzophenone-3) in sewage sludge.
Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Maria Marcé, Rosa; Pocurull, Eva
The occurrence of sweeteners in the environment has become a matter of concern due to the possibility of adverse effects on human health and wildlife species. One of the routes by which sweeteners enter the environment is through sewage sludge. Therefore, a method was developed with a selective-pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in sewage sludge. The chromatographic separation was achieved in less than ten minutes using an amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column. Due to the high matrix effect present in the sample, an extensive study was conducted in order to overcome this issue, with C18 in-cell and solid-phase extraction (Oasis HLB) as a clean-up method. S-PLE/SPE recoveries at two levels of concentration (50μg/kg and 1000μg/kg in dry weight (d.w.), n=5) were higher than 61%. Repeatability and reproducibility at the same concentrations (%RSD, n=5) were lower than 11% and 16%, respectively. The limits of detection were 10μg/kg (d.w) for all compounds, except for cyclamate (5μg/kg (d.w.)). The method was successfully applied to sewage sludge samples from three sewage treatment plants located in Catalonia (Spain). Of the eight compounds, five were determined in all of the samples analysed, with acesulfame and saccharine being recorded at the highest concentrations of up to 481μg/kg and 591μg/kg (d.w.), respectively.
Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Jakobsen, Jette
The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method to study vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode with deuterium-labeled vitamin K1 as an internal standard. The precision was estimated as the pooled estimate of three replicates performed on three different days for spinach, peas, apples, banana, and beetroot. The repeatability was 5.2% and the internal reproducibility was 6.2%. Recovery was in the range 90-120%. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the present method and by a method using the same principle as the CEN-standard i.e. liquid-liquid extraction and post-column zinc reduction with fluorescence detection. Limit of quantification was estimated to 0.05 μg/100g fresh weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Characterizing and compensating for matrix effects using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: analysis of neutral pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater.
Zhao, Xiaoming; Metcalfe, Chris D
Matrix effects are a great challenge for the quantitative analysis of environmental samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Signal suppression or enhancement can compromise the accuracy of analytical results. While matrix effects have been relatively well studied for applications of LC-MS/MS instrumentation with electrospray ionization, there have been relatively few studies to evaluate matrix effects when using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as the ion source. In this study, we determined the effects of sample matrix on the analysis of six neutral pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, cotinine, carbamazepine and its major metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-dihydrodiol, trimethoprim, and fluoxetine) in samples of municipal wastewater using LC-APCI-MS/MS and evaluated whether isotope-labeled internal standards can be used to compensate for matrix effects. The matrix effects were measured using postextraction spikes and postcolumn direct infusion, respectively. The results showed that the matrix in the extracts prepared from municipal wastewater enhanced the signals for four of the six analytes when using an APCI source. Without correction for signal enhancement, apparent recoveries of the analytes from wastewater samples were overestimated to levels as high as 178% of the spiked amount. Isotope-labeled compounds corrected for these overestimates that occurred as a result of interferences from the sample matrix.
Optimization of an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of different classes of ultraviolet filters in cosmetics by pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Vila, Marlene; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria
A methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of UV filters including methoxycinnamates, benzophenones, salicylates, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, and others in cosmetic products. The extractions were carried out in 1mL extraction cells and the amount of sample extracted was only 100mg. The experimental conditions, including the acetylation of the PLE extracts to improve GC performance, were optimized by means of experimental design tools. The two main factors affecting the PLE procedure such as solvent type and extraction temperature were assessed. The use of a matrix matched approach consisting of the addition of 10μL of diluted commercial cosmetic oil avoided matrix effects. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9970), quantitative recoveries (>80% for most of compounds, excluding three banned benzophenones) and satisfactory precision (RSD<10% in most cases) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including sunscreens, hair products, nail polish, and lipsticks, amongst others.
Dunand, Marielle; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Rickli, Anna; Hysek, Cédric M; Liechti, Matthias E; Grouzmann, Eric
The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma relies on the measurement of plasma free metanephrines assay whose reliability has been considerably improved by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Here we report an analytical interference occurring between 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), a metabolite of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"), and normetanephrine (NMN) since they share a common pharmacophore resulting in the same product ion after fragmentation. Synthetic HMMA was spiked into plasma samples containing various concentrations of NMN and the intensity of the interference was determined by UPLC-MS/MS before and after improvement of the analytical method. Using a careful adjustment of chromatographic conditions including the change of the UPLC analytical column, we were able to distinguish both compounds. HMMA interference for NMN determination should be seriously considered since MDMA activates the sympathetic nervous system and if confounded with NMN may lead to false-positive tests when performing a differential diagnostic of pheochromocytoma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-González, N; Beceiro-González, E; González-Castro, M J; Alpendurada, M F
A fast, simple, selective and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine and terbutryn) and eight degradation products (desethyl atrazine, desethyl-desisopropyl atrazine, desethyl 2-hydroxyatrazine, desethyl terbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, desisopropyl 2-hydroxyatrazine, 2-hydroxyatrazine and 2-hidroxyterbuthylazine) in seawater samples. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was employed for simultaneous analysis of all compounds in 11min. Validation parameters were studied through the estimation of the limits of detection and quantification, calibration curves and precision. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.023 to 0.657μgL(-1). Good linearity was obtained for all compounds with R(2)>0.99 in all cases. Furthermore, inter-day precision (0-2.1%) and intra-day precision (0-3.9%) were shown to be satisfactory. On-line solid-phase extraction recoveries in spiked unpolluted seawater sample were evaluated and acceptable values (80.3-99.8%) with adequate RSD (0.1-3.1%) were found. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of the target compounds in seawater samples collected from seawater nearby a zone of intensive horticulture of Matosinhos (Portugal). The concentrations of the herbicides were below the limit of detection in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Mai, Huy; Trucksess, Mary W
A dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine patulin in apple juice and apple-based food. Different dopants, dopant flow rates, and LC separation conditions were evaluated. Using toluene as the dopant, the LC-APPI-MS/MS method achieved a linear calibration from 12.5 to 2000 μg/L (r(2) > 0.99). Matrix-dependent limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 8 μg/L (solvent) to 12 μg/L (apple juice). [(13)C]-Patulin-fortified apple juice samples were directly analyzed by the LC-APPI-MS/MS method. Other apple-based food was fortified with [(13)C]-patulin, diluted using water (1% formic acid), centrifuged, and filtered, followed by LC-APPI-MS/MS analysis. In clear apple juice, unfiltered apple cider, applesauce, and apple-based baby food, average recoveries were 101 ± 6% (50 μg/kg), 103 ± 5% (250 μg/kg), and 102 ± 5% (1000 μg/kg) (av ± SD, n = 16). Using the suggested method, patulin was detected in 3 of 30 collected market samples with concentrations ranging from
Grinias, James P; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; Kennedy, Robert T
The impact of viscous friction on eluent temperature and column efficiency in liquid chromatography is of renewed interest as the need for pressures exceeding 1000bar to use with columns packed with sub-2μm particles has grown. One way the development of axial and radial temperature gradients that arise due to viscous friction can be affected is by the thermal environment the column is placed in. In this study, a new column oven integrated into an ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograph that enables both still-air and forced-air operating modes is investigated to find the magnitude of the effect of the axial thermal gradient that forms in 2.1×100mm columns packed with sub-2μm particles in these modes. Temperature increases of nearly 30K were observed when the generated power of the column exceeded 25W/m. The impact of the heating due to viscous friction on the repeatability of peak capacity, elution time, and peak area ratio to an internal standard for a gradient UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze neurotransmitters was found to be limited. This result indicates that high speed UHPLC-MS/MS gradient methods under conditions of high viscous friction may be possible without the negative effects typically observed with isocratic separations under similar conditions.
Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L
The determination of organic contaminants in soil is a real challenge due to the large number of these compounds with quite different physico-chemical properties. In the present work, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination in soil of 40 organic contaminants belonging to different chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, UV filters, parabens, bisphenols and triclosan. Soil was extracted by pressurized liquid extraction and the extracts, without the need of a clean-up step, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after in situ derivatization in the gas chromatographic system. In the pressurized liquid extraction step, two extraction cycles were performed with a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol (90:10, v/v) at 80 °C. Recovery of these contaminants from soil samples spiked at levels ranging from 30 to 120 ng g(-1) was satisfactory for most of the compounds. The developed procedure provided detection method limits from 0.1 to 2.5 ng g(-1). The analysis of soil samples collected in different agricultural fields confirmed the presence of some of the studied contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the main contaminants detected, parabens and polychlorinated biphenyls were also found but at relatively low concentration levels, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate was the UV filter that appeared most frequently at levels ranging from 17.2 to 43.4 ng g(-1) and triclosan was found in eight out of fourteen samples, at relatively low concentration levels (0.8-28.6 ng g(-1)).
Nicoli, Raul; Petrou, Michael; Badoud, Flavia; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert
Clenbuterol is a β2 agonist agent with anabolic properties given by the increase in the muscular mass in parallel to the decrease of the body fat. For this reason, the use of clenbuterol is forbidden by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in the practice of sport. This compound is of particular interest for anti-doping authorities and WADA-accredited laboratories due to the recent reporting of risk of unintentional doping following the eating of meat contaminated with traces of clenbuterol in some countries. In this work, the development and the validation of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of clenbuterol in human urine is described. The analyte was extracted from urine samples by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) in basic conditions using tert butyl-methyl ether (TBME) and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in 9min only. The simple and rapid method presented here was validated in compliance with authority guidelines and showed a limit of quantification at 5pg/mL and a linearity range from 5pg/mL to 300pg/mL. Good trueness (85.8-105%), repeatability (5.7-10.6% RSD) and intermediate precision (5.9-14.9% RSD) results were obtained. The method was then applied to real samples from eighteen volunteers collecting urines after single oral doses administration (1, 5 and 10μg) of clenbuterol-enriched yogurts.
Adaway, Joanne E; Keevil, Brian G; Owen, Laura J
Clinical laboratory medicine has seen the introduction and evolution of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in routine clinical laboratories over the last 10-15 years. There still exists a wide diversity of assays from very esoteric and highly specialist manual assays to more simplified kit-based assays. The technology is not static as manufacturers are continually making improvements. Mass spectrometry is now commonly used in several areas of diagnostics including therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology, endocrinology, paediatrics and microbiology. Some of the most high throughput analyses or common analytes include vitamin D, immunosuppressant monitoring, androgen measurement and newborn screening. It also offers flexibility for the measurement of analytes in a variety of different matrices which would prove difficult with immunoassays. Unlike immunoassays or high-pressure liquid chromatography assays using ultraviolet or fluorescence detection, mass spectrometry offers better specificity and reduced interferences if attention is paid to potential isobaric compounds. Furthermore, multiplexing, which enables multiple analytes to be measured with the same volume of serum is advantageous, and the requirement for large sample volumes is decreasing as instrument sensitivity increases. There are many emerging applications in the literature. Using mass spectrometry to identify novel isoforms or modified peptides is possible as is quantification of proteins and peptides, with or without protein digests. Future developments by the manufacturers may also include mechanisms to improve the throughput of samples and strategies to decrease the level of skill required by the operators.
The present article describes the quantification of mirtazapine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, quetiapine, venlafaxine, and ziprasidone (group 1), and amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clozapine, desmethylclomipramine, desipramine, imipramine, and nortriptyline (group 2) in human serum for therapeutic drug monitoring. The method was developed to replace old techniques which applied solid phase extraction and ultra-violet detection. The old methods had reached their limit of capacity regarding the number of samples and co-medicated drugs interfering with the detection. Serum samples were precipitated with zinc sulphate and methanol containing a stable isotope labelled analog for each analyte. Quantitative analysis was performed by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography combined with a tandem mass spectrometer using a Zorbax SB-C8 column (2.0 × 50 mm; 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol, respectively. The total run time of the chromatography was 4 min. Precision and trueness varied from 2.6% to 14.9% and 87.6% to 103.5%, respectively. At the lower limit of quantification, precision was up to 17.9% and trueness varied from 89.5% to 111.5%. A five point standard curve covering the clinically relevant ranges with a power function fit was applied for calibration. Ion suppression from matrix effects and internal standards were thoroughly investigated and are discussed. Process efficiency rates varied from 42% to 99%. The method has shortened the response time, reduced interference from other drugs, avoided acetonitrile usage, and reduced the amount of serum needed for analysis 50-fold.
Celeiro, Maria; Llompart, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC TQ-MS) were used for the rapid determination of 11 fungicides (metalaxyl, cyprodinil, procymidone, iprovalicarb, myclobutanyl, kresoxim-methyl, benalaxyl, fenhexamide, tebuconazole, iprodione and dimethomorph) in white grape bagasse. The extractions were optimized on real non-spiked samples by means of experimental design and the optimal conditions were selected to achieve the method validation. The PLE procedure showed much higher efficiency than UAE for the target fungicides. Under the selected extraction conditions, PLE showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. Recoveries for the majority of studied fungicides were higher than 80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) for GC TQ-MS were very low, at the sub ngg(-1) for the majority of the target fungicides, well below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine and table grapes, and vine leaves. Eighteen white grape bagasse samples were analyzed and nine out of eleven targets were detected in the samples. Seven of them were detected in more than 50% of the samples and most samples contained at least four of the target analytes. The most frequently found compounds were tebuconazole and dimethomorph with concentrations between 1.6-130 and 2.0-1788ngg(-1), respectively. Some samples showed high levels of many of the studied fungicides (high ngg(-1), even μgg(-1) for cyprodinil, fenhexamide, iprodione and dimethomorph), but all of them below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine grapes.
Pichini, Simona; Cortes, Laura; Marchei, Emilia; Solimini, Renata; Pacifici, Roberta; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores; García-Algar, Oscar
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of 22 antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs ad metabolites in the three consecutive maternal hair segments representing the pregnancy trimesters and paired neonatal meconium samples. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of internal standards, hair samples were treated with 500 μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100 °C. After cooling, 100 μl M3 extract were diluted with 400 μl water and a volume of 10 μl was injected into chromatographic system. Meconium samples were firstly treated with 1 ml methyl alcohol and the organic layer back-extracted twice with 1.5 ml of a mixture of ethylacetate:hexane (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (0.05-1 ng/mg hair and 5-25 ng/g meconium depending on analyte under investigation;) to 10 ng/mg hair and 1000 ng/g meconium, with an intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy always less than 20% and an analytical recovery between 66.6% and 95.3%, depending on the considered analyte and biological matrix. Using the validated method, 7 mothers were found positive to one or more hair segments and 5 meconium samples were found positive to one or more antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, assessing prenatal exposure to these drugs following maternal consumption in one or more pregnancy trimesters.
Gracia-Lor, Emma; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix
In this work, an ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of the 20 most consumed pharmaceuticals in Spain in urban wastewater and surface water samples. The scope of the method included acidic, neutral and basic compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes and allows their simultaneous determination in just a single injection, giving realistic information of the most widely consumed pharmaceuticals in only one analysis. An enrichment step based on solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges was carried out, followed by UHPLC-MS/MS measurement with a fast-acquisition triple quadrupole mass analyzer. It allowed working with short dwell times and made possible to acquire three simultaneous SRM transitions per compound to assure a reliable identification. Several isotope-labelled internal standards were used as surrogates to correct SPE losses, as well as matrix effects that notably affect quantification of analytes. The method was validated in surface water and effluent and influent urban wastewater at different concentrations from 0.005microg/L (surface water) to 1.25microg/L (influent wastewater). The optimized method was applied to the analysis of 84 urban wastewater samples (influent and effluent), with the result that 17 out of 20 compounds monitored were detected in the samples. Analgesics and anti-inflamatories, cholesterol lowering statin drugs and lipid regulators were the major groups found, with diclofenac, ketoprofen, naproxen, 4-aminoantipyrine, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and venlafaxine being the most frequently detected. The highest concentration level reached was 277microg/L for salicylic acid in influent wastewater. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Shah, Ajit Jesang; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Bayford, Richard
Human sleep is a natural part of every individual's life. Clear relationship between sleep and endocrine system has been already established. In particular, melatonin and cortisol are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. Here we report the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s), cortisol and cortisone in urine. A separate method was developed for measurement of creatinine in urine. These levels were used to normalise the levels of analytes. First void morning urine samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted 1:1 in water prior to injection onto reversed-phase C18 column and analysed using UHPLC-MS/MS method. Linear calibrations were obtained for all analytes with correlation coefficient in the range 0.998-0.999. The observed concentration was found to be in the range 92-105% for cortisol, 92-107% for cortisone and between 93 and 120% for MT6s of the reference levels. The total run time of 6 min with all peaks of interest eluting within 3 min was obtained. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilising the method for large multi-scale studies, where high throughput is required for studying the circadian rhythm of melatonin and cortisol secretion. These hormones play significant role in circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle; therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these endocrine markers in individuals suffering from sleep disorders. It is also beneficial with clinical applications to analyse melatonin and cortisol simultaneously in order to assess their interrelationships of these substances, such as their effect on diurnal rhythm and sleep.
Gao, Qianqian; Xu, Zisheng; Zhao, Genhua; Wang, Heng; Weng, Zebin; Pei, Ke; Wu, Li; Cai, Baochang; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Weidong
Psoralea corylifolia L. has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating and preventing many diseases. A group of flavonoid components are regarded as the active principals within the seeds. In this research, a rapid, accurate and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method has been established for simultaneous quantification of its 5 main components, namely, neobavaisoflavone, bavachin, isobavachalcone, bavachinin and corylifol A in rats' plasma after the rats were orally administrated with Buguzhi extract. Negative ion electrospray mode was applied in the detection process. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized for simultaneous quantitative analyzing of neobavaisoflavone (m/z 321.1→m/z 265.1), bavachin (m/z 323.1→m/z 119.0), isobavachalcone (m/z 323.2→m/z 119.0), bavachinin (m/z 337.2→m/z 119.0), corylifol A (m/z 389.2→m/z 277.0) and liquiritigenin (Internal Standard, m/z 255.1→m/z 119.0). Chromatographic separation of the above mentioned components was conducted on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with gradient elution system at flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid solution. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for each of the above analytes was 0.5ng/mL. Each of the analytes exhibited good linearity within the concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect and extraction recovery. The validated method has been successfully applied for simultaneous determination of the 5 flavonoids in rat plasma for the first time.
Tsai, I-Lin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Wen; Kuo, Ching-Hua
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious clinical problems worldwide. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and colistin are glycopeptide and lipopeptide antibiotics that are frequently used to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure both safety and efficacy and to improve clinical outcomes. This study developed a fast, simple, and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the concentrations of these four drugs in human plasma. The sample preparation process includes a simple protein denaturation step using acetonitrile, followed by an 11-fold dilution with 0.1% formic acid. Eight target peaks for the four drugs can be analyzed within 3 min using a Kinetex™ 2.6 μm C18 column. The mass spectrometry parameters were optimized, and two transitions for each target peak were used for multiple reaction monitoring, which provided high sensitivity and specificity. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was validated over clinical concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the ratio of the peak area of each analyte to the peak area of the internal standard were all below 12.7 and 14.7% relative standard deviations, respectively. The accuracy at low, medium, and high concentrations of the eight target peaks was between 89.3 and 110.7%. The standard curves for the analytes were linear and had coefficients of determination higher than 0.997. The limits of detection were all below 70 ng mL(-1). The use of this method to analyze patient plasma samples confirmed that it is effective for the therapeutic drug monitoring of these four drugs and can be used to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of treatment with antibiotics.
Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; García-Algar, Oscar; Gomez, Arelis; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Pacifici, Roberta
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C. After cooling, 100μl M3 extract were diluted with 400μl water and a volume of 10μl was injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (0.03-0.05ng/mg depending on analyte under investigation) to 10ng/mg hair, with an intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 79.6% and 97.4%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, mescaline was found in concentration range of 0.08-0.13ng/mg in hair of peyote smokers, 3.2ng salvinorin A per mg hair were determined in hair from a S. divinorum smoker, 5.6ng N,N-dimethyltryptamine per mg hair from an ayahuasca user and finally 0.8ng psilocybin per ng hair of a psilocybe consumer.
Li, Meng-Fang; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Ai-Qun
Omarigliptin is a novel long-acting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of omarigliptin in rat plasma. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved on an RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm), using gradient mobile phase (0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode, with target fragment ions m/z 399.1 → 152.9 for omarigliptin and m/z 237.1 → 194 for the internal standard. The total run time was 4 min. Retention time of omarigliptin and internal standard was 1.25 and 2.12 min, respectively. Relative standard deviation (%) of the intra- and inter-day precision was below 10.0%, and accuracy was between 97.9% and 105.3%. Calibration curve was established over the range 2-5000 ng/mL with good linearity. The lower limit of quantification and limit of detection of omarigliptin were 2 and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. Mean recoveries were in the range 87.3-95.1% for omarigliptin. No matrix effect was observed in this method. This novel method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of omarigliptin in rats. The absolute bioavailability of omarigliptin was identified as high as 87.31%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Benvenuto, Federica; Marín, José M; Sancho, Juan V; Canobbio, Sergio; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Hernández, Félix
This work describes the optimization, validation and application of an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification and confirmation of 11 compounds (atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, terbumeton, terbutryn and their main transformation products) in surface and wastewater samples. Several of these analytes are included in the list of priority substances in the framework on European Water Policy. The application of this method to water samples reveals that the most relevant transformation products (TPs) should be incorporated into current analytical methods to obtain a more realistic knowledge of water quality regarding pesticide contamination. TPs are generally more polar and mobile than parents and can be transported to the aquatic environment more easily than their precursors. This can explain their concentrations found in water, which in many cases are much higher than intact triazines. To efficiently combine UHPLC with MS/MS, a fast-acquisition triple quadrupole mass analyser was used. Working in selected reaction monitoring mode, up to three simultaneous transitions per compound were acquired, allowing a reliable quantification and confirmation at nanogram per litre levels. The method developed includes a pre-concentration step based on solid-phase extraction (OASIS HLB cartridges). Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and relative standard deviations (<20%) were obtained for all compounds in different water sample types spiked at two concentrations (0.025 and 0.1 microg/L in surface water; 0.25 and 1.0 microg/L in effluent wastewater; 0.5 and 2.0 microg/L in influent wastewater). The optimized method was found to have excellent sensitivity with instrumental detection limits as low as 0.03 pg. In addition, the influence of the matrix constituents on the ionization efficiency and the extraction recovery was studied in different types of Italian and Spanish surface and urban wastewater. Signal
Dewalque, Lucas; Pirard, Catherine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne
Phthalates, parabens and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone or benzophone-3 are thought to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals, being able to disrupt the endocrine balance and therefore able to lead to some hormonal diseases. Numerous large-scale biomonitoring studies have detected the biomarkers of these compounds in more than 75% of the general population. To assess the exposure to these chemicals, we developed an analytical method based on a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of seven phthalate metabolites (monobenzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-iso-butyl phthalate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate), four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, n-propyl paraben, n-butyl parabens) and benzophenone-3 in human urine. The distinction between unconjugated, glucuro- and sulfoconjugated forms was achieved using different enzymatic hydrolyses. The whole procedure was validated according to the total error approach, and was demonstrated to be linear (regression coefficient ranging from 0.987 to 0.998) and accurate (inter and intra assay precision <17.71%, relative bias <5.87%) in the dosing range of concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) obtained ranged between 0.30 and 1.23ng/ml depending on the analyte. The reliability of the method was proven in passing successfully the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS). Moreover, the urine from 25 volunteers were analyzed for the determination of glucuro-, sulfo- and free species separately. Phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 were positively detected in almost all urine samples, with detection rates ranging from 40 to 100%. Levels measured ranged from
Chappell, Gloria Paola; Xiao, Xiaoyao; Pica-Mendez, Arnaldo; Varnell, Tracey; Green, Stuart; Tanaka, Wesley K; Laterza, Omar
The role of leukotrienes (LTs) in airway inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, has been extensively reported. The measurement of LTs in sputum supernatants, which is commonly done via enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), may prove to be useful for assessing airway inflammation. Despite the many advantages of EIA, these methods suffer from a lack of selectivity. Therefore, a selective and reliable method for the analysis of LTs in human sputum is needed. In this study we developed and validated a sensitive and specific method using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), to measure simultaneously cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and leukotriene B₄ (LTB₄) in human sputum. Sputum supernatants obtained by ultracentrifugation were stabilized by protease inhibitors, spiked with stable isotopic internal standards, and subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) and UHPLC separation. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were optimized and measured on a mass spectrometer. The limit of detection (LOD) for LTE₄ and LTB₄ was 9.8 and 19.5 pg/mL, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for LTE₄ and LTB₄ was 19.5 and 39.0 pg/mL, respectively. The dynamic range of the LTE₄ assay was from 9.8 to 5000 pg/mL, whereas for the LTB₄ assay was from 19.5 to 10,000 pg/mL. The intra- and inter-day % coefficient of variation (%CV) was <6.5% and <10%, for both LTE₄ and LTB₄, respectively. Spike recovery ranged from 105% to 111% for both analytes. In addition, twenty-two sputum samples were analyzed for cysLTs and LTB₄. Fourteen of these samples were purchased commercially and eight were collected during the course of a clinical trial. LTB₄ was detectable in all samples tested and it ranged from 79 to 7220 pg/mL. LTE₄ was detectable in most of the sputum samples (12.3-891 pg/mL), whereas LTC₄ and LTD₄ were below limit of detection for majority of sputum samples. The in vitro conversion of LTC₄ and LTD₄ into
Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan
Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of <4.50% relative standard deviation (%RSD), accuracy range between 96.5% and 114%, and a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.532 ng•mL(-1). The lowest reportable limit (LRL) is 1.00 ng•mL(-1), over seven times lower than that of the previous method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC).
A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca
According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.
Chico, J; Rúbies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Prat, M D; Granados, M
A simple and rapid method has been developed for the residue analysis of 39 antibiotics (tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The method combines an effective extraction technique, which uses water-methanol as extracting solvent, with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, allowing both confirmation and quantification in a single chromatographic run. The multiresidue method has been validated in chicken muscle matrix according to European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. It has been implemented as a routine method in a Public Health Laboratory, instead of the five plates test and LC methods previously used.
Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin
Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with the pressurized liquid extraction for the quantification and confirmation of sulfonamides in the foods of animal origin.
Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Dai, Menghong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui
The residues of sulfonamides (SAs) in the foods of animal origin are of the major concern because they are harmful to the consumer's health and could induce pathogens to develop resistance. Rapid and efficient determination methods are urgently in need. A quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and a confirmative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 18 sulfonamides such as sulfamidinum, sulfanilamide, sulfisomidine, sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadoxine, sulfaclozine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline in the muscles, livers and kidneys of swine, bovine and chicken were developed and validated. The sample preparation procedures included a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with acetonitrile conducted at elevated temperature (70°C) and pressure (1400 psi). After clean-up with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridge, the extraction solution was concentrated and analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis. 18 SAs were separated by the HPLC with a Zorbax SB-Aq-C18 column and the mobile phase of methanol/acetonitrile/1% acetic acid with a gradient system. The wavelength of UV for the HPLC detection was set at 285 nm. The LC-MS/MS analysis was achieved with a Hypersil Golden column and the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with two gradient systems. The Limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 3 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg, respectively, for both of the HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Linearity was obtained with an average coefficient of determination (R) higher than 0.9980 over a dynamic range from the LOQ value up to 5000 μg/kg. The recoveries of the methods range from 71.1% to 118.3% with the relative standard derivation less than 13%. The peaks of interest with no interferences
Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction using a multivariate chemometric approach for the determination of anticancer drugs in sludge by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Seira, Jordan; Claparols, Catherine; Joannis-Cassan, Claire; Albasi, Claire; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Sablayrolles, Caroline
The present paper describes an analytical method for the determination of 2 widely administered anticancer drugs, ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, contained in sewage sludge. The method relies on the extraction from the solid matrix by pressurized liquid extraction, sample purification by solid-phase extraction and analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized using an experimental design. Solvent nature was the most decisive factor for the extraction but interactions between some parameters also appeared very influent. The method was applied to seven different types of sludge for validation. The performances of the analytical method displayed high variability between sludges with limits of detection spanning more than one order of magnitude and confirming the relevance of multi-sample validation. Matrix effect has been determined as the most limiting analytical step for quantification with different extent depending on analyte and sludge nature. For each analyte, the use of deuterated standard spiked at the very beginning ensured the complete compensation of losses regardless of the sample nature. The suitability of the method between freshly spiked and aged samples has also been verified. The optimized method was applied to different sludge samples to determine the environmental levels of anticancer drugs. The compounds were detected in some samples reaching 42.5μg/kgDM in ifosfamide for the most contaminated sample.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Han, Ying; Xie, Zhiyong
A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to determine carbocysteine in human plasma using 2-pyridylacetic acid as the internal standard (IS). The method employed derivatization with 10 M hydrochloric acid/methanol, which significantly improved the ionization efficiency of carbocysteine. After methanol-induced protein precipitation of plasma samples, carbocysteine and the IS were derivatized and subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL for a 0.2-mL plasma aliquot. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD), calculated from quality control (QC) samples, was less than 7%. The accuracy, determined using QC samples, was within +/- 1%. The method offered increased sensitivity, selectivity and speed of analysis over existing methods. The method was utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies of carbocysteine in volunteers following oral administration.
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/ Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.16.
Martin, Frederic; Campos-Giménez, Esther
In order to determine repeatability and reproducibility of AOAC First Action Method 2012.16 [Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry], a collaborative study was organized. The study was divided in two parts: method setup and qualification of participants (part 1) and collaborative study participation (part 2). For part 1, each participating laboratory was asked to analyze two practice samples using the aforementioned method. Laboratories that provided results within a range of expected levels were qualified for part 2, during which each laboratory received 10 samples in blind duplicates. Results have been compared to the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®) 2012.009 established for pantothenic acid. Precision results (repeatability and reproducibility) were within the limits stated in the SMPR. Repeatability ranged from 1.3 to 3.3%, and reproducibility ranged from 4.1 to 7.0%. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values were all <1, ranging from 0.33 to 0.69. The AOAC Expert Review Panel on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Nutrient Methods determined that the data presented met the SMPR and recommended the method for Final Action status, which was then granted by the AOAC Official Methods Board.
Moyano, Ana Lis; Li, Guannan; Lopez-Rosas, Aurora; Månsson, Jan-Eric; van Breemen, Richard B; Givogri, Maria Irene
Sulfated galactosylceramides (sulfatides) are glycosphingolipids associated with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) and are highly expressed in brain tissue. Although it is known that sulfatide species show heterogeneity in their fatty acid acyl group composition throughout brain development, their lipid raft distribution and biological relevance is poorly understood. We validated a fast and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to measure developmentally regulated sulfatide species (C16:0, C18:0, C24:1, and C24:0) in central nervous system (CNS) lipid rafts isolated without using detergent. Our UHPLC-MS/MS assay showed good accuracy and precision with a linear range of 5 to 1,000 nM for C18:0 and C24:1 sulfatides and 10 to 1,000 nM for C16:0 and C24:0 sulfatides. We applied this quantitative analysis to detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from wild-type mice and arylsulfatase A-deficient (ASA knockout) mice that accumulate sulfatides. All four sulfatide species were more abundant in raft membranes than in non-raft membranes, with a significant increase in lipid rafts isolated from ASA knockout mice. This is the first description of an analytical method to study these sulfatide species in raft and non-raft membranes and has the potential to be applied to preparations from other tissues.
Sensitive and simplified analysis of natural and synthetic steroids in water and solids using on-line solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure photoionization.
Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Onanong, Sathaporn; Cassada, David A
Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per-liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste.
Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water--First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds.
Pekar, Heidi; Westerberg, Erik; Bruno, Oscar; Lääne, Ants; Persson, Kenneth M; Sundström, L Fredrik; Thim, Anna-Maria
Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1 μg/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5 μg/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness.
Berna, M; Shugert, R; Mullen, J
A liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay was developed for the determination of LY355703, a potent anti-tumor drug, in mouse and dog plasma. Empore (3M) C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for sample preparation in conjunction with a positive pressure manifold. Chromatographic separation was obtained with a cyano high-performance liquid chromatographic column and detection was conducted using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. A structural analog, compound LY354504, was used as the internal standard. The assay was validated for the determination of LY355703 in mouse (ICR and NuNu) and dog (beagle) plasma. The lower and upper limits of quantitation were 2.1 and 527 ng ml-1, respectively, using a 0.1 ml plasma aliquot. The signal-to-noise ratio of a typical 2.1 ng ml-1 standard was approximately 40:1. The inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) and accuracy (relative error) derived from the analysis of validation samples at five concentrations ranged from 2.7 to 7.6% and from 4.8 to 4.5%, respectively. Throughput is approximately one sample every 3 min. This assay is simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and is being used to support toxicokinetic studies in dog and mouse.
What is the study?
An invited review article. Measurement of oxidative stress parameters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS)
Why was it done?
Although oxidative stress is frequently cited as a cause of various adverse biological eff...
What is the study?
An invited review article. Measurement of oxidative stress parameters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS)
Why was it done?
Although oxidative stress is frequently cited as a cause of various adverse biological eff...
Yusà, V; Quintás, G; Pardo, O; Martí, P; Pastor, A
An automated and rapid method for the determination of acrylamide in different food products is presented. The method involves pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) of foods with acetonitrile and precipitation with Carrez reagents. The final extract is analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). The main parameters affecting the performance of ESI-MS-MS and PFE were optimized using a design of experiments approach. The limit of quantification of the method was 5 microg kg(-1), and recoveries from incurred samples ranged between 93 and 101%. The accuracy was evaluated using the reference test materials FAPAS T3002, T3005 and T3011. Using the optimized method, 62 food samples of potato chips, snacks, biscuits, breakfast cereals and crisp bread sampled from Valencia, Spain, supermarkets were surveyed for acrylamide levels. The levels were similar to those reported in the European Union and USA.
Willison, Stuart A
Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).
Josephs, Ralf Dieter; Daireaux, Adeline; Choteau, Tiphaine; Westwood, Steven; Wielgosz, Robert Ian
A normal phase-liquid chromatography-hybrid tandem mass spectrometry (NP-LC-MS/MS) method utilizing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) without dopant has been developed and implemented for the simultaneous determination of several estrogenic steroid hormones. The combination of both NP-LC and APPI-MS/MS tolerates the use of solvents that have the advantages of being self-doping for APPI and, at the same time, inhibit the in situ formation of estrogen dimers as frequently observed for conventional reversed phase (RP)-LC methods. The NP-LC-APPI-MS/MS method has been validated in-house, and its performance characteristics (linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, etc.) were assessed for use in the quantification of estrogens. Moreover, the method was used to characterize and determine the inherent related structure impurities in batches of β-estradiol, required for the establishment of reference measurement systems for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, which served as candidate reference material for an organic purity assessment interlaboratory study (CCQM-K55.a) organized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) Chemistry Department and carried out within the framework of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance-Metrology in Chemistry (CCQM).
Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A
The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively.
Begou, O; Kontou, A; Raikos, N; Sarafidis, K; Roilides, E; Papadoyannis, I N; Gika, H G
The development and validation of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was performed with the aim to be applied for the quantification of plasma teicoplanin concentrations in neonates. Pharmacokinetic data of teicoplanin in the neonatal population is very limited, therefore, a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of all isoforms of teicoplanin applied in a low volume of sample is of real importance. Teicoplanin main components were extracted by a simple acetonitrile precipitation step and analysed on a C18 chromatographic column by a triple quadrupole MS with electrospray ionization. The method provides quantitative data over a linear range of 25-6400ng/mL with LOD 8.5ng/mL and LOQ 25ng/mL for total teicoplanin. The method was applied in plasma samples from neonates to support pharmacokinetic data and proved to be a reliable and fast method for the quantification of teicoplanin concentration levels in plasma of infants during therapy in Intensive Care Unit.
García-Rodríguez, D; Carro-Díaz, A M; Lorenzo-Ferreira, R A; Cela-Torrijos, R
A rapid method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of pesticide residues in edible seaweed has been developed. Target analytes were three pyrethroid, a carbamate and two organophosphorus pesticides. The procedure consists of a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with integrated clean-up, followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Five PLE parameters were investigated using a screening design: temperature, static extraction time, number of cycles, percent of flush volume and quantitative composition of the n-hexane/ethyl acetate extraction solvent. The effect of the in-cell clean-up with Florisil and graphitized carbon black adsorbents was investigated using a Doehlert response surface design. Large volumes of sample extracts were injected using a programmed-temperature vaporizer (PTV-LVI) to improve both sensitivity and selectivity of measurements. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with surrogate deuterated standards. The method showed excellent linearity (R2>0.999) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD < or = 8%) for all compounds, with detection limits ranging from 0.3 pg g(-1) for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, to 3.0 pg g(-1) for carbaryl (23.1 pg g(-1) for deltamethrin). Recoveries in real seaweed samples were within the range 82-108%. The method was satisfactory validated for the analysis of wild and cultivated edible seaweeds. The presence of pyrethroid and organophosphorus pesticides in some of the samples was evidenced.
Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Félix
Microcystins and nodularin are cyclic peptides hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacterial genera (blue-green algae). Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide problem, as reported in several countries, like China, Australia, or the United States. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methodology to determine this type of toxins in water at parts per billion levels, or even lower. In this work, the potential of solid-phase extraction coupled on-line to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) has been investigated for the efficient quantification and confirmation of microcystins LR, RR, YR, LY, LW, LF and nodularin in surface and drinking water samples, at sub-ppb levels. The method developed involves the injection of only 1 mL of water sample into the on-line SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS system and allows the rapid determination of the compounds selected (8 min of chromatographic run), avoiding laborious sample treatment. The method was validated in surface and drinking water by means of recovery experiments at 0.25 and 1 μg L(-1). Average recoveries (n=5) ranged from 71 to 116%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. For microcystins LR, RR, YR and nodularin, a third level was also assayed (0.1 μg L(-1)) obtaining satisfactory data too. Limits of detection between 0.002 and 0.0405 μg L(-1) were estimated (0.0005 μg L(-1) for nodularin). The developed method was applied to the analysis of water samples collected in the province of Castellón (Spain). The acquisition of three MS/MS transitions for each compound allowed the unequivocal confirmation of positive samples, which was supported by the accomplishment of ion intensity ratios and retention time when compared with reference standards.
Determination of steroid hormones, hormone conjugates and macrolide antibiotics in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants utilising high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.
Schlüsener, Michael P; Bester, Kai
In this study we present a high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method which has been elaborated to analyse steroid hormones, hormone conjugates, oral contraceptives and macrolide antibiotics unchanged in unfiltered influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs). HPLC separation of the steroid hormones was achieved in 35 min, as well as those of the antibiotics. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction, followed by clean-up using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). For the final quantification HPLC/MS/MS was used. The two ionisation modes, electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), in HPLC/MS/MS were compared for the analysis of steroid hormones. For quantitative results drastic matrix effects were observed while using ESI. These effects were less pronounced while using APCI. These pitfalls were additionally reduced by clean-up using SEC as well as isotope dilution. Additionally, two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions per compound were used to prevent false positive results. Recovery experiments with spiked tap water with concentrations varying from 1 to 1000 ng/L gave constant recovery rates: The recovery rates for the hormones and conjugates ranged from 58 to 107%, those of the contraceptives ranged from 83 to 109%. The relative standard deviation was found to be 7 to 24% and the limits of detection were 0.1 to 4.5 ng/L. The recovery rates of the macrolide antibiotics ranged from 76 to 103%, while the relative standard deviation was found to be 7 to 14% and the limits of detection ranged from 0.6 to 1.8 ng/L. The maximum concentrations found in influents of a STP was 470 ng/L for estriol and 1200 ng/L for erythromycin. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Simultaneous determination of 24 personal care products in fish muscle and liver tissues using QuEChERS extraction coupled with ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses.
Yao, Li; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Ying, Guang-Guo
A sensitive and selective quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction combined with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup method was developed to simultaneously extract a wide range of personal care products (16 biocides, 4 synthetic musks, and 4 benzotriazoles) in fish muscle and liver tissues. In order to get satisfactory recoveries, different extraction parameters were optimized, including extraction salts and d-SPE materials, extraction solvents and acetic acid contents in organic phase, and the ratios of solvent and water. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the target compounds in the extracts. Among the 24 personal care products, the recoveries in the range of 70-120 % were obtained for 20, 19, and 12 analytes in fish muscle at the spiking concentrations of 10, 5, and 1 ng/g ww, respectively, and for 13, 12, and 11 analytes in liver at the spiking concentrations of 40, 20, and 4 ng/g ww, respectively. Method quantification limits (MQLs) of all analytes were 0.02-2.12 ng/g ww for fish muscle and 0.22-12.2 ng/g ww for fish liver tissues. The method was successfully applied to wild fish samples collected from Dongjiang River, south China. Twenty-one and 17 of the analytes were found in fish muscle and liver samples, respectively, in at least one site of the river with the concentrations between below MQLs and 119 ng/g ww, respectively. Graphical abstract Achieved satisfactory recoveries, high precision, and low method quantification limits (MQLs) for PCPs in wild fish tissues by QuEChERS procedure optimization combined with UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses.
González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Lehotay, Steven J; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel
The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and <10% RSD were obtained. Detection limits were mostly <5ng/g, which met the general need to determine pesticide concentrations as low as 10ng/g for monitoring purposes in food applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Wick, Arne; Fink, Guido; Ternes, Thomas A
This paper describes the development of a multi-residue method for the determination of 36 emerging organic pollutants (26 biocides, 5 UV-filters and 5 benzothiazoles) in raw and treated wastewater, activated sludge and surface water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The target analytes were enriched from water samples adjusted to pH 6 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB 200mg cartridges and eluted with a mixture of methanol and acetone (60/40, v/v). Extraction of freeze-dried sludge samples was accomplished by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture of methanol and water (50/50, v/v) as extraction solvent followed by SPE. LC-tandem MS detection was compared using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive and negative ionization mode. ESI exhibited strong ion suppression for most target analytes, while APCI was generally less susceptible to ion suppression but partially leading to ion enhancement of up to a factor of 10. In general, matrix effects could be compensated using stable isotope-labeled surrogate standards, indicated by relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 130%. In wastewater, activated sludge and surface water up to 33 analytes were detected. Maximum concentrations up to 5.1 and 3.9mugL(-1) were found in raw wastewater for the water-soluble UV-filters benzophenone-4 (BZP-4) and phenylbenz-imidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), respectively. For the first time, the anti-dandruff climbazole was detected in raw wastewater and in activated sludge with concentrations as high as 1.4 microg L(-1) and 1.2 microg gTSS(-1), respectively. Activated sludge is obviously a sink for four benzothiazoles and two isothiazolones, as concentrations were detected in activated sludge between 120 ng gTSS(-1) (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, OIT) to 330 ng gTSS(-1) (benzothiazole-2-sulfonic acid, BTSA). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca
This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSD<3, n=6) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation N. 401/2006 for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Moreover, no matrix effects were observed in the different milk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public
Kennedy, Rebekah C; Fling, Russell R; Terry, Paul D; Menn, Fu-Min; Chen, Jiangang; Borman, Christopher J
Triclocarban (3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g) with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals.
Duong, Andrew; Koteva, Kalinka; Sexton, Danielle L; Elliot, Marie A
Sortase enzymes have specific endopeptidase activity, cleaving within a defined pentapeptide sequence at the C-terminal end of their protein substrates. Here, we describe how monitoring sortase cleavage activity can be achieved using peptide substrates. Peptide cleavage can be readily analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which allows for the precise definition of cleavage sites. This technique could be used to analyze the peptidase activity of any enzyme, and identify sites of cleavage within any peptide.
Wang, Ze Ping; Shen, Jian Zhong; Linhardt, Robert J; Jiang, Hui; Cheng, Lin Li
Hainanmycin is a new veterinary polyether antibiotic and has few sensitive analytical method in present days. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) relying on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection was developed for analysis of hainanmycin in animal feed. Feed samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and purified by two steps of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) to get rid of water solvable matrix and lipids one by one. The final simple was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The LC mobile phase was composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acidified acetonitrile by gradient elution. Average recoveries ranged from 74.22% to 87.85%, as determined by spiking with 2.0 (LOQ) ∼2500μgkg(-1) of hainanmycin. The inter-day and intra-day coefficient of variation was 9.21% to 11.77% and 7.67% to 13.49%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.36μgkg(-1) and 2.0μgkg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sheridan, Robert; King, Thomas
A highly sensitive and selective method that requires minimal sample preparation was developed for the confirmation and quantitation of cyclamate in a variety of foods by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Sample preparation consisted of homogenization followed by extraction and dilution of cyclamate with water. HPLC separation was achieved using a bridged ethyl hybrid C18 high-pressure column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.15% acetic acid and methanol. Under electrospray ionization negative conditions, quantitation was achieved by monitoring the fragment m/z = 79.7 while also collecting parent ion m/z = 177.9. Two food matrixes, diet soda and jelly, were subjected to a validation procedure in order to evaluate the applicability of the method. The cyclamate limit of detection for both matrixes was determined to be 0.050 microg/g with a limit of quantitation of 0.150 microg/g. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curves was >0.9998 from 0.0005 to 0.100 microg/mL. The method has been used for the determination of cyclamate in several foods and the results are presented.
Aguas, Patricia C; Fitzhenry, Matthew J; Giannikopoulos, Georgina; Varelis, Peter
An accurate and precise method for the quantification of acrylamide using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and used to measure acrylamide in coffee and cocoa samples. The sample preparation involved extraction of the analyte and its internal standard, 13C3-acrylamide, into water and subsequent defatting of the aqueous extract with dichloromethane. An aliquot of the resulting aqueous extract was then azeotropically dried under reduced pressure and subsequently purified using an aminopropyl-bonded silica cartridge. The purified extracts were then chromatographed on a 5-microm 2.1 x 150 mm Hypercarb column, the effluent of which was monitored for the analyte and its internal standard using positive-ion APCI-selected reaction monitoring. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, expressed as a relative coefficient of variation (%, n=5), was determined at four levels of concentration (12.3, 42.3, 139.3 and 464.8 microg kg(-1)) and was found to vary between 0.6-2.5%. The accuracy of the method was assessed using a reference sample of coffee. The average result obtained using our method differed from the assigned value of the reference material by less than 1%. An analysis of a cocoa sample revealed that the method is capable of precisely estimating acrylamide in challenging matrices down to a level of at least 12.3 microg kg(-1).
Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda I
An analytical method has been developed for the determination of total bound and extractable residues of the nitrofuran drugs furazolidone, nitrofurazone, furaltadone, and nitrofurantoin in milk of dairy cows. The method involves overnight acid hydrolysis and simultaneous derivatization of the released side chains with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. During hydrolysis, the bound metabolites are hydrolyzed to the side chains. After pH adjustment and solid-phase extraction cleanup, the derivatives are detected and quantitated using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. Validation of the method is accomplished by fortifying control milk with a mixture of side chains at 1, 2, and 4 ng/g. Internal standards are added at the beginning of the procedure to compensate for matrix effects and recovery losses. Method accuracies range from 83 to 104% with coefficients of variation less than 13% for all four analytes. The limits of detection are
Simultaneous ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of amphetamine and amphetamine-like stimulants, cocaine and its metabolites, and a cannabis metabolite in surface water and urban wastewater.
Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Pitarch, Elena; Ibáñez, Maria; Hernández, Félix
An ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 11 basic/acidic illicit drugs and relevant metabolites in surface and urban wastewater at ng/L levels. The sample pre-treatment consisted of a solid-phase extraction using Oasis MCX cartridges. Analyte deuterated compounds were used as surrogate internal standards (except for norbenzoylecgonine and norcocaine) to compensate for possible errors resulting from matrix effects and those associated to the sample preparation procedure. After SPE enrichment, the selected drugs were separated within 6min under UHPLC optimized conditions. To efficiently combine UHPLC with MS/MS, a fast-acquisition triple quadrupole mass analyzer (TQD from Waters) in positive-ion mode (ESI+) was used. The excellent selectivity and sensitivity of the TQD analyzer in selected reaction monitoring mode allowed quantification and reliable identification at the LOQ levels. Satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and precision (RSD<20%) were obtained for most compounds in different types of water samples, spiked at two concentration levels [limit of quantification (LOQ) and 10LOQ]. Thus, surface water was spiked at 30 ng/L and 300 ng/L (amphetamine and amphetamine-like stimulants), 10 ng/L and 100 ng/L (cocaine and its metabolites), 300 ng/L and 3000 ng/L (tetrahydrocannabinol-COOH). Recovery experiments in effluent and influent wastewater were performed at spiking levels of three and fifteen times higher than the levels spiked in surface water, respectively. The validated method was applied to urban wastewater samples (influent and effluent). The acquisition of three selected reaction monitoring transitions per analyte allowed positive findings to be confirmed by accomplishment of ion ratios between the quantification transition and two additional specific confirmation transitions. In general, drug consumption increased in the weekends and
Tandem mass spectrometry is an efficient technique for the identification of peptides on the basis of their fragmentation pattern (MS/MS scan). It can generate individual spectra for each peptide, thereby creating a powerful tool for protein identification on the basis of peptide characterization. This important advance in automatic data acquisition has allowed an efficient association between liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and the use of nanocolumns and nanoelectrospray ionization has dramatically increased the efficiency of this method. Now large sets of peptides can be identified at a femtomole level. At the end of the process, batch processing of the MS/MS spectra produces peptide lists that identify purified proteins or protein mixtures with high confidence.
Tian, He; Bai, Jinfa; An, Zhuoling; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; He, Jiuming; Bi, Xiaofeng; Song, Yongmei; Abliz, Zeper
Acquiring global information on plasma-endogenous metabolites challenges metabolomics. This study has been designed to investigate the suitability of integrated ionization rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC/MS/MS) for different kinds of metabolites in complex plasma, and provides an approach for plasma metabolomics in acquiring more comprehensive data of metabolites. Integrated ionization of electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) combined with RRLC/MS/MS has been carried out to perform analysis on the global plasma metabolome of healthy volunteers. The contributions to the total numbers of ion features by RRLC/MS with ESI, APCI, and APPI in positive and negative ion modes were calculated. Representative unique and identical ions were identified. The intensities of identical ions were compared. Each of ESI, APCI, and APPI coupled with RRLC/MS has its own advantage over the other two techniques for certain types of metabolites in plasma. LC/ESI-MS is very sensitive for detecting glycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, acyl carnitines, bile acids, sulfate, etc. LC/APCI-MS is suitable for analyzing cyclic alcohols, fatty acids, and linoleic acids. LC/APPI-MS proves to be appropriate in detecting steroids, sphingolipids, some amino acids, nucleosides, and purines in plasma. It is suggested that the integrated ionization LC/MS approach should be applied for global plasma metabolomics. Moreover, the results obtained demonstrate that it is preferable to choose certain techniques from LC/ESI-MS, LC/APCI-MS, and LC/APPI-MS for metabolite target analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Munar, Ada; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. The analysis of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone is generally performed in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of CAH. Cortisol is generally analyzed by immunoassays whereas other hormones are preferably assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A multiple reaction monitoring, positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, LC/MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone. Stable-isotope labeled internal standards are added to serum samples and steroids are extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. The extract is evaporated under stream of nitrogen and the residue is reconstituted in methanol and analyzed by LC/MS/MS.
Jones, Joseph; Rios, Rosemarie; Jones, Mary; Lewis, Douglas; Plate, Charles
The use of meconium as a drug-screening matrix for newborns has been the gold standard of care for the past two decades. A recent study using matched pairs of meconium and umbilical cord demonstrated a high degree of agreement. The use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a means to confirm amphetamines presumptive positive umbilical cord specimens for amphetamine and methamphetamine is described here for the first time. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.2 ng/g. The limit of quantitation for both compounds was 0.6 ng/g. The assay was linear for both compounds up to 100 ng/g.
O'Brien-Coker, I C; Perkins, G; Mallet, A I
This paper describes the development of a high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) procedure for the specific qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipid aldehydes in biological matrices. A derivatisation method, which results in molecules that exhibit a common product ion on MS/MS, permits informative precursor ion scans, at high sensitivity. This has been applied to the examination of plasma in order to examine the production of aldehydes consequent on in vitro lipid oxidation. Quantitative analysis of target molecules using multiple reaction monitoring has been developed to permit quantitation in the same matrices. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita
Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lurie, Ira S; Toske, Steven G
The applicability of ultra- performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for heroin profiling is described. The coupling of the high separation power of UPLC with the highly selective and sensitive detection of MS/MS is well suited for heroin profiling. An Acquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7 microm particle column (100 mm x 2.1mm) with binary gradients containing 1% formic acid (pH 2.0) or 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 10.0)/acetonitrile mixtures was investigated for the profiling. For MS/MS detection, an atmospheric pressure positive electrospray source was employed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). MRMs for individual basic impurities were generated for heroin profiling using low and high pH mobile phases, while MRMs for neutral impurities were generated using a high pH mobile phase. Compared to a pH 2.2 mobile phase, the use of a pH 10 mobile phase allowed for significantly greater sample loading, major selectivity differences, and lower MRM sensitivity. UPLC-MS/MS allowed for the highly selective and sensitive detection of many of the targeted solutes in seized heroin exhibits. Basic impurities detected included morphine, codeine, noscapine, papaverine and the previously unreported solutes reticuline, reticuline monoacetate (2 products), reticuline diacetate, narceine, codamine, laudanidine, cryptopine, laudanosine, and norlaudanosine. Neutral impurities found included N,3,6-triacetylnormorphine, N-acetylnorcodeine, N-acetylnornarcotine, 3,6-dimethoxy-4-acetyloxy-5-[2-(N-methylacetamido)]-ethylphenanthrene, and cis-n-acetylanhydronornarceine. The detection of these impurities, at levels as low as 10(-6)% w/w should allow for greatly enhanced heroin profiles.
Ray, Julie A; Kushnir, Mark M; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne
We describe a direct method of measurement of free estradiol using equilibrium dialysis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum aliquots and internal standards are extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride. An API 5500 mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray mode is used for detection.
Dikunets, M. A.; Appolonova, S. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.
This work presents a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) procedure for selective and reliable screening of corticosteroids and diuretics in human urine. Sample preparation included the extraction, evaporation of the organic extract under nitrogen, and solution of the dry residue. The extract was analyzed by HPLC combined with tandem mass spectrometry using electro-spraying ionization at atmospheric pressure with negative ion recording. The mass spectra of all compounds were recorded, and the characteristic ions, retention times, and detection limits were determined. The procedure was validated by evaluating the degree of the matrix suppression of ionization, extraction of analytes from human biological liquid, and the selectivity and specificity of determination.
Guan, Ziqiang; Eichler, Jerry
Across evolution, dolichols and polyprenols serve as sugar carriers in biosynthetic processes that include protein glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide biogenesis. Liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry offers a powerful tool for studying dolichols and polyprenols in their alcohol or glycan-modified forms in members of all three domains of life. In the following, recent examples of the how different versions of this analytical approach, namely reverse phase liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring, normal phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and normal phase liquid chromatography-precursor ion scan detection have respectively served to address novel aspects of dolichol or polyprenol biology in Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21570481
Heideloff, Courtney; Payto, Drew; Wang, Sihe
Plasma metanephrines are measured to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas. In patients with pheochromocytomas there is excessive production of catecholamines and metanephrines. Measurement of plasma free metanephrines is one of the first-line clinical tests that are used for the diagnosis and follow-up of pheochromocytoma. We describe here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure free metanephrines in plasma. Free metanephrine and normetanephrine are extracted via solid-phase extraction. After extraction and evaporation, the reconstituted supernatant is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS/MS is set to selective reaction monitoring mode (180.1 → 148.1 m/z for metanephrine, 183.1 → 168.1 for d3-metanephrine, 166.1 → 134.1 m/z for normetanephrine, and 169.1 → 137.2 m/z for d3-normetanephrine) with positive electrospray ionization. Quantitation is based on peak area ratio of the analyte to its respective deuterated internal standard. The assay is linear from 5.9 to 4090.0 pg/mL for metanephrine and 22.0 to 4386.7 pg/mL for normetanephrine with precision of <6 % over the ranges.
Noba, Shigekuni; Omote, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki
A simple and accurate method has been developed for determining ochratoxin A (OTA), using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for identification and quantification. Wine samples were diluted with a solution containing polyethylene glycol 8000 and sodium hydrogen carbonate, filtered through a glass microfiber filter, and cleaned up on an immunoaffinity column. OTA was then eluted with methanol-acetic acid (98:2) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The average recoveries of OTA from red and white wines were 95 and 96.7% (spiked OTA level was 0.05 ng/ml) and repeatabilities (relative standard deviation) were 3.8 and 2.4%, respectively. The detection limit was 0.0003 ng/ml based on the signal-to-noise ratio in wine of 3:1. Analysis of 74 samples of domestic and imported wines showed OTA levels ranging from < 0.0003 to 0.82 ng/ml, with an incidence of contamination of 92.1% for red wines, and < 0.0003 to 0.51 ng/ml, with an incidence of contamination of 77.8% for white wines. These detection rates were higher than those rates of past reports of OTA contamination in wine, due to the high sensitivity of this method. However, all samples analyzed in this study complied with European Union regulations. It is concluded that this method is a useful tool for the quality assurance of wine.
Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran
Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
This work describes the development and validation of a method for the simultaneous determination of 13 estrogens and progestogens in honey by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid phase extraction. Pretreatment variables ...
Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.
A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…
Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.
A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…
Sun, Xiaojun; Li, Lingyun; Overdier, Katherine H; Ammons, Lee Anne; Douglas, Ivor S; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Zhang, Fuming; Schmidt, Eric P; Chi, Lianli; Linhardt, Robert J
The determination of complex analytes, present at low concentrations, in biological fluids poses a difficult challenge. This study relies on an optimized method of recovery, enzymatic treatment, and disaccharide analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to rapidly determine low concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in human urine. The approach utilizes multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides obtained from treating urine samples with recombinant heparin lyases and chondroitin lyase. This rapid and sensitive method allows the analysis of glycosaminoglycan content and disaccharide composition in urine samples having concentrations 10- to 100-fold lower than those typically analyzed from patients with metabolic diseases, such as mucopolysaccharidosis. The current method facilitates the analysis low (ng/mL) levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans present in healthy individuals and in patients with pathological conditions, such as inflammation and cancers, that can subtly alter glycosaminoglycan content and composition.
Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Takei, Kanako; Akiba, Michihiro
An analytical method for determining bromate in drinking water was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The (18)O-enriched bromate was used as an internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of bromate was 0.2 µg/L. The peak of bromate was separated from those of coexisting ions (i.e., chloride, nitrate and sulfate). The relative and absolute recoveries of bromate in two drinking water samples and in a synthesized ion solution (100 mg/L chloride, 10 mg N/L nitrate, and 100 mg/L sulfate) were 99-105 and 94-105%, respectively. Bromate concentrations in 11 drinking water samples determined by LC-MS/MS were <0.2-2.3 µg/L. The results of the present study indicated that the proposed method was suitable for determining bromate concentrations in drinking water without sample pretreatment.
Hadjigeorgiou, M; Papachrysostomou, Ch; Theodorou, Z; Kanari, P; Constantinou, S
Within the EU the use of dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is prohibited in food-producing animals and consequently it's included in the Annex IV of the Directive 90/2377/EC. A quantitative confirmatory method has been developed and validated according to the criteria defined in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, for the determination of dapsone in meat and milk. Samples, after homogenization in alkaline conditions and organic solvent extraction, were purified on silica gel solid phase extraction cartridges. The eluate was evaporated and redissolved in mobile phase and was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) using deuterium labelled Sulphadimidine-d7 as internal standard. The calculated value for, decision limit, CCalpha is 0.12 microgkg(-1), and the detection capability; CCbeta value is 0.16 microgkg(-1).
Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt
A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yan Victoria; Wei, Bin; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanhua; Bluth, Martin H
In the last decade, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has seen enormous growth in routine toxicology laboratories. LC-MS/MS offers significant advantages over other traditional testing, such as immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. Major strengths of LC-MS/MS include improvement in specificity, flexibility, and sample throughput when compared with other technologies. Here, the basic principles of LC-MS/MS technology are reviewed, followed by advantages and disadvantages of this technology compared with other traditional techniques. In addition, toxicology applications of LC-MS/MS for simultaneous detection of large panels of analytes are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sullivan, Darryl; Wehrmann, James; Schmitz, John; Crowley, Richard; Eberhard, Jeffrey
In conjunction with an AOAC Task Group on dietary supplements, a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was validated for measurement of 6 major alkaloids in raw ephedra sinica herb, ephedra extracts, ephedra tablets, complex dietary supplements containing ephedra, and a high-protein drink mix containing ephedra. The amount of ephedrine-type alkaloids present was determined by LC with mass selective detection. Six replicates of each matrix were analyzed on 3 separate occasions. The presence of 6 ephedrine-type alkaloids was detected at a level >0.5 μg/g based on a 0.5 g sample. The standard curve range for this assay is from 0.02 to 1.0 μg/mL. Appropriate dilutions covered a wide range of specific alkaloid concentrations. The calibration curves for all 6 analytes had correlation coefficients >0.995. PMID:12852561
Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A
Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly analyzed cannabinoid in oral fluid (OF); however, its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) offers the advantage of documenting active consumption, as it is not detected in cannabis smoke. Analytical challenges such as low (ng/L) THCCOOH OF concentrations hampered routine OF THCCOOH monitoring. Presence of minor cannabinoids like cannabidiol and cannabinol offer the advantage of identifying recent cannabis intake. Published OF cannabinoids methods have limitations, including few analytes and lengthy derivatization. We developed and validated a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for THC, its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH quantification, and other natural cannabinoids including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG) in 1 mL OF collected with the Quantisal device. After solid-phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Selectra PFPP column with a 0.15% formic acid in water and acetonitrile gradient with a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. All analytes were monitored in positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with multiple reaction monitoring. Limits of quantification were 15 ng/L THCCOOH and 0.2 µg/L for all other analytes. Linear ranges extended to 3750 ng/L THCCOOH, 100 µg/L THC, and 50 µg/L for all other analytes. Inter-day analytical recoveries (bias) and imprecision at low, mid, and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 88.7-107.3% and 2.3-6.7%, respectively (n = 20). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high QC were 75.9-86.1% and 8.4-99.4%, respectively. This method will be highly useful for workplace, criminal justice, drug treatment and driving under the influence of cannabis OF testing. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Licklider, Lawrence J; Thoreen, Carson C; Peng, Junmin; Gygi, Steven P
To fully automate the sample introduction step for nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses, 75 microm i.d. x 14 cm capillary columns were interfaced with a commercial autosampler instrument using a novel procedure which allowed dilute peptide samples to be transferred from the AS loop injector to the nanoscale column at flow rates up to 5 microL min(-1). On-column enrichment and desalting was demonstrated for large sample volumes (>40 microL) by constructing a vent 2 cm after the entrance to the packed bed of 5-microm ODS-AQ modified silica. Salts and nonretained solutes were removed via the vent, which allowed for column washing independent of the continuation of the bed into the electrospray source. Separations of test peptide mixtures demonstrated 50-nL elution peak volumes with low- to subfemtomole detection levels. In addition, a highly complex peptide mixture (outer membrane preparation from Psuedemonas aeruginosa) was efficiently separated with more than 100 proteins identified from a single reversed-phase LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, the vented column (V-column) was utilized for on-line separations in a multidimensional chromatography/tandem MS experiment where large numbers of strong cation exchange chromatography fractions from a trypsinized yeast lysate were desalted, concentrated, and analyzed in a completely automated fashion. The procedures for constructing and using a V-column require minimal changes in current methods and equipment for nano-LC-MS analyses using columns of 100-microm diameter and smaller.
Lukram, Ojikumar; Parmar, Shivaji; Hande, Amit
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used for the extraction of febuxostat from human plasma using trandolapril as the internal standard (IS). Chromatography was performed on a ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) BEH C18, 50 mm X 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm particle size column, with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (in a 25:75 ratio), followed by detection using mass spectrometry. The method involves a simple reversed isocratic chromatography condition and mass spectrometry detection, which enables detection at sub-microgram levels. The method was validated and the lower limit of quantification for febuxostat was found to be 0.075 µg/ml. The mean recovery for febuxostat ranged from 100.9 to 106.5%. This method increased the sensitivity and selectivity; resulting in high-throughput analysis of febuxostat using commercially available IS for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, and bioequivalence studies, with a chromatographic run time of 1.5 min only. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Theron, H B; Coetzee, C; Sutherland, F C W; Wiesner, J L; Swart, K J
A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of levonorgestrel in plasma was developed. An Applied Biosystems API 3000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using atmospheric pressure photospray ionisation (APPI) in the positive mode. Using 17-alpha-methyltestosterone as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a phenyl-hexyl column and tandem mass spectrometric detection. The mean recovery for levonorgestrel and 17-alpha-methyltestosterone was 99.5 and 62.9%, respectively. The method was validated from 0.265 to 130 ng levonorgestrel/ml plasma with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) set at 0.265 ng/ml. This assay method makes use of the increased sensitivity and selectivity of tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection, allowing for a rapid (extraction and chromatography) and selective method for the determination of levonorgestrel in human plasma. The assay method was used in a pharmacokinetic study to quantify levonorgestrel in human plasma samples generated after administrating a single oral dose of 1.5 mg levonorgestrel to healthy female volunteers for up to five half lives. The total chromatographic runtime of this method was 5.0 min per sample, allowing for analysis of a large number of samples per batch.
Ramírez Fernández, María del Mar; Wille, Sarah M R; di Fazio, Vincent; Gosselin, Matthias; Samyn, Nele
A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of seven amphetamines and metabolites in urine. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, LOQ, LOD, imprecision, bias, analyte and processed sample stability, matrix effect, recovery, carryover and dilution integrity. A classic liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used as sample preparation procedure. The compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC HSS C18 column in 6.8 min. The linear dynamic range was established from 25 to 500 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was fixed to the lowest calibrator level and the limit of detection ranged from 0.125 to 2.5 ng/mL. The method presented an excellent intra- and inter-assay imprecision and bias (<10.7%) at each measured concentration of two external quality controls (QC) and three "in house" QC. No matrix effects were observed and good recoveries (>70%) were obtained for all the compounds. No carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentrated samples (8000 ng/mL). The method was subsequently applied to authentic samples.
Yaldiz, Fadile; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hilal, Ahmet; Keten, Alper; Gülmen, Mete Korkut
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been utilized as a marker for alcohol intake. This study presents development, validation and application of a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of EtG in human hair samples. The linearity was assessed in the range of 5-2000 pg/mg hair, with a correlation coefficient of >0.99. The method was selective and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 pg/mg and 0.18 pg/mg in hair, respectively. Differently from the extraction procedures in the literature, a fast and simple liquid-liquid method was used and highest recoveries and cleanest extracts were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 30 human hair samples which were taken from those who state they consume alcohol. EtG concentrations in the hair samples of alcohol users participated in this study, ranged between 1.34 and 82.73 pg/mg. From the concentration of EtG in hair strands 20 of the 30 subjects can be considered regular moderate drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Vázquez-Chica, Alberto; Lacorte, Silvia
Rodenticides are used as pest control to eradicate rodents and have emerged as new environmental contaminants due to their widespread use in domestic and urban infrastructures. In this study, we have developed and validated an analytical methodology based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of 13 anticoagulant rodenticides in wastewater. In a first step, ionization conditions were tested in electrospray mode, and positive ionization gave the highest sensitivity. Fragmentation patterns were determined and two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions were selected for each compound. Using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column and specific SRM transitions, 13 compounds were resolved. The LC-MS/MS method provided good linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, and good identification capabilities for these compounds in wastewaters. Thereafter miniaturized liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were optimized. Oasis HLB and Strata WA SPE cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents provided good recoveries and limits of detection ranged between 0.34 and 20 ng L(-1), whereas LLE failed to recover some compounds. Finally, the performance of both LLE and SPE methods was evaluated by analyzing rodenticides in a set of wastewaters. Warfarin was the only detected compound at nanogram per liter level, and good agreement was observed between LLE and SPE.
Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Zebin; Li, Jiaolun; Huang, Zhibin; Rao, Yulan; Liang, Hao; Yan, Jie; Zheng, Feng
A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, amobarbital, secobarbital, thiopental, butalbital, butabarbital, and hexobarbital) in human whole blood. Barbiturates were extracted from 100 μL of human whole blood samples using a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure, and detected by LC-MS/MS. An UPLC C18 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column was used at 40 °C for the separation and acetonitrile/water system was used as the mobile phase with gradient elution. This method showed excellent accuracy (86-111%) and precision (relative standard deviation <15%). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2 ng/mL for barbital and secobarbital and 0.5 ng/mL for the other barbiturates. The linearity ranged from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL, with r(2) > 0.99 over the range. This method achieved the separation and detection of pentobarbital and amobarbital at the same time in a convenient way. Moreover, it was both simple and sensitive for the determination of nine most commonly used barbiturate drugs, which was meaningful in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Li; Fu, Jian; Gao, Hongliang; Ren, Haitao; Lou, Xishan; Guan, Lihui
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of amitrole residues in agricultural products. The samples were extracted by 25% acetone for wheat, fish, pork and liver samples, 1% acetic acid-25% acetone for maize and peanut samples, 1% acetic acid solution for honeysuckle, the powder of ginger, the powder of bunge prickly ash and tea leaves samples, 1% acetic acid solution-dichloromethane for apple, pineapple, spinach, carrot, perilla leaves samples, respectively, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The samples were then cleaned up by PCX or Envi-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge. The amitrole was determined and confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed a linear relationship in the range of 0.005 -0.1 mg/kg for amitrole. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 7. The average recoveries of amitrole in wheat, maize, peanut, pineapple, apple, carrot, spinach, pork, the powder of ginger, the powder of bunge prickly ash, perilla, liver, fish, honeysuckle and tea were 67.5% - 98.1%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.0% - 9.8%. The limits of quantitation were 10 microg/kg for wheat, maize, peanut, pineapple, apple, carrot, spinach, pork, perilla, liver, fish, honeysuckle and 20 microg/kg for the powder of bunge prickly ash, the powder of ginger and tea, respectively. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate.
Bai, Nan; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Jin; Sun, Chun-Guang; Mei, He-Kun; Liang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Yun; Song, Xiu-Jie; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Rui
A rapid, sensitive and specific analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of thalidomide concentration in human plasma. The analyte and internal standard were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3:2, v/v) and separated on a TC-C(18) column using methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (60:40:0.04, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. The detection was performed using an API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode and completed within 3.0 min. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were m/z 259.1→84.0 for the analyte and m/z 195.9→138.9 for temozolomide. The calibration curve exhibited a linear dynamic range of 2-1500 ng/ml (r>0.9991). The intra-and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation; RSD) were 6.8-13.5% and 4.3-5.0% respectively and the accuracy (as relative error; RE) was 2.0-3.5%. The recoveries and matrix effects were satisfactory in all the biological matrices examined. This method was successfully used in a pharmacokinetic study of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers receiving an oral administration of a 200-mg dose.
Ultra-preconcentration and determination of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products in different water matrices by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.
Celano, Rita; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are one of the most important classes of emerging contaminants. The potential of ecological and environmental impacts associated with PPCPs are of particular concern because they continually penetrate the aquatic environment. This work describes a novel ultra-preconcentration technique for the rapid and highly sensitive analysis of selected PPCPs in environmental water matrices at ppt levels. Selected PPCPs were rapidly extracted and concentrated from large volumes of aqueous solutions (500 and 250mL) by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME) and then analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS. Experimental parameters were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best SPE-DLLME efficiency and higher enrichment factors. The best results were obtained using the ternary mixture acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane 3:3:4, v/v/v, both as SPE eluent and DLLME extractant/dispersive mixture. DLLME aqueous solution (5% NaCl, 10mgL(-1) TBAB) was also modified to improve the extraction efficiency of more hydrophilic PPCPs. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for most of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSD <10%) and very high enrichment factors were attained for different aqueous matrices (drinking, sea, river and wastewater). Method detection and quantification limits were at very low ppt levels and below 1 and 3ngL(-1), respectively, for 15 of selected PPCPs. The proposed analytical procedure offers numerous advantages such as the simplicity of operation, rapidity, a high enrichment factor and sensitivity. So it is suitable for monitoring and studies of occurrence of PPCPs in different environmental compartments.
Weisser, Johan J; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne
This paper presents the development and evaluation of a methodology for extraction, clean-up and analysis of three key corticosteroids (aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone) in polar bear hair. Such a methodology can be used to monitor stress biomarkers in polar bears and may provide as a useful tool for long-term and retrospective information. We developed a combined pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)-solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for corticosteroid extraction and clean-up followed by high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This procedure allows for the simultaneous determination of multiple steroids, which is in contrast to previous polar bear studies based on ELISA techniques. Absolute method recoveries were 81%, 75% and 60% for cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone, respectively. We applied the developed method on a hair sample pooled from four East Greenland polar bears. Herein cortisol and corticosterone were successfully determined in levels of 0.32±0.02ng/g hair and 0.13±0.02ng/g hair, respectively. Aldosterone was below limit of detection (LOD<0.17ng/g). The cortisol hair concentration found in these East Greenland polar bears was consistent with cortisol levels previously determined in the Southern Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada using ELISA kits.
Oehrle, Stuart A; Southwell, Ben; Westrick, Judy
Several freshwater cyanobacteria species have the capability to produce toxic compounds, frequently referred to as cyanotoxins. The most prevalent of these cyanotoxins is microcystin LR. Recognizing the potential health risk, France, Italy, Poland, Australia, Canada, and Brazil have set either standards or guidelines for the amount of microcystin LR permissible in drinking water based on the World Health Organization guideline of one microg/L of microcystin LR. Recently, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has begun to evaluate the occurrence and health effects of cyanotoxins and their susceptibility to water treatment under the Safe Drinking Water Act through the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). A recent update of the Contaminant Candidate List focuses research and data collection on the cyanotoxins microcystin LR, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin. Liquid Chromatography/Tandem-Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is a powerful tool for the analysis of various analytes in a wide variety of matrices because of its sensitivity and selectivity. The use of smaller column media (sub 2 microm particles) was investigated to both improve the speed, sensitivity and resolution, and to quantify the CCL cyanotoxins, in a single analysis, using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Natural waters and spiked samples were analyzed to show proof-of-performance. The presented method was able to clearly resolve each of the cyanotoxins in less than eight minutes with specificity and high spike recoveries.
Liu, Hualiang; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Baoli
To establish a method for simultaneously determining the urinary concentrations of 8 carbamate pesticides. After being purified by acetonitrile precipitation, urine samples were transferred to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system, and the concentrations of 8 carbamate pesticides were determined by external standard method. A C18 column was used for ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography; methanol/ammonium acetate solution was used as the mobile phase for gradient elution; the mass spectrometer was operated in a multi-reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear when the urinary concentrations of these carbamate pesticides were 20~800 µg/L, and the recovery rates were 61.0%~121% at spiked levels of 20, 200 and 800 µg/L, with a relative standard deviation of 1.7%~5.5%. This determination method meets the Guide for establishing occupational health standards-part 5: Determination methods of chemicals in biological materials, and can be used for simultaneous determination of 8 carbamate pesticides in the urine of poisoning patients.
Martínez-Villalba, Anna; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa
We present a fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of the coccidiostat amprolium in food samples. Tandem mass spectrometry in a triple quadrupole was used for quantitative purposes, and the information from multiple-stage mass spectrometry in an ion-trap mass analyzer contributed to fragmentation studies. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in a Fused-Core column using isocratic elution (acetonitrile:formic acid/ammonium formate buffer pH 4, 50 mM (60:40)) successfully analyzed this compound in less than 3 min. The HILIC system was coupled to heated electrospray-MS/MS using highly selective-selected reaction monitoring (H-SRM) to improve sensitivity and selectivity for the analysis of amprolium, after a simple sample treatment based on an "extract and shoot" strategy. Accurate mass measurements were performed to identify the interfering compound responsible for causing matrix ion enhancement in the signal of amprolium. The addition of l-carnitine (the interfering compound) (1 microg L(-1)) to standards and sample extracts allowed the use of the external calibration method for quantitative purposes. The LC-MS/MS (H-SRM) method showed good precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, lower than 13%), accuracy and linearity and allowed the determination of amprolium down to the ppb level (LODs between 0.1 and 0.6 microg kg(-1)).
Yi, Xionghai; Deng, Xiaojun; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Dehua; Zhu, Jian
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of commonly abused dyes in candy, sirup, liquid milk and fruit juice. The test sample was dissolved and diluted with water, then cleaned up by polyamide solid phase extraction. The LC separation was performed on an Agilent XDB-C18 column with 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The dyes were determined by MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization mode, and quantified by matrix-matched external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.5 - 50 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99. The limits of quantitation (S/N > 10) were 0.5 mg/kg, and the limits of detection (S/N > 3) were 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries of dyes in food samples at the three spiked levels of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg were in the range of 62.6% - 115.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 26.3%. The method can meet the requirements for the determination of the dyes in food samples for import and export inspection.
Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia
The occurrence of 10 commonly used anticoagulant rodenticides in centrifuged sludge of 27 wastewater treatment plants was evaluated using solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Activated carbon, alumina, and Florisil cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents were tested in combination with primary-secondary amine (PSA) to optimize an efficient sample cleanup. PSA in combination with Florisil was the best methodology to extract anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge providing recoveries between 42 ± 0.5 and 100 ± 2 %. Warfarin, bromadiolone, ferulenol, and coumachlor were the most ubiquitous compounds in sludge at concentrations up to 84.2 ng g(-1) for the latter. Coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, and brodifacoum were detected sporadically at levels between 6.1 and 17.4 ng g(-1). On the contrary, acenocoumarol, difenacoum, and flocoumafen were not detected in any sample. Finally, we estimated the amount of anticoagulant rodenticides discharged via sludge in order to determine the potential impact to agricultural soil according to different sludge usage practices in the region investigated. This study demonstrates that anticoagulant rodenticides are accumulated in sludge during activated sludge treatment and that the application of sludge as fertilizers may pose a future environmental risk, if not controlled.
Huang, Qianyang; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Danting; Xin, Baozhong; Cechner, Karen; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Aimin
Gangliosides are a family of glycosphingolipids characterized by mono- or polysialic acid-containing oligosaccharides linked through 1,3- and 1,4-β glycosidic bonds with subtle differences in structure that are abundantly present in the central nervous systems of many living organisms. Their cellular surface expression and physiological malfunction are believed to be pathologically implicated in considerable neurological disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Recently, studies have tentatively elucidated that mental retardation or physical stagnation deteriorates as the physiological profile of gangliosides becomes progressively and distinctively abnormal during the development of these typical neurodegenerative syndromes. In this work, a reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay using standard addition calibration for determination of GM2, GM3, GD2, and GD3 in human plasma has been developed and validated. The analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma using a simple protein precipitation procedure. Then the samples were analyzed by reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS/MS interfaced to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization using a multiple reaction monitoring mode to obtain superior sensitivity and specificity. This assay was validated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, and accuracy. Our quick and sensitive method can be applied to monitor ganglioside levels in plasma from normal people and neurodegenerative patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fast pressurized liquid extraction with in-cell purification and analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of UV filters and their degradation products in sediments.
Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià
This paper presents the development of a fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of UV filters and degradation products having quite different polarities (log Kow 2.19-6.88) in sediment, by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell purification and analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Analytes were simultaneously concentrated and purified by placing aluminium oxide as clean-up sorbent in the extraction cell for a faster sample pre-treatment. Under optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries (only one compound below 80%) and satisfactory precision (RSD, 5-15%) were obtained. Low limits of detection were achieved of 0.5-15 ng/g dry weight (dw). The use of PLE extraction and purification and UPLC technology enabled all the compounds to be separated chromatographically in less than 9 min, and with a total chromatographic analysis time of 18 min. This method significantly decreased the overall time of analysis as compared to those of previously developed. Finally, the optimized methodology was applied to investigate the occurrence of the target UV filters in sediment samples collected along the Ebro river basin (Spain). UV filters were detected in 95% of the sediment samples analysed. Results revealed a widespread presence of octocrylene (OC), reaching concentrations up to 24 × 10(2) ng/g dw, the highest reported so far. Ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (OD-PABA) and benzophenone-3 (BP3) were also frequently detected (60-65%), but at lower concentrations (4.4-27 ng/g dw). 4DHB (an estrogenic degradation product of BP3) was present in three samples at concentrations between 12 and 21 ng/g dw. These results constitute the first data on the occurrence of OD-PABA and 4DHB in sediments.
Method MS014 describes procedures for solvent extraction of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl from water samples, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).
Noguer, Emmanuel; Soules, Régis; Netter, Claude; Nagarathinam, Citra; Leignadier, Julie; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Serhan, Nizar; Rives, Arnaud; de Medina, Philippe; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc
Dendrogenin A (DDA) was recently identified as a mammalian cholesterol metabolite that displays tumor suppressor and neurostimulating properties at low doses. In breast tumors, DDA levels were found to be decreased compared to normal tissues, evidencing a metabolic deregulation of DDA production in cancers. DDA is an amino-oxysterol that contains three protonatable nitrogen atoms. This makes it physico-chemically different from other oxysterols and it therefore requires specific analytical methods We have previously used a two-step method for the quantification of DDA in biological samples: 1) DDA purification from a Bligh and Dyer extract by RP-HPLC using a 250×4.6mm column, followed by 2) nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) fragmentation to analyze the HPLC fraction of interest. We report here the development a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of DDA and its analogues. This new method is fast (10min), resolving (peak width <4s) and has a weak carryover (<0.01%). We show that this technique efficiently separates DDA from its C17 isomer and other steroidal alkaloids from the same family establishing a proof of concept for the analysis of this family of amino-oxysterols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Xi-Yong; Yang, Min; Mai, Li-Ping; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Tie-Feng; Lin, Shu-Guang
A rapid, selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of eptifibatide in human plasma. Eptifibatide and the internal standard (IS), EPM-05, were extracted from plasma samples using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection of eptifibatide and the IS was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in positive ion mode. Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 646.4 and m/z 931.6-->m/z 159.4 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 13.3%, while the accuracy was within +/-7.6% of nominal values. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of eptifibatide after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 45 microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide to 8 healthy volunteers.
Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A.; Rock, Dan A.
The function of the enzyme human aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) is uncertain, however, recent studies have implicated significant biochemical involvement in humans. AOX1 has also rapidly become an important drug metabolizing enzyme. Until now, quantitation of AOX1 in complex matrices such as tissue has not been achieved. Herein, we developed and employed a trypsin digest and subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis to determine absolute amounts of AOX1 in human liver. E. coli expressed human purified AOX1 was used to validate the linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity of the method. Overall, the method is highly efficient and sensitive for determination of AOX1 in cytosolic liver fractions. Using this method, we observed substantial batch-to-batch variation in AOX1 content (21-40 pmol AOX1/mg total protein) between various pooled human liver cytosol preparations. We also observed inter batch variation in Vmax (3.3-4.9 nmol min−1 mg−1) and a modest correlation between enzyme concentration and activity. In addition, we measured a large difference in kcat/Km, between purified (kcat/Km of 1.4) and human liver cytosol (kcat/Km of 15-20) indicating cytosol to be 11-14 times more efficient in the turnover of DACA than the E. coli expressed purified enzyme. Finally, we discussed the future impact of this method for the development of drug metabolism models and understanding the biochemical role of this enzyme. PMID:24006961
Okamoto, You; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Fukui, Naoki; Murata, Hiroshi; Sumimoto, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yukio; Obana, Hirotaka
A rapid and easy multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in Chinese dumplings using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. Pesticide residues were extracted with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous magnesium sulfate in a disposable tube using a homogenizer. The extract was concentrated and reconstituted in hexane, followed by acetonitrile-hexane partition to remove lipids. The acetonitrile layer was purified with a double-layered cartridge column (graphite carbon black/primary secondary amine silica gel). After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol/water and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. Recovery tests of 99 pesticide residues from Chinese dumpling were performed at 20 and 100 ng/g, and 72 pesticides exhibited acceptable recoveries (70-120%) with low relative standard deviations (<20%) at both concentrations. The time for sample preparation with 12 samples to test solutions was approximately 6 hr. This method could be useful for determination of pesticide residues in the Chinese dumplings.
Han, Jiangbin; Sun, Jiye; Sha, Chunjie; Zhang, Jinfeng; Gai, Yunyun; Li, Youxin; Liu, Wanhui
A sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of triptorelin levels in beagle dog plasma. Plasma samples were applied to Oasis(®) HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Extracted samples were evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and then reconstituted with 100 μl methanol:water:formic acid (60:40:0.08, v/v/v). The separation was achieved on a Venusil MP-C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 3 μm, Agela) with a gradient elution. Detection utilized a Qtrap5500 system operated in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring of the analyte at m/z 656.5→249.1 and of the I.S. at m/z 510.8→120.1. The proposed method was validated by assessing the specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effects, and stability. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.01-10 ng/ml (the correlation coefficients were above 0.995). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was 0.01 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of a slow release triptorelin formulation in beagle dogs following a single intramuscular injection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vijaya Bhaskar, V; Middha, Anil
A rapid sensitive and selective MRM based method for the determination of Cremophor EL (CrEL) in rat plasma was developed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). CrEL and polypropylene glycol (internal standard) were extracted from rat plasma with acetonitrile and analysed on C18 column (XBridge, 50 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μ m). The most abundant molecular ions corresponding to PEG oligomers at m/z 828, 872, 916 and 960 with daughter ion at m/z 89 were selected for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in electrospray mode of ionisation. Plasma concentrations of CrEL were quantified after administration through oral and intravenous routes in male sprague dawley rats at a dose of 0.26 g/kg. The standard curve was linear (0.9972) over the concentration range of 1.00 to 200 μ g/mL. The lower limit of quantitation for CrEL was 1.00 μ g/mL using 50 μ L plasma. The coefficient of variation and relative error for inter and intra assay at three QC levels were 0.69 to 9.21 and -7.60 to 4.74 respectively. A novel proposal was conveyed to the scientific community, where formulation excipient can be analysed as qualifier in the analysis of NCEs to address the spiky plasma concentration profiles.
Wang, Xiuwei; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Guan, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Wang, Jianhua; Niu, Bo
Folate deficiency is considered a risk factor for many diseases such as cancer, congenital heart disease and neural tube defects (NTDs). There is a pressing need for more methods of detecting folate and its main metabolites in the human body. Here, we developed a simple, fast and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantifications of folate metabolites including folic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FoTHF), homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The method was validated by determining the linearity (r(2)>0.998), sensitivity (limit of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.200ng/mL), intra- and inter-day precision (both CV<6%) and recovery (each analyte was >90%). The total analysis time was 7min. Serum samples of NTD-affected pregnancies and controls from a NTD high-risk area in China were analyzed by this method, the NTD serum samples showed lower concentrations of 5-MeTHF (P<0.05) and 5-FoTHF (P<0.05), and higher concentrations of Hcy (P<0.05) and SAH (P<0.05) compared with serum samples from controls, consistent with a previous study. These results showed that the method is sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of six metabolites, which might indicate potential risk factors for NTDs, aid early diagnosis and provide more insights into the pathogenesis of NTDs.
Blonder, Josip; Goshe, Michael B.; Moore, Ronald J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Masselon, Christophe D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.
Currently, most proteomic studies rely on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect and identify constituent peptides of enzymatically digested proteins obtained from various organisms and cell types. However, sample preparation methods for isolating membrane proteins typically involve the use of detergents, chaotropes, or reducing reagents that often interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI). To increase the identification of integral membrane proteins by LC-ESI-MS/MS, a sample preparation method combining carbonate extraction and surfactant-free organics solvent-assisted solubilization and proteolysis was developed and used to target the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans. Out of 503 proteins identified, 135 were recognized as hydrophobic based on their positive grand average of hydropathicity values that covers 15% of the theoretical hydrophobic proteome. Using the PSORT algorithm, 268 identified proteins were recognized as integral membrane proteins covering 21% and 43% of the predicted integral cytoplasmic and outer membrane proteins, respectively. Of the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins containing four or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), 65% were identified by detecting at least one peptide spanning a TMD using LC-MS/MS. The extensive identification of highly hydrophobic proteins containing multiple TMDs confirms the efficacy of the described sample preparation protocol to isolate and solubilize integral membrane proteins and validates the method for large-scale analysis of bacterial membrane subproteomes using LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Yang, Rongjing; Wei, Biwen; Gao, Huan; Yu, Wenjia
A rapid analytical method for the determination of five coumarins (coumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin, dihydrocoumarin, 7-methyl coumarin and 7-ethoxy-4-methyl coumarin) in toys by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been developed. After ultrasonic extraction in tetrahydrofuran, the samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid were used as the mobile phases with gradient elution. The linear ranges of calibration curves were 10 - 1 000 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N > 10) were 2.0 microg/L for all the analytes, except that the LOQ for dihydrocoumarin was 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries of the five coumarins spiked in three types of samples were in the ranges of 93.2% - 105.8%, 97.3% - 103.2% and 96.8% - 102.9%, with the relative standard deviations in the ranges of 4.35% - 8.27%, 3.65% - 6.73% and 4.03% - 6.45%, respectively. The method was applied in the determination of 12 toy samples. The five analytes were found in 9 samples, and in some cases, the presence of quite high concentrations of these coumarins in the toys should be a matter of concern.
Li, Juan; Ding, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Dan-Dan; Guo, Fei; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Liu, Hong-Min
A sensitive and accurate method based on the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight illegal synthetic dyes (Sudan (I-IV), Para Red, Rhodamine B, Chrysoidin and Auramine O) in chili products. A simple sample treatment procedure entailing the use of an extraction step with acetonitrile/H2O (9/1) without further cleanup was developed. HPLC was performed on a C18 column using a multistep gradient elution with 5mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.0 with formic acid) and methanol as the mobile phase. Mass spectral acquisition was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Linear calibrations were obtained with correlation coefficients R(2)>0.99. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the studied dyes were in the ranges of 0.05-0.6μgkg(-1) and 0.3-3.0μgkg(-1) depending on matrices, respectively. The recoveries of the eight synthetic dyes in five matrices ranged from 70.5% to 119.2%. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were between 2.3-15.8% and 5.7-15.6%, respectively. The applicability of the method to the determination of eight banned dyes in chili products was demonstrated.
Hegstad, S; Stray-Pedersen, A; Olsen, L; Vege, A; Rognum, T O; Mørland, J; Christophersen, A S
Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as an indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke. A method has been developed for quantification of cotinine in pericardial fluid and whole blood collected from autopsy casework involving cases of infant death. Sample clean-up was achieved by solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode column. Cotinine was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Positive ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analyte and one for the internal standard, cotinine-d(3). The calibration range was 0.9-176 ng/mL for cotinine in both matrixes. The recovery of the analyte ranged from 86 to 92%, and the between-assay precisions ranged from 4 to 6% relative standard deviation. Whole blood and pericardial fluid samples from 95 infant deaths obtained during autopsy were analyzed. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was found between the cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood. The correlation was not affected by the postmortem time interval. This study demonstrates that pericardial fluid may be an alternative specimen to blood for quantification of cotinine in forensic autopsies.
Li, Bing; Zhou, Xu-Zheng; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun; Niu, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Yu
A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of arecoline concentration in dog plasma. Plasma sample was prepared by protein precipitation using n-hexane (containing 1% isoamyl alcohol) with β-pinene as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent C18 column (4.6×75mm, 3.5μm) using methanol: 5mM ammonium acetate as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Mass detection was carried out using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve for arecoline was linear over a concentration range of 2-500ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits of ±10% at all concentrations. In summary, the LC-MS/MS method described herein was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of arecoline hydrobromide tablets in dogs after oral administration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Owens, Janel; Koester, Carolyn
Though chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention, the threat that such chemicals may be used, including their deliberate addition to food, remains. In such matrixes, CWAs may hydrolyze to phosphonic acids, which are good surrogate markers of CWA contamination. The method described here details the extraction of five CWA degradation products, including methylphosphonic acid (MPA), ethyl-MPA, isopropyl-MPA, cyclohexyl-MPA, and pinacolyl-MPA, from five different beverages by strata-X solid phase extraction cartridges. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 ng on-column, and the limit of detection was >0.02 ng on-column. Beverages were fortified with the five phosphonic acids at 1 microg/mL and 0.25 microg/mL and quantitated using both an internally standardized method and matrix-matched standards. Reasonable recoveries (>50%) were achieved for ethyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, and pinacolyl-MPA for most matrixes.
Fu, Hui; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Changming; Lin, Shaobin
To develop a method for determination of the Metronidazole, Chlortetracycline hydrochloride, Oxytetracycline dihydrate, Minocycline hydrochloride, Erythromycin and Tetracycline hydrochloride in disinfection products by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by methanol and filtered through 0.45 microm PTFE membrane filter, then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using Waters Symmetry C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm, 3.5 microm) column in positive ion scan mode. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate, methanol and acetonitrile. The linear range was 0-2000 ng/ml and the correlation coefficients were more than 0.998, the average recoveries ranged from 74.7% to 114% with the relative standard deviations between 1.6%-20.2%. The method was successfully used to detect the content of antibiotics in 115 disinfection products. The method is simple, sensitive, selective and suitable for the analysis of residual content of antibiotics in cream formulations of disinfection products.
Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria
The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Chen, Mingxue
A method was developed for the determination of glyphosate (GLY) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in rice using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with water followed by a simple cleanup with a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then GLY and AMPA were derivatized using 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer. The derivatives of GLY and AMPA were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 9), and finally detected with negative ion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linearities of GLY and AMPA were in the concentration range of 0.000 50 to 1.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 7 and 0.999 9, respectively. The mean spiked recoveries of GLY and AMPA at 3 spiked levels ranged from 72.5% to 113.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 5) of 3.8% - 16.2%. The limits of detection were 2.0 and 3.0 microg/kg for GLY and AMPA, respectively. This method is rapid, sensitive, and suitable for simultaneous determination of GLY and AMPA in rice.
Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.
Chen, Peidong; Liu, Shijia; Dai, Guoliang; Xie, Liyan; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Ling; Ju, Wenzheng; Ding, Anwei
A highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of typhaneoside in rat plasma using rutin as internal standard. The analyte and rutin (internal standard) were extracted with methanol followed by a rapid isocratic elution with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer/methanol (v:v, 20:80) on an C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1 mm I.D.) and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry in the multi-reaction-monitoring mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 769.3 → 314.1 and m/z 609.2 → 300.1 were used to measure the analyte and the internal standard. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.01-10 μg/mL for typhaneoside in rat plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/mL and the extraction recovery was larger than 90.2% for typhaneoside. The inter- and intra-day precision of the method at three concentrations was less than 6.8%. The method was firstly applied to pharmacokinetic study of typhaneoside in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Juan; Yin, Yao; Xu, Jinzhong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Guosong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Wenquan; Sheng, Chongyu; Chen, Huilan; Zhang, Rui
A method was established for the determination of streptomycin (STR) and dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) in pollens based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and cleaned-up by a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Protemix WCX-NP5 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution using 5% (v/v) formic acid, 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol as mobile phases. The analysis of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin was performed under electrospray positive ionization mode. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the both were 5 microg/kg and 10 microg/kg, respectively. Good linearities (r > 0.99) were achieved for the target compounds over the range of 10-200 microg/L. The recoveries at three spiked levels (10, 20, 50 microg/kg) in the blank matrices, such as pollen pini, corn pollen, camellia pollen, sunflower pollen, rape pollen and bee pollen, were from 76.8% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations varied from 3.70% to 12.6%. The method is accurate, practical, and can be applied to most of the contaminated matrices. With this method, heptafluorobutyric acid is not required as mobile phase which is harmful to MS spectrometer.
Mechref, Yehia; Madera, Milan; Novotny, Milos V
Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most common posttranslational modifications which has its bearing on function and biological activity. Assigning the glycosylation sites and their inherent microheterogeneities are key structural issues addressing various glycoprotein functions. This chapter describes three different approaches all based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS), which are commonly employed for the assignment of protein glycosylation sites and their microheterogeneities. Comparing the LC/MS-MS analysis of a native glycoprotein tryptic digest to that of a deglycosylated tryptic digest can be accomplished through a routine LC/MS instrument. The use of a scanning mass spectrometer capable of switching between high-voltage and low-voltage scans, combined with monitoring carbohydrate-characteristic oxonium ions, is yet another analytical approach utilized for characterization of the glycosylation sites of glycoproteins. These two approaches do not address the problem originating from the ion suppression associated with coeluting peptides. The use of on-line glycopeptide enrichment in conjunction with LC/MS-MS is a third approach, which reduces ion suppression, thus offering a more sensitive approach to the characterization of protein glycosylation sites.
Guo, Lilu; Amarnath, Venkataraman; Davies, Sean S
N-Acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are synthesised in response to stress in a variety of organisms from bacteria to humans. More recently, nonenzymatic modification of the ethanolamine headgroup of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by various aldehydes, including levuglandins/isoketals (which are gamma-ketoaldehydes [gammaKAs] derived from arachidonic acid), has also been demonstrated. The levels of these various N-modified PEs formed during stress and their biological significance remain to be fully characterized. Such studies require an accurate, facile, and cost-effective method for quantifying N-modified PEs. Previously, NAPE and some of the nonenzymatically N-modified PE species have been quantified by mass spectrometry after hydrolysis to their constituent N-acylethanolamine by enzymatic hydrolysis, most typically with Streptomyces chromofuscus phospholipase D. However, enzymatic hydrolysis is not cost-effective for routine analysis of a large number of samples, and hydrolytic efficiency may vary for different N-modified PEs, making quantitation more difficult. Therefore, we sought a robust and inexpensive chemical hydrolysis approach. Methylamine (CH(3)NH(2))-mediated deacylation has previously been used in headgroup analysis of phosphatidylinositol phosphates. Therefore, we developed an accurate assay for NAPEs and gammaKA-PEs using CH(3)NH(2)-mediated deacylation and quantitation of the resulting glycerophospho-N-modified ethanolamines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jinshan; Yoo, Hong Sik; Obrochta, Kristin M; Huang, Priscilla; Napoli, Joseph L
We report an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify all-trans-retinal in biological samples of limited size (15-35mg), which is especially advantageous for use with adipose. To facilitate recovery, retinal and the internal standard 3,4-didehydroretinal were derivatized in situ into their O-ethyloximes. UHPLC resolution combined with high sensitivity and specificity of MS/MS allowed quantification of retinal-O-ethyloximes with a 5-fmol lower limit of detection and a linear range from 5fmol to 1pmol. This assay revealed that extraocular concentrations of retinal range from approximately 2 to 40pmol/g in multiple tissues-the same range as all-trans-retinoic acid. All-trans-retinoic acid has high affinity (kd⩽0.4nM) for its nuclear receptors (RARα, -β, and -γ), whereas retinal has low (if any) affinity for these receptors, making it unlikely that these retinal concentrations would activate RAR. We also show that the copious amount of vitamin A used in chow diets increases retinal in adipose depots 2- to 5-fold relative to levels in adipose of mice fed a vitamin A-sufficient diet, as recommended for laboratory rodents. This assay also is proficient for quantifying conversion of retinol into retinal in vitro and, therefore, provides an efficient method to study metabolism of retinol in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Appel, Amanda S; Logue, Brian A
While several methods for the bioanalysis of nerve agents or their metabolites have been developed for the verification of nerve agent exposure, these methods are generally limited in the amount of time after an exposure that markers of exposure can be detected (due to rapid metabolism from biological matrices). In this study, a method for the analysis of nerve agent hydrolysis products from nail clippings was developed to allow evaluation of nails as a long-term repository of these markers. Pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA) and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) were extracted from nail samples with N,N-dimethylformamide and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for PMPA and IMPA were 0.3μg/kg and 7.5μg/kg and linear ranges were 0.75-300μg/kg and 30-1500μg/kg, respectively. Precision was within 10% and 8% for PMPA and IMPA, respectively, and accuracy was 100±12% for both analytes. The approach presented here is complementary to current methods for nerve agent exposure verification, and should allow for long-term determination of nerve agent poisoning.
Kang, Wonku; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Shin, Jae-Gook
We developed a method for determining benidipine, a dihydropyridine analogue calcium-channel blocker, in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Benidipine and benidipine-d5, an internal standard, were extracted from plasma using diethyl ether in the presence of 5M NaOH. After drying the organic layer, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and injected onto a reversed-phase C18 column. The isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate, 90:10, v/v) was eluted at 0.2 ml/min. The ion transitions monitored in multiple reaction-monitoring mode were m/z 506-174 for benidipine and m/z 511-179 for the internal standard. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 13%, and the accuracy exceeded 92%, except at the limit of quantification, 0.05 ng/ml with 1ml of plasma, when it was 85%. This method was used to measure the benidipine concentration in plasma from healthy subjects after a single 4-mg oral dose of benidipine. This method is a very simple, sensitive, and accurate way to determine the plasma benidipine concentration.
Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard
Recently, the occurrence of 2',3'-cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (2',3'-cNMPs) in addition to 3',5'-cNMPs in mammalian tissues was reported. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of four 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides, i.e., 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, 2',3'-cGMP, 2',3'-cUMP, in cell samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax eclipse XCB-C18 (50 mm×4.6 mm; 1.8 μm column; Agilent) connected to a QTRAP5500 system (AB Sciex) operating in positive ionization mode. Calibration curves were constructed in the range 0.41 fmol/μL to 1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cAMP, 2',3'-cCMP, and 2',3'-cGMP, and 3.3-1666.6 fmol/μL for 2',3'-cUMP, respectively, showing squared correlation coefficients >0.9992. Accuracy and inter- and intra-day precision lay within the required ranges of <20% for LLOQ and <15% for higher concentration levels. The method was applied to the analysis of nucleotides in two different cell lines (Hek293T and HuT-78). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Trabert, Britton; Xu, Xia; Falk, Roni T.; Guillemette, Chantal; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McGlynn, Katherine A.
Background Valid and precise measures of androgen concentrations are needed for etiologic studies of hormonally-related cancers. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with two sample preparations to measure 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites. Methods Androgen levels were measured in serum from 20 healthy volunteers (5 men, 10 premenopausal women, 5 postmenopausal women). Two blinded, randomized aliquots per individual were assayed in each of three batches. A fourth batch of samples was measured at an external laboratory using comparable methodology to measure 9 of the 11 androgens. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated from the individual components of variance. Comparability of 9 androgens across laboratories was assessed using Spearman ranked correlations, Deming regression and bias plots. Results The laboratory CVs were <5% and ICCs were uniformly high (>95%) for all androgens measured across sex/menopausal status groups. Spearman ranked correlations for 9 hormones measured in the comparison laboratory were high (>0.85), suggesting good agreement. Conclusion Our high-performance LC-MS/MS assays of 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites demonstrated excellent laboratory reproducibility, and good comparability with an established method that measured 9 of the 11 hormones tested. The serum androgen metabolite assays are suitable for use in epidemiologic research. PMID:26416142
Escrivá, Laura; Manyes, Lara; Barberà, Miquel; Martínez-Torres, David; Meca, Guiseppe
Melatonin is a hormone mainly involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite the identification of melatonin in many insects, its involvement in the insect seasonal response remains unclear. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for melatonin analysis in aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for the first time. After comparing two different procedures and five extraction solvents, a sample preparation procedure with a mixture of methanol/water (50:50) was selected for melatonin extraction. The method was validated by analyzing melatonin recovery at three spiked concentrations (5, 50 and 100 pg/mg) and showed satisfactory recoveries (75-110%), and good repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (<10%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 pg/mg and 5 pg/mg, respectively. Eight concentration levels were used for constructing the calibration curves which showed good linearity between LOQ and 200 times LOQ. The validated method was successfully applied to 26 aphid samples demonstrating its usefulness for melatonin determination in insects. This is -to our knowledge- the first identification of melatonin in aphids by LC-MS/MS.
Yu, Ningxi; Lobue, Peter A; Cao, Xiaoyu; Limbach, Patrick A
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of modified ribonucleic acids (RNAs). The typical approach for analyzing modified nucleosides within RNA sequences by mass spectrometry involves ribonuclease digestion followed by LC-MS/MS analysis and data interpretation. Here we describe a new software tool, RNAModMapper (RAMM), to assist in the interpretation of LC-MS/MS data. RAMM is a stand-alone package that requires user-submitted DNA or RNA sequences to create a local database against which collision-induced dissociation (CID) data of modified oligonucleotides can be compared. RAMM can interpret MS/MS data containing modified nucleosides in two modes: fixed and variable. In addition, RAMM can also utilize interpreted MS/MS data for RNA modification mapping back against the input sequence(s). The applicability of RAMM was first tested using total tRNA isolated from Escherichia coli. It was then applied to map modifications found in 16S and 23S rRNA from Streptomyces griseus.
Li, Y G; Zou, Y; Zhang, L; Xi, C X; Wang, G M; Li, X L; Zhang, J Z; Li, Z G
In this paper, a new determination method for isometamidium residues in animal-derived foods was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Isometamidium residues in bovine tissues and milk were extracted with the mixed solution of acetonitrile and 0.25 mol/L of ammonium formate-methanol (v/v, 1:1), concentrated and degreased, and determined by LC-MS/MS with quantification by external standard method. The results showed that the peak area of chromatogram was linearly related to the concentration of isometamidium in the range of 1-100 μg/L, and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 μg/kg and 5 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of spiked samples were in the range of 73.8-93.9% with relative standard deviations ranged from 2.3% to 7.5%. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the identification and quantification for isometamidium in animal-derived foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, David; Yang, Paul; Taguchi, Vince; Morra, Franca
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of quaternary ammonium herbicides diquat (DQ) and paraquat (PQ) can be very challenging due to their complicated chromatographic and mass spectrometric behaviors. Various multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions from radical cations M(+) and singly charged cations [M-H](+), have been reported for LC-MS/MS quantitation under different chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions. However, interference peaks were observed for certain previously reported MRM transitions in our study. Using a Dionex Acclaim(®) reversed-phase and HILIC mixed-mode LC column, we evaluated the most sensitive MRM transitions from three types of quasi-molecular ions of DQ and PQ, elucidated the cross-interference phenomena, and demonstrated that the rarely mentioned MRM transitions from dications M(2+) offered the best selectivity for LC-MS/MS analysis. Experimental parameters, such as IonSpray (IS) voltage, source temperature, declustering potential (DP), column oven temperature, collision energy (CE), acid and salt concentrations in the mobile phases were also optimized and an uncommon electrospray ionization (ESI) capillary voltage of 1000V achieved the highest sensitivity. Employing the proposed dication transitions 92/84.5 for DQ and 93/171 for PQ, the direct aqueous injection LC-MS/MS method developed was able to provide a method detection limit (MDL) of 0.1μg/L for the determination of these two herbicides in drinking water. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Hazen, Jennie E.; Donahue, Lillian; Li, Xin-Min; Hazen, Stanley L.
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels in blood predict future risk for major adverse cardiac events including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Thus, the rapid determination of circulating TMAO concentration is of clinical interest. Here we report a method to measure TMAO in biological matrices by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with lower and upper limits of quantification of 0.05 and >200 µM, respectively. Spike and recovery studies demonstrate an accuracy at low (0.5 µM), mid (5 µM) and high (100 µM) levels of 98.2%, 97.3% and 101.6%, respectively. Additional assay performance metrics include intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variance of < 6.4% and < 9.9%, respectively, across the range of TMAO levels. Stability studies reveal TMAO in plasma is stable both during storage at −80 °C for 5 years and to multiple freeze thaw cycles. Fasting plasma normal range studies among apparently healthy subjects (n=349) shows a range of 0.73 – 126 µM, median (interquartile range) levels of 3.45 (2.25–5.79) µM, and increasing values with age. The LC/MS/MS based assay reported should be of value for further studies evaluating TMAO as a risk marker and for examining the effect of dietary, pharmacologic and environmental factors on TMAO levels. PMID:24704102
Grinberga, Solveiga; Zvejniece, Liga; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija; Pugovics, Osvalds
Phenibut (3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid) is a gamma-aminobutyric acid mimetic drug, which is used clinically as a mood elevator and tranquilizer. In the present work, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of phenibut in biological matrices has been developed. The method is based on protein precipitation with acidic acetonitrile followed by isocratic chromatographic separation using acetonitrile-formic acid (0.1% in water; 8:92, v/v) mobile phase on a reversed-phase column. Detection of the analyte was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transition m/z 180.3 --> m/z 117.2. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification for phenibut in rat brain extracts was 50 ng/mL. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained over the whole concentration range. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacological study to analyze phenibut concentration in rat brain tissue extract samples.
Yun, Huan; Cui, Fengyun; Yan, Hua; Liu, Xin; He, Yue; Zhang, Zhaohui
A method for the determination of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken has been developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS). After extracted by 1% (volume percentage) trichloroacetic acid solution-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) and purified by a Supelco LC-SCX cartridge, the samples were loaded onto an Acquity UPLC BEH Hillic column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and separated with gradient elution. The electrospray was operated in the positive mode and the samples were monitored by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of ribavirin and amantadine were 4.0 microg/kg. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 10.0 - 100.0 microg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were not lower than 0.99. When the spiked levels were 4.0, 8.0 and 20.0 microg/kg, the recoveries of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken ranged from 78% to 102.5%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.2% - 7.6%. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of ribavirin and amantadine in chicken samples.
Rubelt, Miriam S.; Amasheh, Salah; Grobosch, Thomas; Stein, Christoph
Analysis of in vitro samples with high salt concentrations represents a major challenge for fast and specific quantification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To investigate the intestinal permeability of opioids in vitro employing the Ussing chamber technique, we developed and validated a fast, sensitive and selective method based on LC–MS/MS for the determination of loperamide in HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with an Atlantis dC18 column, 2.1 mm×20 mm, 3 µm particle size and a gradient consisting of methanol/0.1% formic acid and ammonium acetate. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min, and the total run time was 3 min. For quantification, two mass transitions for loperamide and a deuterated internal standard (methadone-d3) were used. The lower limit of loperamide quantification was 0.2 ng/ml. This new LC-MS/MS method can be used for the detection of loperamide in any experimental setup using HEPES-buffered Ringer's solution as a matrix compound. PMID:23144895
Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Rashed, Mohamed S
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the analysis of homocitrulline in human urine, a key metabolite in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia, hyperornithinemia, homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Urine samples were prepared by mere five-fold dilution with a mixture of internal standards (2H2-citrulline and 2H3-creatinine) used for the simultaneous quantification of creatinine. Analytes were separated on a cyano column and eluted isocratically within seven min. Detection was achieved by monitoring transitions of 190 > 84 and 190 > 127 for homocitrulline, 178 > 115 for 2H2-citrulline, 114 > 44 for creatinine and 117 > 47 for 2H3-creatinine. Calibration curves were linear up to 100 micromol/L. Intraday (n = 7) and interday (n = 6) variations were less than 10%. In urine samples from three siblings confirmed to have HHH syndrome, homocitrulline levels were at 13.3 (74), 21.1 (50) and 108.2 (103) mmol/mol creatinine (micromol/L). Control values were 0-9 mmol/mol creatinine (n = 120). The current method solves specificity issues in homocitrulline determination often encountered with some ninhydrin-based systems (coelution with methionine) and some o-phthalaldehyde-based ones (coelution with taurine), and presents an attractive alternative with a relatively high throughput.
Luna, Leah G; Coady, Katherine
Over the last several decades, there has been an increase in public awareness and regulatory activity in regard to the presence of emerging contaminants in the environment that may have the potential to interact with the endocrine system of exposed wildlife. Alterations in vitellogenin (VTG), a high density yolk precursor protein, can indicate endocrine activity in oviparous species, including many fish and amphibians. While various methodologies and experiments have been performed to characterize baseline VTG concentrations among commonly studied fish species, fewer methodologies for accurately quantifying amphibian VTG are available. Since there is relatively little information available on background VTG levels in male and female frogs, the present investigation set out to quantify baseline levels of VTG in juvenile as well as adult male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) using a newly developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. This new methodology for quantifying VTG in X. laevis frog blood plasma can be applied in mechanistic and toxicity studies with X. laevis to better characterize potential endocrine modes of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhihong; King, Kristen L; Ramsdell, John S; Doucette, Gregory J
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal neurotoxin produced by diatoms primarily of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia and is responsible for the human intoxication syndrome known as amnesic shellfish poisoning. A method has been developed to determine DA in seawater and phytoplankton matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for both quantitation and confirmation purposes. Sample extraction and clean-up was achieved on a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. An acidic condition is critical for retaining hydrophilic DA on the cartridge. Direct injection of SPE eluate for analysis is recommended in order to avoid loss of DA by drying with heat prior to resuspension and injection. DA was quantified using the fragments produced from the protonated DA ion through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Recoveries exceeded 90% for all seawater samples spiked with DA and approximated 98% of toxin standard added to cultured phytoplankton material. Acceptable reproducibility (ca. 5% or less) was obtained for all intra-day and inter-day samples. The detection limit was 30 pg/ml level with a 20 microl injection volume, which demonstrated the value of this method for not only confirming DA production by minimally toxic phytoplankton species, but also for investigating the potentially important role of dissolved DA in marine food webs.
Forjan, Vanja; Cvitkovič Maričič, Lea; Prosen, Helena; Brodnjak Vončina, Darinka
A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of candesartan in human plasma. Analyte was separated from endogenous components present in plasma by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on Gemini C18 analytical column using mobile phase acetonitrile - 5 mM ammonium formate pH 2 (90:10, v/v) at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. For detection, tandem mass spectrometry in SRM mode with positive electrospray ionization was used. The mass transitions m/z 441.1 > 263.1 and 445.1 > 267.1 were used to determine candesartan by using candesartan-d4 as an internal standard. After development, the method was validated according to the requirements of EMA regulatory guidelines in the concentration range 1 - 400 ng/ml in human plasma. Limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/ml. The developed and validated method proved to be very fast and reproducible and was therefore successfully implemented in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies with large number of study samples.
Development and application of an in-cell cleanup pressurized liquid extraction with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect prohibited antiviral agents sensitively in livestock and poultry feces.
Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Jianmei; Yang, Hua; Li, Guoqin; Zeng, Yinhuan; Xia, Wei; Li, Zuguang; Qian, Mingrong
An in-cell cleanup pressurized liquid extraction was developed to analyze prohibited antiviral agents in livestock and poultry feces. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into one step. The extraction was performed using methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 0.5% glacial acetic acid at 90°C, and 0.75g of PSA was used as the adsorbent during the extraction procedure. Under optimal conditions, the average recoveries for 11 antiviral drugs were 71.5-112.5% at three spiked levels (20, 40, and 100μgkg(-1)). The detection limits and detection quantitations of the analysis method for the eleven antiviral drugs were 0.6-1.4 and 1.4-4.7μgkg(-1), respectively. Finally, the method was applied to analyze amantadine, oseltamivir and its metabolites oseltamivir acid in duck feces based on an experiment of an oral dose of two antiviral drugs in duck. The amantadine, oseltamivir and oseltamivir acid can be detected in feces within approximately four weeks after amantadine and oseltamivir were orally administered. The results indicate that the residue analysis in feces is a noninvasive method to monitor inhibited antiviral agents efficiently in livestock and poultry breeding.
Lee, Ju Yong; Yang, Joon Seon; Park, Se Mi; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee
An on-line lipid extraction method is introduced by utilizing a short capillary extraction column using HILIC and C4 particles prior to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The on-line extraction using a urine sample spiked with PL standards showed similar or slightly higher recovery values (86%-96%) of phospholipids (PLs) compared to those obtained by the conventional off-line extraction based on the Folch method with or without using the air-exposed drying process. In this study, we demonstrated that PL oxidation can occur during the air-exposed drying process of lipid extracts in standard liquid-liquid extraction procedures, which was confirmed by the oxidized PL (OxPL) molecules that were generated from an off-line extraction using a few PL standards. Quantitative comparison of these OxPL species between on- and off-line extraction followed by nLC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis showed a significant decrease (2-10 fold) in unwanted OxPL species when on-line extraction was employed. While the number of identified PLs from a urine sample was somewhat lower than those by off-line extraction, the number of OxPLs was significantly reduced (from 70 to 22) with on-line extraction. The new method offers high speed (∼5min) automated extraction of PLs with nLC-MS/MS analysis and presents the possibility of handling a biological sample with a very limited amount of lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Owing to frequent administration of a wide range of pharmaceutical products, various environmental waters have been found to be contaminated with pharmacologically active substances. For example, stanozolol, a synthetic anabolic steroid, is frequently misused for performance enhancement as well as for illegal growth promoting purposes in veterinary practice. Previously we reported stanozolol in hair samples collected from subjects living in Budapest. For this reason we initiated this study to explore possible environmental sources of steroid contamination. The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor stanozolol in aqueous matrices using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results Liquid-liquid extraction using pentane was found to be an efficient method for the extraction of stanozolol from water samples. This was followed by direct detection using LC-MS/MS. The method was capable of detecting 0.25 pg/mL stanozolol when only 5 mL water was processed in the presence of stanozolol D3 as internal standard. Fifteen bottled waters analysed were found to be negative for stanozolol. However, three out of six samples from the Danube river, collected from December '09 to November '10, were found to contain stanozolol at concentrations up to 1.82 pg/mL. In contrast, only one sample (out of six) of urban tap water from Budapest city was found to contain stanozolol, at a concentration of 1.19 pg/mL. Conclusion The method developed is efficient, rapid, reproducible, sensitive and robust for the detection of stanozolol in aqueous matrices. PMID:21999747
Xu, Dunming; Deng, Xiaojun; Fang, Enhua; Zheng, Xianghua; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Liyi; Chen, Luping; Wu, Ming; Huang, Zhiqiang
A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the determination of 23 phthalates in food samples including milk-based products, distilled liquor, wine, beverage, grain, meat, oil, biscuit (cookie), and canned food by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Liquid samples were exacted by acetonitrile, while solid samples were prepared by QuEChERS or glass-based SPE methods. The 23 phthalates were separated on Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column and followed by positive electrospray ionization as well as multi-reaction monitoring provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. To reduce contamination, the plastic materials were avoided in sample handling and preparation . The LODs were between 0.8 and 15 μg kg(-1) and LOQs were between 10 and 100 μg kg(-1). By using different concentrations: 100, 500, and 1000 μg kg(-1)) for DINP and DIDP; 50, 100, and 1000 μg kg(-1) for other 21 phthalate compounds, the spiked recoveries were within 75.5-115.2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 3.2-18.9%. The proposed protocol was then applied to the analysis of 623 real samples collected from the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, and the DEHP was found in almost all samples tested in this study, with levels ranging from 0.02 to 2685 mg kg(-1). The present study demonstrated a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining 23 phthalates in foodstuffs.
Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-Il; Park, Hyun-Mee
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-(13)C2-(15)N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and (13)C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices.
Elian, Albert A; Hackett, Jeffery
In this study, the extraction of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) from urine using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is described. SPE was performed on anion exchange columns after samples of urine had been diluted with de-ionized water. After application of the diluted samples containing GHB-d(6) as an internal standard, the sorbent was washed with deionized water and methanol and dried. The GHB was eluted from the SPE column with a solvent consisting of methanol containing 6% glacial acetic acid. The eluent was collected, evaporated to dryness, and dissolved in mobile phase (100 μL) for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Liquid chromatography was performed in gradient mode employing a biphenyl column and a mobile phase consisting of acetontitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. The total run time for each analysis was less than 5 min. The limits of detection/quantification for this method were determined to be 50 and 100 ng/mL, respectively. The method was found to be linear from 500 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL (r(2)>0.995). The recovery of GHB was found to be greater than 75%. In this report, results of authentic urine samples analyzed for GHB by this method are presented. GHB concentrations in these samples were found to be range from less than 500 ng/mL to 5110 ng/mL.
Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Kim, HaeSol; Oh, Min-Seok; Chu, Seok; Hwang, In Ju; Lee, Jee-yeon; Choi, Ari; Kim, Cho-il
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including IQ-d3, MeIQx-d3, PhIP-d3, Trp-P-2-13C2-15N and MeAαC-d3 was spiked for quantification of HCAs and 13C3-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices. PMID:26483884
A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.
Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima
Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiménez-Díaz, I; Vela-Soria, F; Zafra-Gómez, A; Navalón, A; Ballesteros, O; Navea, N; Fernández, M F; Olea, N; Vílchez, J L
Endocrine disruptors are a group of organic compounds widely used, which are ubiquitous in the environment and in biological samples. The main effect of these compounds is associated with their ability to mimic or block the action of natural hormones in living organisms, including humans. Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) belong to this group of compounds. In this work, we propose a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to asses the presence of parabens most commonly used in industrial applications (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-paraben) in samples of human placental tissue. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface in the negative mode. Deuterated bisphenol A (BPA-d(16)) was used as surrogate. Found detection limits (LOD) ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 ng g(-1) and quantification limits (LOQ) from 0.1 to 0.2 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 13.8%. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 82% to 108%. This method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of parabens in 50 placental tissue samples collected from women who live in the province of Granada (Spain).
Smits, Nathalie G E; Blokland, Marco H; Wubs, Klaas L; Nessen, Merel A; van Ginkel, Leen A; Nielen, Michel W F
The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) to enhance milk production is approved in several countries, but it is prohibited in the European Union. According to EU legislation, it is necessary to confirm positive screening results prior to enforcement. Although adequate screening assays are available nowadays, development of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmatory methods to detect low levels of rbST is still a challenge. Here, we present a novel approach using immuno-affinity enrichment on monolithic micro-columns in combination with state-of-the-art ultra-high pressure LC-MS/MS (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection. The developed approach enables detection and confirmation of rbST in serum at a decision limit (CCα) concentration of 0.8 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the method is easy to handle, robust and reproducible. We successfully applied the confirmatory method to serum samples from rbST treated cows that were found suspect after immunoassay-based screening. The use of rbST could be confirmed over 1 week after treatment, and the developed method demonstrated the sensitivity needed for effective control. Graphical Abstract Graphical summary of the workflow, for serum preparation, enrichment with monolith microcolumns and LC-MS/MS measurement of rbST.
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids and strobilurin fungicides in the particle phase fraction of atmosphere samples. Filter samples were extracted with pressurized solvent extraction, followed by a cleanup step with solid phase extraction. Method detection limits for the seven neonicotinoid insecticides and six strobilurin fungicides were in the range of 1.0-4.0 pg/m(3). Samples were collected from June to September 2013 at two locations (Osoyoos and Oliver) in the southern Okanagan Valley Agricultural Region of British Columbia, where these insecticides and fungicides are recommended for use on tree fruit crops (apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apricots) and vineyards. This work represents the first detection of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin in particle phase atmospheric samples collected in the Okanagan Valley in Canada. The highest particle phase atmospheric concentrations were observed for imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin at 360.0, 655.6, and 1908.2 pg/m(3), respectively.
Mei, Hong; Hsieh, Yunsheng; Nardo, Cymbylene; Xu, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiyong; Ng, Kwokei; Korfmacher, Walter A
A series of studies was performed to investigate some of the causes for matrix effects ('ion suppression' or 'ion enhancement') in bioanalytical high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assays. Previous studies have reported that matrix effects are mainly due to endogenous components in biological fluids and are a greater concern for electrospray ionization (ESI) than for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). In this report we demonstrate that: (1) matrix effects can also be caused by exogenous materials, such as polymers contained in different brands of plastic tubes, or Li-heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant; (2) matrix effects are not only ionization mode (APCI or ESI) dependent, but also source design (Sciex, Finnigan, Micromass) dependent; and (3) for at least one vendor's design, we found the APCI mode to be more sensitive to matrix effects than the ESI mode. Based on these findings, we have proposed the following simple strategies to avoid matrix effects: (1) select the same brand of plastic tubes for processing and storing plasma samples and spiked plasma standards; (2) avoid using Li-heparin as the anticoagulant; and (3) try switching the ionization mode or switching to different mass spectrometers when matrix effects are encountered. These three strategies have allowed us to use protein precipitation and generic fast LC techniques to generate reliable LC/MS/MS data for the support of pharmacokinetic studies at the early drug discovery stage. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moon, Soo Young; Lim, Min Kyoo; Hong, Susie; Jeon, Yongbum; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Song, Junghan
Busulfan, an alkylating agent administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, has a narrow therapeutic range and wide variability in metabolism. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for rapid and accurate quantification of plasma busulfan. Busulfan was separated and detected using an LC system containing a C18 column equipped with MS/MS. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase gradient for a total run time of 10 min. Plasma busulfan concentration was quantified against a 6-point standard curve in a multiple reaction monitoring mode at mass-to-charge (m/z) 264.1 > 151.1. Precision, recovery, matrix effect, linearity, detection capability, carryover, and stability were evaluated. The range of plasma busulfan concentration was obtained by analyzing samples from 9 children receiving busulfan. The coefficients of variation of within-run and within-laboratory precision were all below 5%. Recoveries were all within the range of 100-105%. Linearity was verified from 0 to 5,000 ng/mL. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 1.56 and 25 ng/mL, respectively. Carryover rate was within allowable limits. Plasma busulfan concentration was stable for 2 weeks at -20℃ and -80℃, but decreased by 25% when the plasma was stored for 24 hr at room temperature, and by <5% in 24 hr at 4℃. The plasma busulfan concentrations were between 347 ng/mL and 5,076 ng/mL. Our method using LC-MS/MS enables highly accurate, reproducible, and rapid busulfan monitoring with minimal sample preparation. The method may also enable safe and proper dosage.
Liu, Jia; Duan, Xiaotao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang
A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of eptifibatide in human plasma. Following protein precipitation, the analyte was separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column. Acetonitrile:5mM ammonium acetate:acetic acid (30:70:0.1, v/v/v) was used at a flow-rate of 0.5mL/min with the isocratic mobile phase. An API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a Turbo IonSpray ionization source was used as the detector and was operated in the positive ion mode. "Truncated" multiple reaction monitoring using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 832.6 and m/z 931.3-->m/z 931.3 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the internal standard (EPM-05), respectively. The method had a lower limit of quantification of 4.61ng/mL for eptifibatide. The calibration curve was demonstrated to be linear over the concentration range of 4.61-2770ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10.5% for each QC level, and the inter-day relative errors were 2.0%, 5.6%, and 2.8% for 9.22, 184, and 2490ng/mL, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the quantification of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 270-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide and i.v. administration of eptifibatide at a constant rate of infusion of 2microg/(kgmin) for 18h in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics.
Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Maia, Alexandra S; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Castro, Paula M L; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth
The interest for environmental fate assessment of chiral pharmaceuticals is increasing and enantioselective analytical methods are mandatory. This study presents an enantioselective analytical method for the quantification of seven pairs of enantiomers of pharmaceuticals and a pair of a metabolite. The selected chiral pharmaceuticals belong to three different therapeutic classes, namely selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine), beta-blockers (alprenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, propranolol) and a beta2-adrenergic agonist (salbutamol). The analytical method was based on solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyser. Briefly, Oasis MCX cartridges were used to preconcentrate 250 mL of water samples and the reconstituted extracts were analysed with a Chirobiotic V under reversed mode. The effluent of a laboratory-scale aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (AGS-SBR) was used to validate the method. Linearity (r(2)>0.99), selectivity and sensitivity were achieved in the range of 20-400 ngL(-1) for all enantiomers, except for norfluoxetine enantiomers which range covered 30-400 ngL(-1). The method detection limits were between 0.65 and 11.5 ngL(-1) and the method quantification limits were between 1.98 and 19.7 ngL(-1). The identity of all enantiomers was confirmed using two MS/MS transitions and its ion ratios, according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. This method was successfully applied to evaluate effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Portugal. Venlafaxine and fluoxetine were quantified as non-racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction ≠ 0.5). The enantioselective validated method was able to monitor chiral pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents and has potential to assess the enantioselective biodegradation in bioreactors. Further application in environmental matrices as surface and estuarine waters can be
Huang, Min; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Braselton, W Emmett; Johnson, Margaret
Ionophores are widely used in veterinary medicine as coccidiostats and for improving nutrient utilization in livestock production. Because of widespread use, ionophores sometimes cause poisoning in livestock. Quantifying concentration of these compounds in feeds for diagnostic purposes is needed. A method with a single step of solvent extraction was developed for rapid simultaneous quantification of monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, and narasin in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ionophores were extracted using methanol:water (90:10). With the high specificity and high sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometry, the extract was introduced for measurement without further processing. The effect of particle size of feeds on extraction efficiency was also investigated. It was found that feeds passing through a 1-mm filter or sieve show better quantitative extraction. Nigericin was used as internal standard for the measurement. The method was validated by fortification of the selected ionophore compounds in horse feed at different concentrations. The typical recovery rate was 69-122%. Meanwhile, various interlaboratory proficiency test samples of different matrices were also quantified as part of the procedure for method validation. A good agreement was found between results and the suggested values. The method is very sensitive, with detection limits between 0.018 µg/g and 0.056 µg/g for the compounds tested. Results showed that the lower limit of quantification was 0.2 µg/g for the ionophore compounds, which is much lower than the contents of the ionophores in medicated feeds, which is generally approximately 10-100 µg/g feed.
Jain, Vipin; Garg, Apurva; Parascandola, Mark; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Khariwala, Samir S; Stepanov, Irina
Chewing of areca nut in different forms such as betel quid or commercially produced pan masala and gutkha is common practice in the Indian subcontinent and many parts of Asia and is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, particularly oral and esophageal cancers. Areca nut-specific alkaloids arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine have been implicated in both the abuse liability and the carcinogenicity of the areca nut. Therefore, variations in the levels of areca alkaloids could potentially contribute to variations in addictive and carcinogenic potential across areca nut-containing products. Here, we developed an accurate and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of all four areca alkaloids and applied this method to the analysis of a range of products obtained from India, China, and the United States. The results of the analyses revealed substantial variations in the levels of alkaloids across the tested products, with guvacine being the most abundant (1.39-8.16 mg/g), followed by arecoline (0.64-2.22 mg/g), arecaidine (0.14-1.70 mg/g), and guvacoline (0.17-0.99 mg/g). Substantial differences in the relative contribution of individual alkaloids to the total alkaloid content were also observed among the different products. Our results highlight the need for systematic surveillance of constituent levels in areca nut-containing products and a better understanding of the relationship between the chemical profile and the harmful potential of these products.
Ayala, Daniel C.; Morin, Dexter; Buckpitt, Alan R.
Naphthalene is an environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed. Naphthalene causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity to murine airway epithelial cells but a link between exposure and human pulmonary disease has not been established. Naphthalene toxicity in rodents depends on P450 metabolism. Subsequent biotransformation results in urinary elimination of several conjugated metabolites. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of naphthols have been used as markers of naphthalene exposure but, as the current studies demonstrate, these assays provide a limited view of the range of metabolites generated from the parent hydrocarbon. Here, we present a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 1-naphthol as well as the mercapturic acids and N-acetyl glutathione conjugates from naphthalene epoxide. Standard curves were linear over 2 log orders. On column detection limits varied from 0.91 to 3.4 ng; limits of quantitation from 1.8 to 6.4 ng. The accuracy of measurement of spiked urine standards was -13.1 to + 5.2% of target and intra-day and inter-day variability averaged 7.2 (± 4.5) and 6.8 (± 5.0) %, respectively. Application of the method to urine collected from mice exposed to naphthalene at 15 ppm (4 hrs) showed that glutathione-derived metabolites accounted for 60-70% of the total measured metabolites and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates were eliminated in equal amounts. The method is robust and directly measures several major naphthalene metabolites including those derived from glutathione conjugation of naphthalene epoxide. The assays do not require enzymatic deconjugation, extraction or derivatization thus simplifying sample work up. PMID:25853821
He, Dechun; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Caiming; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Han, Jinglei
A fast analytical method for the determination of aniline in water and fish meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed. The water sample was mixed with acetonitrile by 4:1 (v/v) and the fish sample was extracted by 2.00 mL acetonitrile for each gram of sample, and then the extracts of water and fish samples were centrifuged at 5,000 r/min for 5 min. The separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using mobile phases of acetonitrile-0.5% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (85:15, v/v). Aniline was separated within 3 min. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-500 pg/L with R2 > 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.50 μg/L and 1.00 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.00 μg/L and 2.00 μg/kg for aniline in water and fish meat, respectively. The average recoveries of aniline in water were 93.7% at the spiked level of 40 ng and 86.7% at the spiked level of 400 ng (n = 5). The average recoveries of aniline in fish were 96.8%, 92.6% and 81.8% at the spiked levels of 5, 50 and 500 ng respectively (n = 5). The relative standard deviations were 1.5%-9.2%. Thirteen water samples and twelve fish samples were collected from a reservoir polluted by aniline and the maximum contents found were 1,943. 6 μg/L in water and 60.8 μg/kg in fish. The method is suitable for the determination of aniline residues in water and fish with the characteristics of easy operation, high accuracy and precision.
Siddique, Nadeem A; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Panda, Bibhu P; Makhmoor, Mohd
The intention of the proposed work is to study the presence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in medicinal plants, namely Mucuna pruriens, Delphinium denudatum and Portulaca oleraceae. The aflatoxins were extracted, purified by immunoaffinity column chromatography and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-MS/MS). Fungal count was carried out in PDA media. A good linear relationship was found for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at 1-10 ppb (r>0.9995). The analyte accuracy under three different spiking levels was 86.7-108.1 %, with low per cent relative standard deviations in each case. The aflatoxins can be separated within 5 to7 min using an Agilent XDB C18-column. We found that AFB1 and AFB2 were in trace amounts below the detection limit in M. pruriens whilst they were not detected in D. denudatum. P. oleraceae was found to be contaminated with AFB1 and AFB2. AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected in M. pruriens, P. oleraceae and were below the detection limit in D. denudatum. This was consistent with very low numbers of fungal colonies observed after 6 hr of incubation. The analytical method developed is simple, precise, accurate, economical and can be effectively used to determine the aflatoxins in medicinal plants and therefore to control the quality of products. The aflatoxin levels in the plant extracts examined were related to the minimal fungal load in the medicinal plants examined.
Bi, Ruifeng; Fan, Zhixian; Fu, Meng
A method for the determination of four aflatoxins in cashew using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with methanol-water (8: 2, v/v) solution, followed by a cleanup procedure with Florisil column. The target compounds were eluted using 5 mL acetone-water-formic acid (96: 3.5:0.5, v/v/v) solution. The eluate was dried under N2, then dissolved in 1 mL methanol. Four aflatoxins were separated in MG C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm) adopting a gradient program within 15 min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode was used to detect the aflatoxins. The good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.997) of the four aflatoxins were obtained within their respective linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.009 microg/kg and 0.04 microg/kg, and the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.03 microg/kg and 0.12 microg/kg. The recoveries were in a range of 63.0% -78.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.8% to 9.1%. The validation results meet the requirements of trace assay. Matrix effects were estimated and the signal suppression/enhancement ranged from 88.8% to 99.4%. The results indicate that the developed method is simple, fast, accurate, and can be applied for the determination of fours aflatoxins in cashew.
Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, David K K; Wan, Terence S M
Anabolic steroids have the capability of improving athletic performance and are banned substances in the Olympic games as well as in horseracing and equestrian competitions. The control of their abuse in racehorses is traditionally performed by detecting the presence of anabolic steroids and/or their metabolite(s) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this approach usually requires tedious sample processing and chemical derivatisation steps and could be very insensitive in detecting certain steroids. This paper describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for the detection of anabolic steroids that are poorly covered by GC-MS. Enzyme-treated urine was processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a Bond Elut Certify cartridge, followed by a base wash for further cleanup. Separation of the steroids was carried out on a reversed-phase DB-8 column using 0.1% acetic acid and methanol as the mobile phase in a gradient elution programme. The mass spectrometer for the detection of the steroids was operated in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Urine samples fortified with 15 anabolic steroids (namely, androstadienone, 1-androstenedione, bolasterone, boldione, 4-estrenedione, gestrinone, methandrostenolone, methenolone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, norbolethone, normethandrolone, oxandrolone, stenbolone, trenbolone and turinabol) at low ng/mL levels were consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention times of the targeted ion masses in blank urine samples. The method specificity, sensitivity, precision, recoveries, and the performance of the enzyme hydrolysis step were evaluated. The successful application of the method to analyse methenolone acetate administration urine samples demonstrated that the method could be effective in detecting anabolic steroids and their metabolites in horse
Stutelberg, Michael W; Dzisam, Joseph K; Monteil, Alexandre R; Petrikovics, Ilona; Boss, Gerry R; Patterson, Steven E; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A
The current suite of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antidotes (i.e., sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxocobalamin) are effective for treating cyanide poisoning, but individually, each antidote has major limitations (e.g., large effective dosage or delayed onset of action). To mitigate these limitations, next-generation cyanide antidotes are being investigated, including 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP) and cobinamide (Cbi). Analytical methods capable of detecting these therapeutics individually and simultaneously (for combination therapy) are essential for the development of 3-MP and Cbi as potential cyanide antidotes. Therefore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of 3-MP and Cbi was developed. Sample preparation of 3-MP consisted of spiking plasma with an internal standard ((13)C3-3-MP), precipitation of plasma proteins, and derivatizing 3-MP with monobromobimane to produce 3-mercaptopyruvate-bimane. Preparation of Cbi involved denaturing plasma proteins with simultaneous addition of excess cyanide to convert each Cbi species to dicyanocobinamide (Cbi(CN)2). The limits of detection for 3-MP and Cbi were 0.5μM and 0.2μM, respectively. The linear ranges were 2-500μM for 3-MP and 0.5-50μM for Cbi. The accuracy and precision for 3-MP were 100±9% and <8.3% relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. For Cbi(CN)2, the accuracy was 100±13% and the precision was <9.5% RSD. The method presented here was used to determine 3-MP and Cbi from treated animals and may ultimately facilitate FDA approval of these antidotes for treatment of cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCracken, Brent A; Brittain, Matthew K
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been widely utilized for the analysis of compounds in biological matrices due to its selectivity and sensitivity. This study describes the application of an LC-MS/MS-based approach toward the analysis of cobinamide in Yorkshire pig plasma. The selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, range, carryover, sensitivity, matrix effect, interference, stability, reproducibility, and ruggedness of the method were investigated in pig plasma. The accuracy and precision of the method was determined to be within 10% over three different days over a range of concentrations (25-10,000ng/mL) that spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for dicyanocobinamide was determined to be 25ng/mL in pig plasma. Carryover was acceptable, as the area response of the carryover blanks were ≤15% of the area response of the nearest LLOQ standard for the analyte, while it was nonexistent for the internal standard. Specificity was ensured using six different lots of pig plasma. While the matrix effects of dicyanocobinamide in plasma were enhanced, ginsenoside Rb1 experienced signal suppression under the described conditions. The absolute recovery results for both compounds were consistent, precise, and reproducibly lower than expected at ∼60% for dicyanocobinamide and ∼22% for ginsenoside Rb1, confirming that a matrix standard curve was required for accurate quantitation. Cobinamide was shown to be very stable in matrix at various storage conditions including room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen at time intervals of 20h, 4 days, and 60 days respectively. This method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, stable, and rugged, and it should be applicable to the analysis of cobinamide in other biological matrices and species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Benskin, Jonathan P; Bataineh, Mahmoud; Martin, Jonathan W
A comprehensive method was developed to simultaneously separate and detect perfluorinated acid (PFA) and PFA-precursor isomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A linear perfluorooctyl stationary phase and acidified mobile phase increased separation efficiency, relative to alkyl stationary phases, for the many perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFCA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSA), and perfluorooctyl sulfonamide (PFOSA) isomers and in combination with their distinct MS/MS transitions allowed full resolution of most isomers in standards. Utilizing the absence of the "9-series" and "0-series" product ions, several perfluorooctane sulfonate (C8F17SO3-, PFOS) isomers were structurally elucidated. In human serum, only perfluorooctane sulfonamide (C8F17SO2NH2, FOSA) and PFOS consisted of significant quantities of branched isomers, whereas PFCAs were predominantly linear. Interferences that coelute with the m/z 499 --> 80 transition of PFOS on alkyl stationary phases were simultaneously separated and identified as taurodeoxycholate isomers, removal of which permitted the use of the more sensitive m/z 80 product ion and a resulting 20-fold decrease in PFOS detection limits compared to the m/z 499 --> 99 transition (0.8 pg versus 20 pg using m/z 80 and 99, respectively). Interferences in human serum which caused a 10-20-fold over-reporting of perfluorohexane sulfonate (C6F13SO3-, PFHxS) concentrations on alkyl stationary phases were also simultaneously separated from linear PFHxS and identified as endogenous steroid sulfates. PFOSA isomers, generated with human microsomes, had different rates of metabolism, suggesting that the perfluoroalkyl branching pattern may affect the biological properties of individual isomers. This fact, and for reasons of improved accuracy and sensitivity, investigators are urged to utilize more efficient separation methods capable of isomer characterization in perfluoroalkyl research.
Balani, Suresh K; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Qian, Mark G; Costa, Arnaldo O; Daniels, J Scott; Yang, Hua; Shimoga, Prakash R; Wu, Jing-Tao; Gan, Liang-Shang; Lee, Frank W; Miwa, Gerald T
The microdosing strategy allows for early assessment of human pharmacokinetics of new chemical entities using more limited safety assessment requirements than those requisite for a conventional phase I program. The current choice for evaluating microdosing is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) due to its ultrasensitivity for detecting radiotracers. However, the AMS technique is still expensive to be used routinely and requires the preparation of radiolabeled compounds. This report describes a feasibility study with conventional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology for oral microdosing assessment in rats, a commonly used preclinical species. The nonlabeled drugs fluconazole and tolbutamide were studied because of their similar pharmacokinetics characteristics in rats and humans. We demonstrate that pharmacokinetics can be readily characterized by LC-MS/MS at a microdose of 1 microg/kg for these molecules in rats, and, hence, LC-MS/MS should be adequate in human microdosing studies. The studies also exhibit linearity in exposure between the microdose and >or=1000-fold higher doses in rats for these drugs, which are known to show a linear dose-exposure relationship in the clinic, further substantiating the potential utility of LC-MS/MS in defining pharmacokinetics from the microdose of drugs. These data should increase confidence in the use of LC-MS/MS in microdose pharmacokinetics studies of new chemical entities in humans. Application of this approach is also described for an investigational compound, MLNX, in which the pharmacokinetics in rats were determined to be nonlinear, suggesting that MLNX pharmacokinetics at microdoses in humans also might not reflect those at the therapeutic doses. These preclinical studies demonstrate the potential applicability of using traditional LC-MS/MS for microdose pharmacokinetic assessment in humans.
Thomas, Dominique; Herold, Nikolas; Keppler, Oliver T; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ferreirós, Nerea
Nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates are the building blocks of nucleic acids and important bioactive metabolites, existing in all living cells. In the present study, two liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed to quantify both groups of compounds from the same sample with a shared extraction procedure. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the nucleosides were separated with reversed phase chromatography on an Atlantis T3 column while for the separation of the nucleoside triphosphates, an anion exchange column (BioBasic AX) was used. No addition of ion pair reagent was required. A 5500 QTrap was used as analyzer, operating as triple quadrupole. The analytical method for the nucleoside triphosphates has been validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration. The lower limit of quantification values were determined as 10 pg on column (0.5 ng/mL in the injection solution) for deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, 20 pg (1 ng/mL) for deoxycytidine triphosphate and thymidine triphosphate, 100 pg (5 ng/mL) for cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, and 500 pg (25 ng/mL) for adenosine triphosphate und uridine triphosphate respectively. This methodology has been applied to the quantitation of nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. As expected, the concentrations for ribonucleosides and ribonucleoside triphophates were considerably higher than those obtained for the deoxy derivatives. Upon T cell receptor activation, the levels of all analytes, with the notable exceptions of deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, were found to be elevated in CD4 T cells.
Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.
McCracken, Brent A.; Brittain, Matthew K.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been widely utilized for the analysis of compounds in biological matrices due to its selectivity and sensitivity. This study describes the application of an LC-MS/MS-based approach toward the analysis of cobinamide in Yorkshire pig plasma. The selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, range, carryover, sensitivity, matrix effect, interference, stability, reproducibility, and ruggedness of the method were investigated in pig plasma. The accuracy and precision of the method was determined to be within 10% over three different days over a range of concentrations (25–10,000 ng/mL) that spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for dicyanocobinamide was determined to be 25 ng/mL in pig plasma. Carryover was acceptable, as the area response of the carryover blanks were ≤15% of the area response of the nearest LLOQ standard for the analyte, while it was nonexistent for the internal standard. Specificity was ensured using six different lots of pig plasma. While the matrix effects of dicyanocobinamide in plasma were enhanced, ginsenoside Rb1 experienced signal suppression under the described conditions. The absolute recovery results for both compounds were consistent, precise, and reproducibly lower than expected at ~60% for dicyanocobinamide and ~22% for ginsenoside Rb1, confirming that a matrix standard curve was required for accurate quantitation. Cobinamide was shown to be very stable in matrix at various storage conditions including room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen at time intervals of 20 hours, 4 days, and 60 days respectively. This method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, stable, and rugged, and it should be applicable to the analysis of cobinamide in other biological matrices and species. PMID:26540437
Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Bolhuis, Mathieu; van Hateren, Kai; Sturkenboom, Marieke; Akkerman, Onno; de Lange, Wiel; Greijdanus, Ben; van der Werf, Tjip; Touw, Daan
Bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), relies on exposure-dependent killing. As data on drug exposure in specific populations are scarce, pharmacokinetic studies may be of interest. No simple and robust validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been reported to date. Therefore, a new method using a quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed for analysis of bedaquiline and N-monodesmethyl bedaquiline (M2) in human serum, using deuterated bedaquiline as the internal standard. The calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.05 (lower limit of quantification [LLOQ]) to 6.00 mg/liter for both bedaquiline and M2, with correlation coefficient values of 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. The calculated accuracy ranged from 1.9% to 13.6% for bedaquiline and 2.9% to 8.5% for M2. Within-run precision ranged from 3.0% to 7.2% for bedaquiline and 3.1% to 5.2% for M2, and between-run precision ranged from 0.0% to 4.3% for bedaquiline and 0.0% to 4.6% for M2. Evaluation of serum concentrations in a patient receiving bedaquiline showed high levels at the end of treatment, reflecting accumulation of the drug. More observational pharmacokinetic data are needed to relate altered drug concentrations to clinical outcome or adverse drug effects. A simple LC-MS/MS method to quantify bedaquiline and M2 levels in human serum using a deuterated internal standard has been validated. This method can be used in clinical studies and daily practice.
Hegstad, S; Khiabani, H Z; Kristoffersen, L; Kunøe, N; Lobmaier, P P; Christophersen, A S
Hair has become an important matrix for drug analysis, complementary to blood and urine as a matrix. A prolonged detection window makes hair analysis suitable for the detection of exposure to illegal and medicinal drugs for periods up to 12 months. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for drug screening in hair was developed and validated. To 20 mg of hair, 0.45 mL of acetonitrile/25 mM formic acid (5:95 v/v) and 50 microL of deuterated internal standards were added, and the sample was incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 18 h. LC separation was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5-microm particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray LC-MS-MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: nicotine, cotinine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, 7-aminonitrazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, meprobamate, buprenorphine, and methadone. Within- and between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2.0% to 12% and 2.7% to 15%, respectively. The accuracies were in the range of -24% to 16%, and recoveries ranged from 25% to 100%. The LC-MS-MS method proved to be simple and robust for the determination of drugs in hair. It has been used for authentic samples in our laboratory in the past year.
Ayala, Daniel C; Morin, Dexter; Buckpitt, Alan R
Naphthalene is an environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed. Naphthalene causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity to murine airway epithelial cells but a link between exposure and human pulmonary disease has not been established. Naphthalene toxicity in rodents depends on P450 metabolism. Subsequent biotransformation results in urinary elimination of several conjugated metabolites. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of naphthols have been used as markers of naphthalene exposure but, as the current studies demonstrate, these assays provide a limited view of the range of metabolites generated from the parent hydrocarbon. Here, we present a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 1-naphthol as well as the mercapturic acids and N-acetyl glutathione conjugates from naphthalene epoxide. Standard curves were linear over 2 log orders. On column detection limits varied from 0.91 to 3.4 ng; limits of quantitation from 1.8 to 6.4 ng. The accuracy of measurement of spiked urine standards was -13.1 to + 5.2% of target and intra-day and inter-day variability averaged 7.2 (± 4.5) and 6.8 (± 5.0) %, respectively. Application of the method to urine collected from mice exposed to naphthalene at 15 ppm (4 hrs) showed that glutathione-derived metabolites accounted for 60-70% of the total measured metabolites and sulfate and glucuronide conjugates were eliminated in equal amounts. The method is robust and directly measures several major naphthalene metabolites including those derived from glutathione conjugation of naphthalene epoxide. The assays do not require enzymatic deconjugation, extraction or derivatization thus simplifying sample work up.
Turpeinen, U; Linko, S; Itkonen, O; Hämäläinen, E
Commercial direct immunoassays for serum testosterone sometimes result in inaccuracies in samples from women and children, leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The diagnosis of male hypogonadism also requires an accurate testosterone assay method. We therefore developed a sensitive and specific stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for serum testosterone at the concentrations encountered in women and children. Testosterone was extracted with ether-ethyl acetate from 250 microL or 500 microL of serum. Instrumental analysis was performed on an API 2000 tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode after separation on a reversed-phase column. The MRM transitions (m/z) were 289/97 for testosterone and 291/99 for d(2) testosterone. The calibration curves exhibited consistent linearity and repeatability in the range 0.2-100 nmol/L. Interassay CVs were 4.2-7.6 % at mean concentrations of testosterone of 3.3-45 nmol/L. Total measurement uncertainty (U, k = 2) was 12.9 % and 13.4 % at testosterone levels of 2.0 nmol/L and 20 nmol/L, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.05 nmol/L (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) and the overall method recovery of testosterone was 95 %. Correlation (r) with our in-house extraction RIA was 0.98 and with a commercial RIA 0.92. Reference intervals for adult males and females in age groups 18-30, 31-50, 51-70 and over 70 years were established. Sensitivity and specificity of the LC-MS/MS method offer advantages over immunoassay and make it suitable for use as a high-throughput assay in routine clinical laboratories. The high equipment costs are balanced by higher throughput together with shorter chromatographic run times.
Guo, Shoudong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Kan, Yujie; Li, Fuyu; Li, Yu; Li, Fangyuan; Qin, Shucun
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to quantify sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) from lipoproteins and human plasma. The method was used to investigate the different contents of NANA from lipoproteins between diabetic with an average age of 51.6 years and healthy participants with an average age of 50.7 years. The NANA from lipoprotein samples was hydrolyzed by acetic acid (pH = 2) at 80 °C for 2 h and analyzed by the optimized LC-MS/MS method after high speed centrifugation and filtration. The limits of detection and quantification of NANA were 7.4 and 24.5 pg, respectively. The linear range was 2.5-80 ng/mL for NANA and the correlation coefficient (R2) was more than 0.998. The levels of NANA in the plasma of type II diabetics and healthy participants were (548.3 ± 88.9) and (415.3 ± 55.5) mg/L, respectively; and the levels of NANA from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of the type II diabetics and the healthy participants were (4.91 ± 0.19), (6.95 ± 0.28), (3.61 ± 0.22) μg/mg and (2.90 ± 0.27), (7.03 ± 0.04), (2.40 ± 0.09) μg/mg, respectively. The sialic acid levels of VLDL and HDL from the type II diabetics were markedly higher than those of the corresponding healthy participants with the similar ages (P < 0.01). The method can rapidly determine the sialic acid from lipoproteins, and is reproducible and time saving.
Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Chan, Wing Hei; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP.
Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez, Maria; De Boeck, Gert; Wood, Michelle; Lopez-Rivadulla, Manuel; Samyn, Nele
Cannabis is considered to be the most widely abused illicit drug in Europe. Consequently, sensitive and specific analytical methods are needed for forensic purposes and for cannabinoid pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy- Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy- Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in blood is presented. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines and comprises simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the three analytes with hexane:ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) into a single eluant followed by separation and quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a XBridge C(18) column eluted isocratically with methanol:0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v). Selectivity of the method was achieved by a combination of retention time, and two precursor-product ion transitions. The use of the LLE was demonstrated to be highly effective and led to significant decreases in the interferences present in the matrix. Validation of the method was performed using 250 microL of blood. The method was linear over the range investigated (0.5-40 microg/L for THC, 1-40 microg/L for 11-OH-THC, and 2-160 microg/L for THC-COOH) with excellent intra-assay and inter-assay precision; relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <12% for THC and 11-OH-THC and <8% for THC-COOH for certified quality control samples. The lower limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator in the linearity experiments. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The method was subsequently applied to 63 authentic blood samples obtained from toxicology cases. The validation and actual sample analysis results show that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well suited
[Determination of congo red in beef by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].
Lin, Hui; Xu, Chunxiang; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Suilou
A method was developed for the determination of congo red in beef. The analyte was identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the congo red in the beef sample was separated on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution HD UPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) HPLC , using 95% (volume percentage) methanol as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed on an AB 4000 + triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linear range of congo red mass concentration was 0.03 - 1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 8. The method had a good precision with the RSDs lower than 5% and the recoveries ranging from 88% to 91%. The limit of detection (LOD) of congo red was 0.01 mg/L. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the determination of the illegally added congo red in beef and other meat products.
Chang, Chui-Shiang; Yeh, Tai Sheng
The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), glycyrrhizic acid (GA), neotame (NEO), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), sucralose (SCL), and stevioside (STV)] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm) column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC-MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages) and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits). Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda; Serfling, Stan; Gieseker, Charlie; Reimschuessel, Renate
An analytical method was developed to quantitate and confirm the presence of 17alpha-methyltestosterone in the muscles of tilapia, rainbow trout, and salmon. The method employed two liquid-liquid partitioning steps and two solid-phase extraction columns for sample cleanup. The final extracts were analyzed on an isocratic reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode. The method was validated at levels from 0.40 to 1.6 ng/g, with MT-d3 used as an internal standard. The accuracy was between 100% and 110%, and coefficients of variation of <10% were obtained for all three fish species. Muscle tissues from dosed fish were also assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering the parent drug.
Carricajo, Anne; Verhoeven, Paul O; Guezzou, Salim; Fonsale, Nathalie; Aubert, Gerald
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria poses a new challenge in the management of antibiotic therapies for patients. This report describes a new method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In a panel of 78 isolates, including 41 carbapenemase-producing strains, the ULPC-MS/MS assay showed 100% agreement with molecular characterization, whereas six carbapenemase-producing isolates were not detected by the modified Hodge test.
Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo; Berti, Cristiana; Pietta, Piergiorgio
Propolis has various biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, immunostimulating and antiinflammatory, which are generally ascribed to the polyphenolic fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of the main polyphenols [caffeic acid (CA), pinobanksin-5methyl ether (P-5ME), pinobanksin (Pb), chrysin (C), pinocembrin (P), galangin (G), pinobanksin-3-acetate, pinobanksin esters and caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE)] from a dewaxed and standardized extract of propolis (EPID). Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed 5 mL EPID in water, corresponding to 125 mg of flavonoids. Blood samples were collected before, each hour for 8 h and 24 h after EPID intake. After deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase the plasma samples were analyzed by a selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method using morin as internal standard (I.S.). A kinetic profile characterized by two t(max), respectively at 1 h and about 5 h post-ingestion, was observed in all the subjects. The two peaks may be due to enterohepatic cycling. Among the various polyphenols ingested, only P-5ME, Pb, C, P and G were detected in plasma and C(max)t(1h) were 65.7 +/- 13.3, 46.5 +/- 12.7, 79.5 +/- 18.6, 168.1 +/- 16.3 and 113.7 +/- 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. These levels decreased significantly after 8 h and were no longer detectable 24 h after EPID intake. The recovery of the extraction for CA, Pb, C, P, G and I.S. from spiked plasma was 95.2 +/- 3.1, 93.1 +/- 3.6, 91 +/- 2.5, 96.4 +/- 4.2, 93.4 +/- 2.4 and 85.5 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The results of this study evidence that flavonoids from EPID are absorbed, metabolized and Pb-5ME and G seem to have apparent absorption, measured as (AUC/dose), higher than C, P and Pb.
Islam, M Dabalus; Haberhauer, G; Gerzabek, M; Cannavan, A
A simple and inexpensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of anthelmintics in alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.) was developed and validated. Anthelmintics in plant leaves and stems (green chops) were extracted with methanol/acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) followed by a concentration and clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (Strata-X, 500 mg, 6 ml cartridge). After drying with nitrogen gas, the adsorbed analytes were eluted with methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture followed by 100% acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Atlantis T-3 (2.1 × 100 mm × 3 µm) analytical column with a Phenomenex guard cartridge (C8, 4 × 3 mm) attached to a Waters triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionisation mode with selected reaction monitoring. Samples were analysed using gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 ml min⁻¹. The mobile phase consisted of a 10 mM ammonium formate solution in (A) water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) and (B) methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The method was validated for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg⁻¹ and for eprinomectin at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10 µg kg⁻¹ for all analytes except eprinomectin, which had an LOQ of 20 µg kg⁻¹. The overall mean recovery in green plants was between 74.2% and 81.4% with repeatabilities ranging from 2.2% to 19.1% and reproducibilities in the range 3.8-8.7%. The validated method was applied to plant samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil, plant and water system.
Yi, Rong; Sandhu, Jasmeet; Zhao, Sarah; Lam, Geoffrey; Loganathan, Devan; Morrissey, Barbara
Efaproxiral (RSR 13) is an experimental synthetic allosteric modifier of haemoglobin (Hb) that acts by increasing the release of oxygen from Hb to the surrounding tissues. It has been shown to increase maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) in a canine skeletal muscle model. The ability to increase maximal muscle oxygen uptake makes efaproxiral a potential performance-enhancing agent and is therefore prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. In this study, a method for the detection and elimination of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine after a 2.5 g intravenous administration of efaproxiral is described. Post administration plasma and urine samples were collected up to 120 h. Efaproxiral was detected up to 120 h in urine and up to 78 h in plasma. In plasma, the peak concentration was 42 µg/ml and detected at 5 min post administration. In urine, the peak concentration was 2.8 mg/ml and detected at 0-1 h post administration. A validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was used for the quantitation of efaproxiral in equine plasma and urine. The limit of detection of the method is 0.05 ng/ml in plasma and 0.1 ng/ml in urine. The method is highly sensitive and specific with good precision, accuracy and recovery. The manuscript also describes the systematic identification of efaproxiral metabolites detected in post administration equine urine samples. The metabolites were identified by use of enhanced mass spectra and enhanced product ion scans. Both positive and negative mode ionizations were utilized for metabolite identification and plausible fragmentation pathways were proposed for the phase 1 metabolite identified. In addition to free efaproxiral, one phase 1 metabolite and two phase 2 metabolites were identified in post administration urine. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2014. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T
The diagnosis of galactosemia usually involves the measurement of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. Traditional radioactive and fluorescent GALT assays are nonspecific, laborious, and/or lack sufficient analytical sensitivity. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based assay for GALT enzyme activity measurement. Our assay used stable isotope-labeled alpha- galactose-1-phosphate ([(13)C(6)]-Gal-1-P) as an enzyme substrate. Sample cleanup and separation were achieved by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, and the enzymatic product, isotope-labeled uridine diphosphate galactose ([(13)C(6)]-UDPGal), was detected by MS/MS at mass transition (571 > 323) and quantified by use of [(13)C(6)]-Glu-1-P (265 > 79) as an internal standard. The method yielded a mean (SD) GALT enzyme activity of 23.8 (3.8) mumol x (g Hgb)(-1) x h(-1) in erythrocyte extracts from 71 controls. The limit of quantification was 0.04 micromol x (g Hgb)(-1) x h(-1) (0.2% of normal control value). Intraassay imprecision was determined at 4 different levels (100%, 25%, 5%, and 0.2% of the normal control values), and the CVs were calculated to be 2.1%, 2.5%, 4.6%, and 9.7%, respectively (n = 3). Interassay imprecision CVs were 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.2%, and 13.2% (n = 5), respectively. The assay recoveries at the 4 levels were higher than 90%. The apparent K(m) of the 2 substrates, Gal-1-P and UDPGlc, were determined to be 0.38 mmol/L and 0.071 mmol/L, respectively. The assay in erythrocytes of 33 patients with classical galactosemia revealed no detectable activity. This LC-MS/MS-based assay for GALT enzyme activity will be useful for the diagnosis and study of biochemically heterogeneous patients with galactosemia, especially those with uncommon genotypes and detectable but low residual activities.
Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo
The purified extract of propolis is used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of several diseases. Its beneficial activities are mainly attributed to the polyphenolic fraction. Nevertheless, propolis can cause allergic dermatitis and the sensitization rate in humans is increasing significantly mainly in younger subjects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (UPLC/MS/MS) for the evaluation of the amount of caffeic acid and its esters with allergenic action in raw propolis samples and commercial formulations. The separation was carried out on a 1.7 μm C(18) BEH Shield column and the detection performed by means of electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The confirmation of formulae of the precursor and product ions was accomplished by injection into a high-resolution system (FTICR-MS) using accurate mass measurements. The error was below 1.4 ppm.The range of the standard curves was 0.5-10 μg/mL and dihydrocaffeic acid was used as internal standard (IS). The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 3-methyl-2-butenyl-(3M2B), 3-methyl-3-butenyl-(3M3B), 2-methyl-2-butenyl-(2M2B), benzyl-(CABE), phenylethylcaffeic acid (CAPE) and for caffeic acid (CA) and the IS was 0.1 and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries were in the range 96-104% and the intra- and inter-day precisions were within 6.2%. In the European (n=8) and Asiatic (n=3) propolis the most abundant allergens were CABE>3M2B>CAPE>3M3B>CA>2M2B. These compounds were not found in the red (n=1) and green (n=1) Brazilian propolis. Hydroalcoholic extracts (n=6) and tablets (n=6) were analyzed by the proposed UPLC/MS/MS method. The results showed that in the commercial products CABE, 3M2B, CAPE and 3M3B were also the most abundant. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Persichilli, Silvia; Gervasoni, Jacopo; Iavarone, Federica; Zuppi, Cecilia
The best index of adrenal dysfunction is urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements performed using a 24-h urine collection. This measurement is also useful in the investigation of Cushing's syndrome. In this paper, we report a simple and selective method for the analysis of UFC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) suitable for use in a high-volume clinical laboratory routine. The results were compared to those obtained using a commercial immunoassay method used in our laboratory. Urine samples containing 50 ng of internal standard (Cortisol-9,11,12,12-d(4)) were deproteinized using centrifugal filters with a molecular weight 10,000 Da cut-off and injected on a reversed phase column. Cortisol was analyzed in highly selective reaction monitoring in positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode, at a resolution of 0.4 amu full width half maximum, and following the transitions related to the precursor 363.2 for cortisol and 367.2 for deuterated cortisol. The method validation included analysis of precision, linearity, sensitivity, recovery and interference from structurally similar steroids. UFC from 230 subjects was measured using LC-MS/MS and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) methods. The calibration curves exhibited linearity and reproducibility in the range 7-10,000 nmol/L. Total imprecision was lower than 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2 and 7 nmol/L, respectively. Mean recovery was higher than 90%. Structurally similar steroids do not interfere in the proposed method, but cause a significant change in the ECLIA results. Cortisol values obtained using the ECLIA method were always higher than those obtained using the LC-MS/MS method, with the bias directly proportional to cortisol concentrations. The reference values calculated using 180 normal subjects were 11-70 μg/day. The proposed method is sensitive, simple, free from interferences and reliable for routine use.
Chu, Shaogang; Metcalfe, Chris D
Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and the drinking water quality guideline for this compound is 0.5 mg/L. However, analysis of this compound in water is difficult because of its very high water solubility, which limits the efficiency of sample preconcentration prior to analysis. We developed a robust and sensitive analytical method for the determination of trace quantities of acrylamide in samples of water using a novel preparative technique and isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as the ion source (LC-APCI-MS/MS). The preparative method involves coevaporation of acrylamide with water at pH 10 using a rotary evaporator, followed by acidification to pH 3.0 and concentration of the sample prior to analysis by LC-APCI-MS/MS. To compensate for the loss of the analyte during sample preparation and signal suppression due to interference from the sample matrix, isotope dilution with acrylamide-d3 was used for quantitation. Using this method, analyte recoveries ranged from 74 to 103% for acrylamide spiked into water at a concentration of 0.4 ng/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide in water were 0.02 and 0.06 ng/mL, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine trace levels of acrylamide in samples of river water and in runoff from an agricultural field to which municipal biosolids (i.e., sludge) had been applied. Concentrations of acrylamide in these samples ranged from
Upreti, Rita; Naredo, Gregorio; Faqehi, Abdullah M.M.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Stewart, Laurence H.; Walker, Brian R.; Homer, Natalie Z.M.; Andrew, Ruth
Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer can be treated with the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, when pharmacodynamic biomarkers are useful in assessing response. A novel method was developed to measure the substrates and products of 5α-reductases (testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione) and finasteride and dutasteride simultaneously by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, using an ABSciex QTRAP® 5500, with a Waters Acquity™ UPLC. Analytes were extracted from serum (500 µL) via solid-phase extraction (Oasis® HLB), with 13C3-labelled androgens and d9-finasteride included as internal standards. Analytes were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (150×3 mm, 2.6 µm), using a gradient run of 19 min. Temporal resolution of analytes from naturally occurring isomers and mass +2 isotopomers was ensured. Protonated molecular ions were detected in atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mode and source conditions optimised for DHT, the least abundant analyte. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed as follows: testosterone (m/z 289→97), DHT (m/z 291→255), androstenedione (m/z 287→97), dutasteride (m/z 529→461), finasteride (m/z 373→317). Validation parameters (intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy, linearity, limits of quantitation) were within acceptable ranges and biological extracts were stable for 28 days. Finally the method was employed in men treated with finasteride or dutasteride; levels of DHT were lowered by both drugs and furthermore the substrate concentrations increased. PMID:25281165
Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Nakamura, Odete Hirata; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechko
Salivary cortisol measurement plays an important role in the evaluation of adrenal function. Its high correlation with free serum cortisol, the easy of sampling and the limited presence of interfering steroids, generated multiple recent studies of its application, in special in the screening of adrenal hyperfunction. In this paper we present our experience in the development of a high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for salivary cortisol and cortisone measurement. For this study we used 181 saliva samples from our routine diagnostic laboratory. The HPLC-MS/MS method was based on a Waters Quattro Premier tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray probe. After derivatization with hydroxylamine transitions monitored included cortisol and cortisone. An in-house radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used for salivary cortisol results comparison. Functional sensitivity was 24 ng/dL for cortisol and linearity from 24 to 1929 ng/dL. Saliva cortisol values obtained in the 181 samples presented a median of 52 ng/dL with 5-95% percentile of 24 and 374 ng/dL. With the RIA the results were 86, 25 and 436 ng/dL, respectively, with values for RIA being significantly higher (P<0.0001) and high correlation (r=0.8312, P<0.0001). Cortisone measured in 159 samples showed a median of 278 ng/dL, with 5-95% percentile of 100 and 1,133 ng/dL. Correlation with cortisol values was significant (r=0.820, P<0.0001). We conclude that the HPLC-MS/MS method compares favorably with the RIA for salivary cortisol measurement, with the additional possibility of concomitant cortisone measurement and the evaluation of 11βHSD2 activity.
Peste, Gabriela; Bibire, Nela; Apostu, Mihai; Vlase, Aurel; Oniscu, Corneliu
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) detection is one of the most powerful analytical tools for organic compound analysis. The advantages of using LC/MS methods over HPLC methods include: selectivity, chromatographic integrity, peak assignment, structural information, and rapid method development. In this paper, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of bisoprolol in human plasma samples, using metoprolol as internal standard and liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The assay has proven to be sensitive, specific and reproducible, suitable to determine the bisoprolol concentration, following a single oral administration of a 10 mg bisoprolol tablet in 22 healthy volunteers, in the bioequivalence study of Bisoprolol 10 mg coated tablets, produced by Antibiotice S.A. versus Concor 10 mg, produced by Merck. PMID:19696905
Chadwick, C A; Owen, L J; Keevil, B G
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is a steroid that is increasingly being recognized as a potential drug of abuse in many countries. This is due to its reputation as a hormone that may be able to retard the ageing process. The measurement of DHEAS is useful in the diagnosis of medical conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. Thus, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed to determine DHEAS concentrations in human serum. The chromatography was performed using a Waters 2795 Alliance HT LC system coupled to a Mercury Fusion-RP column fitted with a SecurityGuard column. DHEAS and the internal standard, deuterated DHEAS, both had a retention time of 1.5 min. The transition determined by the Micromass Quattro tandem mass spectrometer for DHEAS was m/z 367.3>4 96.7 and for the internal standard m/z 369.3>96.6. The method was linear up to 20 micromol/L; the lower limit of detection and the lower limit of quantitation were both 1 micromol/L. The intra- and interassay imprecision were <11% over a concentration range of 1-18 micromol/L for the in-house quality control and <12% for the intra- and interassay imprecision for the Bio-Rad Lyphocheck QC. The measurement of DHEAS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is robust and has a simple sample preparation procedure with a rapid cycle time of only 4 min.
Vikingsson, Svante; Strömqvist, Malin; Svedberg, Anna; Hansson, Johan; Höiom, Veronica; Gréen, Henrik
A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method for quantification of vemurafenib in human plasma, that also for the first time allows for metabolite semi-quantification, was developed and validated to support clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. Vemurafenib was analysed by precipitation with methanol followed by a 1.9 min isocratic liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry analysis using an Acquity BEH C18 column with methanol and formic acid using isotope labelled internal standards. Analytes were detected in multireaction monitoring mode on a Xevo TQ. Semi-quantification of vemurafenib metabolites was performed using the same analytical system and sample preparation with gradient elution. The vemurafenib method was successfully validated in the range 0.5-100 μg/mL according to international guidelines. The metabolite method was partially validated owing to the lack of commercially available reference materials. For the first time concentration levels at steady state for melanoma patients treated with vemurafenib is presented. The low abundance of vemurafenib metabolites suggests that they lack clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Miller, Eleanor I; Nielsen, Shannon M; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Wilkins, Diana G
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), nornicotine (NNIC), norcotinine (NCOT), nicotine-N-β-D-glucuronide (NIC GLUC), cotinine-N-β-D-glucuronide (COT GLUC), nicotine-1'-oxide (NNO), cotinine-N-oxide (CNO), trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC), anabasine (AB) and anatabine (AT) was modified and validated for quantification of these selected analytes in rat brain tissue. This analytical method provides support for preclinical NIC pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies after controlled dosing protocols. After brain homogenization and solid-phase extraction, target analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were chromatographically separated on a Discovery(®) HS F5 HPLC column with gradient elution and analyzed by LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data acquisition. Method linearity was assessed and calibration curves were determined over the following ranges: 0.1-7.5 ng/mg for NIC, COT GLUC and AB; and 0.025-7.5 ng/mg for COT, NNIC, NCOT, NIC GLUC, NNO, CNO, 3-HC and AT (R(2)≥0.99 for all analytes). Extraction recoveries ranged from 64% to 115%, LC-MS/MS matrix effects were ≤21%, and overall process efficiency ranged from 57% to 93% at low and high quality control concentrations. Intra- and inter-assay imprecisions and accuracy for all analytes were ≤12.9% and ≥86%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to quantification of NIC and metabolites in the brain of post-natal day 90 rats that were sacrificed 2-h after a single 0.8 mg/kg s.c. administration of (-)NIC. In these tissues, striatal concentrations were 204.8±49.4, 138.2±14.2 and 36.1±6.1 pg/mg of NIC, COT and NNIC, respectively. Concentrations of NIC, COT and NNIC in the remaining whole brain (RWhB) were 183.3±68.0, 130.0±14.1 and 46.7±10.3 pg/mg, respectively. Quantification of these same analytes in plasma was also
Rapid and sensitive ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the novel anticancer agent PR-104 and its major metabolites in human plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Gu, Yongchuan; Wilson, William R
PR-104 is a dinitrobenzamide mustard currently in clinical trial as a hypoxia-activated prodrug. It is converted systemically to the corresponding alcohol, PR-104A, which is activated by nitroreduction to the hydroxylamine (PR-104H) and amine (PR-104M). PR-104A is also metabolised to the O-glucuronide (PR-104G), and by oxidative debromoethylation to the semi-mustard PR-104S. We now report a validated ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of these metabolites in human plasma. Plasma proteins were precipitated with acidified methanol and the supernatant diluted into water. Aliquots were analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 Rapid Resolution HT (50mmx2.1mm, 1.8microm) column and gradient of acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid with a 6min run time. The method had a linear range of 0.1-50microM for PR-104, PR-104A and PR-104G, 0.05-5microM for PR-104H, 0.025-2.5microM for PR-104M and 0.01-1microM for PR-104S. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 14%. The extraction recovery of all analytes was over 87%. The validated method was illustrated by using it to study the pharmacokinetics of PR-104 and its metabolites in a human patient.
Tran, Son Cao; Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Tung, Nguyen-Thach
A rapid extraction method was developed and validated for levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) determination in rabbit plasma by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation included a single-step acetonitrile extraction and salting out liquid-liquid partitioning from the water in plasma with MgSO4. Berberine was used as internal standard. The mass spectrometry source was negative electrospray ionization. The method showed good performance in the concentration range from 5 to 200ngmL(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rabbit comparing the two drug formulation of l-THP including the raw material and the self-microemulsifying drug delivery system pellet.
Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael
An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2μg/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw.
Development of an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue sulfonamide method and its application to water, manure slurry, and soils from swine rearing facilities.
Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur; Larsen, Gerald L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M
An analytical method was developed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS) to simultaneously analyze 14 sulfonamides (SA) in 6 min. Despite the rapidity of the assay the system was properly re-equilibrated in this time. No carryover was observed even after high analyte concentrations. The instrumental detection limit based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>3, was below 1 pg/microL (5 pg on column) for all SAs except sulfachloropyridazine. Surface water, ground water, soil, and slurry manure contained in storage ponds in and around swine [Sus scrofa domesticus] rearing facilities were analyzed. Sample cleanup for ground water and surface water included using solid phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges. The soil and slurry manure required tandem strong anion exchange (SAX) and HLB solid phase extraction cartridges for sample cleanup. With few exceptions, the recoveries ranged from 60 to 100% for all matrices. The minimum detectable levels were below 2.0 ng/L for water, 30 ng/L for slurry manure, and 45 ng/kg for soil except for sulfachloropyridazine. The coefficient of variation (CV) was within 20% for most of the compounds analyzed. Using this method, sulfamethazine concentrations of 2250-5060 ng/L, sulfamethoxazole concentrations of 108-1.47 x 10(6)ng/L, and sulfathiazole concentrations of 785-1700 ng/L were found in the slurry manure. Sulfadimethoxine (2.0-32 ng/L), sulfamethazine (2.0-5.1 ng/L), and sulfamethoxazole (20.5-43.0 ng/L) were found in surface water and ground water. In top soil (0-15 cm), sulfamethazine ranged 34.5-663 ng/kg dry weight in those locations that received slurry manure as a nutrient; no SAs were found in the soil depths between 46 and 61 cm. The speed makes the method practical for medium to high throughput applications. The sensitivity and positive analyte identification make the method suitable for the demanding requirements for
Hinchliffe, Edward; Rudge, James; Reed, Paul
Measurement of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in UK clinical laboratories is currently performed exclusively by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. We investigated whether retinol and alpha-tocopherol could be measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum samples (100 μL) were extracted using Isolute + Supported Liquid Extraction plates. Chromatography was performed on a Phenomenex Kinetex Biphenyl 2.6 μm, 50 × 2.1 mm column, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on a Waters Acquity TQD. Injection-to-injection time was 4.3 min. The assay was validated according to published guidelines. Patient samples were used to compare liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection methods. For retinol and alpha-tocopherol, respectively, the assay was linear up to 6.0 and 80.0 μmol/L, and lower limit of quantification was 0.07 and 0.26 μmol/L. Intra and interassay imprecision were within desirable analytical specifications. Analysis of quality control material aligned to NIST SRM 968e, and relative spiked recovery from human serum, both yielded results within 15% of target values. Method comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection methodology demonstrated a negative bias for retinol and alpha-tocopherol by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Analysis of United Kingdom National External Quality Assurance Scheme samples yielded mean bias from the target value of +3.0% for retinol and -11.2% for alpha-tocopherol. We have developed a novel, high-throughput method for extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from human serum followed by simultaneous quantitation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method offers a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography with
Armer, Jane M; Allcock, Rebecca L
Background Detection of alcohol consumption in clients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence can be difficult. The ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate are detectable for longer in urine than either breath ethanol or urine ethanol. Our aim was to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate for use in a routine clinical laboratory and define clinical cut-offs in a large population who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks. Methods Urine samples were diluted in 0.05% formic acid in HPLC grade water and then directly injected onto a Waters Acquity ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a Waters TQ Detector. Eighty participants were recruited who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks to define cut-offs for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate. Samples and alcohol diaries were also collected from 12 alcohol-dependent clients attending a treatment programme. Results The assay was validated with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.20 mg/L for ethyl glucuronide and 0.04 mg/L for ethyl sulphate. Accuracy, precision, linearity and recovery were acceptable. Cut-offs were established for ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulphate and ethyl sulphate/creatinine ratio (≤0.26 mg/L, ≤0.22 mg/L and ≤0.033 mg/mmol, respectively) in a non-drinking population. The validated cut-offs correctly identified clients in alcohol treatment who were continuing to drink alcohol. Conclusions A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate has been validated and cut-offs defined using 80 participants who had not consumed alcohol for at least two weeks. This is the largest study to date to define cut-offs for ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulphate and ethyl sulphate/creatinine ratio.
Owen, Laura J; Wu, Frederick C; Büttler, Rahel M; Keevil, Brian G
The measurement of androgens in many laboratories is often limited to testosterone. To more accurately determine the androgen status in both sexes, the measurement of other androgens such as dihydrotestosterone, the more potent metabolite of testosterone, and androstenendione and dehydroepiandrosterone, the most abundant circulating androgens in women would be informative. We report a combined liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of these androgens. Internal standards in methanol (10 µL) were added to 100 µL serum followed by the addition of zinc sulphate (100 µL). After mixing, 100 µL of acetonitrile was added and was further mixed. The samples were centrifuged and the steroids extracted using an automated online solid phase extraction on a C18 cartridge by a Waters Acquity with online sample manager coupled to a TQS mass spectrometer. Separation of the androgens was achieved by liquid chromatography. The run time was 6.5 min per sample. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 nmol/L for testosterone, androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone and 1 nmol/L for dehydroepiandrosterone. The coefficient of variation of the assay in serum for testosterone was <6%, androstenedione <8% and dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone <10%. We have developed a rapid assay for the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measurement of testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in a routine clinical laboratory. The assay requires a small volume of serum, and all analytes are measured simultaneously. The assay is rapid and simple to execute offering the potential for routine clinical application. © The Author(s) 2016.
Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...
Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...
This paper describes an efficient and effective analytical scheme to first screen for 300 pesticides in fruit and vegetables samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with a commercial enhanced product ion method. Then, the presumed positive extracts were analyzed using...
Foschi, Claudio; Franza, Vincenzo; Conti, Matteo; Tamburini, Maria Vittoria; Roncarati, Greta; Cordovana, Miriam; Smirnova, Viktoria; Patrono, Daniela; Mancini, Rita; Landini, Maria Paola; Ambretti, Simone
We evaluated the analytical performance of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to detect carbapenemase activity in a group of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by meropenem hydrolysis. This one-hour method showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%, representing a rapid and reliable option compared to conventional phenotypic assays.
Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo
A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food.
Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su
A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Utture, Sagar C; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Banerjee, Kaushik
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based method is reported for simultaneous analysis of fipronil (plus its metabolites) and difenoconazole residues in okra. The sample preparation method involving extraction with ethyl acetate provided 80-107% recoveries for both the pesticides with precision RSD within 4-17% estimated at the limits of quantification (LOQ, fipronil=1ngg(-1), difenoconazole=5ngg(-1)) and higher fortification levels. In field, both the pesticides dissipated with half-life of 2.5days. The estimated pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for fipronil and difenoconazole were 15 and 19.5days, and 4 and 6.5days at single and double dose of field applications, respectively. Decontamination of incurred residues by washing and different cooking treatments was quite efficient in minimizing the residue load of both the chemicals. Okra samples harvested after the estimated PHIs were found safe for human consumption.
Zhang, Mei; Moore, Grant A; Jensen, Berit P; Begg, Evan J; Bird, Philip A
A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of dexamethasone (Dex) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Dex SP) in plasma and human cochlear perilymph. After proteins were precipitated with a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol, Dex, Dex SP and flumethasone, the internal standard, were resolved on a C18 column using gradient elution of 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The three compounds were detected using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range 0.5-500 μg/L (r>0.99), bias was <±10%, intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (imprecision) were <10%, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 μg/L for both Dex and Dex SP. The assay has been used successfully in a clinical pharmacokinetics study of Dex and Dex SP in cochlear perilymph and plasma.
Stubbs, S J; Read, R W
VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(di-isopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate) is a low volatility organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent and therefore the most likely route of exposure is via percutaneous absorption. Microdialysis has been used as a tool to study percutaneous poisoning by VX in the anesthetised guinea pig. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method using positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) was used to quantitate VX in microdialysate samples collected from microdialysis probes, implanted into a blood vessel of anesthetised guinea pigs. The method resulted from modification of a LC-MS-MS method previously developed for the analysis of dermal microdialysates. Modification increased the sensitivity of the method, allowing quantitation of the trace levels of VX in blood microdialysates, over the range 0.002-1 ng/ml, with linear calibration. Quantitative results have been used to determine the time course of VX concentrations in the blood of guinea pigs following percutaneous poisoning.
Saeidian, Hamid; Mirkhani, Valioallah; Mousavi Faraz, Sajjad; Taghi Naseri, Mohammad; Babri, Mehran
This study includes the characterization of isomeric VX organophosphorus adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). VX or its structural isomers were spiked into a vial containing plasma in order to obtain phosphorylated albumin. After pronase and trypsin digestion, the resulting solutions were analyzed to confirm adduct formation with the amino acid tyrosine on the albumin in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS experiments show that VX and its isomers can be attached to tyrosine on the albumin in human blood. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as ethylene, formic acid and ammonia elimination and an intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The proposed mechanisms for the formation of the fragments were confirmed through the analysis of fragments of deuterated adducts.
Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Rencheng; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Tang, Rong; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Wang, Shoulin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru
A method was developed to determine nine environmental phenols, including bisphenol A, 2,3,4-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyphenylether), 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nolyphenol and benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) in human urine using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). The analytes were extracted and preconcentrated with solid-phase extraction, and then quantified with UPLC-electrospray ionization (negative ion mode)-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Limits of detection of the nine phenols ranged from 0.02 to 0.90 ng/mL. This method was further validated by the determination of phenols in 325 human urine samples that generated data regarding the exposure of various phenols to Chinese adults without occupational exposure to phenols.
Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Gon-Sup; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Man-Bae; Lee, Won Sup; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Soo Jung; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul
The type and content of plant polyphenols can be influenced by maturity. Korean chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves of three different maturities (young, mature, and aged) were extracted with 70% aqueous methanol. The polyphenols in the leaves were analysed for the first time using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and comparison with reported data. Among the 12 characterised components, five flavonoids, 3, 4, and 10-12, and a dicaffeoylquinic acid derivative, 6, were characterised for the first time in chokeberry leaves. Each polyphenol component was validated and quantified using a representative polyphenol standard of the same group. The antioxidant activity of the three different mature leaf extracts was determined. The antioxidant activity was highest for young leaves, followed by mature and aged leaves. The results suggest that younger chokeberry leaves may be more favourable for processing a higher quality functional tea due to their higher polyphenol content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhang, Min; Sun, Fang
Aromatase represents an important target for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. In the present study, nine alkaloids from the dichloromethane extract of Corydalis yanhusuo were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tested for their aromatase binding activities using an ultrafiltration LC-MS method by investigating the differences of peak areas of compounds before and after incubations with aromatase. It was demonstrated that the quaternary protoberberine alkaloids and the tertiary protoberberine alkaloids exhibited potent aromatase binding activities. The quaternary ammonium group and the methyl group at C-13 position of tertiary protoberberine alkaloids might be necessary for the activity. The findings should provide guidance for the discovery of potential aromatase inhibitors from natural products.
Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael
A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others.
Shen, Youming; Liu, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Ning; Li, Bing
Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with fewer side effects than its precursor, aspirin. Investigation into its metabolic process in target animal species will help to illustrate its mechanism of action and to establish its residual mark compound to formulate its dosage. Six beagle dogs were orally given a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) of AEE and one dog was used to prepare blank liver microsomes. Their liver microsomes were prepared for in vitro study and their plasma and urine were collected for in vivo metabolic analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In this study we identified 10 metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 in phase I and M6, M7, M8, M9, M10 in phase II. Based on the metabolites of AEE, the pathways of AEE metabolism in dog were demonstrated.
Montgomery, Madeline A; LeBeau, Marc A; Jenkins, Amanda J
During a death investigation at the Office of the Cuyahoga County Coroner in Cleveland, OH, doxacurium became a drug of interest. The Coroner's Office enlisted the aid of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory for the doxacurium analysis. Following the request, a method for the extraction and qualitative analysis of the drug in biological fluids was developed. The procedure relies on a simple solid-phase extraction procedure followed by qualitative analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During the development of the new analytical procedure, two breakdown products of doxacurium were detected. Structures for these breakdown products are proposed. This procedure was used to analyze heart blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and bile specimens from the decedent. Doxacurium and its breakdown products were identified in all three specimens.
Kosaka, Koji; Asami, Mari; Ohkubo, Keiko; Akiba, Michihiro
1,1,5,5-Tetramethylcarbohydrazide (TMCH) is the main precursor of N-nitrosodimethylamine upon ozonation in the Yodo River basin, Japan. This study was performed to develop an analytical method for TMCH using solid-phase extraction with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TMCH is hydrophilic and a tertiary amine derivative, so Oasis(®) MCX cartridges were used as solid-phase cartridges. The recoveries of TMCH in tap and river waters as well as secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant ranged from 75 to 94%. The limit of quantification of TMCH was 4 ng L(-1). The source of TMCH in the Yodo River basin was found to be effluent from one sewage treatment plant. The concentrations were < 4 ng L(-1) in raw water from water purification plants in regions other than the Yodo River basin, indicating that TMCH was used specifically in the basin.
Hsu, Ku Fu; Chien, Kuei-Yu; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Lin, Su Fan; Hsu, Pei Hsuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich
This study established a simultaneous screening method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the detection of 23 stimulants and 23 diuretics in human urine. An electrospray ionization source and multiple reaction monitoring were used for data acquisition. All stimulants and diuretics were separated in less than 12.52 min. The limits of detection were in the range of 25-500 ng/mL for stimulants and 25-125 ng/mL for diuretics. To evaluate the performance of this method, urine samples were collected from 1627 athletes in Taiwan, and 7 positive samples were found. This LC-MS-MS method not only meets the minimum required performance limits set by the World Anti-Doping Agency but also provides a fast way to analyze the authentic urine samples in doping control laboratories.
Bacaloni, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Chiara; Cucci, Francesca; Foglia, Patrizia; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo
A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for determining aflatoxins in hazelnuts has been developed. Three different extraction techniques, such as homogenization, ultrasonic extraction, and matrix solid phase dispersion have been tested and compared in terms of recovery, matrix effect, accuracy and precision. Ultrasound extraction was the most performing sample preparation method. Absolute recoveries for analytes and I.S. ranged from 93 to 101%. Accuracy and precision were calculated using matrix matched calibration, and ranged 91-102% and 2-11%, respectively. CC alpha and CC beta for aflatoxin B1 (EU limit=2 microg/kg) were 2.15 and 2.33 microg/kg, respectively. A ruggedness test performed on three other matrices demonstrated that sonication time was critical and a matrix matched calibration must be constructed for every sort of matrix.
Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah
An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 μg/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 μg/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Llewellyn, N; Lloyd, P; Jürgens, M D; Johnson, A C
A reliable and specific method was developed for the determination of the cytotoxic drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in sewage effluent. The most successful combination was found to be Strata-X solid-phase extraction followed by Florisil® clean-up with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Quantification by internal standardisation was achieved using custom synthesised d4-cyclophophosphamide. The mass spectrometer was operated in highly selective reaction monitoring (HSRM) mode, which significantly reduced matrix noise and improved sensitivity. Although it suffered from some ionisation suppression, electrospray ionisation (ESI) was found to give an order of magnitude better sensitivity in terms of limit of detection than atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). Using final effluent from two different sewage treatment plants, the method was validated following official European guidelines and shown to be a high performance tool for routine analysis at the sub-nanogram per litre level. Depending on the matrix, the limit of detection for cyclophosphamide was between 0.03 ng/L and 0.12 ng/L and for ifosfamide between 0.05 ng/L and 0.09 ng/L. For cyclophosphamide the accuracy and precision, tested at 1.7 ng/L, were 98-109% and ≤ 13%, CV respectively. For ifosfamide the accuracy and precision, tested at 1.1 ng/L, were 98-113% and ≤ 15% CV, respectively. Depending on the sample matrix the absolute recovery of the internal standard was between 57% and 70%. The method was tested by analysis of spot samples taken from the final effluent discharges of two sewage treatment plants; the first using a conventional trickling filter treatment process and second employing activated sludge followed by ultra violet treatment. Cyclophosphamide was detected at 0.19 ng/L at the first plant and at the second detected at 3.7 ng/L and 3.5 ng/L, before and after the UV treatment process; ifosfamide was not detectable at either plant.
Volk, K J; Hill, S E; Kerns, E H; Lee, M S
A rapid and systematic strategy based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) substructural techniques was utilized to elucidate the degradation products of paclitaxel, the active ingredient in Taxol. This strategy integrates, in a single instrumental approach, analytical HPLC, UV detection, full-scan electrospray MS, and MS-MS to rapidly and accurately elucidate structures of impurities and degradants. In these studies, degradants induced by acid, base, peroxide, and light were profiled using LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methodologies resulting in an LC-MS degradant database which includes information on molecular structures, chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and MS-MS substructural information. The stressing conditions which may cause drug degradation are utilized to validate the analytical monitoring methods and serve as predictive tools for future formulation and packaging studies. Degradation products formed upon exposure to basic conditions included baccatin III, paclitaxel sidechain methyl ester, 10-deacetylpaclitaxel, and 7-epipaclitaxel. Degradation products formed upon exposure to acidic conditions included 10-deacetylpaclitaxel and the oxetane ring opened product. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide produced only 10-deacetylpaclitaxel. Exposure to high intensity ligh produced a number of degradants. The most abundant photodegradant of paclitaxel corresponded to an isomer which contains a C3-C11 bridge. These methodologies are applicable at any stage of the drug product cycle from discovery through development. This library of paclitaxel degradants provides a foundation for future development work regarding product monitoring, as well as use as a diagnostic tool for new degradation products.
[Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].
Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi
A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.
Yunin, Maxim A; Metalnikov, Pavel S; Komarov, Alexander A; Panin, Alexander N
A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of α-trenbolone, β-trenbolone, α-nortestosterone, β-nortestosterone, zeranol, and taleranol in bovine liver. The impact of liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether and optimized solid phase extraction on silica cartridges significantly reduced effort and time of sample preparation. Electrospray ionization gives a significant signal increase compared with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization. The HPLC gradient was optimized to separate isobaric analytes and matrix constituents from the hormone molecules. The optimized time and temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated trenbolone was 4 h at 52 °C. The method validated in the range of 0.5-30 μg kg(-1) for α-trenbolone, β-trenbolone, zeranol, taleranol, and 2-30 μg kg(-1) for α-nortestosterone, β-nortestosterone. Combined uncertainty of measurements was in the range of 4%-23%. The matrix effect was negligible (1%-5%) for all analytes except of α-nortestosterone (19%). The developed method with changes concerning sample size and hydrolysis was also applied for the analysis of meat, serum, and urine samples. Graphical Abstract Determination of trenbolone, nortestosterone and zeranol in bovine liver.
Wu, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Xu, Yigang; Zhao, Wei; Meng, Xiangrui; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jiahui; Zu, Yuangang
A sensitive and convenient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides such as imidacloprid, prochloraz, difenoconazole, azoxystrobin, and thiamethoxam in fruits and vegetables. After compared with methanol and acetone-cyclohexane (1:2, v/v), acetonitrile was chosen as the extraction solvent. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile in high-speed homogenization. The extraction solution was cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction, and the supernatant was collected. In this work, QuEChERS exhibited much higher efficiency than Carbon-NH2 solid-phase extraction in purification. The pigments and organic acids were removed by purge line (150 mg primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and 900 mg absolute magnesium sulfate), leading to the decrease of the background interferences. The average recoveries of the 16 pesticides were almost in the range of 75%-111% at the three spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%. The qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were investigated by LC-MS/MS and matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that the method of QuEChERS combined with LC-MS/MS is rapid, accurate and sensitive for the determination of the 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.
Ding, Tao; Xu, Jinzhong; Shen, Chongyu; Jiang, Yuan; Chen, Huilan; Wu, Bin; Zhao, Zengyun; Li, Gonghai; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Fei
A method for analysis of trace metronidazole (MTZ), dimetridazole (DMZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) residues in royal jelly was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). After samples were dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution to disassociate target analytes from matrix, liquid-liquid extraction methods by ethyl acetate solvent were used. Matrix effects were minimized and good quantitation results were obtained by using highly-selective reaction monitoring (H-SRM) technology when deuterated dimetridazole (dimetridazole-D3) was selected as internal standard. Limits of detection (LODs) were 1.0 microg/kg for DMZ, 0.5 microg/kg for MTZ and RNZ (S/N > 5). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 2.0 microg/kg for DMZ, 1.0 microg/kg for MTZ and RNZ (S/N > 10). The linear ranges were 2.0 - 200 microg/L for all target analytes. Recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the ranges of 96.6% - 110.6% and 2.1% -7.4%, respectively. This method is suitable for statutory residue testing in the National Residue Surveillance Plan in China and meets the requirement for export.
Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Vogliardi, Susanna; Terranova, Claudio; Ferrara, Santo Davide
Citalopram and escitalopram are highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors widely used in the treatment of depression. They exhibit adverse drug reactions and side effects, however, and the development of specific methods for their determination is of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the assay of citalopram, escitalopram, and their demethylated metabolites in 10-mg hair samples. The analytes were extracted by incubation in methanol and liquid/liquid extraction with diethyl ether/dichloromethane. Gradient elution on a narrow bore C18 column was realized using clomipramine-d3 as an internal standard. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method exhibited a linear range of 25 to 2000 pg/mg, a quantification limit of 25 pg/mg for all analytes, relative standard deviations in the range of 12.10 to 9.80 (intraassay), and 13.80 to 11.78 (interassay), and accuracies (as percent recovery of the spiked standards) in the range of 90% to 110%; it was applied to the determination of citalopram and escitalopram and their metabolites in hair samples of two newborns to document their in utero exposure to the drugs. The method proved suitable for neonatal hair analysis of citalopram or escitalopram and was applied to two real cases of gestational exposure.
Li, Hao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jiang; Jiang, Yao; Fawcett, J Paul; Gu, Jingkai
A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma has been developed and validated. After sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (diphenhydramine) were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC on a Venusil Mp-C(18) column (50mmx4.6mm, 5microm) using formic acid:10mM ammonium acetate:methanol (1:40:60, v/v/v) as mobile phase in a run time of 2.6min. Detection was carried out by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/ml) ranges: paracetamol 5.0-2000; caffeine 10-4000; pseudoephedrine 0.25-100; chlorpheniramine 0.05-20; cloperastine 0.10-40. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were all < or =11.3% with accuracy (as relative error) of +/-5.0%. The method was successfully applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of the five analytes after administration of a combination oral dose to healthy Chinese volunteers.
Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Vogliardi, Susanna; Ferrara, Santo Davide
Ergotamine has been used for therapeutic purposes since the 1950s, usually to treat vascular headache. It is highly toxic and in large, repeated doses can produce all the symptoms of ergot poisoning. A selective and sensitive method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2), has been developed for quantifying ergotamine in biological fluids with use of a quick and easy sample preparation. Ergotamine and the internal standard, trideuterated lysergic acid diethylamide, were extracted from human urine, blood, and hair by means of liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH. Gradient elution on a cyanopropyl column was used for chromatographic separation. Positive ion electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry determination by collision-induced dissociation were performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The method was validated and successfully applied to a case of iatrogenic ergotism resulting from the intake of ergotamine tartrate for treating headache. For the first time, ergotamine was identified and quantified in hair. The ergotamine concentrations measured were 320 pg/mL in blood, 100 pg/mL in urine, 24 pg/mg in proximal hair, and 15 pg/mg in distal hair.
Lipkie, Tristan E; Janasch, Amber; Cooper, Bruce R; Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M; Ferruzzi, Mario G
Inadequate data on tissue distribution of vitamin D and its metabolites remains a barrier to defining health outcomes of vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the analysis of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3 in soft tissues, and determine distribution in select tissues from a dose-response study of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in rats. Liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and epididymal fat homogenates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization following liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). A dose-response was observed in most tissues for vitamin D and 25(OH)D from both vitamers. Vitamin D concentration was greater in epididymal fat than gastrocnemius muscle and liver, but 25(OH)D concentration was not significantly different between tissues. Soft tissues of rats fed crystalline vitamin D3 had higher concentrations of total vitamin D than those of rats fed yeast-derived vitamin D2, while total 25(OH)D concentrations were similar between vitamin D sources. This method is well suited to more complete studies of vitamin D bioavailability and metabolite tissue distribution.
Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Samyn, Nele
A fast and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, ephedrine, and p-methoxyamphetamine) in plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing all analytes at the column inlet, a gradient start, with acid mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each analyte. Deuteriumlabeled internal standards were used for five of the analytes. The limit of detection was in the range 0.25-1.25 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator of 2.5 ng/mL for all of the compounds. The RSD values of the intra- and interassay precision and accuracy were lower than 11% at four concentration levels, including two external quality controls. No or only minor matrix effects were observed, and the extraction method presented recoveries higher than 93% for all the compounds. Total run time, including equilibration, was 12 min. The method is routinely used at the National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology for quantitative determination of the main amphetamines in plasma from forensic and driving under the influence cases.
Xu, Lei; Song, Rui; Tian, Ji-Xin; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zun-Jian
Saikosaponins (SSs) are a class of triterpene saponins with a wide spectrum of bioactivities. A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of saikosaponin a, saikosaponin c, saikosaponin d and saikosaponin b₂ in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes and the internal standard (IS) digoxin were well separated on an octadecyl column using gradient elution and analyzed by monitoring the fragmentation transition pair of anionic adducts to deprotonated molecules in negative-mode electrospray. By neutral loss of HCOOH, the transition pairs of m/z 825 → 779 for SSa, SSd, SSb₂ and the IS, and m/z 971 → 925 for SSc were sensitive for MS/MS detection with the lower limits of quantification in the range of 0.20-0.40 ng/mL. Method validation experiments were performed, including selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect, recovery and stability. The validated method was further applied to determine the pharmacokinetics parameters of SSa, c and d in rats following a single oral administration of the extract of chaihu (the dried roots of Bupleurum chinense DC). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Jiahui; Yu, Jingxian; He, Limin; Shen, Xianguang
A cheap, reliable and practical high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anabolic steroids in eggs, including trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone, testosterone and methyl testosterone. The analytes were extracted from the egg samples using methanol. The extracts were subjected to the removal of fat by freezing-lipid filtration and then further purified by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. The analytes were separated on a Luna C18 column by a gradient elution program with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. This method was validated over 1.00-100 ng/g for all steroids of interest. The correlation coefficients (r) for each calibration curve are higher than 0.99 within the experimental concentration range. The decision limits of the steroids in eggs ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 ng/g, and the detection capabilities were below 1.03 ng/g. The average recoveries were between 66.3 and 82.8% in eggs at three spiked levels of 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 ng/g for each analyte. The between-day and within-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.4-11%. High matrix suppression effects were observed for all compounds of interest.
Zhu, Ping; Wen, Yu-Guan; Fan, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Zhi-Ling; Fan, Rui-Xin; Chen, Ji-Mei; Huang, Ke-Li; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Yan-Fang; Zhuang, Jian
A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was developed for the determination of olopatadine in human plasma. Sample preparations were carried out by protein precipitation with the addition of acetonitrile followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate/dichloromethane after internal standard (IS, amitriptyline) spiked. After evaporation to dryness, the resultant residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of olopatadine and IS from the interferences was achieved on a C(18) column followed by MS-MS detection. The analytes were monitored in the positive ionization mode with a TurboIonspray source. Multiple reaction monitoring using the transition of m/z 338 → 165 and m/z 278 → 91 was performed to quantify olopatadine and IS, respectively. The method had a total chromatographic run time of 3.5 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2 ng/mL. For each QC concentration level the intra- and interday precisions were less than 11.4%, and relative errors ranged between -6.40% and 9.26%. The validated method was successfully applied to the quantification of olopatadine concentration in human plasma after administration of olopatadine at an oral dose of 5 mg in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics.
Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun
A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.
Jiménez, V; Rubies, A; Centrich, F; Companyó, R; Guiteras, J
A multiclass method for the analysis of residues, in egg matrices, of 41 antimicrobial agents belonging to seven families (sulfonamides, diaminopyridine derivates, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, penicillins and lincosamides) was developed and validated according to the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657. Compounds were extracted with a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique using a 1:1 mixture of acetonitrile and a succinic acid buffer (pH 6.0) at 70 °C. As this resulted in clear extracts, no further clean-up was necessary. Analytes were determined by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPL-MS/MS) in a chromatographic run of 13 min. Calibration was carried out with spiked blank samples subjected to the entire analytical procedure. Five compounds, two of them isotopically labelled, were used as internal standards. Most analytes were quantified with errors below 10%. Precision in terms of reproducibility standard deviation was between 10% and 20% in most cases. CCα values were in the range 0.5-3.8 μg kg⁻¹ for the non-authorized compounds. The proposed method would enable an experienced analyst to process about 25 samples per day.
Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Patrono, Daniela; Mancini, Rita; Pession, Andrea; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana
No data exist for vitamin A group and vitamin D2/D3 content in branded intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs). Our goal is to evaluate and quantify their concentrations in different ILEs to assess whether they are clinically relevant. Analyses were carried out in triplicates on six ILEs: 1) 30% soybean oil-based, 2) 20% olive-soybean oil based, 3) 10 + 10% soybean - MCT coconut oil based, 4) 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil based, 5) 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil based and 6) 10% pure fish oil based, respectively. Retinol group (vitamin A) and ergo-chole-calciferol (vitamin D2/D3) were analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method after potassium hydroxide alkaline hydrolysis, hexane extraction, reverse phase-liquid chromatography and specific multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) detection. On average, measured retinol content was in the range of 200-1000 μg/L in ILEs (1,2, and 3), whereas it was higher (1000-2000 μg/L) in the ILEs containing fish-oil. Vitamin D content was in the range of 1-10 μg/L in the fish-oil based ILEs, but undetectable in those ILEs containing purely vegetable oils. This study shows that vitamin A and D contents are variably present in ILEs based on their different lipid sources. Both contents should be explicitly mentioned in the products.
Chen, Yue; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wanchun; Huang, Mei; Xu, Chaoyi
An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of eight pesticide residues from seed coating in fruits, vegetable and grain. The sample was extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The UPLC analyses were performed on an Acquity UPLC C18 column with gradient eluation. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of crude extracts, with no sample clean up, from soybean. The linear range was 1 - 200 microg/L. The correlation coefficients (r) were under 0.997. The average recoveries of eight pesticides in samples (from 0.006 to 1.2 mg/kg) ranged from 60% to 110%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, more sensitive, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in fruit, vegetable and grain samples.
Shang, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of residues of enilconazole, parconazole, thiabendazole and its metabolite, 5-hydroxythiabendazole, in chicken tissues including liver, muscle and egg. Homogenized samples were extracted by acetonitrile, concentrated and purified by an Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridge. Analysis of the target drugs was performed by liquid chromatography with an UPLCTM BEH C18 column, coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) operating in the positive multiple-reaction mode (MRM). Good linearity was obtained at concentrations of 0.10-100 μg kg(-1). The average recoveries of the analytes in chicken liver, muscle and egg at six fortification levels were in the range 93.6-119.5% with acceptable coefficients of variation (<14.8%). The detection capability (CCβ) of the analytes upon the method ranged from 0.05 to 138.1 μg kg(-1). This method was successfully applied in screening and confirming of target drugs in tens of real samples.
Wang, Mo; Yang, Ruiyue; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Siming; Zhou, Weiyan; Li, Hongxia; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang
Recent observations from metabonomic studies have consistently found that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), Gln/Glu ratio, carnitine, and several species of acylcarnitines and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) are possible risk factors for metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We described here a simple and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of these metabolic risk factors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples were extracted with isopropanol, and the extracted metabolites were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detected with electrospary ionization (ESI) inpositive ion mode with multiple reaction monitor (MRM) mode. All the metabolites were effectively separated within 5.5min. Analytical recoveries were in the range of 92.8-106.9%, with an average of 100.6%. The intra- run and total imprecisions for the measurement of these metabolites were 1.2-3.8% and 1.5-7.4%, respectively. Serum concentrations of the metabolites were analyzed in 123 apparently healthy volunteers. Significant associations between the metabolites and traditional CVD risk factors were observed. The newly developed LC-MS/MS method was simple, precise, and accurate and can be used as an efficient tool in CVD research and studies.
Macek, J; Klíma, J; Ptácek, P
A rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed to quantitate omeprazole in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The assay is based on protein precipitation with acetonitrile and reversed-phase liquid chromatography performed on an octadecylsilica column (55 mm x 2mm, 3 microm particles), the mobile phase consisted of methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v). Omeprazole and flunitrazepam, the internal standard, elute at 0.80+/-0.10 min with a total run time 1.35 min. Quantification was through positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring mode at m/z 346.1-->197.9 for omeprazole and m/z 314.0-->268.0 for flunitrazepam, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation was 1.2 ng/ml using 0.25 ml of plasma and linearity was observed from 1.2 to 1200 ng/ml. Within-day and between-day precision expressed by relative standard deviation was less than 5% and inaccuracy did not exceed 12%. The assay was applied to the analysis of samples from a pharmacokinetic study.
Chiaochan, Chayada; Koesukwiwat, Urairat; Yudthavorasit, Soparat; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun
A simple and sensitive method has been developed for multiresidue analysis of 24 important veterinary drugs (including 3 aminoglycosides, 3 β-lactams, 2 lincosamides, 4 macrolides, 4 quinolones, 4 sulfonamides, 3 tetracyclines, and amprolium) in chicken muscle. The method involved a simple extraction using (1:1, v/v) of 2% trichloroacetic acid in water-acetonitrile, followed by removing fat with hexane, dilution of sample extract, and filtration prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) proved to be very effective for separation of a wide range of polar and hydrophilic compounds (providing high sensitivity and good peak shape) compared to reversed phase and ion-pair separation. The method was successfully validated according to the European Decision 2002/657/EC. Average recoveries were 53-99% at 0.5-MRL, MRL, and 1.5-MRL spiking levels, with satisfactory precision ≤15% RSD. The limit of detection of the method was 0.1-10 μgkg(-1) for 22 analytes and 20 μgkg(-1) for aminoglycosides. These values were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union. The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 24 veterinary drug residues in foods of animal origin. It has been successfully tested in real samples (such as chicken muscle, shrimp, and egg). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood. The selected pharmaceuticals represent the most frequently detected drugs in our forensic laboratory with basic properties such as analgesics, antidepressants, antihistamines, antihypertensives, antipsychotics and β-blockers. Whole blood samples were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting pH with 2M NaOH. The target analytes were separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY BEH 1.7 µm C18 column by a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using a Waters ACQUITY Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography system. Quantification was performed on a Waters tandem quadrupole ACQUITY TQD using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode. The analytes were eluted within 11 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.002 to 0.01 mg/kg depending on the analyte. A good linear behavior was achieved for all analytes in the range from LOQ to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg blood. The absolute recoveries were between 55-87% for all compounds except norfluoxetine (44%). The method showed acceptable precision and accuracy for almost all analytes. Only unstable compounds like levomepromazine, methylphenidate, mirtazapine, norfluoxetine and zuclopenthixol deviated more. The method was successfully applied to more than 200 authentic blood samples within a year from forensic investigations.
Breaud, Autumn R; Henemyre-Harris, Claudia L; Schools, Sabitha; Emezienna, Nkechinyere; Clarke, William
This project entails the development and validation of a method for quantification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic arbekacin in serum using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for therapeutic drug monitoring in future clinical trials. Following a protein precipitation with 0.3 mol/l perchloric acid containing internal standard dibekacin at a concentration of 0.6 μg/ml, human serum samples containing arbekacin were analyzed using a Hypersil Gold PFP column and a liquid chromatography system. Elution occurred with a gradient of water and acetonitrile, each containing 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. Analytes were detected over a 3.25 minute run time using a tandem mass spectrometer with a heated electrospray-ionization (HESI) source in positive ionization mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix effects, carryover, linearity, recovery, precision, and limit of quantification were carefully evaluated. The limit of quantification for arbekacin was 0.1 μg/ml. All simple and total precision CV's were less than 6.2%. The method was linear from 0.1 μg/ml to 45.9 μg/ml (slope of 0.973). The mean recovery ranged from 94.7 to 103.8%. No matrix effects were detected. This developed and validated LC-MS/MS method allows for the quantification of arbekacin in serum following protein precipitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gong, Qiang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Cheng, Jing; Fu, Shanliang; Wang, Libing
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten aminoglycoside residues (streptomycin, dihydrostrepmycin, neomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamycin, apramycin, hygromycin B, paromomycin, and amkacin) in milk and dairy products. The sample was extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution, then the extract was purified by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridge. The ten aminoglycoside residues were separated by ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Heptafluorobutyric acid was used as ion pair agent due to its volatility. Then the analytes were detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The pretreatment condition of the sample, the HPLC condition and the MS operation parameters were optimized. The results showed that the linearities of the ten aminoglycoside residues in 20-1000 microg/L had the correlation coefficient between 0.9946-0.9997. The recoveries ranged from 71.2% and 101.7% with the relative standard deviations of 3.4%-13.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the mass concentrations of the analytes in related samples, which provides a simple, and convenient method for the quality control of milk and dairy products. Furthermore, this method is effective for the safety monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk and dairy products.
Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Wille, Klaas; Bekaert, Karen; De Brabander, Hubert F
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of 34 anabolic steroids (10 estrogens including stilbenes, 14 androgens and 10 gestagens) in meat of bovine origin is reported. The extraction and clean-up procedure involved homogenization with methanol, defatting with hexane, liquid/liquid extraction with diethylether and finally SPE clean-up with coupled Si and NH(2) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold column (100×2.1 mm) and quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ Vantage) operating simultaneously in both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) modes. This analytical procedure was subsequently validated according to EU criteria (CD 2002/657/EC), resulting in decision limits and detection capabilities ranging between 0.04 and 0.88 μg kg(-1) and 0.12 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method obtained for all, natural and synthetic steroids, adequate precisions and intra-laboratory reproducibilities (relative standard deviation below 20%), and the linearity ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The performance characteristics fulfill the recommended concentrations fixed by the Community Reference Laboratories. The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Dafang
A sensitive and specific procedure for simultaneous quantitation of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma has been developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. Diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 and 2.0 ng/mL for chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation, calculated from quality control (QC) samples were below 4.3% for chlorpheniramine and below 9.5% for pseudoephedrine. The inter-day relative error as determined from QC samples was within 4.7% for each analyte. The overall extraction recoveries of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine were 77 and 61% on average, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmaockinetic study of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in volunteers receiving formulations containing 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate and 60 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.
Breci, Linda; Haynes, Paul A
In this chapter we present a detailed protocol for the large-scale identification of proteins present in rice leaf and root tissue samples using 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of protein extracts. This is performed using biphasic (strong cation exchange/reversed phase) columns with integral electrospray emitters operating at nanoliter flow rates, a technique known by the acronym Mudpit (for multidimensional protein identification technique). The protocol involves harvesting of leaves and roots from rice plants, preparing protein extracts from the harvested tissues, preparing proteolytic digests of the extracted proteins, making a biphasic capillary column with an integral electrospray emitter, performing two-dimensional chromatographic separation of peptides with data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry, and the use of database searching of the acquired tandem mass spectra to identify peptides and proteins. This protocol is adaptable for use with a wide variety of plant materials and can be used to identify large numbers of proteins present in a specific tissue, organ, organelle, or other subcellular fraction. In addition to the detailed protocol, we also present the results of a representative experiment showing the identification of more than 1000 distinct proteins from rice leaf and root samples in two Mupdit experiments.
Maeda, Shinichiro; Miwa, Yoshihiro
Progress in chemotherapy leads to increased numbers and variety of chemotherapeutic drugs, and multicomponent analysis of these drugs is a necessary step. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and developed a multicomponent analysis of ten drugs used in chemotherapy: vindesine, vincristine, vinblastine, doxorubicin, epirubicin, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, irinotecan, docetaxel, and paclitaxel. We selected five internal standards for each category of drug, because the ionization efficiencies of product ions varied widely. The total run time was 22min, applying a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile in the presence of 0.1% formic acid. The lower limit of quantification was 50ng/wipe samples for vindesine, vincristine, and vinblastine, and 5ng/wipe samples for the remaining seven drugs. Accuracy (88.6-112.9%, 85.2-111.7%) and precision (1.0-11.5%CV, 3.6-14.4%CV) in within-run and between-run assays of QC solutions were acceptable. Without outliers, in within-run and between-run assays of QC samples, accuracy was 90.6-113.9% and 91.1-130.4%, respectively, and precision was 2.2-19.0%CV and 4.8-14.9%CV, respectively. Accuracy and precision of High QC samples of irinotecan were deviated. Our analysis procedure has sufficient sensitivity and is convenient enough for regular monitoring.
Esparza, X; Moyano, E; Cosialls, J R; Galceran, M T
Naphthylacetic acid, naphthyloxy acetic acid and naphthylacetamide belong to a group of synthetic substances known as "auxin-like" compounds which are used as growth regulators in vegetables and fruits due to their structure similarities with the indoleacetic acid, the most important plant auxin. This paper reports a selective, sensitive and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of naphthylacetamide (NAD) and the isomers (α and β) of naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and naphthyloxy acetic (NOA) acid in apple samples. A baseline separation between the respective isomers was achieved using an RP-Amide column with gradient elution. The UHPLC-MS/MS method developed, using electrospray and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode led to a reliable determination of these family of compounds in apple samples at low quantitation levels, down to 1.0 μg kg(-1) and 0.25 μg kg(-1) respectively. For confirmation of NAA accurate mass measurement is proposed giving at these conditions quantitation limits of 10 μg kg(-1) for this compound. The UHPLC-MS/MS method developed was used for the analysis of apple samples harvested in three different apple fields from Lleida (Spain) during the blooming period. NAD and NAA were found in samples collected during 4-5 weeks after application at concentrations between the quantification limits and 43 μg kg(-1) and 24 μg kg(-1), respectively.
de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia
Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne
Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91-603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (
Li, Li; Ye, Min; Bi, Kaishun; Guo, Dean
L-tetrahydropalmatine (L-THP) is an active alkaloid from Stephania ainiaca Diels. In order to compare the similarities and differences of microbial and mammalian metabolisms of L-THP, the microbial transformation by Penicillium janthinellum and metabolism in rats were investigated. Biotransformation of L-THP by Penicillium janthinellum AS 3.510 resulted in the formation of three metabolites. Their structures were identified as L-corydalmine, L-corypalmine and 9-O-desmethyl-L-THP, respectively, by comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Six metabolites (M1-M6) were detected from the in vivo study in rats and three of which (L-corydalmine, L-corypalmine and 9-O-desmethyl-L-THP) were identified as the same compounds as those obtained from microbial metabolism by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis and comparison with reference standards obtained from microbial metabolism. The structures of the additional three metabolites were tentatively deduced as 2-O-desmethyl-L-THP and two di-O-demethylated L-THP by LC-MS/MS analysis. Time courses of microbial and rat metabolisms of L-THP were also investigated.
Cai, Mei-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Ouyang, Xiao-Kun; Jin, Mi-Cong
Valone is a chronic anticoagulant rodenticide that has come into wide use in China. Current literature lacks analytical methods for the determination of valone. In this paper, a sensitive and selective assay was established for the identification and quantification of valone in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After addition of the internal standard, warfarin, serum samples were extracted with 10% methanol in acetonitrile and cleaned using Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The compounds were separated on an Agilent SB C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol/acetic acid-ammonium acetate (5 mmol/L, pH 6.3) (75:25, v/v). Detection was performed by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The transition ions of m/z 229 --> 145 and m/z 307 --> 161 were selected for quantification of valone and the internal standard, respectively. The overall extraction efficiency was between 81.1% and 91.1%. The limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data revealed good correlation (r(2) > 0.99) for valone. Intra- and interday precisions for quality-control samples were less than 7.8% and 12.8%, respectively. This method combines a rapid SPE procedure with an extremely fast chromatographic analysis, which is especially advantageous or clinical laboratories.
Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej
The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey.
Yang, Angel; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Goudah, Ayman; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Do, Jung-Ah; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shim, Jae-Han
Ten systemic pesticides, comprising methomyl, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, carbofuran, fosthiazate, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, diethofencarb, propiconazole, and difenoconazole, were detected in 13 baby foods (cereals, boiled potatoes, fruit and milk) using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2) ) >0.992. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.0015-0.003 and 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of three different concentrations ranged from 69.2 to 127.1% with relative standard deviations <20%. The method was successfully applied to 13 actual samples collected from a local market, and none of the samples were found to contain pesticide residues. This method is suitable for the identification and quantification of systemic pesticides with matrix-matched standards in various baby foods. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Xin; Zheng, Mei; Liu, Jia; Qiao, Zhou; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng
1. In this study, the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN) in rat plasma were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 2. A rapid, robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of RIN and IRN in rat plasma was established and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column under a gradient elution with methanol and water containing 0.01% ammonia as mobile phase. Calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL for both epimers. 3. After intravenous administration, there was no apparent difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between two epimers. However, after oral administration, RIN showed remarkable higher plasma exposure than IRN. The bioavailability, Cmax and AUC0-t of RIN were about 9.2-fold, 6.4-fold and 9.1-fold higher than those of IRN at 10 mg/kg, and 7.8-fold, 4.3-fold and 7.7-fold at 20 mg/kg, respectively. Additionally, with dosage enhanced from 10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg, the plasma concentrations of RIN or IRN increased significantly and the bioavailability enhanced about three times. 4. In conclusion, the results of this work demonstrated for the first time that the pharmacokinetics of RIN and IRN have stereoselectivity.
Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo
Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required.
Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne
Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (
Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W
We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <20%. The method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxins at ng/g concentrations and deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at low μg/g concentrations in baby foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects.
Sowell, John; Fuqua, Megan; Wood, Tim
Carnitine is an endogenous quaternary amine whose primary function is to shuttle long chain fatty acids to the mitochondrial matrix, where they subsequently undergo beta oxidation. Accurate quantification of total and free carnitine is essential for the accurate diagnosis of a number of inborn errors of metabolism, including disorders of fatty acid oxidation as well as various organic acidurias. Early methods for carnitine measurement were enzyme based. Recently, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for carnitine measurement. Typically, carnitine is derivitized to from a butyl ester, thus improving its ionization and retention characteristics. A potential problem with this approach is that the acidic conditions used to carry out the reaction may hydrolyze other acyl esters, resulting in ex-vivo artifacts. Consequently, we developed a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HILIC) tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of carnitine. The use of HILIC allows for the derivitization step to be circumvented, while still allowing for favorable chromatographic performance. The method was shown to be accurate, precise, and robust.
Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeoung; Kim, Jin-Man
A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving.
Tang, Zhi; Cao, Tingting; Lin, Shuhai; Fu, Li; Li, Shangfu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Zongwei
Elucidation of altered metabolic pathways by using metabolomics may open new avenues for basic research on disease mechanisms and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we report the development of ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform with capability of measuring both cationic and anionic intermediates in cellular metabolism. The platform was established based on the hydrophobic ion-pairing interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MRM transitions were created and optimized via energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments, serving as an essential reference point for the quantification and identification. For chromatographic separation, application of hydrophobic ion-pairing interaction led to dramatic enhancement on retention of water-soluble metabolites and provision of good peak shapes. Two volatile ion-pairing reagents, namely heptafluorobutyric acid and tributylamine, were used with dedicated C18 columns as complementary separation systems coupled with the MRM analysis, allowing measurement of the metabolites of interest at nanomolar levels. The developed platform was successfully applied to investigate the altered metabolism in hepatic cells with over-expression of an oncogene, thus can provide important information on the rewired metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liang, Yi; Cui, Gang; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Lin, Zongtao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong
A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of honokiol in beagle dog plasma after intravenous guttae. With addition of the internal standard magnolol, plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (2.0 × 100 mm, 2.2 µm) with isocratic elution of methanol and water (80:20) solution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A good separation of honokiol was achieved within 3.5 min. Quantification was performed on a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 5.12-15580 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.998). Intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.10%, and accuracy ranged from 89.21 to 99.92%. The lower limit of quantification for honokiol was 5.12 ng/mL, and honokiol was stable under various conditions (three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions.). This validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of honokiol in dogs by intravenous guttae.
Kulle, A E; Welzel, M; Holterhus, P-M; Riepe, F G
Liquid-chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is becoming the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. In most instances, it has the advantage of higher sensitivity, better reproducibility and greater specificity than commercial immunoassay techniques. The method requires only minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. Furthermore, it has the potential to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern instruments guarantee high throughput, allowing an affordable price for the individual assay. All this makes LC-MS/MS an attractive method for use in a clinical setting. Reliable reference ranges for the detected analytes are the pre-requisite for their clinical use. If these are available, LC-MS/MS can find application in congenital disorders of steroid metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, disorders of sex development and disorders of salt homeostasis, as well as in acquired disorders of steroid metabolism, such as primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and hyperandrogenemia, as well as in psychiatric disease states such as depression or anxiety disorders. The principles of LC-MS/MS for steroid measurement, the pros and cons of LC-MS/MS compared with conventional immunoassays and the possible applications in clinical routine, with a special focus on pediatric endocrinology needs, are discussed here.
Chenau, Jérôme; Fenaille, François; Simon, Stéphanie; Filali, Sofia; Volland, Hervé; Junot, Christophe; Carniel, Elisabeth; Becher, François
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, an acute and often fatal disease in humans. In addition to the risk of natural exposure to plague, there is also the threat of a bioterrorist act, leading to the deliberate spread of the bacteria in the environment or food. We report here an immuno-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (immuno-LC-MS/MS) method for the direct (i.e., without prior culture), sensitive, and specific detection of Y. pestis in such complex samples. In the first step, a bottom-up proteomics approach highlighted three relevant protein markers encoded by the Y. pestis-specific plasmids pFra (murine toxin) and pPla (plasminogen activator and pesticin). Suitable proteotypic peptides were thoroughly selected to monitor the three protein markers by targeted MS using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Immunocapture conditions were optimized for the isolation and concentration of intact bacterial cells from complex samples. The immuno-LC-SRM assay has a limit of detection of 2 × 10(4) CFU/mL in milk or tap water, which compares well with those of state-of-the-art immunoassays. Moreover, we report the first direct detection of Y. pestis in soil, which could be extremely useful in confirming Y. pestis persistence in the ground.
Nieddu, Maria; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pirisi, Maria Antonietta; Baralla, Elena
An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human urine of several thioamphetamine designer drugs (2C-T and ALEPH series) is reported. The quantitative analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and has been fully validated. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive-ion, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid-phase extraction was introduced in the method as a clean-up step. The entire method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method turned out to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the analysis of amphetamine derivatives in urine samples. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) for all drugs with correlation coefficients that exceeded 0.996. The lower limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 ng mL(-1) and from 3.2 to 9.6 ng mL(-1), respectively.
Drozdzyński, Dariusz; Kowalska, Jolanta
A new method for the analysis of three ecological insecticides, namely azadyrachtin, spinosad (sum of spinosyn A and spinosyn D) and rotenone, in produce and soil samples is presented. Investigated compounds are one of the most significant insecticides authorized for organic farming crop protection in many countries. Extraction of the pesticides from plant and soil matrices was performed by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The method entailed a single extraction of the investigated compounds with acidified acetonitrile followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup step prior to the final determination by reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Validation studies were carried out on cabbage, tomato and soil samples. Recoveries of the spiked samples were in the range between 67% and 108%, depending on the matrix and the spiking level. Relative standard deviations for all matrix-compound combinations did not exceed 12%. The limits of quantification were < or = 0.01 mg kg(-1) in all cases, except for azadirachtin. The developed method was applied to the analysis of real samples originating from organic farming production.
Gervasoni, Jacopo; Bonelli, Fabio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Zappacosta, Bruno; Mordente, Alvaro; Calvani, Riccardo; Persichilli, Silvia
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction processes. Recent studies have linked high ADMA levels with several pathological conditions. The interest as a marker of endothelial dysfunction has increased in the last few years. In this paper, a method for serum ADMA quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been described. To test the utility in a pathological condition ADMA levels in hypertensive subjects have been measured. HPLC separation was performed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% formic acid and 20 mmol/L ammonium formate. Selected reaction monitoring was performed following the transitions m/z 203.1→46.4 for ADMA and 210.1→46.3 for the internal standard [2H7]ADMA. The method was linear up to 10 μmol/L, limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.005 μmol/L and 0.01 μmol/L, respectively. Recovery was higher than 96%. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision were lower than 6%. The accuracy, expressed as bias %, was <2.5. ADMA in "healthy" subjects ranged from 0.343 to 0.608 μmol/L and resulted significantly lower than that measured in hypertensive subjects (p<0.001). The method developed is selective and sensitive, thus suitable not only for research purposes, but also for routinely work.
Jensen, Berit Packert; Vella-Brincat, Jane Winifred Ann; Begg, Evan James
A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for quantification of cyclizine and its main metabolite norcyclizine in human plasma. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and cinnarizine was used as internal standard (recovery >87%). The analytes were eluted from a C8 50 mm×2.0 mm analytical column using a linear gradient of methanol and 0.05% formic acid with a total analysis time of 4 min. Analytes were detected by MS/MS using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion/product ion transitions 267.2/167.2 for cyclizine and 253.2/167.2 for norcyclizine. Matrix effects were negligible. Standard curves for cyclizine and norcyclizine were linear (r(2)≥0.996) over the range 2-200 ng/mL, with 2 ng/mL representing the lower limit of quantification. Relative standard deviations were <14% for intra- and inter-day precision and the accuracy was within ±8%. The assay was successfully applied to a clinical study.
Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí; Bendixen, Emøke
Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions in the blood plasma of lambs. Further proteomic studies will be necessary, particularly using the selected reaction monitoring approach, to describe in detail the role of specific colostrum proteins for immune transfer to the neonate.
Möller, Ines; Thomas, Andreas; Wingender, Anke; Machnik, Marc; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario
Erythropoietin (EPO) and its recombinant analogues are suspected to be illicitly administered to horses for performance enhancing purposes and, consequently, prohibited in equine sports. Recently, a new erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, peginesatide (Omontys, formerly referred to as Hematide), belonging to the upcoming class of EPO-mimetic peptides, received approval for the treatment of anaemia in humans with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. As the pegylated dimeric peptide of approximately 45 kDa without sequence homology to EPO is not detectable by conventional EPO detection assays, specific methods are bound to be established for horse sports drug testing. Thus, by fortifying equine serum with peginesatide, an approach consisting of a proteolytic digestion with subtilisin after protein precipitation was developed, eventually targeting a proteotypic and xenobiotic pentapeptide which is easily accessible to liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The method was validated for qualitative purposes and demonstrated to be specific, precise (relative standard deviations below 14%), sensitive (limit of detection 10 ng mL(-1)) and linear. Being simple, cost-effective and readily transferable to other doping control laboratories, a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of therapeutic concentrations of peginesatide in equine serum is, in terms of preventive doping research, applicable to routine analysis shortly after approval of the drug.
Nakano, Yosuke; Konya, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Moyu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro
d-Amino acids have recently attracted much attention in various research fields including medical, clinical and food industry due to their important biological functions that differ from l-amino acid. Most chiral amino acid separation techniques require complicated derivatization procedures in order to achieve the desirable chromatographic behavior and detectability. Thus, the aim of this research is to develop a highly sensitive analytical method for the enantioseparation of chiral amino acids without any derivatization process using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By optimizing MS/MS parameters, we established a quantification method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 18 d-amino acids with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Additionally, we applied the method to food sample (vinegar) for the validation, and successfully quantified trace levels of d-amino acids in samples. These results demonstrated the applicability and feasibility of the LC-MS/MS method as a novel, effective tool for d-amino acid measurement in various biological samples. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Zhi-Xiong; Hu, Jiang-Tao; Zheng, Wei-Dong; Sheng, Yi; Chen, Si; Yin, Wen-Ya
To develop a method for simultaneous determination of avermectin (AVM) and ivermectin (IVM) in swine muscular tissues using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The AVM and IVM were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned with basic alumina solid phase extraction cartridges, separated through C8 column, and then detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using an electrospray ionization interface, with quantitative ion pair of 890.4/305.3 and 892.5/307.3 for AVM and IVM, respectively. The linear ranges for both AVM and IVM were between 5 microg/L and 100 microg/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The detection limit was 2.0 microg/kg. The recoveries at the spiked concentration of 2 microg/kg, 10 microg/kg and 20 microg/kg ranged from 77.4% to 83.1% for AVM and 77.2% to 84.8% for IVM, with relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from 8.7% to 11.7% for AVM and 6.3% to 10.3% for IVM, respectively. No AVM and IVM residues were detected in samples taken from Chengdu markets. A HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully developed for determining AVM and IVM in swine muscular tissues, which is simple, sensitive and precise and can meet both domestic and international requirements.
Kim, Kwang-Gon; Park, Duck-Woong; Kang, Gyung-Ri; Kim, Tae-Sun; Yang, Yongshik; Moon, Su-Jin; Choi, Eun-Ah; Ha, Dong-Ryong; Kim, Eun-Sun; Cho, Bae-Sik
A simple and sensitive analytical method based on QuEChERS approach using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts. Sodium chloride and sodium acetate were used for salting-out step and magnesium sulfate for clean-up. The validation of optimized method was satisfactory with recoveries, between 89.5% and 103.2% for the three compounds, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 3.3% at 20 and 40ng/g fortification levels (n=5). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.1-3.7ng/g and 6.3-11.1ng/g, respectively. Monitoring of 126 bean sprout samples collected from local markets was performed to verify the adaptability in real samples. No pesticides were detected but 6-benzylaminopurine was found in 3 samples at the level of 15-20ng/g. The optimized method should be applicable for monitoring of 6-benzylaminopurine, carbendazim and thiabendazole in bean sprouts in short time.
Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Bosseloir, Alain; Schänzer, Wilhelm
Insulin and related synthetic therapeutics have been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for athletes demonstrably not suffering from diabetes mellitus. The primary specimen for doping controls has been urine, but the renal excretion of intact human insulin as well as synthetic analogues such as the rapid-acting products Humalog LisPro, Novolog Aspart, and Apidra Glulisine has been reported negligible owing to metabolic degradation. Nevertheless, employing solid-phase extraction in combination with immunoaffinity purification followed by a top-down sequencing-based mass spectrometric approach, an assay was established allowing the identification of three intact rapid-acting synthetic insulins in doping control urine samples. A volume of 25 mL of urine was concentrated, insulin analogues were isolated from the concentrate by immunoaffinity chromatography, and the eluate was analyzed using microbore liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Characteristic product ion spectra obtained from 5-fold protonated intact analytes as well as isolated insulin B-chains allowed the unambiguous identification of target analytes with detection limits of 0.05 ng/mL (9 fmol/mL). Moreover, assay validation demonstrated recoveries between 72 and 80% for Humalog LisPro, Novolog Aspart, and Apidra Glulisine, and assay precisions ranged from 9 to 16%. A reliable tool is provided that allows the qualitative determination of rapid-acting insulins in urine specimens collected for sports drug testing.
Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D
Insulin administration can increase muscle glycogen by utilising hyperinsulinaemic clamps prior to sports events or during the recovery phases, and increase muscle size by its chalonic action to inhibit protein breakdown. In order to control insulin abuse in equine sports, a method to detect effectively the use of insulins in horses would be required. Besides the readily available human insulin and its synthetic analogues, structurally similar insulins from other species can also be used as doping agents. This study describes a method for the simultaneous detection of bovine, porcine and human insulins, as well as the synthetic analogues Humalog (Lilly) and Novolog (Novo Nordisk) in equine plasma. Insulins were isolated from equine plasma by immunoaffinity purification, followed by centrifugal filtration, and analysed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Insulin and analogues were detected and confirmed by comparing their retention times and major product ions. All five insulins (human insulin, Humalog, Novolog, bovine insulin and porcine insulin), which are exogenous in the horse, could be detected and confirmed at 0.05ng/mL. This method was successful in confirming the presence of human insulin in plasma collected from horses up to 4h after having been administered a single low dose of recombinant human insulin (Humulin R, Eli Lilly). To our knowledge, this is the first identification of exogenous insulin from post-administration horse plasma samples.
De Nardi, Claudio; Bonelli, Fabio
The paper describes the steps taken by the authors to move from a fast to a ballistic gradient in routine liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis of plasma samples from pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of new chemical entities. The reduction of column dimensions from 50 x 4.6 mm to 30 x 2.1 mm followed by optimization of chromatographic separation led to a decrease in the typical runtime from 5 (fast) to 2 min (ballistic) using an API4000 tandem mass spectrometer in Turbo Ionspray mode for detection. Three analytical standards representing typical molecular structures from our sample repository were used to spike plasma from four different species (rat, dog, human and mouse). Two different approaches were used to evaluate matrix effect: post-column infusion and comparison of the peak areas of neat standards and standards spiked after extraction into different pools of plasma; the influence of PEG400 as a typical dosing vehicle was also considered. Two different protein precipitation procedures were taken into account for sample extraction prior to injection. Peak shape, width and height, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were taken into account for chromatographic evaluation. The ballistic method was successfully cross-validated with the conventional fast gradient chromatographic assay.
Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Zhou, Xiujin; Chen, Xiangzhun; Huang, Fuzhen; Zhu, Zhenou
A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of dicyandiamide residue in infant formula samples. Following microwave-assisted extraction with 5% formic acid and clean-up on a Sep-Pak AC-2 SPE cartridge, samples were separated on a ZIC-HILIC HPLC column (150 × 2.1mm i.d., 5-µm film thickness; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) with 20mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range from 1.0 to 50 ng/mL. Infant formula samples were fortified with dicyandiamide at 3 levels, producing average recovery yields of 83.6 to 95.7%. The limits of detection and quantification of dicyandiamide were 3 and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine dicyandiamide detection.
Jin, Renyao; Li, Linqiu; Guo, Lianxian; Li, Weiqiao; Shen, Qing
Slimming supplements were popularly sold online driven by the increasement of obesity and the development of social networking platform. However, events of drug abuse in slimming supplements were also frequently reported. In this study, a graphene tip solid-phase extraction (Gtip SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established for determining fenfluramine, phenolphthalein, bumetanide, and sibutramine in slimming supplements. It was validated in terms of linearity (0.9985-0.9995), LOD (1.8ngmL(-1)), LOQ (5.6ngmL(-1)), intra-day precision (<5.1%), inter-day precision (<7.3%), and recovery (82.9-95.2%). Sibutramine is the most commonly used drug, which was detected in Bihais, Galong, and Aolist, with content 12.4, 3.6, 20.3mgg(-1), respectively. Phenolphthalein was also found with content lower than 5.2mgg(-1). The successful application of Gtip SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method indicated its advantage in analyzing low level of contaminates resulted from violation of regulation.
Technical maturation of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) brought this technology into most tertiary care clinical laboratories worldwide. It extended the technological armamentarium of clinical laboratories significantly, both in analytical and economical terms. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, endocrinology, and toxicology, it became an indispensable routine tool. Although well-designed LC-MS/MS assays generally outperform immunoassays because of increased accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and analytical multiplexing capability, they are not free from analytical problems. Besides limitations in selectivity due to the occurrence of "isobaric" interferences, unpredictable ion yield attenuations, known as "ion suppression effect," have to be considered. In addition, most LC-MS/MS methods used in clinical laboratories are still laboratory-developed tests ("in-house assays") operating on very heterogeneous instrument configurations. Consequently, assay heterogeneity and lack of traceability to reference procedures or materials may lead to an increased imprecision in proficiency testing as well as inaccurate result reporting if basic rules of assay validation and "post marketing" surveillance are violated.
Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe
A simple, sensitive, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine in whole blood using dibenzepine as internal standard (IS). After acidic methanol-induced protein precipitation of the whole blood samples, olanzapine and IS were chromatographed on a reversed-phase Zorbax Extend-C(18)-column at pH 9.0. Quantification was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization technique operating in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion mode. Total chromatographic run time was 15 min, and calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.005 to 0.50 mg/kg olanzapine in whole blood. The method was validated for selectivity, matrix interference, recovery, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, precision, and stability. The absolute recovery obtained was 103% for olanzapine and 68% for IS. An LOQ of 0.005 mg/kg olanzapine in whole blood was achieved. Inter- and intraday precision were less than 11% within concentrations from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/kg, and the accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The method was subsequently applied to 27 authentic samples, of which 20 were postmortem blood samples, from forensic investigations.
Wang, Shuo; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xiangming; Wei, Yunfang; Zhang, Meiyun; Zhang, Jing
To develop a comprehensive method for simultaneous analysis of sulfonamides and their metabolites in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Different solid-phase extraction columns were compared with respect to the recovery of target drugs from drinking water. The drinking water samples were adjusted to 3 by HCl and purified by a mix mode cation-ion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE), following determination using LG-MS/MS. A total of 21 sulfonamides were separated by a C15 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) and analyzed under positive ion mode with multi-reaction monitoring. The matrix-matched external standard calibration was used for quantification. The method quantification limits for 21 analytes were 0.03-0.63 ng/L with overall recoveries of 50.1%-114.9%, and the relative standard deviations less than 20%. The method was finally used to analyze sulfonamides in drinking water in Beijing, and 5 target compounds (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim and sulfamethazine) were detected at a concentration range of 0.08-32.54 ng/L. This method could be applied in simultaneous analysis of sulfonamides and their metabolites in drinking water samples.
Lee, Hei Hwa; Chen, Li Yao; Wang, Hui Liang; Chen, Bai Hsiun
Relatively little is known about the metabolism of areca nut in human saliva. We here describe the simultaneous quantification of areca nut metabolites: arecoline, arecaidine and N-methylnipecotic acid in saliva samples after chewing one 5 g areca nut by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Time courses of salivary areca nut metabolites in five adult male areca nut chewer volunteers were investigated. The limits of quantification were all 1.25 ng/mL for arecoline, arecaidine and N-methylnipecotic acid. Intra- and interday imprecisions were <4.2 and 13.6%, respectively. The within-day accuracy ranged from 82.2 to 116.7%, and the between-day accuracy ranged from 78.3 to 115.6%. Through areca nut chewing time course study, we found that salivary arecoline, arecaidine and N-methylnipecotic acid concentrations varied greatly over time between experiment individuals. Our findings suggest that arecoline might be metabolized slightly to arecaidine at 30 min after areca nut chewing and arecoline might be metabolized slightly to N-methylnipecotic acid at 25 min after areca nut chewing in the mouth. We first provide simultaneous quantification of human salivary arecoline, arecaidine and N-methylnipecotic acid levels using LC-MS-MS. This method may facilitate future research design in the pathogenic effects of areca nut exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Shafii, Behnaz; Vismeh, Ramin; Beaudry, Randy; Warner, Ryan; Jones, A Daniel
The plant Stevia rebaudiana accumulates a suite of diterpenoid metabolites that are natural sweeteners finding increased use as sugar substitutes. To guide breeding of stevia plants that accumulate substances with desirable flavor in high yield, rapid and accurate methods are needed to profile these substances in plant populations. This report describes an 8-min ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for separation and quantification of seven stevia glycosides including steviolbioside; stevioside; rebaudiosides A, B, and C; rubusoside; and dulcoside as well as aglycones steviol and isosteviol. This negative mode electrospray ionization/multiple reaction monitoring method yielded low limits of detection <1 ng/mL for steviol, 6 ng/mL for isosteviol, and <15 ng/mL for all stevia glycosides. Stevioside and Reb A, B, and C were quantified in more than 1,100 extracts from stevia leaves as part of a large-scale profiling exercise. Leaf tissue levels in this population spanned about two orders of magnitude for stevioside (2-125 mg/g dry weight), Reb A (2.5-164 mg/g), Reb B (0.5-50 mg/g), and Reb C (1.5-125 mg/g), but levels of individual metabolites exhibited independent variation. The wide spread of metabolite levels highlights the utility and importance of performing targeted metabolic profiling for large plant populations.
Chen, Yong; Chen, Chong-jun; Li, Jin; Luan, Lian-jun; Liu, Xue-song; Wu, Yong-jiang
To ensure the quality and safety of Panax notoginseng, a method for the simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in Panax notoginseng was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and purified by HLB multifunction cleanup column. The separation was performed on a Phenomenex Kinetex XB-C18 column by gradient elution using methanol and 5 mmol·L(-1) ammonium acetate as mobile phase. The targeted compounds were detected in MRM mode by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The linear relationships of the 10 mycotoxins were good in their respective linear ranges. The correlation coefficients (r) ranged from 0.9981 to 1.0000. The LOQs of the 10 mycotoxins were between 0.15 and 8.6 μg·kg(-1). The average recoveries ranged from 73.8% to 107.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.10%-10.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive and accurate, and suitable for the mycotoxins quantification in Panax notoginseng.
Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C
Two different isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods for the quantitative determination of folic acid (FA) in multivitamin/multielement tablets are reported. These methods represent distinct improvements in terms of speed and specificity over most existing microbiological and chromatographic methods for the determination of FA in dietary supplements. The first method utilizes an aqueous/organic-based extraction solvent combined with positive-ion mode LC/MS/MS detection of protonated [M + H]+ FA molecules and the second method utilizes a pure aqueous-based extraction solvent combined with negative-ion mode LC/MS/MS detection of deprotonated [M - H]- FA molecules. The LC/MS/MS methods exhibit comparable linear dynamic ranges (> or =3 orders of magnitude), limits of detection (0.02 ng on-column) and limits of quantification (0.06 ng on-column) for FA. Two methods employing different extraction and different MS detection modes were developed to allow method cross-validation. Successful validation of each measurement procedure supports the use of either method for the certification of FA levels in dietary supplements. The accuracy and precision of each measurement procedure were evaluated by applying each method to the quantitative determination of FA in a NIST standard reference material (NIST SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets). The FA measurement accuracy for both methods was > or =95% (based on the manufacturer's assessment of the FA level in SRM 3280) with corresponding measurement precision values (% RSD) of approximately 1%.
Ge, Baokun; Zhao, Kongxiang; Wang, Wei; Mi, Jiebo
A method was developed for the determination of 14 mycotoxins, aflatoxins, T-2, HT-2, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, etc. in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and methanol in turn, and then purified by a high selective multi-functional immunoaffinity column. The column was washed by PBS (containing 0.1% Twain) and water, and then eluted by methanol. The eluate was dried under nitrogen, dissolved in methanol-10 mmol/L NH4Ac (40 : 60, v/v) solution. The mycotoxins were separated on a Waters Xterra C18 MS column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) and detected by MS/MS. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the 14 mycotoxins were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries of the 14 mycotoxins spiked in Chinese herbs (Ginseng, Campanulaceae, Radix and Ophiopogonis) ranged from 71.9% to 99.7% at the three spiked levels of 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were between 4.8% and 15.8%. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate, and suitable for the determination of the 14 mycotoxins in Chinese medicines. The quantification limits of aflatoxins can meet the domestic and foreign requirements.
Marek, LeEtta J; Koskinen, William C
There is a need for a simple, fast, efficient and sensitive method for analysis of glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in diverse matrices such as water, vegetation and soil. Aqueous extracts from water, vegetation and soil were passed through reverse-phase and cation-exchange columns and directly injected into a tandem mass spectrometer using only a guard column for separation. Extraction efficiencies from the three matrices were >80% for both glyphosate and AMPA. The method reporting levels (MRLs) for glyphosate in water, vegetation and soil were 3.04 µg L(-1) , 0.05 mg kg(-1) and 0.37 mg kg(-1) respectively. AMPA MRLs were 5.06 µg L(-1) for water, 0.08 mg kg(-1) for vegetation and 0.61 mg kg(-1) for soil. A validated, simple and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for routine analysis of glyphosate and AMPA in water, vegetation and soil that uses minimal sample handling and clean-up will facilitate the additional environmental research needed to address the continuing concerns related to increasing glyphosate use. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Liu, Hua-Cheng; Sun, Wei; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Ying, Wei-Yang; Zheng, Li-Dan; Zeng, Rui-Feng; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Ren-Shan
A rapid, sensitive, and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of dexmedetomidine in children's plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2mL of acetonitrile to a 0.1mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.1min and the elution of dexmedetomidine was at 1.24min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the respective transitions m/z 201.3→95.1 for dexmedetomidine and m/z 204.2→98.0 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.05-10ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.05ng/mL. Mean recovery rate of dexmedetomidine in plasma was in the range of 86.7-89.1%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <11.6%. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after commencement of 1.0μg/kg dexmedetomidine infusion in children.
Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne; Beuck, Simon; Geyer, Hans; Flenker, Ulrich; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm
The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded this threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated salbutamol was less than 3%. Authentic doping control urine samples indicating screening results for salbutamol less than 1000 ng/ml, showed salbutamol glucuronide concentrations between 2 and 6 ng/ml, whereas adverse analytical findings resulting from salbutamol levels higher than 1000 ng/ml, had salbutamol glucuronide values between 8 and 15 ng/ml. The approach enabled the rapid determination of salbutamol and its glucuronic acid conjugate in human urine and represents an alternative to existing procedures since time-consuming hydrolysis or derivatization steps were omitted. Moreover, the excretion of salbutamol glucuronide in human urine following the administration of salbutamol was proven.
Hu, Xia; Xiao, Guang; Pan, Wei; Mao, Xiqin; Li, Peng
A credible method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 7 rhodamine dyes in hot chili products based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with hexane or methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and then cleaned up by a solid phase extraction cartridge. The target analytes were separated on an SB-C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for both) as mobile phases. The identification and quantification were achieved by using ESI-MS/MS in positive ion mode and with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The linear ranges were from 0.0005 to 1.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) above 0.997 for all the 7 rhodamine dyes. The limits of detection (LOD) in chili powder and chili oil were from 0.21 to 51 microg/kg and 0.19 to 25 microg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were both less than 20%. The recoveries of the method were between 85.0% and 106%. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive and suitable for the simultaneous determination of 7 rhodamine dyes in foods.
Rosén, Johan; Nyman, Arne; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik
A wide range of solid phases for SPE (solid-phase extraction) (n=14) and HPLC (n=9) were compared regarding the chromatographic retention of acrylamide. For SPE, a hydroxylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer phase (ENV+) gave the strongest retention. Twenty millilitre of water per gram solid phase could be passed with less than 5% loss of acrylamide from the column, thus enabling significant enrichment of food extracts. Other polymer phases gave varying degrees of retention, while silica bonded phases gave low retention. For HPLC, columns were evaluated both in reversed-phase and aqueous normal-phase (hydrophilic interaction chromatography) modes. The best retention was obtained with a phase comprising porous graphitic carbon (Hypercarb), giving a k-value of 4 with water as the mobile phase. Based on these investigations, a method for analysis of acrylamide in food using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was designed to meet the demands of a collaborative validation trial. A comparative investigation of solid phases has not been published earlier. Thus, the paper should provide a base for new method developments regarding clean-up, enrichment and chromatography of acrylamide. In addition, the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) method, as used in a collaborative validation trial, is provided as an electronic supplement (www.elsevier.com).
Ahn, Seonghee; Lee, Suyoung; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, has been frequently detected in doenjang, a traditional fermented soybean paste, when it is fermented under improper conditions. Reliable screening of OTA in traditional fermented soybean paste (doenjang) is a special food-safety issue in Korea. Our laboratory, the National Metrology Institute of Korea, established an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method as a higher-order reference method to be used for SI-traceable value-assignment of OTA in certified reference materials (CRMs). (13)C20-OTA was used as an internal standard. Sample preparation conditions and LC/MS measurement parameters were optimised for this purpose. The analytical method was validated by measuring samples fortified with OTA at various levels. Repeatability and reproducibility studies showed that the ID-LC/MS/MS method is reliable and reproducible within 2% relative standard deviation. The analytical method was applied to determine OTA in various commercial doenjang products and home-made doenjang products.
Núñez, Mireia; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Pocurull, Eva
A method for the quantitative determination of seven pharmaceuticals in bivalves was developed by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization. Both the European Standard Method EN 15662 and the AOAC Official Method 2007.01 for QuEChERS were tested. In addition, several clean-up strategies were evaluated in order to clean the matrix previous to the LC-MS/MS analyses. Dispersive solid-phase extraction with silica gel and modification of the chromatographic separation were the clean-up strategies that gave the best results. The optimized method was validated in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and allowed the determination of pharmaceuticals at nanograms per gram levels (dry weight (d.w.)). Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 100 ng/g. Apparent recoveries ranged from 35 to 77%. The application of this method to bivalves revealed the presence of salicylic acid at concentrations up to 103 ng/g (d.w.).
Kato, Yoji; Dozaki, Natsuko; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka; Kitamura, Masayasu; Osawa, Toshihiko
The quantification of urinary oxidized tyrosines, dityrosine (DiY), nitrotyrosine (NY), bromotyrosine (BrY), and dibromotyrosine (DiBrY), was accomplished by quadruple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The sample was partially purified by solid phase extraction, and was then applied to the LC/MS/MS using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) methods. The analysis for the DiY quantification was done first. The residual samples were further butylated with n-butanol/HCl, and the other modified tyrosines were then quantified with isotopic dilution methods. MRM peaks of the modified tyrosines (DiY, NY, BrY, and DiBrY) from human urine were measured and the elution times coincided with the authentic and isotopic standards. The amounts of modified tyrosines in healthy human urine (n = 23) were 8.8 +/- 0.6 (DiY), 1.4 +/- 0.4 (NY), 3.8 +/- 0.3 (BrY), and 0.7 +/- 0.1 (DiBrY) micromol/mol of creatinine, respectively. A comparison of the modified tyrosines with urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, pentosidine, and N(epsilon)-(hexanoyl)lysine was also performed. Almost all products, except for NY, showed good correlations with each other. The amounts of the modified tyrosines (NY, BrY, and DiBrY) in the diabetic urine were higher than those in the urine from healthy people.
Lin, Yonghui; Liu, Zhengcai; Yang, Fang; Qiu, Yuanjin; Liu, Suzhen; Su, Zhijiao; Zhang, Qiong; Xue, Zhimin; Fang, Yu
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of glufosinate (GLUF) residue in tea. The GLUF was extracted with water for 30 min under ultrasonication, and cleaned-up using a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge, then derived using fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid) in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification of the GLUF were carried out by MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2.5 - 50.0 microg/L with the correlation coefficient r2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.10 mg/kg. The average recoveries of GLUF spiked at 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg levels in tea were between 61.6% and 81.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 3.2% and 8.4%. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and suitable for the confirmation and quantification of GLUF in tea.
Robbins, Katherine S; Shah, Romina; MacMahon, Shaun; de Jager, Lowri S
Sulfites are widely used food preservatives that can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals. As a result, the U.S. FDA requires that sulfites be listed on the label of any food product containing >10 mg/kg (ppm) sulfite (measured as sulfur dioxide). Currently, the optimized Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC Official Method 990.28) is the most common approach for determining sulfite concentrations in food samples. However, this method is time-consuming and lacks specificity in certain matrices. An improved rapid, sensitive, and selective method has been developed using electrospray ionization (ESI) high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of sulfite in various food matrices. A total of 12 different types of foods were evaluated. These included dried fruits and vegetables, frozen seafood, sweeteners, and juices. The matrix is extracted with a buffered formaldehyde solution, converting free and reversibly bound sulfite to the stable formaldehyde adduct, hydroxymethylsulfonate (HMS). Extracts are prepared for injection using a C18 SPE cartridge to remove any lipophilic compounds. HMS is then separated from other matrix components using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated at 5 concentrations in 12 food matrices. Accuracy data showed spiked recoveries ranging from 84 to 115% in representative foods. Six commercially available sulfited products were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method, as well as the MW method, to determine if differences exist.
Ma, Wenzhuan; Wang, Jinling; Guo, Qiang; Tu, Pengfei
A rapid, sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of doxorubicin in intracellular compartments using glibenclamide as internal standard (IS). MCF-7/Adr cancer cells (1×10(6)) were incubated with doxorubicin (8μg/mL) for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4h and then subjected to sequential extraction of cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nuclear and cytoskeleton soluble protein. Samples were extracted using protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water as mobile phase and with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The method was linear over the range of 1-300ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1ng/mL. The distribution of doxorubicin in subcellular components of MCF-7/Adr cancer cells was mainly in nucleic protein fraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ordóñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael
The development and performance evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in environmental waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry are presented. To this end, different SPE alternatives have been evaluated: polymeric reversed-phase (Oasis HLB, Env+, Plexa and Strata X), and mixed-mode with either weak (Oasis WAX) or strong anionic-exchange (Oasis MAX and Plexa PAX) sorbents. Among them, reversed-phase sorbents, particularly Oasis HLB and Strata X, showed the best performance. Oasis HLB provided good trueness (recoveries: 73-112%), precision (RSD<10%) and limits of quantification (LOQ: 0.01-0.5 μg/L). Moreover, two LC separation mechanisms were evaluated: reversed-phase (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC), with RPLC providing better performance than HILIC. The final application of the method showed the presence of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in the wastewater and surface water samples analyzed at concentrations up to 54 μg/L.
Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao
A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.
A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six components which included 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylamine sulfate hydrate and 2,4-diaminophenol sulfate, etc. in hair dyes by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by water through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The separation was performed on a Waters BEH-C18 column (100 mmx 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) with gradient elution of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode was used for the analysis of the six components in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed good linear relationships with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the six components were in the range of 0.26-4.6 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the six components in the spiked samples were in the range of 83.0%-92.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 5.4%-11.2%. The precision, accuracy, mean recoveries and the matrix effects satisfied the requirements of cosmetic sample measurement. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of six dyes in actual samples. This method is simple, accurate and effective for the simultaneous determination of the six components in hair dyes.
Feng, Yuechao; Jia, Li; He, Yahui; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Yan; Fan, Xiaojing
An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) analytical method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 forbidden industrial dyes in grain and meat products. The sample was extracted with methanol and acetonitrile, and cleaned-up by a WAX solid phase extraction column. The solution was separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column eluted with a mixture of 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate-0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) as the mobile phases, and then analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The correlation coefficients were above 0.99, the average recoveries were 61%-116%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) were lower than 13%. The quantification limits were 0.1-4.0 microg/kg. This method is simple, effective, sensitive, and suitable for the determination and confirmation of the 24 forbidden industrial dyes in grain and meat products.
Li, Hui; Xia, Xi; Xue, Yanan; Tang, Shusheng; Xiao, Xilong; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong
A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and prednisolone in bovine milk. In this method, amoxicillin, prednisolone and the internal standards penicillin G-d(7) (for amoxicillin) and prednisolone-d(6) were extracted from bovine milk using acetonitrile. The C(18) solid phase extraction cartridges were selected for cleaning-up the extracts. The analytes were determined using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 2-1000 μg/kg for the analytes. The mean recoveries were 89.2-92.3% for amoxicillin and 98.7-102.3% for prednisolone. Limits of detection were 0.5 μg/kg for the analytes, and the limits of quantitation were 2 μg/kg. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) have also been estimated for each analyte. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and successfully applied to the analysis of amoxicillin and prednisolone in real samples.
Chen, Xiaojun; Lu, Chunliang; Fan, Shuqin; Lu, Haibo; Cui, Hairong; Meng, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yizhong
Flubendiamide, which belongs to the new chemical class of phthalic acid diamides, is widely used against lepidopteron pests in a variety of vegetable and rice pests. It provides superior plant protection against a broad range of economically important lepidopterous pests, including Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella. A determination method of flubendiamide in the cabbage was established in this paper. Flubendiamide in the cabbage was extracted with acetonitrile and ultrasonic extraction, and was purified by QuEChERS and analyzed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The results indicated that the average recovery of flubendiamide in the cabbage was 81.27%-91.45%, the coefficient of variation was 1.79%-4.81%, and the lowest detection concentration was 0.3 μg/kg. The extraction of flubendiamide from the cabbage and its analysis was in accordance with the pesticide residue criterion, i.e., simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible, stable, separatory, and convenient. It identifies and quantifies trace-level flubendiamide residues in the cabbage extracts using LC-MS/MS in the ESI negative mode coupled with the QuEChERS method.
Lin, Huei-Ru; Choi, Ka-Ian; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Hu, Anren
The rise in amphetamine, ketamine and opiates abuse in Taiwan has created a need for a reliable confirmatory assay. A method that combines superficially porous liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, opiates, and their corresponding metabolites in urine. The total run time of the method was 6.7min including equilibration time. The method was validated in accordance with the European Commission (EC) Decision 2002/642/EC. The within- and between-day precision was below 13.6% and the accuracy ranged from -17.1% to +9.9% for all analytes. Ion suppression was observed but compensated by using deuterated internal standards. No carryover was detected and the analytes were stable at room temperature for 16h, and for 72h at 4°C, and three-thaw cycles. The method was further validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using 52 authentic urine samples. The results indicated that for the target analytes studied, the LC-MS/MS analysis was as precise, accurate, and specific as the GC-MS method. In conclusion, the present LC-MS/MS method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation assay in the simultaneous urine drug testing and quantification of amphetamines, ketamines, and opiates.
Kannan, Vivekanandan; Gadamsetty, Deepak; Rose, Madhankumar; Maria, Stella; Mustafa, Imran; Khedkar, Anand; Dave, Nitesh; Arumugam, Muruganandam; Iyer, Harish
A kinetic study of atosiban was conducted following repeated intravenous administration in Wistar rats. Sample analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following full validation of an in-house method. Eptifibatide, a cyclic peptide, was used as an internal standard (IS). The analyte and internal standard were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) method. Chromatographic separation was carried out using an ACE C18 5 microm 50 mm x 4.6 mm column with gradient elution. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using TSQ Quantum ultra AM. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 microg/ml when 100 microl rat plasma was used. Plasma concentrations of atosiban were measured at 0 (pre-dose), 2, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min at the dosage levels of 0.125 mg/kg (low dose), 0.250 mg/kg (mid dose), and 0.500 mg/kg (high dose), respectively. Atosiban plasma concentration measured at Day 1 showed mean peak atosiban concentration (C(max)) 0.40, 0.57, 1.95 microg/ml for low, mid and high dose treated animals and mean peak concentration on Day 28 was 0.41, 0.88, 1.31microg/ml on Day 28 for low, mid and high dose treated animals.
Jansen, Erwin E W; Gibson, K Michael; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Jakobs, Cornelis; Verhoeven, Nanda M
We describe a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of homocarnosine in physiological fluids, with particular emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Homocarnosine was quantified as the butyl derivative, with (2)H(2)-l-homocarnosine as internal standard. Following deproteinization of CSF samples, supernatants were evaporated to dryness and derivatized with 10% 6M HCl in butanol. Samples were chromatographed on a C(18) column and detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The intra- and inter-assay variations were 4.6 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean recovery of homocarnosine at two concentrations was 105%. The limit of detection in CSF approximated 20 nmol/L. CSF homocarnosine is age dependent and ranges from <0.02 to 10 micromol/L. Our method is applicable to the analysis of CSF derived from patients with heritable defects in the GABA pathway, patients with homocarnosinosis or serum carnosinase deficiency, and should be applicable to other model systems in order to further explore the biological role and significance of homocarnosine in mammalian systems.
Chamkasem, Narong; Harmon, Tiffany
Glyphosate, glufosinate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are amphoteric, low mass, high water soluble, and do not have chromophore. They are very difficult to be retained on a reversed phase HPLC and detected by UV or fluorescence detectors. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine these analytes in soybean and corn using a reversed phase with weak anion-exchange and cation-exchange mixed-mode Acclaim™ Trinity™ Q1 column. The sample was shaken with water containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) and acetic acid for 10 min to precipitate protein and extract the analytes into the solution. The supernatant was passed thru an Oasis HLB SPE to retain suspended particulates and non-polar interferences. The sample was directly injected and analyzed in 6 min by LC-MS/MS with no sample concentration or derivatization steps. Three isotopically labeled internal standards corresponding to each analyte were used to counter matrix suppression effect. Linearity of the detector response with a minimum coefficient of determination (R (2)) of more than 0.995 was demonstrated in the range of 10 to 1000 ng/mL for each analyte. Accuracy (recovery %) and precision (relative standard deviation or RSD %) were evaluated at the fortification levels of 0.1, 0.5, and 2 μg/g in seven replicates in both soybean and corn samples.
Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang
Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile-water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00-1000 ng/mL (r (2)>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of -4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers.
Gong, Xiaoming; Sun, Jun; Dong, Jing; Yu, Jinling; Wang, Hongtao
A method for the determination of avermectin, ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin, eprinomectin, diclazuril, toltrazuril and its two metabolite residues in pork was developed using QuEChERS method with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and purified through QuEChERS method using ODS as the sorbent. The target compounds were separated on a Venusil ASB C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.0 microm) and detected by HPLC-MS/MS. The linear ranges were 0.005 - 0.2 mg/L and the correlation coefficients were all above 0.990. The average recoveries and the relative standard deviations ranged from 73.2% to 91.5% and from 12% to 17% at the spiked levels of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg for the 9 analytes in pork matrix. This method is reliable, and suitable for the determination of the residues of avermectin and related compounds in pork.
Leung, Gary N W; Chung, Evonne W; Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Yu, Nola H
This paper describes two high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods for the screening of two important classes of drugs in equine sports, namely corticosteroids and basic drugs, at low ppb levels in horse urine. The method utilized a high efficiency reversed-phase LC column (3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm i.d. with 3 microm particles) to provide fast turnaround times. The overall turnaround time for the corticosteroid screen was 5 min and that for the basic drug screen was 8 min, inclusive of post-run and equilibration times. Method specificity was assessed by analysing a total of 35 negative post-race horse urine samples. No interference from the matrices at the expected retention times of the targeted masses was observed. Inter-day precision for the screening of 19 corticosteroids and 48 basic drugs were evaluated by replicate analyses (n = 10) of a spiked sample on 4 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that both methods have acceptable precision to be used on a routine basis. The performance of these two methods on real samples was demonstrated by their applications to drug administration and positive post-race urine samples.
Bukowski, Michael R; Bucklin, Christopher; Picklo, Matthew J
Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PSSG) is commonly quantified by reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This methodology is susceptible to contamination by free unreacted cellular glutathione (GSH) species, which are present in 1000-fold greater concentration. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for quantification of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which was used for the determination of PSSG in biological samples. Analysis of rat liver samples demonstrated that GSH and GSSG coprecipitated with proteins similar to the range for PSSG in the sample. The use of [(13)C2,(5)N]GSH and [(13)C4,(5)N2]GSSG validated these results and demonstrated that the release of GSH from PSSG did not occur during sample preparation and analysis. These data demonstrate that GSH and GSSG contamination must be accounted for when determining PSSG content in cellular/tissue preparations. A protocol for rinsing samples to remove the adventitious glutathione species is demonstrated. The fragmentation patterns for glutathione were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and candidate ions for detection of PSSG on protein and protein fragments were identified.
López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.
The obligate intracellular lifestyle of Plasmodium falciparum and the difficulties in obtaining sufficient amounts of biological material have hampered the study of specific metabolic pathways in the malaria parasite. Thus, for example, the pools of sugar nucleotides required to fuel glycosylation reactions have never been studied in-depth in well-synchronized asexual parasites or in other stages of its life cycle. These metabolites are of critical importance, especially considering the renewed interest in the presence of N-, O-, and other glycans in key parasite proteins. In this work, we adapted a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method based on the use of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns and MS-friendly solvents to quantify sugar nucleotides in the malaria parasite. We report the thorough quantification of the pools of these metabolites throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum. The sensitivity of the method enabled, for the first time, the targeted analysis of these glycosylation precursors in gametocytes, the parasite sexual stages that are transmissible to the mosquito vector. PMID:28104756
López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Izquierdo, Luis
The obligate intracellular lifestyle of Plasmodium falciparum and the difficulties in obtaining sufficient amounts of biological material have hampered the study of specific metabolic pathways in the malaria parasite. Thus, for example, the pools of sugar nucleotides required to fuel glycosylation reactions have never been studied in-depth in well-synchronized asexual parasites or in other stages of its life cycle. These metabolites are of critical importance, especially considering the renewed interest in the presence of N-, O-, and other glycans in key parasite proteins. In this work, we adapted a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method based on the use of porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns and MS-friendly solvents to quantify sugar nucleotides in the malaria parasite. We report the thorough quantification of the pools of these metabolites throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum The sensitivity of the method enabled, for the first time, the targeted analysis of these glycosylation precursors in gametocytes, the parasite sexual stages that are transmissible to the mosquito vector.
Cooper, Stephen D; Fletcher, Brenda L; Silinski, Melanie A Rehder; Brown, Sherri S; Lodge, Jon W; Fernando, Reshan A; Collins, Bradley J
A rapid and simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of L-ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine in male Fisher-344 rat plasma at nanogram-per-milliliter concentrations for use in support of toxicology studies. Only 25 μL of plasma is required, and extraction is performed using a simple, single-step protein precipitation. The method was validated over a range of 2.09 to 5460 ng/mL for L-ephedrine, 2.09 to 5050 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine and 2.03 to 5340 ng/mL for caffeine. A binary gradient elution at 0.3 mL/min was used with a Waters XBridge Phenyl (2.1 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) column and a Waters XBridge Phenyl 2.1- × 10-mm guard column at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (pH 5.0) and methanol. Caffeine trimethyl-(13)C(3) was used as the internal standard. The method was evaluated for linearity, recovery, precision, accuracy, and stability, and it was successfully applied in toxicokinetic studies of ephedrine, administered alone, in combination with caffeine, and in the herbal source Ma Huang.
Van Daele, Jeroen; Blancquaert, Dieter; Kiekens, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P
An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the profiling of six folate species in potatoes. The calibration curves cover a wide, linear range (the lower and upper limits of quantitation range between 0.22-0.24 and 216.07-242.28 μg/100 g of fresh weight), allowing sensitive determination in small amounts of potato flesh. With a single exception, the acceptance criteria for intra- and interday precision and accuracy were met: for all quality controls, the percent relative standard deviation and the percent bias were lower than 15% (or 20% at the lower limit of quantitation). Application of the method on tubers at different stages of maturation demonstrated the large variability within a single variety: the folate content and polyglutamylation rate varied between 10.35 and 24.01 μg/100 g of fresh weight and between 4.96% and 60.49%, respectively. Additionally, the two-dimensional folate profiling of mature tubers demonstrated an increase in folate from center to peel, combined with a stable species distribution and polyglutamylation rate.
Xing, Xue; Chen, Zheng; Li, Jifeng; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong
Hair cortisol has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress. The detected contents of hair cortisol might depend on the incubation duration in solvents for no-milled hair samples with 3-layer structure. However, there was no research on the dissolution mechanism of hair analytes. After uniform mixture, no-milled hair samples were incubated in methanol and water for the 12 different durations and milled hair was done as comparison. Hair cortisol and cortisone were determined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The measured concentrations of hair cortisol and cortisone showed ≥2 maxima during the entire incubation in methanol and water from 5 min to 72 h for no-milled hair. Hair cortisol concentration measured by LC-MS/MS was increased with the incubation duration. Conversely, it was not held when hair was powdered prior to the incubation in methanol. Hair cortisol and cortisone were dissolved from hair matrix through the 2-stage or multistage mechanism, which might depend on the hair 3-layer structure and its degree of damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Yong; Lin, Qian; Pang, Tao; Shi, Junli
Flavonoids are very important secondary metabolites for tobacco plants. They are also considered as important flavor precursors for cigarettes. A method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of 12 flavonoids in tobacco leaves. The developed method determined 10 more flavonoids compared to the traditional method. A solution of methanol-water-chloroform (5:2:2, v/v/v) was used to extract the flavonoids from tobacco leaves and remove the pigment. Instrument analysis using the UPLC-MS/MS was completed in 13 min. The method validation was performed, and the results showed that the linear correlation coefficients (r2) of all the 12 flavonoids were more than 0.99. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.3-100 μg/L and 1.2-400 μg/L, respectively. Intra-day and Inter-day reproducibilities were in the range of 3.5%-7.4% and 5.2%-11.4%, respectively. The recoveries were 81.2%-111.9%. The established method was successfully used to analyze the flavonoids of tobacco leaves of 11 varieties. Significant concentration differences of the flavonoids were found among the determined varieties. Furthermore, significant positive correlation among the flavonoids with similar chemical structures (aglycones and their related glycosides, glycosides with the same aglycone, and similar aglycones) was found using the acquired data.
Liu, Yanwen; Zhu, Ronghua; Li, Huande; Yan, Miao; Lei, Yanqing
A selective, simple and efficient method-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of two toxic alkaloids, namely strychnine and brucine in mice plasma. The UPLC separation was carried out using a 1.7 μm BEH C(18) column (50 mm × 2.1 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:0.1% formic acid (25:75, v/v), hence providing high efficiency, high resolution and excellent peak shape for the analytes and internal standard. The method was validated over the range of 2.48-496.4 ng/ml for strychnine and 2.64-528 ng/ml for brucine, respectively. Intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from 95.0% to 107.9% for strychnine, 93.4% to 103.3% for brucine, and the precisions were within 13.8%. The extraction recoveries of both the two alkaloids exceed 81.9%. With a simple and minor sample preparation procedure and short run-time (<3 min), the proposed method was applicable for the pharmacokinetic and toxicological analysis of strychnine and brucine in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiaojun; Yan, Zhongyong; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Jian; Sun, Xiumei; Guo, Yuanming
A highly selective and sensitive method was developed for the determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in marine organisms by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) purification coupled with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). An IAC column was prepared and used to cleanup the extracted samples. The operating conditions of the IAC column were optimized, and the capacity of new IAC column was found to be 1106 ng mL(-1), which was sufficient for TTX determination. The MS/MS conditions and UPLC mobile phase were also studied to optimize the operation conditions. Fortified marine organism samples at levels of 0.3-5.0 ng g(-1) were utilized, and the average recoveries were 86.5-103.6% with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 7.22 and 9.88%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.3 ng g(-1), respectively. The method was later successfully applied for the determination of TTX in 100 marine organism samples collected from local markets.
Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L
In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical drugs in biosolids. Samples were extracted with an acidic mixture of water and acetone (1:2, v/v) and supported liquid extraction was used for the clean-up of extracts, eluting with ethyl acetate:methanol (90:10, v/v). The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using matrix-match calibration after silylation to form their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. This method presents various advantages, such as a fairly simple operation for the analysis of complex matrices, the use of inexpensive glassware and low solvent volumes. Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained with the developed method ranging from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 13%, and limits of detection between 0.5 and 3.6 ng g(-1). The method was then successfully applied to biosolids samples collected in Madrid and Catalonia (Spain). Eleven of the sixteen target compounds were detected in the studied samples, at levels up to 1.1 μg g(-1) (salicylic acid). Ibuprofen, caffeine, paracetamol and fenofibrate were detected in all of the samples analyzed.
Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai
The methyl esters of chlorogenic acids, methyl quinates, are widely distributed in plant materials and frequently appear as extraction artifacts in plant samples. This is the first time when liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods have been used for the identification and characterization of the methyl quinates. For this purpose, methyl quinates of mono caffeoylquinic acids and mono feruloylquinic acids were synthesized as authentic standards. The methyl quinates of mono and diacyl chlorogenic acids have shown characteristic fragmentation pattern in their tandem mass spectra. MS(n + 1) spectra of the methyl quinates of diacyl chlorogenic acids were identical to MS(n) spectra of mono acyl derivatives. These quinates do not produce any methyl quinate peak at m/z 205 if compared with quinic acid peak at m/z 191 in negative ion mode. In the MS(n) spectra of these quinates, cinnamic acid part or cinnamoyl part was detected as a base peak in negative ion mode. The retention time, order of elution and fragmentation pattern were completely different if compared with LC-MS(n) methods developed for chlorogenic acids. These LC-MS(n) methods have been applied for the identification and regioisomeric characterization of the methyl quinates of chlorogenic acids in maté tea and woodruff (Galium odoratum). Two methyl caffeoylquinates (2 and 4) were identified as methyl 3-caffeoylquinate and methyl 5-caffeoylquinate. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
MORI, Miwako; ICHIBANGASE, Tomoko; YAMASHITA, Shozo; KIJIMA-SUDA, Isao; KAWAHARA, Masahiro; IMAI, Kazuhiro
ABSTRACT In the doping tests currently used in horse racing, prohibited substances or their metabolites are usually directly detected in urine or blood samples. However, despite their lasting pharmaceutical effects, some prohibited substances are rapidly eliminated from horse urine and blood, making them difficult to detect. Therefore, new indirect biomarkers for doping, such as plasma proteins that are increased by the prohibited substances, have recently attracted much attention. Here, a fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (FD-LC-MS/MS) method was adopted for horse plasma proteomics analysis, in order to identify plasma proteins whose concentrations were altered in response to xylazine in Thoroughbred horses. Xylazine, which is rapidly absorbed and eliminated and has possibility of the change in the levels of plasma proteins, was selected as a model drug. Of the ten plasma proteins identified, four proteins, including three acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and α-2-macroglobulin-like), were significantly increased after xylazine administration. Therefore, our present approach might be useful in identifying indirect biomarkers of drug administration. PMID:26858580
Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man
A rapid and simple analytical method for L-carnitine was developed for infant and toddler formulas by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.3 g of infant formula and toddler formula sample was mixed in a 50 mL conical tube with 9 mL water and 1 mL 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to chemical extraction. Then, chloroform was used for removing a lipid fraction. After centrifuged, L-carnitine was separated and quantified using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. The precursor ion for L-carnitine was m/z 162, and product ions were m/z 103 (quantitative) and m/z 85 (qualitative), respectively. The results for spiked recovery test were in the range of 93.18-95.64% and the result for certified reference material (SRM 1849a) was within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labor saving. PMID:26761670
Doyle, E; Fowles, S E; Summerfield, S; White, T J
A method was developed for the determination of tafenoquine (I) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Prior to analysis, the protein in plasma samples was precipitated with methanol containing [2H3(15N)]tafenoquine (II) to act as an internal standard. The supernatant was injected onto a Genesis-C18 column without any further clean-up. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode, employing a heat assisted nebulisation, electrospray interface. Ions were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay required 50 microl of plasma and was precise and accurate within the range 2 to 500 ng/ml. The average within-run and between-run relative standard deviations were < 7% at 2 ng/ml and greater concentrations. The average accuracy of validation standards was generally within +/- 4% of the nominal concentration. There was no evidence of instability of I in human plasma following three complete freeze-thaw cycles and samples can safely be stored for at least 8 months at approximately -70 degrees C. The method was very robust and has been successfully applied to the analysis of clinical samples from patients and healthy volunteers dosed with I.
Prajapati, Shailesh T.; Patel, Pratik K.; Patel, Marmik; Chauhan, Vijendra B.; Patel, Chhaganbhai N.
Introduction: A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of candesartan in human plasma using the protein precipitation technique. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on reverse phase using a Betasil C8 (100 × 2.1 mm) 5-μm column, mobile phase of methanol:ammonium tri-floro acetate buffer with formic acid (60:40 v/v) and flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 441.2 → 263.2 and 260.2 → 116.1 were used to measure candesartan by using propranolol as an internal standard. Results: The linearity of the developed method was achieved in the range of 1.2–1030 ng/ml (r2 ≥ 0.9996) for candesartan. Conclusion: The developed method is simple, rapid, accurate, cost-effective and specific; hence, it can be applied for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23781443
Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon
Iohexol is a nonradioactive contrast medium, and its clearance from serum or urine is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most useful indicator of kidney function and progression of kidney disease. GFR determination using iohexol clearance is increasingly being applied in clinical practice, given its advantages over and correlation with inulin. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for iohexol clearance, requiring only 50 μL of serum. The sample preparation involves protein precipitation with LC/MS-grade methanol, containing ioversol as the internal standard. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at room temperature. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Iohexol is separated using an HPLC gradient method on a C-8 analytical column. MS/MS detection is in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 822.0 to m/z 804.0 and m/z 807.0 to m/z 588.0 for iohexol and ioversol, respectively.
Mahlow, Jonathon; Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is the active form of vitamin D and plays a critical role in the maintenance of calcium and phosphorous metabolism of the human body. Measurement of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in serum can aid in clinical diagnosis and/or management of renal disease, sarcoidosis, and rare inherited diseases. We present here an effective and accurate method for measuring 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after immunoaffinity extraction. The MS/MS is operated in multiple reaction mode with positive electrospray. Quantification is based on peak area ratios of the analytes to respective deuterated internal standards. This method offered a linear range from 4.0 to 160.0 pg/mL with analytical recovery of 89.9-115.5 % for both 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2.
Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili
A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.
Kim, Hyun-Ji; Shin, Ho-Sang
We describe a simple derivatization method to determine aldehydes. This method is based on derivatization with D-cysteine and consecutive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimum derivatization conditions of aldehydes with D-cysteine were 10 min at 50°C and pH 7.0. The formed alkyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were directly injected in LC-MS/MS. In the established condition, the method was used to detect eight aldehydes in beverages. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the aldehydes were 0.2-1.9 μg L(-1) and 0.7-6.0 μg L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was less than 2.0% at concentrations of 0.1 mg L(-1) and 1.0 mg L(-1) with the exception of octanal. All the beverage samples had detectable levels of methanal (0.033-0.145 mg L(-1)), ethanal (0.085-2.12 mg L(-1)), propanal (ND to 0.250 mg L(-1)), butanal (ND to 0.003 mg L(-1)), pentanal (ND to 0.471 mg L(-1)), hexanal (ND to 0.805 mg L(-1)), heptanal (0.019-3.91 mg L(-1)) and octanal (0.029-0.118 mg L(-1)). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni
Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered to be important indicators of freshness and quality in food. In this work, an analytical method for analyzing ten underivatized BAs in meat by performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. Comparison between ion trap and triple quadrupole as mass analyzers indicated that the latter provides greater sensitivity and selectivity. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.987-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.002-0.1 mg l(-1) and 0.008-0.5 mg l(-1), respectively. Once validated, the method was used to analyze the concentrations of BAs in 16 commercial meat samples, for evaluating the freshness of food through the study of BA indices, i.e. biogenic amine index (BAI) and the ratio spermidine/spermine (SPD/SPE). The results indicated that all the samples were fresh, with a BAI lower than 1.49 mg kg(-1) and a SPD/SPE ratio lower than 0.41 in each case. This methodology for testing the freshness of meat has potential for quality control applications along the entire production chain of meat products.
Otoki, Yurika; Kato, Shunji; Kimura, Fumiko; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Shinji; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka
Concentration of both choline plasmalogen (PC-Pls) and ethanolamine Pls (PE-Pls) in human plasma/serum has been getting attention to, since certain patients including those with neurodegenerative disorders, have been reported to exhibit reduced levels of specific Pls species. However, despite using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), accurate quantitation of Pls is still difficult because of less product ion from PC-Pls and quantitative issues (e.g., extraction recoveries and matrix effects). The present study aimed to develop a method for accurate identification and quantitation of Pls molecular species using LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The LC-MS/MS conditions in the presence of sodium, and the extraction method using methanol protein precipitation were optimized. Under the optimal condition, Pls was detected at femtomole levels. The recoveries of Pls from human plasma were nearly 100%, and matrix effects were not observed. The novel method enabled determination of each Pls species in human plasma at the concentrations of 0.5-13.6μM. Then the PC-Pls and PE-Pls species in the plasma of both healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease were quantitated. The method developed herein represents a powerful tool for analyzing Pls, which may provide a better understanding of their physiological roles in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sun, Taoping; Chen, Sijing; Huang, Hao; Li, Tianqing; Yang, Wei; Liu, Liegang
7, 8-Dihydroxyflavone, as a high-affinity tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B agonist, can mimic the physiological actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and exert a variety of neurological actions in numerous models including Parkinsońs disease, depression, learning and memory. Nonetheless, a limited number of studies have been focused on its metabolism in mammal and no methodology has been reported for the determination of 7, 8-DHF and its metabolites. Herein, we developed a rapid, sensitive and accurate method using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for the determination of 7, 8-DHF and its metabolites in monkey plasma. The lower limits of quantification for analytes were 0.4-2.0ngmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, %) of analytes were within 11.83%, and the accuracy (relative error, %) ranged from -6.86 to 14.00%. The mean extraction recoveries for analytes were more than 89.14%. This validated method was successfully applied to the metabolic profile study of 7, 8-DHF in monkey plasma. The results indicated that 7, 8-DHF undergoes methylation, glucuronidation and/or sulfation, and the conjugated forms are the main metabolites in monkey plasma. We further demonstrated that methylated 7, 8-DHF can be also conjugated with glucuronidation/sulfation, and the methylation occurs mainly in the 8 position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y
A multi-target high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection of low ppt to low ppb levels of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, anti-diabetics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in equine plasma was developed for the purpose of doping control. Plasma samples were first deproteinated by addition of trichloroacetic acid. Drugs were then extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bond Elut Certify cartridges, and the extracts were analysed by a triple-quadrupole/linear ion trap LC-MS-MS instrument in positive electrospray ionization (+ESI) mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan function. Chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs was achieved using a reverse phase 3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm ID, 3 microm particle size LC column with gradient elution. Plasma samples fortified with 66 targeted drugs including betamethasone, boldione, capsaicin, flunisolide, gestrinone, gliclazide, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate, isoflupredone and triamcinolone acetonide, etc. at low ppt to low ppb levels could be consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention time of the targeted ion transitions when blank plasma samples were analysed. The method has been validated for its extraction recoveries, precision and sensitivity, and is used regularly in the authors' laboratory to screen for the presence of these drugs in plasma samples from racehorses.
Zimmer, Dieter; Philipowski, Christiane; Posner, Birgit; Gnielka, Agnes; Dirr, Edgar; Dorff, Mario
This paper describes a selective and sensitive method that uses liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) for the determination of deltamethrin in a variety of crops. Samples were extracted by conventional high-speed blending. Some samples required no further cleanup; others were cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography, strong cation-exchange cartridges, or partitioning with n-hexane. In the determinative step, the buffered neutral mobile phase, consisting of 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.8) and methanol, and ESI+ provided strong ammonium adduct formation to [M+NH4]+ at m/z 523, and the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transition at m/z 523/281 was used for the quantitation of deltamethrin. A second MRM transition at m/z 525/283 was used for confirmation. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were 0.01 mg/kg for edible materials and 0.05 mg/kg for nonedible materials. Mean overall recoveries at the LOQ and the 10-fold LOQ ranged from 73 to 96%, and the relative standard deviations were <10% for all samples materials analyzed.
Choi, Sunkyu; Kim, Jaeyoon; Cho, Kun; Park, Gunwook; Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Park, Sehoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jeongkwon
Protein phosphorylation regulates a wide range of cellular functions and is associated with signaling pathways in cells. Various strategies for enrichment of phosphoproteins or phosphopeptides have been developed. Here, we developed a novel sequential phosphopeptide enrichment method, using magnetic iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, to detect mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides. In the first step, phosphopeptides were captured on Fe(3)O(4) particles. In a subsequent step, any residual phosphopeptides were captured on TiO(2) particles. The particles were eluted and rinsed to yield phosphopeptide-enriched fractions that were combined and analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The validity of this sequential Fe(3)O(4)/TiO(2) enrichment strategy was demonstrated by the successful enrichment of bovine alpha-casein phosphopeptides. We then applied the sequential Fe(3)O(4)/TiO(2) enrichment method to the analysis of phosphopeptides in L6 muscle cell lysates and successfully identified mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
How, Zuo Tong; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia A; Charrois, Jeffrey W A
This paper reports a new analytical method for the analysis of 18 amino acids in natural waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two different preconcentration methods, solid-phase extraction and concentration under reduced pressure, were tested in development of this method. Although concentration under reduced pressure provided better recoveries and method limits of detection for amino acids in ultrapure water, SPE was a more suitable extraction method for real samples due to the lower matrix effects for this method. Even though the strong cation exchange resin used in SPE method introduced exogenous matrix interferences into the sample extracts (inorganic salt originating from the acid-base reaction during the elution step), the SPE method still incorporates a broad sample clean-up and minimised endogenous matrix effects by reducing interferences originating from real water samples. The method limits of quantification (MLQ) for the SPE LC-MS/MS method in ultrapure water ranged from 0.1 to 100 μg L(-1) as N for the different amino acids. The MLQs of the early eluting amino acids were limited by the presence of matrix interfering species, such as inorganic salts in natural water samples. The SPE LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of amino acids in 3 different drinking water source waters: the average total free amino acid content in these waters was found to be 19 μg L(-1) as N, while among the 18 amino acids analysed, the most abundant amino acids were found to be tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine.
Gavina, Jennilee M A; Priem, Jessica; Wood, Carla M; Xiao, Chao Wu; Feng, Yong-Lai
Consumption and nutritional supplementation of soy and soy-based products have been linked to health benefits such as lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this study, we have developed a sensitive, specific, and robust method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for determination of serum isoflavones. A new highly efficient pentafluorophenyl phase core-shell column was first used to separate all isoflavones within 3 min, a separation time which is comparable to ultra-pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and micro-HPLC. A two-enzyme hydrolysis system with sulfatase and β-glucuronidase has also been developed to improve the efficiency of deconjugation of conjugated isoflavones in serum. The corresponding conjugated isoflavones were used to evaluate recoveries. In addition to duplicates, the method of standard addition was also applied in sample analysis for quality control. The developed method was applied to the analysis of 32 serum samples and was shown to be specific, sensitive and reproducible.
Edlund, O; Bowers, L; Henion, J; Covey, T R
Urine samples were spiked with [17-methyl-2H3]methandrostenolone as internal standard and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and cyclohexane. The organic phase was concentrated and injected onto a short octyl-silica column (30 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation of methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone. The effluent from the column was connected to a Sciex TAGA 6000E triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure ion source for sampling of ions generated by a heated pneumatic nebulizer with corona discharge ionization. This ion source produced abundant [M + H]+ ions and a weak fragment ion due to loss of water. The protonated molecular ions at m/z 301 and 304 for methandrostenolone, 17-epimethandrostenolone and the internal standard were transmitted to the second quadrupole for collision-induced dissociation. Quantification was obtained by selected reaction monitoring of three daughter ions. Methandrostenolone and 17-epimethandrostenolone were separated by liquid chromatography, but gave identical mass spectra. The method detection limit by injection of a urine extract corresponding to 2.8 ml urine was 180 pg/ml at the 99% confidence level. The precision (relative standard deviation) was 3% at the 16 ng/ml level and the linear dynamic range was at least 3 orders of magnitude. Screening for unknown metabolites in urine after administration of methandrostenolone to horses and humans was accomplished by a parent ion scan of m/z 121, a fragment corresponding to the intact A-ring of the steroids.
Neto, Renato R; Thompson, Anu; Wolff, George A
A method for the identification and quantification of underivatised steryl sulphates in invertebrates by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) involving a single cleanup step has been developed. Negative electrospray ionisation and positive and negative atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) spectra of steryl sulphate showed pseudomolecular ions ([M+H-H2SO4]+ or [M-H]-). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was efficient only in positive APCI. LC-MS in negative APCI was least susceptible to interference and possible differences in response factors. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) based on cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate in positive and negative APCI modes are 3.66 and 0.73 pmol microL(-1), respectively. Calibration plots and response factors for cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate relative to the internal standard, cholecalciferyl-3-sulphate, in both positive and negative polarities, were linear in the concentration range from 1.22 to 16.4 pmol microL(-1) with good coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.98). It is suggested that the structure elucidation of steryl sulphates is best achieved in CID positive APCI mode, whereas their quantification should be carried out using negative APCI.
He, Xiang; Gabler, Jessica; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Sihe; Shi, Yang; Kozak, Marta
Plasma free metanephrine and normetanephrine are the best biomarkers for diagnosing pheochromocytoma. In the past few years, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has become the preferred technology to measure plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as fast and simple sample preparation. In this study, we report a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine. A solid phase extraction method using ion-pairing reagent and C18 stationary phase was used for sample preparation. We tested a porous graphitic carbon column and a HILIC column for chromatographic separation, and the former one showed better resolution with no interference from plasma matrix. This method was linear from 7.2-486.8 pg/mL for metanephrine and 18.0-989.1 pg/mL for normetanephrine with an accuracy of 92.2-111.8% and 92.1-115.0%, respectively. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV for metanephrine and normetanephrine at two different concentration levels ranged from 2.0% to 10.9%. In conclusion, this liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using ion-pairing solid phase extraction and porous graphitic column was simple and efficient for measuring plasma metanephrines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi
A sensitive and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxycoumarin-type (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, coumatetralyl, and warfarin) and indandione-type (chlorophacinone, diphacinone, and pindone) rodenticides in agricultural products by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The procedure involved extraction of the rodenticides from samples with acetone, followed by liquid-liquid partitioning with hexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) and 10% sodium chloride aqueous solution, then cleanup using GPC, and finally, analysis using LC-MS/MS. High recoveries from the GPC column were obtained for all rodenticides tested using a mobile phase of acetone/cyclohexane/triethylamine (400:1600:1, v/v/v). An ODS column, which contains low levels of metal impurities, gave satisfactory peak shapes for both hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in the LC-MS/MS separation. The average recoveries of rodenticides from eight agricultural foods (apple, eggplant, cabbage, orange, potato, tomato, brown rice, and soybean) fortified at 0.0005-0.001 mg/kg ranged from 76 to 116%, except for bromadiolone in orange (53%) and diphacinone in soybean (54%), and the relative standard deviations ranged from 1 to 16%. The proposed method effectively removed interfering components, such as pigments and lipids, and showed high selectivity. In addition, the matrix effects were negligible for most of the rodenticide/food combinations. The results suggest that the proposed method is reliable and suitable for determining hydroxycoumarin- and indandione-type rodenticides in agricultural products.
Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Bai-Hsiun
A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday) and 18.7% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Anderson, David J.; Brozek, Eric M.; Cox, Kyley J.; Porucznik, Christina A.; Wilkins, Diana G.
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of total bisphenol A in human urine was developed and validated. The method utilized liquid/liquid extraction with 1-chlorobutane and a human urine aliquot size of 800 µL. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC® system with a Kinetex® Phenyl-Hexyl column. Mass spectrometric analysis was with negative electrospray ionization on a Quattro Premier XE™. The surrogate matrix method was used for the preparation of calibration standards in synthetic urine due to the presence of BPA in control human urine. The validated calibration range was 0.75 to 20 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. The internal standard was d16-bisphenol A. Method validation utilized quality control samples at three concentrations in both synthetic urine and human urine. Bisphenol A mono-glucuronide was fortified in synthetic urine in each analytical run to monitor the enzymatic conversion of the glucuronide conjugate to BPA by β-glucuronidase. Validated method parameters included linearity, accuracy, precision, integrity of dilution, selectivity, re-injection reproducibility, recovery/matrix effect, solution stability, and matrix stability in human urine. Acceptance criteria for analytical standards and QCs were ± 20% of nominal concentration. Matrix stability in human urine was validated after 24 hours at ambient temperature, after three freeze/thaw cycles, and after frozen storage at −20 °C and −80 °C for up to 218 days. The method has been applied to the analysis of over 1750 human urine samples from a biomonitoring study. The median and mean urine BPA concentrations were 2.71 ng/mL and 4.75 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:24594944
Lin, Huei-Ru; Chen, Chin-Lun; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Lua, Ahai-Chuang
For monitoring compliance of methadone or buprenorphine maintenance patient, a method for the simultaneous determination of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, opiates (morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine) in urine by superficially porous liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. After enzyme digestion and liquid-liquid extraction, reverse-phase separation was achieved in 5.2 min and quantification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring. Chromatographic separation was performed at 40 °C on a reversed phase Poroshell column with gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of water and methanol, each containing 0.1% formic acid, at a flow rate of 0.32 mL/min. Intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 12.1% and accuracy was between -9.8% and 13.7%. Extraction efficiencies were more than 68%. Although ion suppression was detected, deuterated internal standards compensated for these effects. Carryover was minimal, less than 0.20%. All analytes were stable at room temperature for 16 h, 4 °C for 72 h, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The assay also fulfilled compound identification criteria in accordance with the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. We analyzed 62 urine samples from patients received maintenance therapy and found that 54.8% of the patient samples tested were detected for morphine, codeine, or 6-monoacetylmorphine. This method provides a reliable and simultaneous quantification of opiates, maintenance drugs, and their metabolites in urine samples. It facilitates the routine monitoring in individuals prescribed the drug to ensure compliance and help therapeutic process.
Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong
Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905-0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%-103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%-108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%-105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%-106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time.
Anderson, David J; Brozek, Eric M; Cox, Kyley J; Porucznik, Christina A; Wilkins, Diana G
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of total bisphenol A in human urine was developed and validated. The method utilized liquid/liquid extraction with 1-chlorobutane and a human urine aliquot size of 800μL. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC(®) system with a Kinetex(®) Phenyl-Hexyl column. Mass spectrometric analysis was with negative electrospray ionization on a Quattro Premier XE™. The surrogate matrix method was used for the preparation of calibration standards in synthetic urine due to the presence of BPA in control human urine. The validated calibration range was 0.75-20ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1ng/mL. The internal standard was d16-bisphenol A. Method validation utilized quality control samples at three concentrations in both synthetic urine and human urine. Bisphenol A mono-glucuronide was fortified in synthetic urine in each analytical run to monitor the enzymatic conversion of the glucuronide conjugate to BPA by β-glucuronidase. Validated method parameters included linearity, accuracy, precision, integrity of dilution, selectivity, re-injection reproducibility, recovery/matrix effect, solution stability, and matrix stability in human urine. Acceptance criteria for analytical standards and QCs were ±20% of nominal concentration. Matrix stability in human urine was validated after 24h at ambient temperature, after three freeze/thaw cycles, and after frozen storage at -20°C and -80°C for up to 218 days. The method has been applied to the analysis of over 1750 human urine samples from a biomonitoring study. The median and mean urine BPA concentrations were 2.71ng/mL and 4.75ng/mL, respectively.
Chen, Guo; Sun, Yami; Yang, Ting; Wu, Yinliang
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of flonicamid and its metabolite [N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine (TFNG), 4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid (TFNA) and 4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide (TFNA-AM)] in cucumbers and apples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with liquid-liquid extraction. The sample was extracted twice with phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0), and the extract was adjusted to pH 1.5 - 2.0, then an aliquot of the extract (3 mL) was extracted with ethyl acetate. The final extract was dried under nitrogen and the residue was dissolved in 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol (80/20, v/v). The sample was analyzed by LC-MS/MS and quantified with the external standard calibration curve method. The detection limits of flonicamid, TFNG, TFNA and TFNA-AM were 0.17, 0.20, 0.35 and 0.60 microg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of flonicamid and its metabolites in cucumbers and apples were 82.9% - 104.1%. In the intra-assay, the relative standard deviations were 3.6% - 6.9% at the spiked levels of 5.0 - 2 000 microg/kg. There were good linear correlations (the calibration coefficients were above 0.998) between the peak areas and the concentrations of flonicamid and its metabolites in the range of 0.5 - 200 microg/L. The volume of organic solvent used in the whole pretreatment procedure was only 6 mL. The method is accurate, highly sensitive and stable for the determination of flonicamid and its metabolites.
Chiesa, L; Panseri, S; Cannizzo, F T; Biolatti, B; Divari, S; Benevelli, R; Arioli, F; Pavlovic, R
Under European legislation, the use of growth promoters is forbidden in food-producing livestock. The application of unofficial protocols with diverse combinations of veterinary drugs, administered in very low concentrations, hinders reliable detection and subsequent operative prevention. It was observed that nandrolone (anabolic steroid) and ractopamine (β-adrenergic agonist) are occasionally administered to animals, but little is known about their synergic action when they are administered together. Two specific analytical methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry have been developed, both of which include hydrolysis of the corresponding conjugates. For the nandrolone method, solid-phase extraction was necessary for the complete elimination of the interferences, while employment of the Quantitation Enhanced Data-Dependent scan mode during MS acquisition of ractopamine enabled the utilization of simple liquid-liquid extraction. The nandrolone method was linear in the range of 0.5-25 ng/mL, while the ractopamine calibration curve was constructed from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The corresponding coefficients of correlations were >0.9907. The lower limit of quantification for both methods was 0.5 ng/mL, followed by overall recoveries >81%. Precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were <17%, while matrix effects were minimal. Urine samples taken at the slaughterhouse from veal calves enrolled in an experimental treatment consisting of intramuscular administration of β-nandrolone-phenylpropionate accompanied with a ractopamine-enriched diet were analysed. Those methods might be useful for studying the elimination patterns of the administered compounds along with characterization of the main metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui
An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garcia, Aldo D; Chavez, Jorge L; Mechref, Yehia
Glycosylation of proteins and lipids is reliant on the availability of monosaccharide-activated donors known as sugar nucleotides. They are responsible for glycosylation in cells. Reliable quantification of these sugar nucleotides might provide an insight into their biological roles and attributes. Herein, a method is described for the quantification of sugar nucleotides using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry, allowing selective detection of sugar nucleotides in a biological sample. Seven model sugar nucleotide standards commonly associated with lipid and protein glycosylation were separated on a porous graphitic carbon column using an UHPLC system coupled to a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing a multiple reaction monitoring approach. Successful baseline separation of these metabolites was attained in 6 min using an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile, circumventing the use of MS-unfriendly pairing reagents. The linear dynamic range of this procedure was established over almost three orders of magnitude from 20 pg to 1 ng (40 pg to 2 ng for the isomers UDP-GlcNAc/GalNAc). The limit of detection ranged from 15 pg to 30 pg while the limit of quantification ranged from 50 pg to 100 pg. Furthermore, viability of this method was tested using three different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-231-BR, and MDA-MB-361) with the successful identification and quantification of all seven targeted sugar nucleotides. The described method permitted the quantitative analysis of sugar nucleotides in 10 min, thus allowing the practical use of this approach in high-throughput settings. The method was also very effective for the quantification of sugar nucleotides derived from three different breast cancer cell lines. The distribution of sugar nucleotides was different among the different cell lines and unique for each cell line. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh
Even in trace amounts, estrogens such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) may have adverse effects on humans and the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, it is essential to be able to measure trace amounts of steroid estrogens in water. To date, most instruments are not sensitive enough to detect these chemicals in small samples of water. Sensitivity, however, may be improved by using appropriate derivatization reagents to modify the structures of these estrogens so that their ionization efficiency is increased, making them more detectable by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). This study uses dansyl chloride, 2-fluoro-1-methylpyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (FMPTS), and pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) as derivatization reagents to react with the phenolic estrogens to make them more detectable in water. We also test how environmental matrices (wastewater effluent, river water, and drinking water) influence the detectability of these estrogens. Both qualitative and semi-quantitative comparisons of these derivatization methods were made. We found that dansyl chloride derivatives created signal intensities one or two orders of magnitude greater than those normally found in underivatized estrogen standards. The signals derived by FMPTS were analyte-dependent, and the products derived from E1, E2, and EE2 produced 2.19 to 12.1 times the signal intensity of underivatized E1, E2, and EE2. The product derived from E3 produced weaker signals than that produced by underivatized E3. The PFBBr derivatives produced signals that were as much as 5.8 times those found in the underivatized estrogens. When these derivatization methods were applied to river water, drinking water and effluents from a sewage treatment plant (STP), the different matrices were found to significantly suppress the signals if we used electrospray ionization, though this influence became less significant if we used atmospheric pressure chemical
Wang, Yuan; Wang, Tao; Shi, Xianzhe; Wan, Dafang; Zhang, Pingping; He, Xianghuo; Gao, Peng; Yang, Shengli; Gu, Jianren; Xu, Guowang
The strong polar quaternary ammoniums, acetylcholine (ACh), choline (Ch) and butyrobetaine (BB, (3-carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium), are believed playing important roles in liver metabolism. These metabolites are at low levels and are weakly retained on reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) columns. Several hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) methods have been reported to analyze these compounds from different samples. However, no application to human liver tissues has been published. In this study, HILIC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine these three metabolites in human liver tissues. They were simply extracted from tissue, separated on a HILIC column, and detected by tandem MS in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Further studies on the recovery and repeatability based on real samples indicated the method was accurate and reliable. This method was successfully applied to measure the levels of ACh, Ch and BB in 61 human liver tissue samples including normal, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and matched non-cancerous liver tissues. By comparison of Ch and ACh contents in 29 HCC with their matched non-cancerous liver tissues, it was found that ACh content increased in 11/29 HCC cases and decreased in 13/29 cases. Furthermore, the ACh/Ch ratio increased in 16/29 HCC cases, while it decreased in 8/29 cases. These results strongly indicated that there exist different patterns of ACh content in cancer tissues among HCC patients, thus highlighting the understanding of ACh and its relevant signal pathways in hepatic carcinogenesis and HCC progression.
Senta, Ivan; Krizman, Ivona; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka
For the first time, an integrated procedure for a quantitative multiresidue analysis of dissolved and particulate illicit drug target residues was developed and validated in three different wastewater matrices. The procedure consists of a comprehensive sample enrichment, fractionation and cleanup followed by the determination of target analytes by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ionisation polarities. The enrichment of illicit drugs from suspended solids and aqueous samples was performed using pressurised liquid extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively. The performance of different SPE cartridges was investigated in order to optimise the overall recovery and to reduce the matrix effects. The optimal results were obtained by combining mixed cation exchange (Oasis MCX) cartridges for fractionated enrichment, weak anion exchange for an additional extract cleanup and optimised chromatographic separation to minimise the impact from co-extracted interferences. The method was applied for the analysis of raw wastewater (RW), activated sludge (AS) and secondary effluent (SE) samples collected at four different wastewater treatment plants. The average contributions of the particulate drugs in the RW and AS were 1-28 and 23-65 %, respectively. This suggested that the total mass loads of some drugs might be underestimated by neglecting the particulate fraction. Moreover, relatively high distribution coefficients, determined for 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (RW = 1211 L/kg) and 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (RW = 1,786 L/kg) implied that adsorption might play a significant role in their overall removal during wastewater treatment.
Ziarrusta, Haizea; Mijangos, Leire; Prieto, Ailette; Etxebarria, Nestor; Zuloaga, Olatz; Olivares, Maitane
This work describes the optimization, validation, and application in real samples of accurate and precise analytical methods to determine tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), including amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, and clomipramine in different environmental matrices, such as water (estuary, seawater, and wastewater treatment plant effluent) and biota (fish muscle, fish liver, and mussels), which would lead to supplement the scarce information on the presence of TCAs in aquatic organisms. The analysis step performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was fully optimized to improve the sensitivity of the separation and detection steps. The extraction of solid samples was accomplished using focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE), which required a low amount of sample (0.5 g), solvent (7 mL acetonitrile/H2O, 95:5 v/v) and short extraction time (30 s). In the optimisation of the clean-up step, mixed mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a strong cation exchanger rendered clean extracts and the best results in terms of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. The same SPE mode was also used for the extraction and pre-concentration of TCAs from environmental water matrices. The methods afforded satisfactory apparent recovery values (86-122%) and repeatability (RSD < 5%), regardless of the matrix. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the analysis of real samples from the Biscay Coast, where TCAs were detected in both water and biota samples up to 25.9 ng/L and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. Up to our knowledge, this is the first work using FUSLE for the determination of TCAs and one of the few analyzing TCAs in biota samples.
Vo Duy, S; Besteiro, S; Berry, L; Perigaud, C; Bressolle, F; Vial, H J; Lefebvre-Tournier, I
Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malaria, a deadly infectious disease for which treatments are scarce and drug-resistant parasites are now increasingly found. A comprehensive method of identifying and quantifying metabolites of this intracellular parasite could expand the arsenal of tools to understand its biology, and be used to develop new treatments against the disease. Here, we present two methods based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for reliable measurement of water-soluble metabolites involved in phospholipid biosynthesis, as well as several other metabolites that reflect the metabolic status of the parasite including amino acids, carboxylic acids, energy-related carbohydrates, and nucleotides. A total of 35 compounds was quantified. In the first method, polar compounds were retained by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (amino column) and detected in negative mode using succinic acid-(13)C(4) and fluorovaline as internal standards. In the second method, separations were carried out using reverse phase (C18) ion-pair liquid chromatography, with heptafluorobutyric acid as a volatile ion pairing reagent in positive detection mode, using d(9)-choline and 4-aminobutanol as internal standards. Standard curves were performed in P. falciparum-infected and uninfected red blood cells using standard addition method (r(2)>0.99). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision as well as the extraction recovery of each compound were determined. The lower limit of quantitation varied from 50pmol to 100fmol/3×10(7)cells. These methods were validated and successfully applied to determine intracellular concentrations of metabolites from uninfected host RBCs and isolated Plasmodium parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José
A new method was developed to determine twelve intact-glucosinolates (GLSs) (glucoiberin, GIB; glucoraphanin, GRA; glucoerucin GER; gluconapin, GNA; glucotropaeolin, GTL; glucobrassicin, GBC; gluconasturtiin, NAS; glucoalyssin, ALY; 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 4OH; 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, 4ME; neoglucobrassicin, NEO; sinigrin, SIN) in bee pollen, by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). An efficient extraction procedure was proposed (average analyte recoveries were between 85% and 96%); this involved a solid-liquid extraction (SLE) with heated water, followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) with a weak anion exchange (NH2) sorbent. Chromatography was performed on a Gemini(®) C18 analytical column with a mobile phase of formic acid in water (0.5%,v/v) and formic acid in acetonitrile (0.5%,v/v), in gradient elution mode at 1mL/min, resulted in baseline-separated peaks and a run time of 30min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, carry-over effect, reinjection reproducibility, precision and accuracy. A good selectivity, low LODs and LOQs, ranging from 1 to 16μg/kg, wide linear ranges from LOQ to 1000μg/kg, and satisfactory reinjection reproducibility, precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation and relative error values lower than or equal to 9%; meanwhile, results indicates a negligible carry-over effect. The proposed method was applied to analyze intact-GLSs in bee pollen. Nine of the GLSs studied were identified in certain samples analyzed over a wide concentration range (LOQ-2226μg/kg), and significant differences in GLS content were observed among the samples.
Jmeian, Yazen; Hammad, Loubna A; Mechref, Yehia
A novel online enzyme reactor incorporating peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) on a monolithic polymer support has been developed to allow the rapid simultaneous release of both neutral and acidic N-linked glycans from glycoproteins. The PNGase F monolithic reactor was fabricated in a fused silica using glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate polymer. The reactor was coupled to a C8 trap and a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) HPLC-chip. This arrangement was interfaced to an ion trap mass spectrometer for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. The performance of the PNGase F reactor was optimized using the MS signal for the disialylated biantennary N-glycan derived from fetuin. Optimum conditions for glycan release were attained at room temperature using a loading flow rate of 2 μL/min and a reaction time of 6 min. The loading capacity of the reactor was determined to be around 2 pmol of glycoprotein. The online digestion and MS characterization experiments resulted in sensitivities as high as 100 fmol of glycoprotein and 0.1 μL of human blood serum. The enzyme reactor activity was also shown to remain stable after 1 month of continuous use. Both small and large glycoproteins as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans, fucolsylated glycans, sialylated glycans, and hybrid structures were studied. The model glycoproteins included ribonuclease B, fetuin, α(1)-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulin, and thyroglobulin. All N-glycans associated with these model glycoproteins were detected using the online PNGase F reactor setup.
Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Background Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug of abuse and is commonly quantified during urine drug testing. We conducted a controlled drug administration studies investigating efficacy of urinary cannabinoid glucuronide metabolites for documenting recency of cannabis intake and for determining stability of urinary cannabinoids. Methods A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated quantifying Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide in 0.5 ml human urine via supported-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on an Ultra Biphenyl column with a gradient of 10 mmol/l ammonium acetate, pH 6.15 and 15% methanol in acetonitrile at 0. 4ml/min. Analytes were monitored by positive and negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear ranges were 0.5–50 ng/ml for THC-glucuronide, 1–100 ng/ml for THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC and cannabidiol, 2–100 ng/ml for THC and cannabinol, and 5–500 ng/ml for THCCOOH-glucuronide (R2>0.99). Mean extraction efficiencies were 34–73% with analytical recovery (bias) 80.5–118.0% and total imprecision 3.0–10.2% coefficient of variation. Conclusion This method simultaneously quantifies urinary cannabinoids and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and enables evaluation of urinary cannabinoid glucuronides for documenting recency of cannabis intake and cannabinoid stability. The assay is applicable for routine urine cannabinoid testing. PMID:22771478
Lee, Hyeyoung; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Kihwan; Kim, Byungjoo
A method based on isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) using a C30 column has been developed for the separate and accurate determination of trans- and cis-vitamin K1 in infant formula. Vitamin K1 and the deuterium-labeled internal standard eluted at slightly different retention times experiencing different matrix effects, and this possibly resulted in biased measurement. The matrix effect profiles obtained from post-column infusion experiments showed that atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was less susceptible to matrix effects near the retention time than electrospray ionization (ESI); therefore, APCI was used in this study. The developed method was validated by measuring fortified samples, and the results agreed with the gravimetric values. Its repeatability and reproducibly were within 2% relative standard deviation. The relative expanded uncertainty was approximately 5%, indicating that the method was of higher-order metrological quality as a reference method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd
A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liang, Xiao-Rong; Dai, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ding, Jue-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Da-Fang
A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of repaglinide and metformin in human plasma using d5-repaglinide and d6-metformin as internal standards (ISs). After a simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile as the precipitation solvent, both analytes and ISs were separated on a Venusil ASB C 18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) via gradient elution using acetonitrile--10 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate as the mobile phase. A chromatographic total run time of 7.5 min was achieved. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization under positive-ion and multiple-reaction monitoring modes. The method was linear over the 0.2 to 60.0 ng x mL(-1) concentration range for repaglinide and over the 4 to 1 000 ng x mL(-1) range for metformin. For both analytes, the intra- and inter-accuracies and precisions were within the +/- 15% acceptable limit across all concentrations. The validated method was successfully applied to a clinical bioequivalence study.
Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Harino, Hiroya; Yoshikura, Taro; Ohe, Takeshi; Nukaya, Haruo; Terao, Yoshiyasu; Sawanishi, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Miyakoda, Hidekazu; Alary, Jean-François
We describe a method for the simultaneous determination of eight kinds of phenylbenzotriazole-type mutagens (PBTA-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7 and -8) in river water based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The application of dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) for the detection of the PBTAs was studied. The APPI technique provided higher PBTA signal intensities than those obtained with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, and the APPI method was used for the determination of the PBTAs. A solid-phase extraction procedure was used for the extractions of PBTA-1 through -8 from river water. The procedure was rapid and the relative standard deviations were below 15%. The detection limits of PBTA-1 through -8 in river water using the proposed method were found to range from 0.04 to 0.5 ng L(-1) and PBTAs were successfully detected in river water at sub-ng L(-1) levels.
Tolosa, J; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E
High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in water and fish plasma samples, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocistin, fusarenon-X and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of mycotoxins. Results showed differences in recovery assays when different extraction solvents were employed. Ethyl acetate showed better recoveries for the major part of mycotoxins analyzed, except for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2, which showed better recoveries when employing chloroform as extractant solvent. Fumonisins and beauvericin exhibited low recoveries in both water and plasma. This method was validated according to guidelines established by European Commission and has shown to be suitable to be applied in dietary and/or toxicokinetic studies in fish where is necessary to check mycotoxin contents in rearing water and fish plasma.
Simultaneous solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the highly sensitive determination of 15 endocrine disrupting chemicals in seafood.
Gu, Yun-Yun; Yu, Xue-Jun; Peng, Jin-Feng; Chen, Shu-Bing; Zhong, Ying-Ying; Yin, Da-Qiang; Hu, Xia-Lin
This study aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable multi-residue method for the determination of trace amounts of endocrine disrupting chemicals including five phthalate esters (PAEs), five monoalky phthalate esters (MPEs), four alkylphenols (APs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in seafood. Ultrasonic liquid extraction was selected for extraction based on acetonitrile, instead of frequently-used n-hexane, due to its lower background of PAEs. Application of solid phase extraction (SPE) with primary secondary amine (PSA, 1g/6 mL) cartridge achieved the relatively low matrix effects for MPEs and BPA in seafood. To our knowledge, it is the first study reporting about simultaneous extraction and purification of PAEs, MPEs, APs and BPA in biota samples. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, both liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were applied for analysis. This method was validated and tested on fish, mollusk and prawn. Sufficient linearity was verified by Mandel's fitting test for the matrix-matched calibrations used in this study for MPEs, APs and BPA, between 0.5 ng/g and 200 ng/g or 400 ng/g. And correlation coefficients of all calibrations suppressed 0.99 for all analytes. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 60% to 127% for most compounds. The sensitivity was good with method detection limits (MDLs) of 0.015-2.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) for all compounds. Most MDLs are much lower than those in previous reports. The sensitive method was then applied on real fish, mollusk and prawn samples from the Yangtze River Delta sea area (China), and all the target compounds were detected with the maximum concentrations of PAEs, MPEs, APs and BPA up to 219.3 ng/g ww, 51.4 ng/g ww, 62.0 ng/g ww and 8.6 ng/g ww, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A multiresidue analytical method using a modification of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was established and validated for the rapid determination of 69 pesti...
Fang, Huiwen; Zhou, Yuan; Lu, Yuepeng; Jiang, Xiaoming; Yang, Yong
An accurate determination of quantitative and confirmative method for sodium cyclamate in liquor by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) with linear trap technology has been established. Without pretreatment, the sample was directly injected after filtering through a 0.2 microm micro filter. The HPLC separation was performed on an Atlantis dC18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with methanol and water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The eluent was determined and confirmed in multiple reaction monitoring-enhanced product ion (MRM-EPI) scan mode. The acquired data from MRM for the quantitative determination, and the product ion spectra were used for library search for qualitative confirmatory analysis. External standard was used for the quantitative determination of sodium cyclamate in liquor, and good linearity (r = 0.9991) was obtained over the range of 1.320 - 132.0 microg/L. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for sodium cyclamate was 0.1 microg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 96.38% to 107.2% at the spiked levels of 2.640, 26.40 and 100.0 microg/L with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9%. The matching degrees of the spectra for all positive samples were higher than 92%. The method is simple, accurate and efficient for the determination of sodium cyclamate in liquor and particularly suitable for confirmatory analysis of positive samples.
Langman, Loralie J; Bjergum, Matthew W; Williamson, Christopher L; Crow, Frank W
Cocaine (COC) is a potent CNS stimulant that is metabolized to benzoylecgonine (BE) and further metabolized to minor metabolites such as m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-HOBE). COC is also metabolized to norcocaine (NC). Cocaethylene (CE) is formed when cocaine and ethyl alcohol are used simultaneously. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) is a unique marker following smoked cocaine, and anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (AEEE) is found in cocaine smokers who also use ethyl alcohol. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection and quantitation of COC, BE, NC, CE, m-HOBE, AEME, and AEEE in urine. Two hundred samples previously analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with MS were extracted using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a gradient consisting of mobile phase A [20 mM ammonium formate (pH 2.7)] and mobile phase B (methanol/acetonitrile, 50:50), an XDB-C(8) (50 x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) column and a flow rate of 270 microL/min. Concentrations were calculated by comparing the peak-area with the internal standard and plotted against a standard curve. The assay displayed linearity from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL. Within- and between-run coefficients of variation were < 10% throughout the linear range. A method comparison between GC-MS and LC-MS-MS showed good correlation for COC (r(2) = 0.982) and BE (r(2) = 0.955). We report here on a sensitive method to identify clinically and forensically relevant cocaine and associated analytes at concentrations as low as 1.0 ng/mL.
Costa, Pedro R.; Robertson, Alison; Quilliam, Michael A.
The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum has been associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks in Portuguese waters for many years. PSP syndrome is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a suite of potent neurotoxins. Gymnodinium catenatum was frequently reported along the Portuguese coast throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, but was absent between 1995 and 2005. Since this time, G. catenatum blooms have been recurrent, causing contamination of fishery resources along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxin profile of G. catenatum isolated from the Portuguese coast before and after the 10-year hiatus to determine changes and potential impacts for the region. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was utilized to determine the presence of any known and emerging PSTs in sample extracts. Several PST derivatives were identified, including the N-sulfocarbamoyl analogues (C1–4), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), gonyautoxin 6 (GTX6), and decarbamoyl derivatives, decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin (dcNeo) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 3 (dcGTX3). In addition, three known hydroxy benzoate derivatives, G. catenatum toxin 1 (GC1), GC2 and GC3, were confirmed in cultured and wild strains of G. catenatum. Moreover, two presumed N-hydroxylated analogues of GC2 and GC3, designated GC5 and GC6, are reported. This work contributes to our understanding of the toxigenicity of G. catenatum in the coastal waters of Portugal and provides valuable information on emerging PST classes that may be relevant for routine monitoring programs tasked with the prevention and control of marine toxins in fish and shellfish. PMID:25871287
Nie, Jianrong; Zhu, Mingli; Lian, Jin; Pan, Yunshan; Deng, Xianglian; Hu, Cuiping
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of fifteen beta-agonists (clenbuterol, ractopamine, salbutamol, cimaterol, mabuterol, tulobuterol, bambuterol, mapenterol, cimbuterol, zilpaterol, formoterol, clorprenaline, terbutaline, penbutolol and brombuterol) in animal urine. Perchloric acid solution was used to acidify the sample and precipitate protein in the sample. The sample was purified and concentrated by an HLB mini-column. The separation of the beta-agonist was performed on an Agilent 1100 HPLC system with a Eclipse XDB-C18 column by using gradient elution with methanol and water (containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid) as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fifteen beta-agonists, which were ionized by electrospray ionization interface (ESI), were carried out in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with API 4000 tandem mass spectrometry. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the mass concentration range of 0.25 - 20 microg/L with the correlation coefficients r > or = 0.999 5. The recoveries of the fifteen beta-agonists ranged from 62.1% to 107% at the spiked levels of 0.25, 1.0 and 10 microg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 10) were between 3.5% and 9.9%. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) were 0.25 microg/L for all the analytes. This method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate.
Cao, Zhao-Yun; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Rong; Ma, You-Ning; Chen, Ming-Xue
Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins produced by the pathogenic fungus Ustilaginoidea virens of rice false smut. Quantification of ustiloxins is essential to assess the food safety of rice infected by rice false smut disease. This paper describes a sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of ustiloxins A, B, C, D and F in rice grains using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Since notable matrix enhancement effects (21%-78%) occurred for all of the target analytes (except for ustiloxin A), several solid phase extraction materials were tested for their ability to retain ustiloxins from aqueous solutions prior to the LC-MS/MS analysis, including C18 sorbents, polymer anion exchange sorbents resin (PAX), and polymer cation exchange resin (PCX). The PCX resin was adopted due to its higher extraction capability and selectivity for all targets compared to others, and in this case, almost no matrix effects (-5% to 8%) were observed for all of the ustiloxins monitored. The developed method reached limits of quantification of 0.2-2ngg(-1), and linearity was statistically verified over two orders of magnitude with regression coefficients (R(2))>0.991. The mean recoveries were from 85% to 109%, and the inter-day precisions (n=11) were less than 16%, with intra-day precisions (n=6) within 12%. Analysis of samples showed that ustiloxin A was the dominant species, with the content ranging from 5.5 to 273.8ngg(-1), followed by ustiloxin B (≤88.7ngg(-1)), while concentrations of ustiloxins C, D and F were slightly lower (≤43.2ngg(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination and analysis of five ustiloxins simultaneously in a single analysis.
Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.
We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.
Villa, Josephine S; Cass, Robert T; Karr, Dane E; Adams, Stacy M; Shaw, Jeng-Pyng; Schmidt, Donald E
The movement towards a 96-well format has greatly increased productivity and throughput in bioanalytical laboratories. Improvements in automated sample preparation and analytical methods have further contributed to increased productivity. We have focused on sample collection and transfer to the bioanalyst and have found improvements to the current available methods. The problem of manual transfers and plasma clotting issues can be overcome with the use of microtainers. Specifically, for illustrative purposes, three proprietary Theravance compounds were tested for stability, non-specific binding, and electrospray ion suppression in microtainers. There were no issues with stability, non-specific binding or ion suppression for the above compounds even after leaving plasma samples in the microtainers over long periods of time. The microtainers are robot-compatible and the resulting plasma can be transferred without clotting issues. To date, all in-house compounds successfully analyzed and tested using the microtainers have mass ranges between 200 and 1800 Da, pK(a) ranges between 3.8 and 10.3, and logD ranges between -1.7 and 4.2. Once samples are transferred into 96-well plates, flexibility in preparation and analysis is available. Together with automated sample preparation and the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) as an analytical tool, the use of microtainers as sample collection tubes and for sample storage saved considerable time, cost and effort in both of our pharmacokinetic (PK) and bioanalytical groups. This in turn has led to an increased efficiency and overall throughput in support of our drug discovery effort.
Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K
Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus
Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting
It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan.
Shah, Sumit J.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Sangar, Vineet; Parry, Samuel I.; Blair, Ian A.
Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) before 37 completed weeks of gestation resulting from preterm labor (PTL) is a leading contributor of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early identification of at-risk women by reliable screening tests could alleviate this health issue; however, conventional methods such as obstetric history and clinical risk factors, uterine activity monitoring, biochemical markers, and cervical sonography for screening women at risk for PTB have proven unsuccessful in lowering the rate of PTB. Cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) might prove to be a useful, readily available biological fluid for identifying diagnostic PTB biomarkers. Human columnar epithelial endocervical-1 (End1) and vaginal (Vk2) cell secretomes were employed to generate a stable isotope labeled proteome (SILAP) standard to facilitate characterization and relative quantification of proteins present in CVF. The SILAP standard was prepared using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) of End1 and Vk2 through seven passages. The labeled secreted proteins from both cell lines were combined and characterized by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1211 proteins were identified in the End1-Vk2 SILAP standard, with 236 proteins being consistently identified in each of the replicates analyzed. Individual proteins were found to contain < 0.5 % of the endogenous unlabeled forms. Identified proteins were screened to provide a set of fifteen candidates that have either previously been identified as potential PTB biomarkers or could be linked mechanistically to PTB. Stable isotope dilution LC-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM/MS) assays were then developed for conducting relative quantification of the fifteen candidate biomarkers in human CVF samples from term and PTB cases. Three proteins were significantly elevated in PTB cases (desmoplakin isoform 1, stratifin, and thrombospondin 1 precursor), providing a foundation for further validation in larger
Ata, Şevket; Akyüz, Mehmet; Çabuk, Hasan
Ion-pair extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been proposed for the determination of biogenic amines in licorice samples. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation for the biogenic amines were 1.4-2.7 and 4.7-9.1 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Relative standard deviations based on five replicate extraction of 100 ng mL(-1) of each biogenic amine were <4.7% for intra-day and 7.4% for inter-day precision. The method described in this study has been shown to be in accordance with satisfactory accuracy and good reproducibility for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in licorice samples. Nine biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, spermine, spermidine, tyramine, tryptamine, agmatine and phenylethylamine) were detected in licorice samples and total biogenic amine concentrations were determined at 369 ng mL(-1) in fresh and 3532 ng mL(-1) in non-fresh licorice samples. Putrescine was found at the highest concentrations to be up to 704 ng mL(-1) in all the analyzed samples, followed by tyramine (675 ng mL(-1) ) and tryptamine (282 ng mL(-1) ). Putrescine, tyramine and spermine concentrations were dramatically increased, whereas agmatine concentration was significantly decreased, in non-fresh licorice samples compared to fresh ones. The consumption of freshly prepared licorice is recommended because of the relatively low concentration of total biogenic amines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wang, Shufang; Cheng, Ling; Ji, Shen; Wang, Ke
This work reported an efficient and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seventeen mycotoxins in Puerariae lobatae radix, a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The effects of four different clean-up methods, including TC-M160, TC-T220, Mycosep 227, and QuEChERS method, on the recoveries of mycotoxins were investigated and compared. Finally, TC-M160 was chosen for better recovery and repeatability for mycotoxins analysis. The analytes were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX SB C18 column (4.6mm×250mm, 5μm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The separated compounds were detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results of method validation accorded with the requirement of analytical method for mycotoxins in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 401/2006. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of mycotoxins in seventeen batches of Puerariae lobatae radix collected from different provinces of China. Three batches of them were found with contamination of mycotoxins AFB1 at (0.751±0.176)μg/kg, T-2 at (1.10±0.01)μg/kg, and T-2 at (0.853±0.044)μg/kg, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for monitoring mycotoxins residues in Puerariae lobatae radix.
Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung
The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2 pg/mg and 0.5 pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method.
Vandelli, Daniele; Palazzoli, Federica; Verri, Patrizia; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Marchesi, Filippo; Ferrari, Anna; Baraldi, Carlo; Giuliani, Enrico; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico
Triptans are specific drugs widely used for acute treatment of migraine, being selective 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists. A proper assumption of triptans is very important for an effective treatment; nevertheless patients often underuse, misuse, overuse or use triptans inconsistently, i.e., not following the prescribed therapy. Drug analysis in hair can represent a powerful tool for monitoring the compliance of the patient to the therapy, since it can greatly increase the time-window of detection compared to analyses in biological fluids, such as plasma or urine. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis in human hair of five triptans commonly prescribed in Italy: almotriptan (AL), eletriptan (EP), rizatriptan (RIZ), sumatriptan (SUM) and zolmitriptan (ZP). Hair samples were decontaminated and incubated overnight in diluted hydrochloric acid; the extracts were purified by mixed-mode SPE cartridges and analyzed by LC-MS/MS under gradient elution in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The procedure was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, carry-over, recovery, matrix effect and dilution integrity. The method was linear in the range 10-1000pg/mg hair, with R(2) values of at least 0.990; the validated LLOQ values were in the range 5-7pg/mg hair. The method offered satisfactory precision (RSD <10%), accuracy (90-110%) and recovery (>85%) values. The validated procedure was applied on 147 authentic hair samples from subjects being treated in the Headache Centre of Modena University Hospital in order to verify the possibility of monitoring the corresponding hair levels for the taken triptans.
Ko, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyunghoon; Jeon, Sun-Hee; Song, Sang Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jin Young; In, Moon Kyo; Song, Junghan
Chemical castration involves administration of drugs to prevent pathological sexual behavior, reduce abnormal sexual drive and treat hormone-dependent cancers. Various drugs have been used for chemical castration; however, substantial interindividual variability and side effects are often observed. In this study, we proposed a useful monitoring method for the application of chemical castration agents using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Testosterone, cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone, goserelin acetate, leuprolide acetate and triptorelin acetate were analyzed by UPLC-MS-MS. The target drugs were extracted from serum samples by double protein precipitation using methanol. Testosterone-1,2-d2 and buserelin acetate were used as internal standards. Parameters of analytical performance were evaluated, including imprecision, linearity, ion suppression and detection capabilities. Testosterone measurements were compared with the results of immunoassays. Serum specimens from 51 subjects who underwent chemical castration were analyzed. All drugs and testosterone were well extracted and separated using our method. The method was essentially free from potential interferences and ion suppression. Within-run and between-run imprecision values were <15%. The lower limits of quantification were 0.125 and 0.5-1.0 ng/mL for testosterone and other drugs, respectively. Good correlations with pre-existing immunoassays for testosterone measurement were observed. Sera from subjects who underwent androgen deprivation therapy showed variable levels of drugs. We successfully developed a UPLC-MS-MS-based monitoring method for chemical castration. The performance of our method was generally acceptable. This method may provide a novel monitoring strategy for chemical castration to enhance expected effects while reducing unwanted side effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Rotchés-Ribalta, Maria; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Llorach, Rafael; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Estruch, Ramon; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina
Beer is one of the most commonly consumed undistilled alcoholic beverages in many countries. In recent studies, the stilbenes resveratrol and piceid have been found in some hop varieties which are used in the production of beer. Therefore, they could be transferred to beer. The aim of the present work was to validate a method to study the potential content of trans- and cis-resveratrol and piceid in 110 commercial beers from around the world. The resveratrol and piceid contents of 110 beers were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) using optimized and validated procedures for the beer matrix. The beer matrix effect was also studied. Stilbenes were found in quantifiable amounts in 92 beers, while concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found in 18 beers. Resveratrol was found in the range of 1.34-77.0μg/L in 79% of the beers analyzed, and piceid was found in the range of 1.80-27.3μg/L in only 33% of them. The mean of total resveratrol in all the beers was 14.7±20.5μg/L. The content of resveratrol has been compared with other resveratrol containing foods. A serving of beer contains similar amounts of stilbenes as berries, less than chocolate and grape products but more than pistachios, peanuts or tomatoes. Overall, beer is one of the products with the lowest levels of total resveratrol (μg/L), and despite its high consumption it should not be considered as a representative source of resveratrol.
Marney, Luke C; Laha, Thomas J; Baird, Geoffrey S; Rainey, Petrie M; Hoofnagle, Andrew N
High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS)1 analysis of plasma free metanephrines is the most diagnostically sensitive and specific screening test for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We sought to develop an in-house method for this expensive test We used off-line isopropanol protein precipitation of plasma to remove interfering substances before LC-MS/MS analysis. We compared the extraction efficiency and limits of quantification of protein precipitation to those of previously reported solid-phase techniques. The new method had limits of quantification of 0.09 nmol/L and 0.17 nmol/L for metanephrine and normetanephrine, respectively. Method comparison with a previously described solid-phase extraction method revealed Deming regression slopes of 0.904 and 0.994, intercepts of 0.007 and 0.023, and SEs of the residuals (S(y/x)) of 0.071 and 0.284 for metanephrine and normetanephrine, respectively. Extraction efficiency of isopropanol protein precipitation was 66% for metanephrine and 35% for normetanephrine, results that were superior to the efficiencies of 4% and 1% for our adapted solid-phase extraction method. No ion suppression was observed at the retention times for metanephrine and normetanephrine. Isopropanol protein precipitation is a novel and effective off-line sample preparation method for metanephrines that offers a less expensive alternative to on-line solid-phase extraction for low-volume testing and requires a sample volume of only 200 microL. The mass spectrometric analysis time is equivalent to that of solid-phase techniques.
La’ulu, Sonia L.; Rasmussen, Kyle J.; Straseski, Joely A.
Objective: Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Methods: Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Results: Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Conclusion: Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population. PMID:26758817
La'ulu, Sonia L; Rasmussen, Kyle J; Straseski, Joely A
Thyroid hormone concentrations fluctuate during growth and development. To accurately diagnose thyroid disease in pediatric patients, reference intervals (RIs) should be established with appropriate age groups from an adequate number of healthy subjects using the most exact methods possible. Obtaining statistically useful numbers of healthy patients is particularly challenging for pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine non-parametric RIs for free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) using equilibrium dialysis-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with over 2200 healthy children 6 months-17 years of age. Subjects were negative for both thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies and had normal thyrotropin concentrations. The study included 2213 children (1129 boys and 1084 girls), with at least 120 subjects (average of 125) from each year of life, except for the 6 month to 1 year age group (n=96). Non-parametric RIs (95th percentile) for fT4 were: 18.0-34.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 6 months-6 years) and 14.2-25.7 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-17 years). RIs for fT3 were: 5.8-13.1 pmol/L (girls, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-11.8 pmol/L (boys, 6 months-6 years); 5.7-10.0 pmol/L (boys and girls, 7-12 years); 4.5-8.6 pmol/L (girls, 13-17 years); and 5.2-9.4 pmol/L (boys, 13-17 years). Numerous significant differences were observed between pediatric age groups and previously established adult ranges. This emphasizes the need for well-characterized RIs for thyroid hormones in the pediatric population.
Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Gieseker, Charles M; Miller, Ron A; Rummel, Nathan G; Reimschuessel, Renate
In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H](-)m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 microgkg(-1) of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n=107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 microgkg(-1). An internal standard, (13)C(3)-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D.=15%, n=18) with an MDL of 7.4 microgkg(-1). Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D.=10%, n=13) with an MDL of 3.5 microgkg(-1).
Ming, Dong Sheng; Heathcote, John
A rapid, sensitive, and specific method was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) for simultaneous determination of clozapine and its major metabolite norclozapine in human serum. The compounds were extracted from serum by a single step protein precipitation and analyzed using a UPLC-triple-quadrupole detection (TQD) system. Separation of compounds was achieved on a BEH C18 (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) analytical column using methanol and water (both containing 0.2% ammonium hydroxide) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The compounds were ionized in the electrospray ionization ion source of the TQD and were detected in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MRM transitions m/z 327 --> 270 and m/z 313 --> 192 for clozapine and norclozapine, respectively, were used for the quantification ions. Clozapine transition 327 --> 192 and norclozapine transition 313 --> 270 were used as confirmation ions. Linear calibration curves in human serum were generated over the range of 10-2000 ng/mL for both clozapine and norclozapine with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) > 0.9970. Calibration curves exhibited consistent linearity and reproducibility. Interassay coefficients of variation (CV) (n = 20) were 3.04-4.94% for clozapine and 2.84-6.07% for norclozapine. Intra-assay CVs (n = 6, 20 days) were 0.61-1.26% and 1.62-2.21% for clozapine and norclozapine, respectively. The extraction recoveries were larger than 95% for both clozapine and norclozapine. The method was applied to the quantification of clozapine and norclozapine in the sera of schizophrenic patients, and the data revealed that the concentrations of two compounds varied significantly in the patients treated with clozapine.
Choi, Yun Jeong; Sim, Arum; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sunglll; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young
Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants such as phentermine (PT) has been regulated by law enforcement authorities due to its euphorigenic and relaxing effects. Due to high potential for its abuse, reliable analytical methods were required to detect and identify PT and its metabolite in biological samples. Thus a dilute and shoot liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of PT, N-hydroxyphentermine (NHOPT) and mephentermine (MPT) in urine. A 5μL aliquot of diluted urine was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was performed by reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution for all analytes within 5min. Identification and quantification were based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Linear least-squares regression with a 1/x(2) weighting factor was used to generate a calibration curve and the assay was linear from 50 to 15000ng/mL (PT and MPT) and 5 to 750ng/mL (NHOPT). The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.9% while the intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -6.2% to 11.2%. The limits of quantification were 3.5ng/mL (PT), 1.5ng/mL (NHOPT) and 1.0ng/mL (MPT). Method validation requirements for selectivity, dilution integrity, matrix effect and stability were satisfied. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug abusers.
Fritch, Dean; Blum, Kristen; Nonnemacher, Sheena; Haggerty, Brenda J; Sullivan, Matthew P; Cone, Edward J
Analytical methods for measuring multiple licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid require high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. With the limited volume available for testing, comprehensive methodology is needed for simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single aliquot. This report describes the validation of a semi-automated method for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantitation of 21 analytes in a single oral fluid aliquot. The target compounds included are amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, norcodeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and phencyclidine. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept device and extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug recovery from the Intercept device averaged 84.3%, and SPE extraction efficiency averaged 91.2% for the 21 analytes. Drug analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive electrospray mode using ratios of qualifying product ions within +/-25% of calibration standards. Matrix ion suppression ranged from -57 to 8%. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.4 to 5 ng/mL using 0.2 mL of diluted oral fluid sample. Application of the method was demonstrated by testing oral fluid specimens from drug abuse treatment patients. Thirty-nine patients tested positive for various combinations of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. In conclusion, this validated method is suitable for simultaneous measurement of 21 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid.
Wen, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Ling; Fuh, Ming-Ren
In this study, the salting-out solvent extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up steps in QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method were optimized to reduce matrix effect and efficiently extract target sulfonamides from a variety of edible animal tissues. The extracted sulfonamides were then analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Good extraction recoveries (74.0-100.3% in five different sources of animal tissues; n=3) with acceptable matrix effect (<10%, except for liver samples) were obtained using the proposed method. For the first time, a commercial ND-lipids cartridge was used to remove hydrophobic matrix components from fat-rich animal tissues in the clean-up step of QuEChERS. In addition, good linearity (0.125-12.5ngg(-1)) was observed using matrix-matched calibration (in beef). Limits of detection (LODs) were estimated at 0.01-0.03ngg(-1) in beef, pork, and chicken samples. For beef tripe and pig liver samples, the LODs were in the range of 0.02-0.04ngg(-1). Good intra-day/inter-day precision (1.0-10.5%/0.4-8.0%) and accuracy (95.2-107.2%/97.8-102.1%) were also achieved using the modified QuEChERS for sample pretreatment. The applicability of the modified QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS method was demonstrated by determining the occurrence of target sulfonamides in various edible animal tissues for potential food safety analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas; Fendrich, Michael; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel
Over the past decade, the use of hair specimens for the long-term detection of the alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide has been increasing in popularity and usage. We evaluated the usefulness of fingernail clippings as a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of ethyl glucuronide in fingernail clippings was fully validated and used to analyze the hair and/or fingernail specimens of 606 college-aged study participants. The limit of detection was 2 pg/mg, the limit of quantitation was 8 pg/mg and the method was linear from 8 to 2000 pg/mg. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision studies at three different concentrations (20, 40, 200 pg/mg) were all within 7.8% and all intra- and inter-assay bias studies at these levels were within 115.1% of target concentration. Ethyl glucuronide levels in fingernail (mean = 29.1 ± 55.6 pg/mg) were higher than ethyl glucuronide levels in hair (mean = 9.48 ± 22.3 pg/mg) and a correlation of the matched pairs was observed (r = 0.552, P < 0.01, n = 529). Evaluating each gender separately revealed that the correlation of male fingernail to male hair was large and significant (r = 0.782, P < 0.01, n = 195) while female hair to female fingernail was small yet significant (r = 0.249, P < 0.01, n = 334). The study results demonstrated that fingernail may be a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection and may be the preferred sample type due to the lack of a gender bias.
Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D
Insulin and its analogues have been banned in both human and equine sports owing to their potential for misuse. Insulin administration can increase muscle glycogen by utilising hyperinsulinaemic clamps prior to sports events or during the recovery phases, and increase muscle size by its chalonic action to inhibit protein breakdown. In order to control insulin abuse in equine sports, a method to effectively detect the use of insulins in horses is required. Besides the readily available human insulin and its synthetic analogues, structurally similar insulins from other species can also be used as doping agents. The author's laboratory has previously reported a method for the detection of bovine, porcine and human insulins, as well as the synthetic analogues Humalog (Lispro) and Novolog (Aspart) in equine plasma. This study describes a complementary method for the simultaneous detection of five exogenous insulins and their possible metabolites in equine urine. Insulins and their possible metabolites were isolated from equine urine by immunoaffinity purification, and analysed by nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Insulin and its analogues were detected and confirmed by comparing their retention times and major product ions. All five insulins (human insulin, Humalog, Novolog, bovine insulin and porcine insulin), which are exogenous in horse, could be detected and confirmed at 0.05ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to confirm the presence of human insulin in urine collected from horses up to 4h after having been administered a single low dose of recombinant human insulin (Humulin R, Eli Lilly). To our knowledge, this is the first identification of exogenous insulin in post-administration horse urine samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Concheiro, Marta; Shakleya, Diaa M.
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, heroin, 6-acetylcodeine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine quantification in sweat was developed and comprehensively validated. Sweat patches were mixed with 6 mL acetate buffer at pH 4.5, and supernatant extracted with Strata-XC-cartridges. Reverse-phase separation was achieved with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in 15 min. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring of two transitions per compound. The assay was a linear 1–1,000 ng/patch, except EME 5–1,000 ng/patch. Intra-, inter-day and total imprecision were <10.1%CV, analytical recovery 87.2–107.7%, extraction efficiency 35.3– 160.9%, and process efficiency 25.5–91.7%. Ion suppression was detected for EME (−63.3%) and EDDP (−60.4%), and enhancement for NBUP (42.6%). Deuterated internal standards compensated for these effects. No carryover was detected, and all analytes were stable for 24 h at 22 °C, 72 h at 4 °C, and after three freeze/thaw cycles. The method was applied to weekly sweat patches from an opioid-dependent BUP-maintained pregnant woman; 75.0% of sweat patches were positive for BUP, 93.8% for cocaine, 37.5% for opiates, 6.3% for methadone and all for tobacco biomarkers. This method permits a fast and simultaneous quantification of 14 drugs and metabolites in sweat patches, with good selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:21125263
Su, Youzhi; Liu, Jun; Li, Fang; Lei, Hongqin; Li, Yanmei; Liu, Xubin
A method for the simultaneous determination of 22 acidic dyes (acid yellow 23, acid red 18, acid blue 7, etc) in edible packagings was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-methanol (5:5, v/v) , and then cleaned up with Strata-X-AW solid-phase extractor. The analytes were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.8 µm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phases. The 22 acidic dyes were determined by electrospray negative ion source (ESI-), and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis was based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions, and the quantitative analysis was carried out by matrix-matched external standard method. The results showed that the calibration curves had good linearity for the 22 acidic dyes, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were larger than 0. 991. The limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N ≥ 10) were in the range of 0.1-2.0 mg/kg in three different matrices (plant capsule, gelatine capsule, oblatum). The average recoveries were in the range of 78.4%-109.5% for the 22 acidic dyes with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.6% to 14.5% at three spiked levels (1 x LOQ, 2 x LOQ and 10 x LOQ). This method is suitable for the determination of acidic dyes in edible packagings with the characteristics of high accuracy and precision.
Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K
The determination of both the water-soluble and lipid-soluble vitamin D compounds in human biological fluids is necessary to illuminate potentially significant biochemical mechanisms. The lack of analytical methods to quantify the water-soluble forms precludes studies on their role and biological functions; currently available liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are able to determine only a single sulfated form of Vitamin D. We describe here a highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of four sulfated forms of vitamin D: vitamins D2- and D3-sulfate (D2-S and D3-S) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2- and D3-sulfate (25(OH)D2-S and 25(OH)D3-S). A comparative evaluation showed that the ionization efficiencies of underivatized forms in negative ion mode electrospray ionisation (ESI) are superior to those of the derivatized (using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD)) forms in positive ion mode ESI. Separation was optimised to minimise co-elution with endogenous matrix compounds, thereby reducing ion suppression/enhancement effects. Isotopically labelled analogues of each compound were used as internal standards to correct for ion suppression/enhancement effects. The method was validated and then applied for the analysis of breastmilk and human serum. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recoveries ranged from 0.20 to 0.28fmol, 2.8 to 10.2%, and 81.1 to 102%, respectively.
Hu, Beizhen; Cai, Haijiang; Song, Weihua
A method was developed for the determination of eight pesticide residues (fipronil, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, buprofezin, triadimefon, triadimenol, profenofos, pyridaben) in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with acetone-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as solvent, and the extract was then cleaned-up with a Carb/NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C, column (150 mm x 2. 1 mm, 5 microm) and with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0. 1% formic acid. The eight pesticides were determined in the modes of electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched internal standard method for imidacloprid and acetamiprid, by matrix-matched external standard method for the other pesticides. The calibration curves showed good linearity in 1 - 100 microg/L for fipronil, and in 5 -200 microg/L for the other pesticides. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N> 10) were 2 p.g/kg for fipronil and 10 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The average recoveries ranged from 75. 5% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations of 2.7% - 7.7% at the spiked levels of 2, 5, 50 microg/kg for fipronil and 10, 50, 100 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The uncertainty evaluation for the results was carried out according to JJF 1059-1999 "Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". Items constituting measurement uncertainty involved standard solution, weighing of sample, sample pre-treatment, and the measurement repeatability of the equipment were evaluated. The results showed that the measurement uncertainty is mainly due to sample pre-treatment, standard curves and measurement repeatability of the equipment. The method developed is suitable for the conformation and quantification of the pesticides in tea.
Illamola, S M; Labat, L; Benaboud, S; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J; Tréluyer, J M; Hirt, D
Lopinavir is an HIV protease inhibitor with high protein binding (98-99%) in human plasma. This study was designed to develop an ultrafiltration method to measure the unbound concentrations of lopinavir overcoming the non-specific binding issue. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of total concentrations of lopinavir in plasma was developed and validated, and an adaptation was also optimized and validated for the determination of unbound concentrations. The chromatographic separation was performed with a C18 column (100 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) using a mobile phase containing deionized water with formic acid, and acetonitrile, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 350 μL min(-1). Identification of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The method was validated over a clinical range of 0.01-1 μg/mL for human plasma ultrafiltrate and 0.1-15 μg/mL in human plasma. The inter and intra-assay accuracies and precisions were between 0.23% and 11.37% for total lopinavir concentrations, and between 3.50% and 13.30% for plasma ultrafiltrate (unbound concentration). The ultrafiltration method described allows an accurate separation of the unbound fraction of lopinavir, circumscribing the loss of drug by nonspecific binding (NSB), and the validated LC-MS/MS methodology proposed is suitable for the determination of total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir in clinical practice.
Jones, Joseph; Jones, Mary; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas; Fendrich, Michael; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel
Over the past decade, the use of hair specimens for the long-term detection of the alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide has been increasing in popularity and usage. We evaluated the usefulness of fingernail clippings as a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of ethyl glucuronide in fingernail clippings was fully validated and used to analyze the hair and/or fingernail specimens of 606 college-aged study participants. The limit of detection was 2 pg/mg, the limit of quantitation was 8 pg/mg and the method was linear from 8 to 2000 pg/mg. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision studies at three different concentrations (20, 40, 200 pg/mg) were all within 7.8% and all intra- and inter-assay bias studies at these levels were within 115.1% of target concentration. Ethyl glucuronide levels in fingernail (mean = 29.1 ± 55.6 pg/mg) were higher than ethyl glucuronide levels in hair (mean = 9.48 ± 22.3 pg/mg) and a correlation of the matched pairs was observed (r = 0.552, P < 0.01, n = 529). Evaluating each gender separately revealed that the correlation of male fingernail to male hair was large and significant (r = 0.782, P < 0.01, n = 195) while female hair to female fingernail was small yet significant (r = 0.249, P < 0.01, n = 334). The study results demonstrated that fingernail may be a suitable alternative to hair for ethyl glucuronide detection and may be the preferred sample type due to the lack of a gender bias. PMID:27134762
Sullards, M. Cameron; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanfeng; Merrill, Alfred H.
Sphingolipids are a highly diverse category of molecules that serve not only as components of biological structures but also as regulators of numerous cell functions. Because so many of the structural features of sphingolipids give rise to their biological activity, there is a need for comprehensive or “sphingolipidomic” methods for identification and quantitation of as many individual subspecies as possible. This review defines sphingolipids as a class, briefly discusses classical methods for their analysis, and focuses primarily on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tissue imaging mass spectrometry (TIMS). Recently, a set of evolving and expanding methods have been developed and rigorously validated for the extraction, identification, separation, and quantitation of sphingolipids by LC-MS/MS. Quantitation of these biomolecules is made possible via the use of an internal standard cocktail. The compounds that can be readily analyzed are free long-chain (sphingoid) bases, sphingoid base 1-phosphates, and more complex species such as ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-hexosylceramides sulfatides, and novel compounds such as the 1-deoxy- and 1-(deoxymethyl)-sphingoid bases and their N-acyl-derivatives. These methods can be altered slightly to separate and quantitate isomeric species such as glucosyl/galactosylceramide. Because these techniques require the extraction of sphingolipids from their native environment, any information regarding their localization in histological slices is lost. Therefore, this review also describes methods for TIMS. This technique has been shown to be a powerful tool to determine the localization of individual molecular species of sphingolipids directly from tissue slices. PMID:21749933
Xiao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jianling; Yang, Juanjuan; Liu, Tingfei; Chen, Tong; He, Jun; Deng, Hongyi; Gao, Qiyan
A novel method for rapid analysis of the migration amounts of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in aqueous food simulants (10% ethanol, 30 g/L acetic acid and 20% ethanol aqueous solution) was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). After the migration test, the soaking solution was cooled down from 100 degrees C, vortexed, filtered through a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene filter with a disposable syringe, and then the filtrate was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) was selected for chromatography. The mobile phase consisted of water and 0.1% formic acid-25% acetonitrile-methanol solution with gradient elution. The 28 PAAs in aqueous food simulants were detected by tandem mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification for the 28 PAAs were between 0.002 microg/L and 10 microg/L. The linearity of the method was good with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.995 over the concentration range from 5 microg/L or 10 microg/L to 100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the 28 PAAs were between 76.6% and 114% with the relative standard deviations between 1.53% and 8.97% at the levels of 10, 20, and 40 microg/L. The method shows rapid pretreatment, the lower limits of quantification, good recoveries and accuracies, and meets the requirement of European Union (EU) No 10/2011 regulation for the specific migration of PAAs. The method has been applied to analyze the 28 PAAs in different aqueous food simulants from the migration test of 30 batches of food contact material samples exported to EU.
Chen, Zhi-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Feng; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhao, Jian-Liang
A sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction for preconcentration followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed for determination of 19 biocides: eight azole fungicides (climbazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole, and carbendazim), two insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and icaridin (also known as picaridin)), three isothiazolinone antifouling agents (1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (OIT), and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolinone (DCOIT)), four paraben preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben), and two disinfectants (triclosan and triclocarban) in surface water, wastewater, sediment, sludge, and soil. Recovery of the target compounds from surface water, influent, effluent, sediment, sludge, and soil was mostly in the range 70-120%, with corresponding method quantification limits ranging from 0.01 to 0.31 ng L(-1), 0.07 to 7.48 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 3.90 ng L(-1), 0.01 to 0.45 ng g(-1), 0.01 to 6.37 ng g(-1), and 0.01 to 0.73 ng g(-1), respectively. Carbendazim, climbazole, clotrimazole, methylparaben, miconazole, triclocarban, and triclosan were detected at low ng L(-1) (or ng g(-1)) levels in surface water, sediment, and sludge-amended soil. Fifteen target compounds were found in influent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 372 ng L(-1) (methylparaben). Fifteen target compounds were found in effluent samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.4 (thiabendazole) and 114 ng L(-1) (carbendazim). Ten target compounds were found in dewatered sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 1.1 (DEET) and 887 ng g(-1) (triclocarban).
Chen, Xiaolong; Li, Zhengxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Cao, Xiaolin; Chen, Mingxue
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mepanipyrim, silthiofam, boscalid, fluopicolide, mandipropamid, cyflufenamid in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes were extracted from the samples by acetonitrile and purified by Florisil SPE. The six novel amide fungicides were separated on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with the mobile phases of water and acetonitrile, and finally detected by MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, quantified by external standard method. Under the optimal analytical conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) of the six novel amide fungicides were not lower than 0. 999 0 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 100 microg/L. The limits of detection (S/N > or = 3) of the method were 0.15 microg/kg for boscalid, silthiofam, mandipropamid, cyflufenamid, 0.10 microg/kg for mepanipyrim and 0.17 microg/kg for fluopicolide. The recovery tests were performed for the 7 types of vegetables and the 3 types of fruits at the spiked levels of 0.5, 5 and 50 microg/kg, and the recoveries of the six analytes ranged from 65% to 124% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 1%-18%. The matrix effects in vegetables and fruits of the six amide fungicides were significantly reduced by the purification of Florisil SPE compared with the modified QuEChERS. The method is easy, fast, sensitive and accurate, and can meet the requirements of the determination of the six amide fungicide residues in vegetables and fruits.
Kato, Yoji; Dozaki, Natsuko; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Naito, Michitaka; Kitamura, Masayasu; Osawa, Toshihiko
The quantification of urinary oxidized tyrosines, dityrosine (DiY), nitrotyrosine (NY), bromotyrosine (BrY), and dibromotyrosine (DiBrY), was accomplished by quadruple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The sample was partially purified by solid phase extraction, and was then applied to the LC/MS/MS using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) methods. The analysis for the DiY quantification was done first. The residual samples were further butylated with n-butanol/HCl, and the other modified tyrosines were then quantified with isotopic dilution methods. MRM peaks of the modified tyrosines (DiY, NY, BrY, and DiBrY) from human urine were measured and the elution times coincided with the authentic and isotopic standards. The amounts of modified tyrosines in healthy human urine (n = 23) were 8.8 ± 0.6 (DiY), 1.4 ± 0.4 (NY), 3.8 ± 0.3 (BrY), and 0.7 ± 0.1 (DiBrY) µmol/mol of creatinine, respectively. A comparison of the modified tyrosines with urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, pentosidine, and Nε-(hexanoyl)lysine was also performed. Almost all products, except for NY, showed good correlations with each other. The amounts of the modified tyrosines (NY, BrY, and DiBrY) in the diabetic urine were higher than those in the urine from healthy people. PMID:19177191
Qiu, Panzi; Guo, Xinyan; Wang, Na; Kong, Xiangji; He, Hua
A simultaneous analytical method was established for ten selected antibiotics from three categories in pharmaceutical wastewater with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The water samples were enriched and cleaned-up by solid phase extraction cartridges. The types of solid phase extraction cartridges and eluents were optimized by comparing the recoveries of the analytes in water samples under different conditions. The target compounds were separated on an Agilent C18 column (75 mmx 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.2% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution, and then determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-1000 μg/L (r2>0.995). The limits of detection (LODs, S/N≥3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N≥10) of the ten compounds were 0.07-4.37 ng/L and 0.22-14.55 ng/L, respectively. The recovery experiments were performed with samples spiked in the range of 0.002-40 μg/L. The recoveries of the target compounds were in the range of 50.4%-114.1% (RSDs≤9.89%, n=3). Based on this analytical method, the raw and treated sewage samples from a pharmaceutical manufacturer wastewater treatment plant in Jiangsu Province were analyzed. Three compounds were detected in the samples from different sewage treatment units in the range of 0.46-1033.60 μg/L. It shows that the method is accurate, reliable, highly sensitive and can be used to analyze the water samples of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant containing aminoglycosides, spiramycin and fluoroquinolones antibiotics.
Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels.
Hess, Cornelius; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank
The postmortem determination of hyperglycaemic coma is quite difficult because of the lack of morphological findings and the difficult interpretation of biochemical parameters. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive oxoaldehyde, which is mainly derived from glycolysis. An electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric procedure for the determination of methylglyoxal in human serum and postmortem blood was developed. It involves protein precipitation with perchloric acid and a derivatisation step with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. The assay was validated according to international guidelines. Serum samples from diabetics obtained at a diabetes clinic and from non-diabetics were used to assess data about reference concentrations in human serum. The assay showed linearity within the physiological concentrations in serum (5-500 ng/ml). Intraday imprecision at three concentrations was 10.3, 9.2 and 8.3 %, and interday imprecision was 15.3, 14.2 and 9.4 %; the limit of detection was 1.3 ng/ml, and limit of quantification, 3.2 ng/ml. One hundred and eighteen clinical (100 diabetics, 18 non-diabetics) and 98 forensic samples (84 non-diabetics, 14 in a status of hyperglycaemic coma) were measured. During life, diabetics showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher serum concentrations of MG than non-diabetics. After death, concentrations of MG increased significantly (p < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between the sum formula of Traub in vitreous humour and MG femoral blood concentrations (R = 0.237). This indicates that MG concentrations in the deceased cannot distinguish deaths due to a hyperglycaemic coma from other causes of death.
Wang, Ling-Zhi; Ong, Rina Yue-Ling; Chin, Tan-Min; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Wan, Seow-Ching; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ho, Paul C; Goh, Boon-Cher
A novel and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of hydroxychloroquine in human blood using its stable labeled isotope, hydroxychloroquine-d4 as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB - C8 analytical HPLC column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase comprising water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (94:6, v/v) was delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column effluent was detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring with positive mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 336 → 247 and m/z 340 → 251 were used to measure the analyte and IS, respectively. The assay demonstrated a good linear dynamic range of 5-2000 ng/mL for hydroxychloroquine in human blood, with coefficient of determination (r(2)) of =0.9999. The values for intra-day and inter-day precisions of hydroxychloroquine were ≤ 7.86% with the accuracies ranged from 93.8% to 107.6%. The chromatographic run time was 3 min, making it possible to achieve a high throughput analysis. This method was used as a bio-analytical tool in a phase I clinical trial to quantify blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving both hydroxychloroquine and gefitinib in their treatment.
Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Rege, Juilee; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Kennedy, Michael R; Ahlem, Clarence N; Honma, Seijiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E
Context Although steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland play critical roles in human physiology, a detailed quantitative analysis of the steroid products has not been reported. The current study uses a single methodology (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS) to quantify ten corticosteroids in adrenal vein (AV) samples pre and post adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Design/methods Three men and six women with a diagnosis of an adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) were included in the study. Serum was collected from the iliac vein (IV) and the adrenal vein (AV) contralateral to the diseased adrenal. Samples were collected, before and after administration of ACTH. LC-MS/MS was then used to quantify serum concentrations of unconjugated corticosteroids and their precursors. Results Prior to ACTH stimulation the four most abundant steroids in AV were cortisol (90%), cortisone (4%), corticosterone (3%) and 11-deoxycortisol (0.8%). Post ACTH administration, cortisol remained the major adrenal product (79%), however, corticosterone became the second most abundantly produced adrenal steroid (11%) followed by pregnenolone (2.5%) and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (2%). ACTH significantly increased the absolute adrenal output of all ten corticosteroids measured (P<0.05). The four largest post ACTH increases were pregnenolone (300-fold), progesterone (199-fold), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (187-fold) and deoxycorticosterone (82-fold). Conclusion Using LC-MS/MS we successfully measured 10 corticosteroids in peripheral and adrenal vein serum samples under pre and post ACTH stimulation. This study demonstrates the primary adrenal steroid products and their response to ACTH. PMID:22150161
Nijenhuis, C M; Haverkate, H; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H
Dabrafenib (Tafinlar(®)) and trametinib (Mekinist(®)) are registered for the treatment of patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. To support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and clinical pharmacological trials, an assay to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were collected on an outpatient base and stored at nominally -20°C. Analytes and internal standards (stable isotope labeled compounds) were extracted with TBME. After snap freezing the samples in a dry ice-ethanol bath, the organic layer was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas. The dry extract was then reconstituted with 100μL acetonitrile and 5μL of the final extract was injected and separated on a C18 column with gradient elution, and analyzed with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive-ion mode. The validated assay ranges from 50 to 5000ng/mL for dabrafenib and 0.5-50ng/mL for trametinib were linear, and correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.996 or better. At all concentrations of both analytes the biases were within ±15% of the nominal concentrations and precisions were ≤15%. All results were within the acceptance criteria of the latest US FDA guidance and EMA guidelines on method validation. Dabrafenib was found to degrade under the influence of light in different organic solvents and at least seven degradation products were detected. In conclusion, the described method to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma was successfully validated and applied for therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer patients treated with dabrafenib and trametinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kip, A.E.; Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M.J.X.; Castro, M.M.; Gomez, M.A.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Beijnen, J.H.; Dorlo, T.P.C.
Phagocytes, the physiological compartment in which Leishmania parasites reside, are the main site of action of the drug miltefosine, but the intracellular pharmacokinetics of miltefosine remain unexplored. We developed a bioanalytical method to quantify miltefosine in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanding from an existing high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of miltefosine in plasma. The method introduced deuterated miltefosine as an internal standard. Miltefosine was extracted from PBMC pellets by addition of 62.5% methanol. Supernatant was collected, evaporated and reconstituted in plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase C18 column and detection with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Miltefosine was quantified using plasma calibration standards ranging from 4 to 1000 ng/mL. This method was validated with respect to its PBMC matrix effect, selectivity, recovery and stability. No matrix effect could be observed from the PBMC content (ranging from 0.17 to 26.3 × 106 PBMCs) reconstituted in plasma, as quality control samples were within 3.0% of the nominal concentration (precision less than 7.7%). At the lower limit of quantitation of 4 ng/mL plasma, corresponding to 0.12 ng/106 PBMCs in a typical clinical sample, measured concentrations were within 8.6% of the nominal value. Recovery showed to be reproducible as adding additional pre-treatment steps did not increase the recovery with more than 9%. This method was successfully applied to measure intracellular miltefosine concentrations in PBMC samples from six cutaneous leishmaniasis patients up to one month post-treatment. PMID:26160472
Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Gao, Na; Song, Dongkui; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan
A method was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of four mercapturic acids (MAs), N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3-HPMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine ( CEMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in human urine using solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Frozen urine samples were thawed at room temperature, and centrifuged to remove any settled precipitate. The supernatant was then purified and concentrated by a C18 solid phase extraction column, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the quantitative analysis. The ranges of recovery for DHBMA, 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA spiked in human urine matrix at three concentration levels were 105.6%-124.4%, 102.7%-106.5%, 103.2%-103.9% and 101.7%-104.3%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations of 2.6%-7.7%. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) were 0. 062, 0. 031, 0. 020 and 0. 003 microg/L for DHBMA, 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA, respectively. The method was successfully used to detect 4 MAs in 37 human urine samples from smokers and non-smokers. It was found that the contents of 3-HPMA, CEMA and SPMA in the urines from cigarette smokers were about three to six-fold more than those in the urines from the non-smokers.
Song, Wenlu; Huang, Min; Rumbeiha, Wilson; Li, Hui
Antibiotics present in the environment are recently considered as emerging contaminants, and have raised increasing concerns about their potential risks to ecosystems and human health. In addition to the utilization for treatment, antibiotics are also routinely added as supplements in livestock feed to promote animal growth. A portion of the administered dose used for these purposes can be excreted into animal manure, and land application of the animal manure as plant fertilizers enhances the dissemination of antibiotics in the environment. It is a common practice to simultaneously administer multiple classes of antibiotics to livestock in an animal production farm. This study attempts to develop a protocol to determine four commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, amprolium, carbadox, monensin, and tylosin, in surface runoff from a livestock farm. A single-cartridge solid-phase extraction procedure was developed to simultaneously extract these veterinary antibiotics from surface water which were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The extraction recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 89 to 113%, and the limits of quantitation were 8, 25, 1, and 35 ng/L for amprolium, carbodox, monensin, and tylosin, respectively. In the surface runoff from a livestock farm, amprolium was most frequently detected with the concentration range of 10-288 ng/L. Monensin was frequently detected with concentrations up to 37 ng/L. Tylosin was detected in two out of eleven samples, and carbadox was not detected in the surface runoff. The results indicate that the developed analytical method can be utilized to determine multiple classes of veterinary antibiotics present in surface runoff originating from animal farms. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ventura, R; Ramírez, R; Monfort, N; Segura, J
A fast and reliable quantitative method for salbutamol using direct analysis of the urine sample by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) has been developed. Urine samples were spiked with salbutamol-d6 (internal standard), and, then, they were diluted with ultrapure water (1:1, v/v). Aliquots of 1 microl of the mixture were directly analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was performed in a UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) column with a mobile phase contained 0.01% formic acid in ultrapure water (v/v) and 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile (v/v), using gradient elution at 0.6 ml/min. The temperature of the column was set to 45 degrees C. The total run time was 3.2 min. Electrospray ionization in positive ion mode was used under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at different collision energies. Nitrogen and argon were used as desolvation and collision gas, respectively. The method was shown to be linear from 200 to 5000 ng/ml (r2>0.99). The limit of quantitation was estimated in 200 ng/ml. Intra-assay precision and accuracies, evaluated by using quality control samples containing 550 and 1100 ng/ml salbutamol, were always better than 8.4%. The intermediate precision was estimated to be in the range of 5.6-8.9%. The method was shown to be reliable when applying to routine samples, and the short analysis time resulting from a simple sample preparation and a fast instrumental analysis makes it of great interest for antidoping control purposes.
Nielen, Michel W F; Lasaroms, Johan J P; Essers, Martien L; Sanders, Marieke B; Heskamp, Henri H; Bovee, Toine F H; van Rhijn, J Hans; Groot, Maria J
A lifetime controlled reference experiment has been performed using 42 veal calves, 21 males and 21 females which were fed and housed according to European regulations and common veterinary practice. During the experiment feed, water, urine and hair were sampled and feed intake and growth were monitored. Thus for the first time residue analysis data were obtained from guaranteed lifetime-untreated animals. The analysis was focused on the natural hormones estradiol and testosterone and their metabolites, on 17beta- and 17alpha-nortestosterone, on 17beta- and 17alpha-boldenone and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), and carried out by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), an estrogen bioassay and liquid chromatography (LC) MS/MS. Feed, water and hair samples were negative for the residues tested. Female calf urines showed occasionally low levels of 17alpha-estradiol and 17alpha-testosterone. On one particular sampling day male veal calf urines showed very high levels of 17alpha-testosterone (up to 1000 ng mL(-1)), accompanied by lower levels of estrone and 17beta-testosterone. Despite these extreme levels of natural testosterone, 17beta-boldenone was never detected in the same urine samples; even 17alpha-boldenone and ADD were only occasionally beyond CCalpha (maximum levels 2.7 ng mL(-1)). The data from this unique experiment provide a set of reference values for steroid hormones in calf urine and demonstrate that 17beta-boldenone is not a naturally occurring compound in urine samples.
Goh, Shalene Xue Lin; Duarah, Ankur; Zhang, Lifeng; Snyder, Shane A; Lee, Hian Kee
The present work describes the development of a novel fully automated online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) for the simultaneous determination of six estrogens and six glucocorticoids in water. Filtered water samples (5mL) were preconcentrated on a HyperSep™ Retain PEP SPE cartridge, eluted in back-flush mode, and separated on an LC column before analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. The total analysis time for each sample was 17min. Different experimental parameters such as the type of online SPE cartridge, loading flow rate, and composition of methanol in the loading phase were optimised. The intra-day repeatability of method ranged from 1.48 to 9.68% for all analytes, and the inter-day reproducibility ranged from 2.03 to 8.63% for all analytes, except for dexamethasone at 11.95%. These were calculated based on the peak area responses of the targeted analytes spiked at 50ng/L in ultrapure water. The method also showed good linearity from 1 to 100ng/L, with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.16 to 2.14ng/L. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of municipal wastewater. This fully automated online SPE extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS method is effective and reliable to measure estrogens and glucocorticoids simultaneously due to its high throughput, relatively low solvent consumption, reusability of the online SPE cartridge, and reduction of manual labor.
Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Moen, Anders; Schniedewind, Björn; Haug Anonsen, Jan; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe
The parasite Anisakis simplex is present in many marine fish species that are directly used as food or in processed products. The anisakid larvae infect mostly the gut and inner organs of fish but have also been shown to penetrate into the fillet. Thus, human health can be at risk, either by contracting anisakiasis through the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish, or by sensitisation to anisakid proteins in processed food. A number of different methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish and products thereof have been developed, including visual techniques and PCR for larvae tracing, and immunological assays for the determination of proteins. The recent identification of a number of anisakid proteins by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has laid the groundwork for the development of two quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish that are described in the present study. Both, the label-free semi-quantitative nLC-nESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS (MS1) and the heavy peptide-applying absolute-quantitative (AQUA) LC-TripleQ-MS/MS (MS2) use unique reporter peptides derived from anisakid hemoglobin and SXP/RAL-2 protein as analytes. Standard curves in buffer and in salmon matrix showed limits of detection at 1μg/mL and 10μg/mL for MS1 and 0.1μg/mL and 2μg/mL for MS2. Preliminary method validation included the assessment of sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and applicability to incurred and naturally-contaminated samples for both assays. By further optimization and full validation in accordance with current recommendations the LC-MS/MS methods could be standardized and used generally as confirmative techniques for the detection of A. simplex protein in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan
In recent years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared on the drug market. These substances, also known as 'legal highs', belong to different chemical classes. Despite the increasing number of NPS, there are few comprehensive screening methods for their detection in biological specimens. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop a fast and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening procedure for NPS in blood. The elaborated method allows the simultaneous screening of 143 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): cathinones (36), phenethylamines (26), tryptamines (18), piperazines (9), piperidines (2), synthetic cannabinoids (34), arylalkylamines (7), arylcyclohexylamines (3), aminoindanes (2), and other drugs (6). Blood samples (0.2 mL) were precipitated with acetonitrile (0.6 mL). The separation was achieved with gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water in 14 min. Detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The total number of transitions monitored in dynamic mode was 432. The whole procedure was rapid and simple. The limits of detection (LODs) estimated for 104 compounds were in the range 0.01-3.09 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries determined for 32 compounds were from 1.8 to 133%. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of forensic blood samples in routine casework. The developed method should have wide applicability for rapid screening of new drugs of abuse in forensic or clinical samples. The procedure can be easily expanded for more substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Du, Jiangbo; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang
A rapid, sensitive, and enantioselective method was developed and validated for determination of ornidazole enantiomers in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ornidazole enantiomers were extracted from 100μl of plasma using ethyl acetate. Baseline chiral separation (Rs=2.0) was obtained within 7.5min on a Chiral-AGP column (150mm×4.0mm, 5μm) using an isocratic mobile phase of 10mM ammonium acetate/acetic acid (100/0.01, v/v). Stable isotopically labeled R-(+)-d5-ornidazole and S-(-)-d5-ornidazole were synthesized as internal standards. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization, using the transitions of m/z 220→128 for ornidazole enantiomers, and m/z 225→128 for d5-ornidazole enantiomers. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.030-10.0μg/ml for each enantiomer. The lower limit of quantification for each enantiomer was 0.030μg/ml. The relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were 1.8-6.2% and 1.5-10.2% for R-(+)-ornidazole and S-(-)-ornidazole, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.5% to 1.2% for R-(+)-ornidazole and from -5.4% to -0.8% for S-(-)-ornidazole. The validated method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of ornidazole after oral administration of 1000mg racemic ornidazole. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oertel, Reinhard; Goltz, Lisa; Kirch, Wilhelm
Melatonin is a major chronobiological regulator involved in circadian phasing, sleep, and numerous other functions. The novel melatonin agonist Neu-P11 is used in treatment of physiological insomnia. In animal studies Neu-P11 showed sleep-promoting effect. In a phase 1 study Neu-P11 was administered to cohorts of healthy young male volunteers in an ascending single dose study. Up to now no method for measurement of the new drug in human plasma was described and validated. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable analytical procedure. With solid phase extraction (SPE) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) a sensitive method with a lower limit of quantification of 0.39 ng/ml was found. For SPE samples were put into Strada C18 cartridges and automatically extracted by a Gilson Automatic Sample Processor ASPEC XL. The HPLC was carried out with a Purospher C18 column and mobile phase gradient with acetonitrile, and ammonium acetate. The precision ranged from 0.4% to 9.5%. The deviation of the measured from the true value, of the standard samples and QCSs was lower than 10%. The method was specific, precise and accurate and the analyte was stable under the conditions of measurement. Results show that the method is suitable for the quantification of NeuP11 in human plasma after a single dose of 5, 20, 50 or 200mg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Xiao-Pen; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Fujishiro, Masaya; Hasegawa, Chika; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Seno, Hiroshi; Ishii, Akira; Sato, Keizo
Paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) in human whole blood and urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI). The compounds were extracted with Sep-Pak C18 cartridges from whole blood and urine samples containing ethyl paraquat as an internal standard. The separation of PQ and DQ was carried out using ion-pair chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid in 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile gradient elution for successful coupling with MS. Both compounds formed base peaks due to [M-H]+ ions by HPLC/ESI-MS and the product ions produced from each [M-H]+ ion by HPLC/MS/MS. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) showed much higher sensitivity for both body fluids. Therefore, a detailed procedure for the detection of compounds by SRM with HPLC/MS/MS was established and carefully validated. The recoveries of PQ and DQ were 80.8-95.4% for whole blood and 84.2-96.7% for urine. The calibration curves for PQ and DQ showed excellent linearity in the range of 25-400 ng ml(-1) of whole blood and urine. The detection limits were 10 ng ml(-1) for PQ and 5 ng ml(-1) for DQ in both body fluids. The intra- and inter-day precision for both compounds in whole blood and urine samples were not greater than 13.0%. The data obtained from the determination of PQ and DQ in rat blood after oral administration of the compounds are also presented. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M
Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples.
Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Bertholet, Raymond; Steiling, Heike; Kussmann, Martin
The present article describes the development and validation of an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the comprehensive quantification of anthocyanin and flavonol constituents of milk-based food products. Protein precipitation by acidified methanol and ultrafiltration was utilized as sample preparation to preserve overall polyphenol composition but to eliminate milk proteins in order to comply with UPLC. Reversed-phase chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of 27 analytes in 10 min in order to reduce suppression effects, achieve a wide dynamic range, and most importantly, to resolve isomeric compounds. Positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometric detection and fragmentation of analytes was optimized, final transitions were selected for maximized selectivity, reliable quantification, and reduction of false positives. The quantitative performance of the method was validated, the main features include (1) range of lower limits of detection 0.3-30 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 10-300 ng/mL for aglycones, (2) lower limits of quantification 1-100 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 30-1,000 ng/mL for aglycones, (3) averaged intraday precision 9%, (4) calibrated range 2-180,000 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 60-600,000 ng/mL for aglycones, and (5) averaged accuracy 101%. Applications for yogurt and ice cream products are given. The presented data suggest that this method will help to better characterize the polyphenol composition of milk-based food products for quality control, for assessment of dietary intake, and for polyphenol bioavailability/bioefficacy studies.
Scheidweiler, Karl B; Himes, Sarah K; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Hua-Fen; Huestis, Marilyn A
Currently, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the analyte quantified for oral fluid cannabinoid monitoring. The potential for false-positive oral fluid cannabinoid results from passive exposure to THC-laden cannabis smoke raises concerns for this promising new monitoring technology. Oral fluid 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) is proposed as a marker of cannabis intake since it is not present in cannabis smoke and was not measureable in oral fluid collected from subjects passively exposed to cannabis. THCCOOH concentrations are in the picogram per milliliter range in oral fluid and pose considerable analytical challenges. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated for quantifying THCCOOH in 1 mL Quantisal-collected oral fluid. After solid phase extraction, chromatography was performed on a Kinetex C18 column with a gradient of 0.01% acetic acid in water and 0.01% acetic acid in methanol with a 0.5-mL/min flow rate. THCCOOH was monitored in negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The THCCOOH linear range was 12-1,020 pg/mL (R(2) > 0.995). Mean extraction efficiencies and matrix effects evaluated at low and high quality control (QC) concentrations were 40.8-65.1 and -2.4-11.5%, respectively (n = 10). Analytical recoveries (bias) and total imprecision at low, mid, and high QCs were 85.0-113.3 and 6.6-8.4% coefficient of variation, respectively (n = 20). This is the first oral fluid THCCOOH LCMSMS triple quadrupole method not requiring derivatization to achieve a <15 pg/mL limit of quantification. The assay is applicable for the workplace, driving under the influence of drugs, drug treatment, and pain management testing.
Im, So Hee; Park, Myoung Joo; Seo, Hyewon; Choi, Sung Heum; Kim, Sang Kyum; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
The object of the present study was to develop and validate an assay method of mesoridazine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma samples from rats were prepared by simple protein precipitation and injected onto the LC-MS/MS system for quantification. Mesoridazine and chlorpromazine as an internal standard (IS) were separated by a reversed phase C18 column. A mobile phase was composed of 10mM ammonium formate in water and acetonitrile (ACN) (v/v) by a linear gradient system, increasing the percentage of ACN from 2% at 0.4min to 98% at 2.5min with 4min total run time. The ion transitions monitored in positive-ion mode [M+H](+) of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) were m/z 387>126 for mesoridazine and m/z 319>86 for IS. The detector response was specific and linear for mesoridazine at concentrations within the range 0.001-4μg/ml and the correlation coefficient (R(2)) was greater than 0.999 and the signal-to-noise ratios for the samples were ≥10. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were determined to be within the acceptance criteria for assay validation guidelines. The matrix effects were approximately 101 and 99.5% from rat plasma for mesoridazine and chlorpromazine, respectively. Mesoridazine was stable under various processing and/or handling conditions. Mesoridazine concentrations were readily measured in rat plasma samples after intravenous and oral administration. This assay method can be practically useful to the pharmacokinetic and/or toxicokinetic studies of mesoridazine.
Liu, Xiaoyun; He, Xiaowei; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong; Coulter, Cynthia
Ractopamine belongs to a group of beta-agonist compounds. It is a forbidden food additive in most countries because of the many reported collective intoxication outbreaks in humans. Because the drug can be rapidly metabolized and eliminated from animal body, the objective of this study was to develop an efficient and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analytical method for the detection of ractopamine with cutoff below 1 ng/mL to extend the detection window after withdrawal of the drug and at the same time to meet the requirements of zero-tolerance policy set by most countries. After solid-phase cleanup of the non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed urine samples, the residues were dissolved in methanol and analyzed directly by LC-MS-MS. Two transitions were monitored and one ratio determined. Samples reported as positive were required to have the ratio of the transitions within 20% of that determined from known calibration standards. The monitoring of the qualifying transition and requirement for its presence within a specific ratio to the primary ion has the potential of limiting the sensitivity of the assay. The limits of detection and quantitation of the assay were 0.1 and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday precisions at 0.25 and 35 ng/mL were 4.88% and 0.95%, respectively. Interday precisions were 5.64% and 0.9% at the same concentrations. The percentage recoveries at 0.25 and 0.5 ng/mL were 117.8% and 108.4%, respectively.
López-Blanco, Rafael; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; Moreno-González, David; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio
In this article we have evaluated the performance of different sorbents for the cleanup step in multiresidue pesticide analysis in fatty vegetable matrices using QuEChERS methodology. The three different matrices tested (olive oil, olives and avocado) were partitioned using acetonitrile prior to cleanup step. Afterwards, the supernatant was purified using different sorbents: C18+PSA (primary secondary amine), Z-Sep(+) (zirconium oxide and C18 dual bonded to silica), Z-Sep (zirconium oxide bonded to silica) and a novel sorbent Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid (EMR) whose composition has not been disclosed. The different cleanup strategies were compared for a group of 67 representative pesticides in terms of recovery rates, matrix effects, extract cleanliness and precision using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The best extraction efficiencies in olive oil matrix were obtained using EMR, while the results for olives and avocado were pretty similar amongst the different sorbents with an overall lower performance in terms of matrix effects and recovery rates compared to olive oil data, particularly in olives due to the higher complexity and concentration of coextracted species. On the other hand, the average reproducibility was clearly better when EMR sorbent was employed in all selected matrices for most pesticides (RSD<10% for 45, 52, and 56 pesticides in avocado, olives and olive oil respectively). The best results in terms of matrix effects were also obtained with EMR; with signal suppression lower than 20% for 79%, 16% and 51% of pesticides tested in olive oil, olives and avocado respectively. Using EMR as cleanup sorbent, limits of quantitation using UHPLC-MS/MS, ranged from 0.10 to 90μgkg(-1), allowing their determination at the low concentration levels demanded by current olive oil regulations in most cases.
Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting
It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447
Camara, Johanna E; Lowenthal, Mark S; Phinney, Karen W
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a wide variety of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to support measurements of vitamins and other nutrients in foods. Previously, NIST has provided SRMs with values assigned for the folate vitamer, folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid), which is fortified in several foods due to its role in prevention of neural tube defects. In order to expand the number of food-based SRMs with values assigned for folic acid, as well as additional endogenous folates, NIST has developed methods that include trienzyme digestion and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sample preparation was optimized for each individual food type, but all samples were analyzed under the same LC-MS/MS conditions. The application of these methods resulted in folic acid values for SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal of (2.33 ± 0.06) μg/g and (16.0 ± 0.7) μg/g, respectively. In addition, the endogenous folate vitamer 5-methlytetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) was detected and quantified in SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, candidate SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, and candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder, resulting in values of (0.0839 ± 0.0071) μg/g, (0.211 ± 0.014) μg/g, and (0.838 ± 0.044) μg/g, respectively. SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula is the first food-based NIST SRM to possess a reference value for 5-MTHF and the first certified reference material to have an assigned 5-MTHF value based on LC-MS/MS. The values obtained for folic acid and 5-MTHF by LC-MS/MS will be incorporated into the final value assignments for all these food-based SRMs.
Wang, Qingqing; Rangiah, Kannan; Mesaros, Clementina; Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Vachani, Anil; Song, Haifeng; Blair, Ian A.
An ultrasensitive stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for multiplexed quantitative analysis of six unconjugated and conjugated estrogens in human serum. The quantification utilized a new derivatization procedure, which formed analytes as pre-ionized N-methyl pyridinium-3-sulfonyl (NMPS) derivatives. This method required only 0.1 mL of human serum, yet was capable of simultaneously quantifying six estrogens within 20 min. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for estradiol (E2), 16α-hydroxy (OH)-E2, 4-methoxy (MeO)-E2 and 2-MeO-E2 was 1 fg on column, and was 10 fg on column for 4-OH-E2 and 2-OH-E2. All analytes demonstrated a linear response from 0.5 to 200 pg/mL (5–2000 pg/mL for 4-OH-E2 and 2-OH-E2). Using this validated method, the estrogen levels in human serum samples from 20 female patients and 20 male patients were analyzed and compared. The levels found for unconjugated serum E2 from postmenopausal women (mean 2.7 pg/mL) were very similar to those obtained by highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. However, the level obtained in serum from older men (mean 9.5 pg/mL) was lower than has been reported previously by both GC-MS and LC-MS procedures. The total (unconjugated + conjugated) 4-MeO-E2 levels were significantly higher in female samples compared with males (p<0.05). The enhanced sensitivity offered by the present method will allow for a more specific analysis of estrogens and their metabolites. Our observations might suggest that the level of total 4-MeO-E2 could be a potential biomarker for breast cancer cases. PMID:25637677
Xi, Xiaodan; Johnson, Nicholas S; Brant, Cory O; Yun, Sang-Seon; Chambers, Keali L; Jones, A Daniel; Li, Weiming
We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [(2)H(5)]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L(-1) (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3-11.6% and 4.8-9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L(-1) and 5 ng 3kPZS L(-1). This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L(-1) or 0.24 ng L(-1). We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L(-1) during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.
Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Brock, Jonathan W.C.; Winters, Nancy F.; Stuart, Sarah R.; Martinez, Misti A.; Li, Ming; Chambers, Mathew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Ham, Amy J.; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.
Shotgun proteome analysis platforms based on multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provide a powerful means to discover biomarker candidates in tissue specimens. Analysis platforms must balance sensitivity for peptide detection, reproducibility of detected peptide inventories and analytical throughput for protein amounts commonly present in tissue biospecimens (<100 µg), such that platform stability is sufficient to detect modest changes in complex proteomes. We compared shotgun proteomics platforms by analyzing tryptic digests of whole cell and tissue proteomes using strong cation exchange (SCX) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) separations of peptides prior to LC-MS/MS analysis on a LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid instrument. IEF separations provided superior reproducibility and resolution for peptide fractionation from samples corresponding to both large (100 µg) and small (10 µg) protein inputs. SCX generated more peptide and protein identifications than did IEF with small (10 µg) samples, whereas the two platforms yielded similar numbers of identifications with large (100 µg) samples. In nine replicate analyses of tryptic peptides from 50 µg colon adenocarcinoma protein, overlap in protein detection by the two platforms was 77% of all proteins detected by both methods combined. IEF more quickly approached maximal detection, with 90% of IEF-detectable medium abundance proteins (those detected with a total of 3–4 peptides) detected within three replicate analyses. In contrast, the SCX platform required six replicates to detect 90% of SCX-detectable medium abundance proteins. High reproducibility and efficient resolution of IEF peptide separations make the IEF platform superior to the SCX platform for biomarker discovery via shotgun proteomic analyses of tissue specimens. PMID:18939861
Jeong, Rae Ung; Lim, Sangsoo; Kim, Myoung Ok; Moon, Myeong Hee
D-Allose, a rare, naturally occurring monosaccharide, is known to exert anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effects of D-allose on the cellular membranes of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell line (DU145), hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were studied at the molecular level by phospholipid (PL) profiling using a shotgun lipidomic method. The molecular structures of 85 PL species including 23 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 11 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 16 phosphatidylinositols, 9 phosphatidic acids (PAs), and 14 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the PL amounts were quantified. The addition of D-allose to prostate cancer cell lines during their growth phases had negligible or decreased effects on the relative regulation of PL species, but several new PS molecules (two for DU145 and three for LNCaP) emerged. In contrast, experiments on the PrEC cell line revealed that some high abundant species (14:0/14:0-PE, 16:2/16:0-PG, and 20:6/18:1-PA) showed significant increases in concentration. These findings support a mechanism for the anti-proliferative effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines that involves the induction of programmed cell death since PS molecules are known to induce apoptosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine differences in PL distributions among the three cell lines promoted by D-allose.
Tonon, Milena Araújo; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Bonato, Pierina Sueli
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the first time for the simultaneous quantification of zopiclone and its metabolites in rat plasma samples. The analytes were isolated from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and separated using a chiral stationary phase based on an amylose derivative, Chiralpak ADR-H column, and ethanol-methanol-acetonitrile (50:45:5, v/v/v) plus 0.025% diethylamine as the mobile phase, at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Moclobemide was used as the internal standard. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 7.5-500 ng mL(-1). The mean absolute recoveries were 74.6 and 75.7; 61.6 and 56.9; 72.5, and 70.7 for zopiclone enantiomers, for N-desmethyl zopiclone enantiomers and for zopiclone-N-oxide enantiomers, respectively, and 75.9 for the internal standard. Precision and accuracy were within acceptable levels of confidence (<15%). The method application in a pilot study of zopiclone kinetic disposition in rats showed that the levels of (+)-(S)-zopiclone were always higher than those of (-)-R-zopiclone. Higher concentrations were also observed for (+)-(S)-N-desmethyl zopiclone and (+)-(S)-N-oxide zopiclone, confirming the stereoselective disposition of zopiclone.
Choi, Chang-Ik; Park, Jung-In; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Bae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Seok-Yong
We have developed and validated a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography analytical method employing tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of tolperisone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, in human plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of tolperisone was performed using a reversed-phase Luna C(18) column (2.0mm×50mm, 5μm particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) - methanol (12:88, v/v) and quantified by tandem mass detection in ESI positive ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250μL/min and the retention times of tolperisone and the internal standard (IS, dibucaine) were both 0.6min. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.5-300ng/mL (r>0.999). The lower limit of quantification, using 200μL human plasma, was 0.5ng/mL. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day validation of tolperisone were within acceptable limits. The LC-MS/MS method reported here showed improved sensitivity for quantification of tolperisone in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. Lastly, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.
Guy, Philippe A; Renouf, Mathieu; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Kochhar, Sunil; Rezzi, Serge; Williamson, Gary; Steiling, Heike
A validated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid (CA), dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), ferulic acid (FA), dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), and isoferulic acid (IFA) in human plasma as metabolites derived from coffee consumption. The method includes a protein precipitation step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites (sulfate, glucuronide, and/or ester) back to their aglycone forms. After liquid-liquid extraction, the reconstituted extract was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were constructed from spiked human plasma samples in the range of 0-4800 nM for each of the targeted analytes. Two internal standards, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid (500 nM) and 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (200 nM), were spiked at the beginning of the sample preparation and before analysis, respectively. Good performance data were obtained with limits of detection and quantification of the five hydroxycinnamates ranging between 1-15 nM and 3-50 nM, respectively. Within and between-days precisions were respectively calculated between 8-18% and 8-30% (at 50 nM added initially), between 6-9% and 6-12% (at 200 nM), and between 5-9% and 5-9% (at 500 nM). Precision calculated from different analysts ranged from 18% to 44% (at 50 nM), from 8% to 16% (at 200 nM), and from 4% to 8% (at 500 nM). Using this method, we determined plasma levels in humans and measured the efficiency of deconjugation using our enzymatic cocktail.
Zhu, Yan-Rong; Jia, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chao; Ding, Li-Kun; Yang, Jing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Pei-Xi; Liu, Wen-Xin; Yi-Ding; Wang, Li; Wen, Ai-Dong
A sensitive method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the analysis of antihistamine drug azatadine in human plasma. Loratadine was used as internal standard (IS). Analytes were extracted from human plasma by liquid/liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. The organic phase was reduced to dryness under a stream of nitrogen at 30 °C and the residue was reconstituted with the mobile phase. 5 μL of the resulting solution was injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. A 4.6 mm × 150 mm, I.D. 5 μm, Agilent TC-C(18) column was used to perform the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase consisted of ammonium formate buffer 0.010 M (adjusted to pH 4.3 with 1M formic acid)/acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) The chromatographic run time was 5 min per injection and flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. The retention time was 2.4 and 4.4 min for azatadine and IS, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometric detection mode was achieved with electrospray ionization (ESI) iron source and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) (291.3 → 248.2m/z for azatadine, 383.3 → 337.3m/z for IS) was operated in positive ion modes. The low limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the quality control (QC) samples was 8.93-11.57% relative standard deviation (RSD). The inter-day accuracy of the QC samples was 96.83-105.07% of the nominal values.
Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Yılmaz, Cemile; Gökmen, Vural
This study aimed to develop a reliable analytical method for the determination of melatonin and its isomers in various food products. The method entails ethanol extraction of solid samples (or dilution of liquid samples) prior to liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of target analytes. The method was in-house validated and successfully applied to various food matrices. Recovery of melatonin from different matrices were found to be 86.0 ± 3.6%, 76.9 ± 5.4%, 98.6 ± 6.4%, and 67.0 ± 4.5% for beer, walnut, tomato and sour cherry samples, respectively. No melatonin could be detected in black and green tea, sour cherry, sour cherry concentrate, kefir (a fermented milk drink) and red wine while the highest amount of melatonin (341.7 ± 29.3 pg/g) was detected in crumb. The highest amounts of melatonin isomer were detected in yeast-fermented foods such as 170.7 ± 29.9 ng/ml in red wine, 14.3 ± 0.48 ng/ml in beer, and 15.7 ± 1.4 ng/g in bread crumb.
Bussy, Ugo; Wassink, Lydia; Scribner, Kim T; Li, Weiming
Quantifying cortisol concentrations in fish eggs is important to understand the effects of environmental conditions on maternal physiological condition and on egg provisioning and quality. Data are particularly relevant to studies of the ecology of threatened species such as lake sturgeon (Aciperser fulvescens) as well as assessments of larval physical and behavioral phenotypes, fish health and caviar quality in sturgeon aquaculture. This study focuses on development of bioanalytical methods for high sensitivity and robust determination of cortisol in sturgeon eggs. Sample preparation was optimized after investigating protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques. Ethyl acetate was found to be the most efficient solvent (recovery parameter) and also provided the best sample clean up (matrix effect parameter). The method was determined to be linear for cortisol concentrations between 0.025 and 100ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.025 and 0.1ng/mL respectively. Intra- and inter-day performances of the method were validated at three concentrations (0.25; 10 and 100ng/mL). The method was applied to field-collected samples for the determination of endogenous cortisol in lake sturgeon eggs. Cortisol was detected in all egg samples and statistical analysis showed significant differences between fertilized and non-fertilized eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yuming; Cao, Xueqin; Jin, Fengdan; Zhong, Dafang
A sensitive and selective high-performance analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of glufosfamide in rat plasma. Zidovudine was employed as internal standard. Glufosfamide was determined after methanol-mediated plasma protein precipitation using LC/MS/MS with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. Two sets of standard curves were developed, from 0.005 to 1.0 microg/mL and from 1.0 to 50.0 microg/mL. The assay was accurate (% deviations from nominal concentrations < 5%), precise and reproducible (intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation < 10%). Glufosfamide in rat plasma was stable over three freeze/thaw cycles, and at ambient temperatures, for at least 2 h. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of glufosfamide plasma concentrations in rats for 24 h following an intravenous administration of 25 mg/kg.
Jiang, Yi; Mistretta, Brandon; Elsea, Sarah; Sun, Qin
The sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine is a cardiac risk factor and a biomarker for several inborn errors of metabolism in methionine synthesis. A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of homocysteine and methionine in human plasma. Rapid separation was achieved using a reverse phase liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry identification was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode for homocysteine and methionine. Accuracy, precision, linearity, recovery and sample stability were evaluated in the method validation. The test is applied in diagnosis of homocystinuria and monitoring total homocysteine levels. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of methionine helps in the differentiation of homocystinuria and some cobalamin disorders (such as cblC and cblD defects) without additional amino acid testing. Lastly, this assay is sensitive to detect reduced total homocysteine levels that are possibly seen in sulfocysteinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiencies.
Hengel, Matt J; Miller, Marion
An analytical method was developed for the determination of eleven agrochemicals [abamectin (as B1a), bifenazate, bifenthrin, carfentrazone-ethyl, cymoxanil, hexythiazox, imidacloprid, mefenoxam, pymetrozine, quinoxyfen, and trifloxystrobin] in dried hops. The method utilized polymeric and NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column cleanups and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Method validation and concurrent recoveries from untreated dried hops ranged from 71 to 126% for all compounds over three levels of fortification (0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 ppm). Commercially grown hop samples collected from several field sites had detectable residues of bifenazate, bifenthrin, hexythiazox, and quinoxyfen. The control sample used was free of contamination below the 0.050 ppm level for all agrochemicals of interest. The limit of quantitation and limit of detection for all compounds were 0.10 and 0.050 ppm, respectively.
Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Peters, Frank T
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a well-established and widely used technique in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as doping control especially for quantitative analysis. In recent years, many applications for so-called multi-target screening and/or quantification of drugs, poisons, and or their metabolites in biological matrices have been developed. Such methods have proven particularly useful for analysis of so-called new psychoactive substances that have appeared on recreational drug markets throughout the world. Moreover, the evolvement of high resolution MS techniques and the development of data-independent detection modes have opened new possibilities for applications of LC-(MS/MS) in systematic toxicological screening analysis in the so called general unknown setting. The present paper will provide an overview and discuss these recent developments focusing on the literature published after 2010.
Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Jalonen, Jorma; Tolonen, Ari
Phenolic compounds from the aerial parts of medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea were identified using LC/MS experiments with time-of-flight and triple quadrupole instruments, providing accurate mass and CID fragmentation data about the compounds. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to remove non-polar compounds from the samples, followed by liquid extraction of the flavonoids. Flavonoids were the main constituents in aerial parts of the plant, and no phenylpropanoids were detected. In addition to usual fragment ions providing the size of the attached glycosides in flavonoids, ions due to radical cleavage of glycosides were observed in the negative ion mode with relatively high collision energies. Use of these ions for elucidating the glycosylation site in the aglycone part was evaluated and was found to give some tentative information, but their use in unambiguous identification of unknown flavonoids is not recommended. Fifteen flavonoids, of which 10 were previously unreported from the plant, were identified.
Albahrani, Ali A; Rotarou, Victor; Roche, Peter J; Greaves, Ronda F
Non-classical roles of fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) in many pathologies including cancer have been identified. There is also evidence of hormonal interactions between two of these vitamins, A and D. As a result of this enhanced clinical association with disease, translational clinical research and laboratory requests for FSV measurement has significantly increased. However there are still gaps in the analytical methods available for the measurement of these vitamins. This study aimed to develop a method for simultaneous quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25-OHD2), 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD3) and its 3-epimer (epi-25-OHD3), retinol and α-tocopherol in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The procedure was developed and validated across two LC-MS/MS platforms, using commercial calibrators referenced to certified reference materials, controls, and deuterated internal standards. The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction prior to injection and LC separation (using a Pursuit-PFP column) on two Agilent MS/MS systems (6410 and 6490) in electrospray ionisation positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Identification and quantification of 25-OHD3 from its 3-epimer as well as 25-OHD2, retinol and α-tocopherol were achieved. The dynamic ranges were 4-160 nmol/L for 25-OHD2 and epi-25-OHD3, 4-200 nmol/L for 25-OHD3, 0.1-4.0μmol/L for retinol and 4-70μmol/L for α-tocopherol with correlation (r(2)) of 0.997-0.998. Based on participation in an external quality assurance program, the overall performance of the simultaneous methods were: imprecision (CV%) and inaccuracy (average bias) 3.0% and 3.2 nmol/L, respectively, for 25-OHD3; 5.0% and 0.04μmol/L, respectively, for retinol; and 4.7% and 0.2μmol/L, respectively, for α-tocopherol. In summary, two simple LC-MS/MS methods were successfully developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of the three vitamin D metabolites (25-OHD2, 25-OHD3 and 3
Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C
A sensitive analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in fish plasma micro-aliquots (∼20μL). Target PPCPs included, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, risperidone, sertraline, simvastatin and triclosan. A relatively quicker and cheaper LLE procedure exhibited comparable analyte recoveries with solid-phase extraction. Rapid separation and analysis of target compounds in fish plasma extracts was achieved by employing a high efficiency C-18 HPLC column (Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18, 2.1mm×50mm, 2.7μm) and fast polarity switching, enabling effective monitoring of positive and negative ions in a single 9min run. With the exception of bisphenol A, which exhibited relatively high background contamination, method detection limits of individual PPCPs ranged between 0.15 and 0.69pg/μL, while method quantification limits were between 0.05 and 2.3pg/μL. Mean matrix effect (ME) values ranged between 65 and 156% for the various target analytes. Isotope dilution quantification using isotopically labelled internal surrogates was utilized to correct for signal suppression or enhancement and analyte losses during sample preparation. The method was evaluated by analysis of 20μL plasma micro-aliquots collected from zebrafish (Danio rerio) from a laboratory bioaccumulation study, which included control group fish (no exposure), as well as fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PPCPs. Using the developed LC-MS/MS based method, concentrations of the studied PPCPs were consistently detected in the low pg/μL (ppb) range. The method may be useful for investigations requiring fast, reliable concentration measurements of PPCPs in fish plasma. In particular, the method may be applicable for in situ contaminant biomonitoring, as well as
Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong
Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905–0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%–103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%–108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%–105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%–106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321
Tang, Yao; Zhang, Shuangqing; Li, Xiang; Sun, Xu; Wen, Nie; Yu, Min; Peng, Lili; Li, Jinrang; Li, Zuogang; Li, Bo
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of mitomycin C (MMC) in rabbit plasma was established. The blank rabbit plasma sample solutions added with mitomycin C and triamcinolone acetonide (internal standard, IS) were prepared. The solutions containing MMC and IS were extracted from the plasma with ethyl acetate using liquid-liquid extraction method. A Hypersil Gold C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.9 microm) was employed and the column temperature was set at 35 degrees C. The isocratic elution of methanol and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase was performed at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, and a rapid separation was completed within 3 min. The electrospray was operated in the positive ionization mode and the MMC and IS were identified in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The monitoring ions of MMC and IS were m/z 335. 2 --> 242.2 and m/z 435.2 --> 397. 3/415.2, respectively, which were used to qualify and quantify the targets by the method of matrix-matched standard solution. The calibration curve showed good linearity within the mass concentrations of 1 to 1 000 microg/L (r = 0.997 8, weighting: 1/x2). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.2 microg/L. The recoveries were from 85% to 115% at the spiked levels of 1, 5, 100 and 800 microg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day were both less than 15%. The method can meet the determination requirements of biological samples, and can be used for the determination of mitomycin C in rabbit plasma after the administration of mitomycin C. The method is selective, sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible in the determination of mitomycin C, and also can be used for the pharmacokinetics research of mitomycin C in plasma.
Li, Wenkui; Williams, Shannon M; Smith, Harold T; Tse, Francis L S
A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of NIM811, a cyclophilin inhibitor, in human dried blood spot (DBS) samples, which were produced by spotting 20 μl whole blood onto FTA cards. A 3mm disc was cut from the DBS samples and extracted using methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with MTBE. The reconstituted extracts were chromatographed using a Halo C(18) column and gradient elution for MS/MS detection. The possible impact of hematocrit, blood sample volume and punching location on DBS sampling was investigated. The results showed that blood sample volume or punching location has no impact on assay performance, but the presence of a high hematocrit resulted in significantly increased analyte concentrations measured from the high QC samples. The current method was fully validated over the range of 10.0-5000 ng/ml with correlation coefficients (r(2)) for three validation batches equal to or better than 0.991. The accuracy and precision (CV) at the LLOQ were -0.7 to 6.0% bias of the nominal value (10.0 ng/ml) and 10.2-2.3%, respectively. For the balance of QC samples (20.0, 50.0, 750, 1500 and 3750 ng/ml), the precision (CV) ranged from 3.2 to 11.7% and from 5.6 to 10.2%, respectively, for the intra-day and inter-day evaluations. The accuracy ranged from -6.8 to 8.5% and -0.2% to 2.7% bias, respectively, for the intra-day and inter-day batches. NIM811 is stable in the DBS samples for at least 24h at room temperature and 4h at 60°C. Interestingly, the long term stability (LTS) assessment showed th