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Sample records for pressure recording analytic

  1. Measurement of cardiac output in children by pressure-recording analytical method.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; González, Rafael; Solana, María José; Fernández, Sarah N; Bellón, José M; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated two pressure-recording analytical method (PRAM) software versions (v.1 and v.2) to measure cardiac index (CI) in hemodynamically stable critically ill children and investigate factors that influence PRAM values. The working hypothesis was that PRAM CI measurements would stay within normal limits in hemodynamically stable patients. Ninety-five CI PRAM measurements were analyzed in 47 patients aged 1-168 months. Mean CI was 4.1 ± 1.4 L/min/m(2) (range 2.0-7.0). CI was outside limits defined as normal (3-5 L/min/m(2)) in 53.7% of measurements (47.8% with software v.1 and 69.2% with software v.2, p = 0.062). Moreover, 14.7% of measurements were below 2.5 L/min/m(2), and 13.6% were above 6 L/min/m(2). CI was significantly lower in patients with a clearly visible dicrotic notch than in those without (3.7 vs. 4.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.004) and in children with a radial arterial catheter (3.5 L/min/m(2)) than in those with a brachial (4.4 L/min/m(2), p = 0.021) or femoral catheter (4.7 L/min/m(2), p = 0.005). By contrast, CI was significantly higher in children under 12 months (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.034) and weighing under 10 kg (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between cardiac surgery patients and the rest of children. A high percentage of CI measurements registered by PRAM were outside normal limits in hemodynamically stable, critically ill children. CI measured by PRAM may be influenced by the age, weight, location of catheter, and presence of a dicrotic notch.

  2. Blood pressure reprogramming adapter assists signal recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.

  3. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic model for pressurization and cryogenic propellant conditions during all mission phases of any liquid rocket based vehicle has been developed and validated. The model assumes the propellant tanks to be divided into five nodes and also implements an empirical correlation for liquid stratification if desired. The five nodes include a tank wall node exposed to ullage gas, an ullage gas node, a saturated propellant vapor node at the liquid-vapor interface, a liquid node, and a tank wall node exposed to liquid. The conservation equations of mass and energy are then applied across all the node boundaries and, with the use of perfect gas assumptions, explicit solutions for ullage and liquid conditions are derived. All fluid properties are updated real time using NIST Refprop.1 Further, mass transfer at the liquid-vapor interface is included in the form of evaporation, bulk boiling of liquid propellant, and condensation given the appropriate conditions for each. Model validation has proven highly successful against previous analytic models and various Saturn era test data and reasonably successful against more recent LH2 tank self pressurization ground test data. Finally, this model has been applied to numerous design iterations for the Altair Lunar Lander, Ares V Core Stage, and Ares V Earth Departure Stage in order to characterize Helium and autogenous pressurant requirements, propellant lost to evaporation and thermodynamic venting to maintain propellant conditions, and non-uniform tank draining in configurations utilizing multiple LH2 or LO2 propellant tanks. In conclusion, this model provides an accurate and efficient means of analyzing multiple design configurations for any cryogenic propellant tank in launch, low-acceleration coast, or in-space maneuvering and supplies the user with pressurization requirements, unusable propellants from evaporation and liquid stratification, and general ullage gas, liquid, and tank wall conditions as functions of time.

  4. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  5. Analytical stress tensor and pressure calculations with the CRYSTAL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, K.

    2010-02-01

    The calculation of the stress tensor and related properties and its implementation in the CRYSTAL code are described. The stress tensor is obtained from the earlier implemented analytical gradients with respect to the cell parameters. Subsequently, the pressure and enthalpy are computed, and a test concerning the pressure-driven phase transition in KI is used as an illustration. Finally, the possibility of applying external pressure is implemented. The constant-pressure optimization offers an alternative optimization method in addition to the already implemented optimization at constant volume.

  6. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  7. Electronic versus paper records: documentation of pressure ulcer data.

    PubMed

    Tubaishat, Ahmad; Tawalbeh, Loai I; AlAzzam, Manar; AlBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim

    The documentation of patient data on health records is a vital component of the care process. Accurate and complete recording of this data is a necessary practice. The adoption of electronic health records to improve the quality of nursing documentation is on the rise. This study compares the accuracy and completeness of pressure ulcer data documentation between electronic and paper records. A descriptive, comparative design with a retrospective review of patient records. Settings and sample: Two hospitals were chosen purposefully, one using electronic recording of patient data and the other using paper records. In the first phase, all hospitalised patients aged 18 years and over were inspected for pressure ulcers. In the second phase, the files of patients with pressure ulcers were audited. Of the 52 patients with ulcers found in the hospital that used an electronic system, 43 of their records documented the pressure ulcers (83%). Of the 55 patients with pressure ulcers in the hospital using paper records, 39 files had corresponding documentation of the presence of a pressure ulcer (71%). In terms of accuracy and completeness, more comprehensive documentation practice was found on the electronic health records compared with paper records. However, both types of systems have shortcomings in the practice of pressure ulcer data documentation.

  8. The Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW): a Platform for Analytics using Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Kurc, Tahsin; Cholleti, Sharath; Gao, Jingjing; Lin, Xia; Bornstein, William; Cantrell, Dedra; Levine, David; Hohmann, Sam; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To create an analytics platform for specifying and detecting clinical phenotypes and other derived variables in electronic health record (EHR) data for quality improvement investigations. Materials and Methods We have developed an architecture for an Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW). It supports transforming data represented in different physical schemas into a common data model, specifying derived variables in terms of the common model to enable their reuse, computing derived variables while enforcing invariants and ensuring correctness and consistency of data transformations, long-term curation of derived data, and export of derived data into standard analysis tools. It includes software that implements these features and a computing environment that enables secure high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Results We have implemented and deployed the architecture in production locally. The software is available as open source. We have used it as part of hospital operations in a project to reduce rates of hospital readmission within 30 days. The project examined the association of over 100 derived variables representing disease and co-morbidity phenotypes with readmissions in five years of data from our institution’s clinical data warehouse and the UHC Clinical Database (CDB). The CDB contains administrative data from over 200 hospitals that are in academic medical centers or affiliated with such centers. Discussion and Conclusion A widely available platform for managing and detecting phenotypes in EHR data could accelerate the use of such data in quality improvement and comparative effectiveness studies. PMID:23402960

  9. The Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW): a platform for analytics using electronic health record data.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Kurc, Tahsin; Cholleti, Sharath; Gao, Jingjing; Lin, Xia; Bornstein, William; Cantrell, Dedra; Levine, David; Hohmann, Sam; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-06-01

    To create an analytics platform for specifying and detecting clinical phenotypes and other derived variables in electronic health record (EHR) data for quality improvement investigations. We have developed an architecture for an Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW). It supports transforming data represented in different physical schemas into a common data model, specifying derived variables in terms of the common model to enable their reuse, computing derived variables while enforcing invariants and ensuring correctness and consistency of data transformations, long-term curation of derived data, and export of derived data into standard analysis tools. It includes software that implements these features and a computing environment that enables secure high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. We have implemented and deployed the architecture in production locally. The software is available as open source. We have used it as part of hospital operations in a project to reduce rates of hospital readmission within 30days. The project examined the association of over 100 derived variables representing disease and co-morbidity phenotypes with readmissions in 5years of data from our institution's clinical data warehouse and the UHC Clinical Database (CDB). The CDB contains administrative data from over 200 hospitals that are in academic medical centers or affiliated with such centers. A widely available platform for managing and detecting phenotypes in EHR data could accelerate the use of such data in quality improvement and comparative effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Confidence limits for interpretation of home blood pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Krakoff, Lawrence R

    2009-08-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of arterial blood pressure is needed for the management of hypertension. Multiple measurements can be obtained from recorded home blood pressures devices. Averages and other statistics can be calculated. Confidence intervals provide an assessment of the precision with which average pressures are measured. This study evaluated confidence intervals for systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and pulse pressure from recorded home blood pressure measurements. Fifty-three patients with high normal blood pressure, suspected white coat hypertension, or refractory hypertension were assessed by recorded home blood pressure. They were instructed to take four measurements each day for 1 week using a device that stores each measurement. Measurements were downloaded from the device to a computer, stored as data files, and analyzed by software. Average pressures and confidence intervals for each participant were rapidly calculated by standard statistical methods. The average width of the 95% confidence intervals for systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and pulse pressure were 8, 5, and 6 mmHg, respectively with large inter-individual differences. Significant positive correlations were found between the width of the confidence intervals and the average systolic (P<0.05) or pulse pressure (P<0.01). However, the correlation for diastolic pressure was not significant. Confidence intervals can be easily calculated for recorded home blood pressures with device storage and may provide a useful approach when cut-off points for classification as normal pressure, high normal pressure, or definite hypertension are to be excluded. This information, combined with knowledge of other risk factors, may help guide decisions for improved management.

  11. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2014-07-01

    Non-thermal pressure in the intracluster gas has been found ubiquitously in numerical simulations, and observed indirectly. In this paper we develop an analytical model for intracluster non-thermal pressure in the virial region of relaxed clusters. We write down and solve a first-order differential equation describing the evolution of non-thermal velocity dispersion. This equation is based on insights gained from observations, numerical simulations, and theory of turbulence. The non-thermal energy is sourced, in a self-similar fashion, by the mass growth of clusters via mergers and accretion, and dissipates with a time-scale determined by the turnover time of the largest turbulence eddies. Our model predicts a radial profile of non-thermal pressure for relaxed clusters. The non-thermal fraction increases with radius, redshift, and cluster mass, in agreement with numerical simulations. The radial dependence is due to a rapid increase of the dissipation time-scale with radii, and the mass and redshift dependence comes from the mass growth history. Combing our model for the non-thermal fraction with the Komatsu-Seljak model for the total pressure, we obtain thermal pressure profiles, and compute the hydrostatic mass bias. We find typically 10 per cent bias for the hydrostatic mass enclosed within r500.

  12. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming into the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  15. Portable digital pressure indicator for calibrating magnetic tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, Royce F.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a portable Digital Pressure Indicator (DPI) to be used for calibrating the pressure systems on Langley's magnetic tape recorders is described. High-speed magnetic tape recorders require pressure (0 to 20 psig) for providing an air cushion across the tape guides and a slight vacuum (30 inch H2O) for maintaining the proper number of tape loops in the advance and feed chamber. The DPI is a hand-held device that can be quickly coupled to a magnetic tape recorder and includes a two-position switch for selecting either measured pressure or vacuum, to be displayed digitally in engineering units (psig or inches H2O). The DPI is currently in use in Langley's Analysis and Computation Division.

  16. Analytical parametric investigation of low pressure ratio fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Hanson, D. B.; Menthe, R. W.; Towle, G. B.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an analytical study are reported which shows the effect of various physical and operating parameters on noise produced by low pressure ratio propulsive fans operating at subsonic top speeds. Acoustical duct lining effects are included in the study. The concepts used to develop the noise theory used in the study, as well as the correlation between the theory and model test results are also presented. It is shown that good correlation has been established between theory and experiment. Using the theory, it is shown that good aerodynamic design, maximum acceptable fan solidity, low tip speed operation and use of few blades and vanes leads to the lowest noise levels. Typical results of the study indicate that a fan operating at 1.2 fan pressure ratio and 700 ft/second tip speed with 12 blades and 7 vanes and including modest acoustic treatment on the duct wall would produce levels allowing a 100,000 lb. STOL aircraft to meet a noise level objective of 95 PNdB at 500 ft at takeoff.

  17. Documentation and record-keeping in pressure ulcer management.

    PubMed

    Chamanga, Edwin; Ward, Renee

    2015-05-06

    National and international guidelines recommend the use of clinical assessments and interventions to prevent pressure-related skin damage. This includes the categorisation of pressure ulcers as avoidable or unavoidable, which is challenging in clinical practice, mainly because of poor documentation and record-keeping for care delivered. Documentation and record-keeping are influenced by the individual's employing organisation, maintenance procedures for documentation and record-keeping, and local auditing processes. A transfer sticker to enable patient assessment and promote pressure ulcer documentation was designed and implemented. The transfer sticker captures the date, time and location of a pressure ulcer preventive risk assessment and the plan of care to be implemented. The increased clarity of record of care achieved by using the transfer sticker has enabled the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers resulting from poor documentation on admission or ward transfers to be reduced. The transfer sticker helps staff identify patients at risk and allows interventions to be implemented in a timely manner.

  18. Speed and pressure recording in three-dimensional flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisam, F

    1932-01-01

    Van der Megge Zijnen's spherical Pitot tube with its 5 test holes insures a simultaneous record of static pressure and magnitude and direction of velocity in three-dimensional flow. The report treats the method as well as the range of application of this Pitot in the light of modern knowledge on flow around spheres.

  19. Metamorphic record of catastrophic pressure drops in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, P.; Brun, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    When deeply buried in subduction zones, rocks undergo mineral transformations that record the increase of pressure and temperature. The fact that high-pressure metamorphic parageneses are found at the Earth’s surface proves that rock burial is followed by exhumation. Here we use analysis of available data sets from high-pressure metamorphic rocks worldwide to show that the peak pressure is proportional to the subsequent decompression occurring during the initial stage of retrogression. We propose, using a simple mechanical analysis, that this linear relationship can be explained by the transition from burial-related compression to extension at the onset of exhumation. This major switch in orientation and magnitude of principal tectonic stresses leads to a catastrophic pressure drop prior to actual rock ascent. Therefore, peak pressures are not necessarily, as commonly believed, directly dependent on the maximum burial depth, but can also reflect a change of tectonic regime. Our results, which are in agreement with natural data, have significant implications for rock rheology, subduction zone seismicity, and the magnitudes of tectonic pressures sustained by rocks. Current views of subduction dynamics could be reconsidered in that perspective.

  20. Recording of intracranial pressure in conscious rats via telemetry.

    PubMed

    Guild, Sarah-Jane; McBryde, Fiona D; Malpas, Simon C

    2015-09-01

    Although cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known to be fundamental in the control of normal brain function, there have been no previous long-term measurements in animal models. The aim of this study was to explore the stability and viability of long-term recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP) in freely moving rats via a telemetry device. We also developed a repeatable surgical approach with a solid-state pressure sensor at the tip of the catheter placed under the dura and in combination with arterial pressure (AP) measurement to enable the calculation of CPP. Telemeters with dual pressure catheters were implanted in Wistar rats to measure ICP and AP. We found that the signals were stable throughout the 28-day recording period with an average ICP value of 6 ± 0.8 mmHg. Significant light-dark differences were found in AP (3.1 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.02) and HR (58 ± 12 beats/min, P = 0.003), but not ICP (0.3 ± 0.2 mmHg, P >0.05) or CPP (2.6 ± 2.8 mmHg, P > 0.05). Use of kaolin to induce hydrocephalus in several rats demonstrates the ability to measure changes in ICP throughout disease progression, validating this new solution for chronic measurement of ICP, CPP, and AP in conscious rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Bias and variability in blood pressure measurement with ambulatory recorders.

    PubMed

    Pannarale, G; Bebb, G; Clark, S; Sullivan, A; Foster, C; Coats, A J

    1993-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether patient characteristics such as age, sex, blood pressure, and pulse pressure differently affect the accuracy of an oscillometric (SpaceLabs 90207) and a microphonic (TM2420 version 7) blood pressure monitor. Blood pressure recorded by two oscillometric and two microphonic ambulatory monitors was compared with simultaneous readings by two pairs of trained, blinded observers using random-zero sphygmomanometry. One hundred and eighteen subjects (53 men and 65 women, aged 17 to 94 years; systolic pressure, 89 to 211 mm Hg; diastolic, 44 to 116 mm Hg) were studied. There were no significant differences within each observer pair or between the two observer pairs as well as no correlation between interobserver differences and patient characteristics. The differences between the monitor and trained observers' readings were 2.8 +/- 9.9 mm Hg systolic and 3.9 +/- 6.8 mm Hg diastolic for the SpaceLabs and 5.0 +/- 5.2 mm Hg systolic and 3.4 +/- 6.1 mm Hg diastolic for the TM2420. Patient characteristics that predicted measurement error were defined by multiple regression. For oscillometry, systolic measurement error was highly correlated with systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and subject age. The diastolic error was significantly correlated with pulse pressure, diastolic pressure, and subject sex. For the oscillometric monitor, patient characteristics accounted for 36.6% of the variation of the systolic error and 34.7% of the variation of the diastolic error. For the microphonic monitor, only age correlated with diastolic error, and no significant correlations were seen with systolic error. Patient characteristics accounted for only 1.2% of the systolic and 8.9% of the diastolic error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Analytical description of PWR pressurizer transients. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahl, J.P.

    1985-03-01

    Simulating the complicated physical processes that occur in a PWR pressurizer during a transient presented a considerable challenge to modelers. The computer code developed and validated in this study will help utilities to better understand both the behavior of the pressurizer and the overall performance of a PWR after a loss-of-coolant accident.

  3. -Omic and Electronic Health Record Big Data Analytics for Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Yen; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Kaddi, Chanchala D; Venugopalan, Janani; Hoffman, Ryan; Wang, May D

    2017-02-01

    Rapid advances of high-throughput technologies and wide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have led to fast accumulation of -omic and EHR data. These voluminous complex data contain abundant information for precision medicine, and big data analytics can extract such knowledge to improve the quality of healthcare. In this paper, we present -omic and EHR data characteristics, associated challenges, and data analytics including data preprocessing, mining, and modeling. To demonstrate how big data analytics enables precision medicine, we provide two case studies, including identifying disease biomarkers from multi-omic data and incorporating -omic information into EHR. Big data analytics is able to address -omic and EHR data challenges for paradigm shift toward precision medicine. Big data analytics makes sense of -omic and EHR data to improve healthcare outcome. It has long lasting societal impact.

  4. Advanced Big Data Analytics for -Omic Data and Electronic Health Records: Toward Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Yen; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Kaddi, Chanchala; Venugopalan, Janani; Hoffman, Ryan; Wang, May D

    2016-10-10

    Rapid advances of high-throughput technologies and wide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have led to fast accumulation of -omic and EHR data. These voluminous complex data contain abundant information for precision medicine, and big data analytics can extract such knowledge to improve the quality of health care. In this article, we present -omic and EHR data characteristics, associated challenges, and data analytics including data pre-processing, mining, and modeling. To demonstrate how big data analytics enables precision medicine, we provide two case studies, including identifying disease biomarkers from multi-omic data and incorporating -omic information into EHR. Big data analytics is able to address -omic and EHR data challenges for paradigm shift towards precision medicine. Big data analytics makes sense of -omic and EHR data to improve healthcare outcome. It has long lasting societal impact.

  5. Single acetylcholine receptor channel currents recorded at high hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, S H; Stühmer, W; Conti, F

    1987-01-01

    A technique for performing patch-clamp experiments under high hydrostatic (oil) pressure is described. The method allows the transfer of whole cell or membrane patches in a recording configuration into a pressure vessel, where pressure can be increased up to 60 MPa (approximately equal to 600 bar). We have studied in this way the pressure dependence of single acetylcholine receptor channels in excised "outside-out" membrane patches from cultured rat muscle cells. In the range of 0.1 to 60 MPa the open channel conductance in 140 mM NaCl solutions did not vary by more than 2%, which implies that the translocation of sodium ions through the channel pore does not involve steps with significant activation volumes. At high acetylcholine concentrations (20 microM) bursts of single-channel activity allowed measurements of the mean open and mean closed times of the channel. Pressurization to 40 MPa increased both mean open and mean closed times giving apparent activation volumes of about 59 and 139 A3, respectively. This implies a net volume increase of 80 A3, associated with the transition from the agonist-free state to the open state of the channel, which may be partially associated with the agonist-binding step. All the observed pressure effects were reversible. The activation volumes for the gating of acetylcholine receptor channels are comparable to those of sodium and potassium channels in the squid giant axon, suggesting that there is some basic common mechanism in the operation of ion-channel proteins. Images PMID:2437577

  6. Analytical Studies of High-Pressure MHD Accelerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ETEsT ,J I I I0,000 15,000 20,000 STAGNATION ENTHALPY, Btu/Ib Figure 3. Stagnation pressure, enthalpy requirement for reentry facility. Table 1...the opposing induced voltage uB. That oppos- ing voltage, of course, varies linearly with B, and the applied volt- age must be increased uniformly

  7. Assessment of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in childhood craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Eide, Per Kristian; Helseth, Eirik; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt; Lundar, Tryggve

    2002-12-01

    In this study, we explored two strategies of assessing continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings in children with craniosynostosis, namely either by computation of the mean ICP or by computation of the accurate numbers of ICP elevations of different durations. The ICP recordings of 121 consecutive patients with a tentative diagnosis of craniosynostosis who underwent continuous ICP monitoring were examined. The relationship between mean ICP and numbers of ICP elevations was defined. The distribution of numbers of ICP elevations between patients either undergoing surgery or conservative treatment was also compared, since the choice of treatment was heavily dependent on the results of ICP monitoring. At the time of ICP monitoring, calculation of mean ICP was the main parameter for assessment of ICP curves. After a median observation period of 16 months, the ICP curves were reexamined by means of the software Sensometrics Pressure Analyser, which presents the ICP curve as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations of different levels (20-40 mm Hg) and durations (0.5- 20 min). Since the recording period differed between the cases, the numbers were standardized to a given recording time of 10 h, to allow for comparisons between patients. Cases with a borderline mean ICP during sleep (mean ICP 10-15 mm Hg) constituted 40.5% of the 121 patients. In this group, a rather weak relationship between mean ICP and the number of ICP elevations above 20 mm Hg was found, as well as a relatively high number of ICP elevations above 20 mm Hg of various durations. As compared to the patients undergoing surgery, a rather high number of ICP elevations above 20 mm Hg of various durations was found in patients undergoing conservative treatment. The study confirmed our hypothesis that in children with craniosynostosis, calculation of mean ICP does not describe the ICP curve in a reliable way. Decision-making should also include the computation of the distribution of numbers of ICP

  8. An analytical model for nanoscale electrothermal probe recording on phase-change media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Mustafa M.; Wright, C. David

    2006-02-01

    Scanning probe memories are now emerging as a means of achieving nanoscale resolution data storage. The use of microscopic conductive tips in contact with a phase-change material to record data as amorphous and crystalline marks is one such approach, making use of the large difference in electrical conductivity between the two phases to distinguish between two binary states on replay and hence provide a memory function. The writing process is complex and involves electronic, thermal, and phase-change processes that are difficult to model and study except using numerical techniques. A simplified analytical model of electrothermal writing by probe on a basic two-layer phase-change structure is developed here, and used to predict the required voltage levels for recording and the expected diameters of recorded crystalline and amorphous marks. A simplified model of cooling and solidification was also developed to study the cooling rates during amorphization. The predictions are shown to be in agreement with published experimental measurements and numerical simulations. The developed analytical models were extended to investigate the effects of introducing coating layers on recording voltage levels, to study the depth profiles of recorded marks, and to derive expressions for the capacitance and resistance of the phase-change layer that contribute to the transient behavior of the recording system.

  9. Effect of Sediment on Dynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Using an Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Khiavi, Majid Pasbani; Gharabaghi, Ahmad R. M.; Abedi, Karim

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams by proposing closed-form formulas for the eigenvalues involved when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. A new analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on rigid gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. The obtained results are in good agreement with other classical solutions. The main capability of proposed analytical solution is direct calculation of eigenvalues, without any need for numerical solution. In addition the method can be easily incorporated in dynamic analysis of a dam.

  10. Analytic axisymmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and non-parallel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiroukidis, A.; Evangelias, A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    We extend previous work by two of the authors [Evangelias and Throumoulopoulos 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045022] and find analytic solutions to a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation (GGSE) with pressure anisotropy, hollow toroidal current density and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction. By specifying the surface-function terms involved in the GGSE as quadratic functions of the poloidal magnetic flux function, we derive analytic tokamak pertinent equilibria. It turns out that, irrespective of the shape of the toroidal current density profile, which is noticeably affected by the pressure anisotropy, this anisotropy has a paramagnetic effect for {p}\\parallel > {p}\\perp and a diamagnetic one for {p}\\parallel < {p}\\perp . In addition, the parallel flow induces paramagnetism, while the residual toroidal flow associated with the electric field induces diamagnetism. The analytic results obtained here contribute to the physics understanding of axisymmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and flow, and can be employed for validating equilibrium codes.

  11. Analytical and numerical study of the pressure die casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Rodriguez, Joaquin

    In pressure die casting, the most common defect in manufactured parts is porosity, one of the major causes of which is air entrapment in the molten metal during the injection process. Among other factors, the correct design of the gating and venting systems and an appropriate selection of the operating conditions during the injection phase can contribute to minimizing casting porosity. In the present work, a systematic study of the operating conditions and the characteristics of the injection and venting systems (plunger motion law, initial filling fraction, shot sleeve dimensions, dimension and location of the vents, atmospheric and vacuum venting conditions, etc.) that reduce air entrapment while keeping the injection filling time as low as possible is carried out. Limiting values of the initial filling fraction required for appropriate operating conditions are also determined for wide ranges of acceleration parameters and pouring hole locations. The flow of molten metal inside the injection chamber is analyzed using a two-dimensional finite-element model and a simpler model based on the shallow-water approximation. Two commonly used types of plunger movements are considered, for which results for wave profiles, the volume (area) of entrapped air in the injection chamber, and optimum values of the parameters characterizing the law of plunger motion are presented. A new law of plunger acceleration which would completely eliminate the air from the shot sleeve at the end of the slow phase of injection and minimizes the filling time is derived. The flow through venting systems is analyzed using an unsteady model for both atmospheric and vacuum venting conditions. The model is solved numerically using the method of characteristics. The numerical results of the model agree very well with the results of previous quasi-steady models for conditions for which unsteady effects are negligible, as could be expected. The results presented in this work show that, for broad

  12. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  13. A pressure-deformation analytical model for rectangular diaphragm of MEMS pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wu; Wang, Dong; Yu, Huijun; Peng, Bei

    2017-02-01

    Rectangular diaphragm is commonly used as a pressure sensitive component in MEMS pressure sensors. Its deformation under applied pressure directly determines the performance of micro-devices, accurately acquiring the pressure-deflection relationship, therefore, plays a significant role in pressure sensor design. This paper analyzes the deflection of an isotropic rectangular diaphragm under combined effects of loads. The model is regarded as a clamped plate with full surface uniform load and partially uniform load applied on its opposite sides. The full surface uniform load stands for the external measured pressure. The partial load is used to approximate the opposite reaction of the silicon island which is planted on the diaphragm to amplify the deformation displacement, thus to improve the sensitivity of the pressure sensor. Superposition method is proposed to calculate the diaphragm deflections. This method considers separately the actions of loads applied on the simple supported plate and moments distributed on edges. Considering the boundary condition of all edges clamped, the moments are constructed to eliminate the boundary rotations caused by lateral load. The diaphragm’s deflection is computed by superposing deflections which produced by loads applied on the simple supported plate and moments distributed on edges. This method provides higher calculation accuracy than Galerkin variational method, and it is used to analyze the influence factors of the diaphragm’s deflection, includes aspect ratio, thickness and the applied force area of the diaphragm.

  14. Symbolic analytical developments of the zero pressure cosmological model of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    In the present paper, literal analytical solutions in power series forms are developed for the radius of curvature and the expansion velocity of the zero pressure cosmological models of the universe at any time t. Also, we develop literal analytical solutions in power series forms for the inverse problem of the zero pressure cosmological model, that is to find the time t=tilde{t} (say) at which the radius of curvature of the model R=tilde{R} (say) is known. The importance of these analytical power series representations is that, they are invariant under many operations because, addition, multiplication, exponent ion, integration, different ion, etc of a power series is also a power series. A fact which provides excellent flexibility in dealing with analytical as well as computational developments of the problems related to zero pressure cosmological models.For computational developments of these solutions, an efficient method using continued fraction theory is provided. By means of the present methods we able to analyze some known zero-pressure cosmological models, of these are Einstein and De Sitter models. In addition we also analyzed some other models by which one can know if the universe keep expanding forever, or will it reach a maximal size and then turn into contraction stage.

  15. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant Conditions for Lunar Landing Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development, validation and application of the model to the Lunar Landing Vehicle. The model named, Computational Propellant and Pressurization Program -- One Dimensional (CPPPO), is used to model in this case cryogenic propellant conditions of the Altair Lunar lander. The validation of CPPPO was accomplished via comparison to an existing analytic model (i.e., ROCETS), flight experiment and ground experiments. The model was used to the Lunar Landing Vehicle perform a parametric analysis on pressurant conditions and to examine the results of unequal tank pressurization and draining for multiple tank designs.

  16. Analytical study of stresses recorded in the DH 2011 rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kretz, M.; Aubrun, J. N.; Larche, M.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study of stresses in the blades recorded during the tests of the DH 2011 jet flap rotor was performed. The main objective of the study was to compare the experimental results with analyticaly determined stresses. The comparison extended over 15 specific flight cases has been only partially successful. In fact computed 3P and 4P stress components showed only a poor correlation with the test data obtained. It is believed that the simplified model of aeroelastic effects used is mainly responsible for this lack of agreement with test results.

  17. Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. The pressure gradient can be used to solve the boundary condition for scattering problems and it is a key aspect to solve acoustic scattering problems. The first formulation is derived from the gradient of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This formulation has a form involving the observer time differentiation outside the integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. This formulation avoids the numerical time differentiation with respect to the observer time, which is computationally more efficient. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with available exact solutions for a stationary and moving monopole sources. The agreement between the predictions and exact solutions is excellent. The formulations are applied to the rotor noise problems for two model rotors. A purely numerical approach is compared with the analytical formulations. The agreement between the analytical formulations and the numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observer cases.

  18. Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of rotor noise is an area that has received little attention over the years, yet the limited work that has been done has shown that both the directivity and intensity of the acoustic field may be significantly modified by the presence of scattering bodies. One of the inputs needed to compute the scattered acoustic field is the acoustic pressure gradient on a scattering surface. Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. These formulations are presented in this paper. The first formulation is derived by taking the gradient of Farassat's retarded-time Formulation 1A. Although this formulation is relatively simple, it requires numerical time differentiation of the acoustic integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with the acoustic pressure gradient determined by a purely numerical approach for two model rotors. The agreement between analytic formulations and numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observers case.

  19. Simultaneous pressure recording in mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Yousuke; Misumi, Ikuo; Rokutanda, Taku; Akahoshi, Ryuichiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Kaikita, Koichi; Yamamuro, Megumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MVOHCM) with apical aneurysm and paradoxic jet flow. At cardiac catheterization, pressure study showed that there was a markedly high pressure-gradient of 90 mmHg between the apex and the base in systole. Apical pressure was 350 mmHg after premature ventricular contraction. The apical aneurysm was already dilated and spherical in late systole; the absence of active relaxation was considered to be the cause of the paradoxic jet flow. In this report, we suggest the pathogenesis of left ventricular apical aneurysm and paradoxic jet flow in MVOHCM.

  20. Self-Aspirated Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Source for Direct Sampling of Analytes on Surfaces and in Liquid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Keiji G; Ford, Michael J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol(reg. sign) and Evista(reg. sign) tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d{sub 3} as an internal standard.

  1. Reliability of Pressure Recordings Via Catheters Used for Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Ulrich W.; Sebening, Helmut; Beeretz, Renate; Heinze, Roland

    1984-01-01

    Because of common difficulties in obtaining adequate pressure tracing during transluminal coronary angioplasty, the pressure transmission characteristics of catheter systems used for angioplasty were determined. Transmission of cine wave pressures (0.2 to 14 Hz) and of arterial pressure pulses reproduced in vitro was evaluated. Following adequate elimination of air bubbles from the system, the Grüntzig dilatation catheters yielded satisfactory frequency response curves and thus good reproduction of arterial pressure waveforms. The Simpson-Robert catheter showed clearly inferior frequency response characteristics, explaining the more significant damping of the pressure tracings. However, mean pressures were reliably recorded with each type. Images PMID:15227077

  2. An accurate analytic approximation to the non-linear change in volume of solids with applied pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic expression for the nonlinear change of the volume of a solid as a function of applied pressure is of great interest in high-pressure experimentation. It is found that a two-parameter analytic expression, fits the experimental volume-change data to within a few percent over the entire experimentally attainable pressure range. Results are presented for 24 different materials including metals, ceramic semiconductors, polymers, and ionic and rare-gas solids.

  3. Extracting insights from electronic health records: case studies, a visual analytics process model, and design recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Taowei David; Wongsuphasawat, Krist; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    2011-10-01

    Current electronic health record (EHR) systems facilitate the storage, retrieval, persistence, and sharing of patient data. However, the way physicians interact with EHRs has not changed much. More specifically, support for temporal analysis of a large number of EHRs has been lacking. A number of information visualization techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, due to their limited application to a single case study, the results are often difficult to generalize across medical scenarios. We present the usage data of Lifelines2 (Wang et al. 2008), our information visualization system, and user comments, both collected over eight different medical case studies. We generalize our experience into a visual analytics process model for multiple EHRs. Based on our analysis, we make seven design recommendations to information visualization tools to explore EHR systems.

  4. [Analytic solution and experimental verification of pressure control function of the sealed module of manned space vehicle].

    PubMed

    Rui, J B; Zheng, C X; Wang, P X

    2001-08-01

    The analytic solution of the overall pressure and oxygen partial pressure in the scaled module of manned space vehicle was deduced, it can be used by ECLSS overall engineering designer to predict the pressure control parameters when space flight or ground test is operating. According to different gas supply situations and the role of pressure control zone prescribed by ECLSS, the flight duration was divided into several segments under the role of pressure control zone, and the differential equations were solved. The analytic solutions of the total pressure and partial pressure of oxygen were obtained, and the theoretical curve corresponds well to the test value. The analytic solutions obtained were valid, and satisfied the requirement of engineering accuracy.

  5. An Analytical Approach to Determine the Pressure Distribution During Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Christian; Kuna, Meinhard

    2012-09-01

    During chemical mechanical polishing the distribution of wear is primarily affected by the pressure distribution on the wafer surface. Moreover, understanding the effects that influence the contact pressure plays a key role in improving the process quality. In this paper a multizone chuck is considered. Two ways to calculate the distribution of contact pressure between wafer and pad are shown. First, an analytical approach is presented, which uses the plate theory to describe the behavior of the carrier. Secondly, a finite-element simulation, which is able to handle more details, is performed to verify that the included assumptions have a negligible impact on the results. It is found that both approaches produce similar results. The reasons for the differences can be explained.

  6. An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Navarro, Tomas; Diaz-Martin, Diego

    2009-09-15

    This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

  7. An analytical approach to characterize morbidity profile dissimilarity between distinct cohorts using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Basford, Melissa; Pulley, Jill; Masys, Daniel R.; Roden, Dan M.; Wang, Deede; Chute, Christopher G.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Carrell, David; Peissig, Peggy; Kho, Abel; Denny, Joshua C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a two-stage analytical approach for characterizing morbidity profile dissimilarity among patient cohorts using electronic medical records. We capture morbidities using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-9) codes. In the first stage of the approach separate logistic regression analyses for ICD-9 sections (e.g., “hypertensive disease” or “appendicitis”) are conducted, and the odds ratios that describe adjusted differences in prevalence between two cohorts are displayed graphically. In the second stage, the results from ICD-9 section analyses are combined into a general morbidity dissimilarity index (MDI). For illustration, we examine nine cohorts of patients representing six phenotypes (or controls) derived from five institutions, each a participant in the electronic MEdical REcords and GEnomics (eMERGE) network. The phenotypes studied include type II diabetes and type II diabetes controls, peripheral arterial disease and peripheral arterial disease controls, normal cardiac conduction as measures by electrocardiography, and senile cataracts. PMID:20688191

  8. Analytical solution for pressure buildup and plume evolution during injection of CO2 into saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, S. A.; Hardisty, P. E.; Trudell, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    If geo-sequestration of CO2 is to be employed as a key greenhouse gas reduction method in the global effort to mitigate climate change, simple yet robust methods must be available to help design and monitor injection into saline aquifers. There has been significant development of simple analytical and semi-analytical techniques to support screening analysis and performance assessment for potential carbon sequestration sites. These techniques have generally been used to estimate the size of CO2 plumes for the purpose of leakage rate estimation. A common assumption of previous has been that both the fluids and the geological formation are incompressible. Consequently, calculation of pressure distribution requires the specification of an arbitrary radius of influence. In the present work, we relax this restriction by incorporating fluid and formation compressibility into our governing equations. These equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, and are then solved using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. By allowing for compressibility in the fluids and formation, the solutions improve on previous work by not requiring the specification of an arbitrary radius of influence. Our solution is also capable of accounting for non-Darcy inertial effects modeled by the Forchheimer equation. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with finite difference solutions. Our analysis leads to a simple yet highly accurate algebraic equation for estimating the evolution of a CO2 plume, and the associated pressure buildup, as a function of time.

  9. An analytical model for pressure of volume fractured tight oil reservoir with horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qihong; Dou, Kaiwen; Zhang, Xianmin; Xing, Xiangdong; Xia, Tian

    2017-05-01

    The property of tight oil reservoir is worse than common reservoir that we usually seen before, the porosity and permeability is low, the diffusion is very complex. Therefore, the ordinary depletion method is useless here. The volume fracture breaks through the conventional EOR mechanism, which set the target by amplifying the contact area of fracture and reservoir so as to improving the production of every single well. In order to forecast the production effectively, we use the traditional dual-porosity model, build an analytical model for production of volume fractured tight oil reservoir with horizontal well, and get the analytical solution in Laplace domain. Then we construct the log-log plot of dimensionless pressure and time by stiffest conversion. After that, we discuss the influential factors of pressure. Several factors like cross flow, skin factors and threshold pressure gradient was analyzed in the article. This model provides a useful method for tight oil production forecast and it has certain guiding significance for the production capacity prediction and dynamic analysis.

  10. An analytical model for the underwater sound pressure waveforms radiated when an offshore pile is driven.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marshall V

    2015-08-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the pile vibration and consequent sound pressure and particle velocity radiated underwater when an offshore cylindrical pile is struck by a drop hammer. The model, which is based on the coupled equations of motion for axial and radial vibration of a thin cylindrical shell, yields frequency-dependent phase velocity and attenuation of these vibrations. The amplitude of the pulse of axial and radial displacement that travels down a pile following an axial impact is described in terms of the hammer properties. Solutions are obtained for the radiated sound pressure and particle velocity, using Junger and Feit's Transform Formulation of the Pressure Field of Cylindrical Radiators [(Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1993), p. 216]. The model is applied to published data on radiated noise from offshore driving of a steel pile. The modeled pressure waveforms at 12-m horizontal range and at 9 hydrophone depths correlate significantly with the measured waveforms. The modeled pressures of the initial positive peaks (appropriately low-pass filtered) agree with data to within 1 dB. The initial negative peaks however exceed the data by up to 7 dB, and as hydrophone depth increases, the model negative peaks have a maximum at 7 m, whereas the data have a maximum at 9 m.

  11. PARAMO: A Parallel Predictive Modeling Platform for Healthcare Analytic Research using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenney; Ghoting, Amol; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Stewart, Walter F.; Malin, Bradley; Sun, Jimeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Healthcare analytics research increasingly involves the construction of predictive models for disease targets across varying patient cohorts using electronic health records (EHRs). To facilitate this process, it is critical to support a pipeline of tasks: 1) cohort construction, 2) feature construction, 3) cross-validation, 4) feature selection, and 5) classification. To develop an appropriate model, it is necessary to compare and refine models derived from a diversity of cohorts, patient-specific features, and statistical frameworks. The goal of this work is to develop and evaluate a predictive modeling platform that can be used to simplify and expedite this process for health data. Methods To support this goal, we developed a PARAllel predictive MOdeling (PARAMO) platform which 1) constructs a dependency graph of tasks from specifications of predictive modeling pipelines, 2) schedules the tasks in a topological ordering of the graph, and 3) executes those tasks in parallel. We implemented this platform using Map-Reduce to enable independent tasks to run in parallel in a cluster computing environment. Different task scheduling preferences are also supported. Results We assess the performance of PARAMO on various workloads using three datasets derived from the EHR systems in place at Geisinger Health System and Vanderbilt University Medical Center and an anonymous longitudinal claims database. We demonstrate significant gains in computational efficiency against a standard approach. In particular, PARAMO can build 800 different models on a 300,000 patient data set in 3 hours in parallel compared to 9 days if running sequentially. Conclusion This work demonstrates that an efficient parallel predictive modeling platform can be developed for EHR data. This platform can facilitate large-scale modeling endeavors and speed-up the research workflow and reuse of health information. This platform is only a first step and provides the foundation for our ultimate

  12. PARAMO: a PARAllel predictive MOdeling platform for healthcare analytic research using electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenney; Ghoting, Amol; Steinhubl, Steven R; Stewart, Walter F; Malin, Bradley; Sun, Jimeng

    2014-04-01

    Healthcare analytics research increasingly involves the construction of predictive models for disease targets across varying patient cohorts using electronic health records (EHRs). To facilitate this process, it is critical to support a pipeline of tasks: (1) cohort construction, (2) feature construction, (3) cross-validation, (4) feature selection, and (5) classification. To develop an appropriate model, it is necessary to compare and refine models derived from a diversity of cohorts, patient-specific features, and statistical frameworks. The goal of this work is to develop and evaluate a predictive modeling platform that can be used to simplify and expedite this process for health data. To support this goal, we developed a PARAllel predictive MOdeling (PARAMO) platform which (1) constructs a dependency graph of tasks from specifications of predictive modeling pipelines, (2) schedules the tasks in a topological ordering of the graph, and (3) executes those tasks in parallel. We implemented this platform using Map-Reduce to enable independent tasks to run in parallel in a cluster computing environment. Different task scheduling preferences are also supported. We assess the performance of PARAMO on various workloads using three datasets derived from the EHR systems in place at Geisinger Health System and Vanderbilt University Medical Center and an anonymous longitudinal claims database. We demonstrate significant gains in computational efficiency against a standard approach. In particular, PARAMO can build 800 different models on a 300,000 patient data set in 3h in parallel compared to 9days if running sequentially. This work demonstrates that an efficient parallel predictive modeling platform can be developed for EHR data. This platform can facilitate large-scale modeling endeavors and speed-up the research workflow and reuse of health information. This platform is only a first step and provides the foundation for our ultimate goal of building analytic pipelines

  13. Analytical model of atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive Penning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric and near-atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive discharges have wide applications. An analytic equilibrium solution is developed based on a homogeneous, current-driven discharge model that includes sheath and electron multiplication effects and contains two electron populations. A simplified chemistry is used with four unknown densities: hot electrons, warm electrons, positive ions and metastables. The dominant electron-ion pair production is Penning ionization, and the dominant ion losses are to the walls. The equilibrium particle balances are used to determine a single ionization balance equation for the warm electron temperature, which is solved, both approximately within the α- and γ-modes, and exactly by conventional root-finding techniques. All other discharge parameters are found, the extinction and α-γ transitions are determined, and a similarity law is given, in which the equilibrium for a short gap at high pressure can be rescaled to a longer gap at lower pressure. Within the α-mode, we find the scaling of the discharge parameters with current density, frequency, gas density and gap width. The analytic results are compared to hybrid and particle-in-cell (PIC) results for He/0.1%N2, and to hybrid results for He/0.1%H2O. For nitrogen, a full reaction set is used for the hybrid calculations and a simplified reaction set for the PIC simulations. For the chemically complex water trace gas, a set of 209 reactions among 43 species is used. The analytic results are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the more elaborate hybrid and PIC calculations.

  14. Magnetic scavengers as carriers of analytes for flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS).

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Kurczewska, Joanna; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2015-09-07

    In this paper, a procedure for the preconcentration and transport of mixtures of acids, bases, and drug components to a mass spectrometer using magnetic scavengers is presented. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS) was used as an analytical method for identification of the compounds by thermal desorption from the scavengers. The proposed procedure is fast and cheap, and does not involve time-consuming purification steps. The developed methodology can be applied for trapping harmful substances in minute quantities, to transport them to specialized, remotely located laboratories.

  15. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [evaluation of methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Samples of liquid oxygen, high pressure nitrogen, low pressure nitrogen, and missile grade air were studied to determine the hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentration of the samples was achieved by adsorption on a molecular sieve and activated charcoal. The trapped hydrocarbons were then desorbed and transferred to an analytical column in a gas chromatograph. The sensitivity of the method depends on the volume of gas passed through the adsorbent tubes. The value of the method was verified through recoverability and reproducibility studies. The use of this method enables LOX, GN2, and missile grade air systems to be routinely monitored to determine low level increases in specific hydrocarbon concentration that could lead to potentially hazardous conditions.

  16. Measuring Respiratory Pressures with Mercury Manometer in Low Economic Health Care Settings- An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Vishnupriya; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health care economics restricts many health centers from using hi-tech diagnostics equipment. Mercury manometers are used for calibration of pressure transducers. If standardized it would be a cost effective, simple alternative to transducers in low economic settings. Aim To analyse the feasibility of mercury manometer usage in respiratory pressure measurement. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted with 30 healthy volunteers of age group 17–19 yrs. They were recruited by using simple random sampling method. The volunteers were made familiarized to lab environment, instrument and techniques of maximum inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory pressures (Pemax). Then parameters were recorded using mercury manometer connected to different syringes as mouth piece (2.5 ml, 10 ml, and 20 ml) and with sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was done by using IBM SPSS statistics version 21. Results The Pimax was 111.07 ± 6.53 with a 2.5 ml syringe as mouth piece. With 20 ml syringe it was 61.47 ± 9.98. PEmax with 2.5 ml syringe was 70.33 ± 8.19 with a confidence limit of 2.93 and with sphygmomanometer was 99.33 ± 8.16 with a confidence limit of 2.92. There was a change in recorded pressure and the correlation analysis result showed a significant difference from both above and below 10 ml mouth piece range. Conclusion Mercury manometers could be used for recording respiratory pressures in low economic facilities once standardized. Size of syringe to be used as mouth piece needs further more works although this study finds 10 ml syringe as suitable. PMID:26894061

  17. An Analytical Theory for the Perturbative Effect of Solar Radiation Pressure on Natural and Artificial Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.

    Solar radiation pressure is the largest non-gravitational perturbation for most satellites in the solar system, and can therefore have a significant influence on their orbital dynamics. This work presents a new method for representing the solar radiation pressure force acting on a satellite, and applies this theory to natural and artificial satellites. The solar radiation pressure acceleration is modeled as a Fourier series which depends on the Sun's location in a body-fixed frame; a new set of Fourier coefficients are derived for every latitude of the Sun in this frame, and the series is expanded in terms of the longitude of the Sun. The secular effects due to the solar radiation pressure perturbations are given analytically through the application of averaging theory when the satellite is in a synchronous orbit. This theory is then applied to binary asteroid systems to explain the Binary YORP effect. Long term predictions of the evolution of the near-Earth asteroid 1999 KW4 are discussed under the influence of solar radiation pressure, J2, and 3rd body gravitational effects from the Sun. Secular effects are shown to remain when the secondary asteroid becomes non-synchronous due to a librational motion. The theory is also applied to Earth orbiting spacecraft, and is shown to be a valuable tool for improved orbit determination. The Fourier series solar radiation pressure model derived here is shown to give comparable results for orbit determination of the GPS IIR-M satellites as JPL's solar radiation pressure model. The theory is also extended to incorporate the effects of the Earth's shadow analytically. This theory is briefly applied to the evolution of orbital debris to explain the assumptions that are necessary in order to use the cannonball model for debris orbit evolution, as is common in the literature. Finally, the averaging theory methodology is applied to a class of Earth orbiting solar sail spacecraft to show the orbital effects when the sails are made

  18. Analytical solution of geological carbon sequestration under constant pressure injection into a horizontal radial reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, R.; Liou, T.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is believed to be an economically feasible technology to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2), the major component of greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere and injecting it into deep geological formations.Several mechanisms can help trap CO2 in the pore space of a geological reservoir, stratigraphic and structural trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, and geochemical trapping.Besides these trapping mechanisms, another important issue that deserves careful attention is the risk of CO2 leakage. The common ';constant injection rate' scenario may induce high pressure buildup that will endanger the mechanical integrity as well as the sealing capability of the cap rock. Instead of injecting CO2 at a constant mass rate, CO2 can be injected into the reservoir by fixing the pressure (usually the bottom-hole pressure) in the injection borehole. By doing so, the inevitable pressure buildup associated with the constant injection scheme can be completely eliminated in the constant pressure injection scheme. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for CO2 injection with constant pressure was developed. For simplicity, structural and geochemical trapping mechanisms were not considered. Therefore, a horizontal reservoir with infinite radial extent was considered. Prior to injection, the reservoir is fully saturated with the formation brine. It is assumed that CO2 does not mix with brine such that a sharp interface is formed once CO2 invades the brine-saturated pores. Because of the density difference between CO2 and brine, CO2 resides above the interface. Additional assumptions were also made when building up the brine and CO2 mass balance equations: (1) both of the fluids and the geological formations are incompressible, (2) capillary pressure is neglected, (3)there is no fluid flow in the vertical direction, and the horizontal flow satisfies the Darcy's law.In order to solve for the height of brine-CO2 interface, the two

  19. Risk factor detection for heart disease by applying text analytics in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Fan, Jung-Wei; Yang, Wei-Li; Lee, Theodore; Wiley, Matthew T; Zisook, Daniel S; Huang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, about 600,000 people die of heart disease every year. The annual cost of care services, medications, and lost productivity reportedly exceeds 108.9 billion dollars. Effective disease risk assessment is critical to prevention, care, and treatment planning. Recent advancements in text analytics have opened up new possibilities of using the rich information in electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify relevant risk factors. The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Challenge brought together researchers and practitioners of clinical natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the identification of heart disease risk factors reported in EMRs. We participated in this track and developed an NLP system by leveraging existing tools and resources, both public and proprietary. Our system was a hybrid of several machine-learning and rule-based components. The system achieved an overall F1 score of 0.9185, with a recall of 0.9409 and a precision of 0.8972. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study on the analytical utility of atmospheric and low-pressure MALDI sources for the mass spectrometric characterization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Moskovets, Eugene; Misharin, Alexander; Laiko, Viktor; Doroshenko, Vladimir

    2016-07-15

    A comparative MS study was conducted on the analytical performance of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sources that operated at either low pressure (∼1Torr) or at atmospheric pressure. In both cases, the MALDI sources were attached to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a two-stage ion funnel. The obtained results indicate that the limits of detection, in the analysis of identical peptide samples, were much lower with the source that was operated slightly below the 1-Torr pressure. In the low-pressure (LP) MALDI source, ion signals were observed at a laser fluence that was considerably lower than the one determining the appearance of ion signals in the atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI source. When the near-threshold laser fluences were used to record MALDI MS spectra at 1-Torr and 750-Torr pressures, the level of chemical noise at the 1-Torr pressure was much lower compared to that at AP. The dependency of the analyte ion signals on the accelerating field which dragged the ions from the MALDI plate to the MS analyzer are presented for the LP and AP MALDI sources. The study indicates that the laser fluence, background gas pressure, and field accelerating the ions away from a MALDI plate were the main parameters which determined the ion yield, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, the fragmentation of the analyte ions, and adduct formation in the LP and AP MALDI MS methods. The presented results can be helpful for a deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for the ion formation in MALDI.

  1. Evaluation of the Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure-recording device.

    PubMed

    Sheps, S G; Elveback, L R; Close, E L; Kleven, M K; Bissen, C

    1981-12-01

    We have the opportunity to evaluate a portable ambulatory device for the recording of sequential indirect arterial blood pressure and continuous electrocardiogram (Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure recording device). With careful attention to technique, only 11% of systolic and 5% of diastolic blood pressure readings differed by more than 10 mm Hg as compared with a trained technician's observations simultaneously in the same arm. The device has been useful in the evaluation of borderline (labile) hypertension, hypertensive drug therapy programs, and various episodic cardiovascular phenomena--for example, vasodepressor syncope and pheochromocytoma crises.

  2. Field-Analytical approach of land-sea records for elucidating the Younger Dryas Boundary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, T.; Courty, M. M.; Guichard, F.

    2009-12-01

    Linking lonsdaleite crystals, carbon spherules and diamond polymorphs from the North American dark layers at 12.9 cal yr B.P. to a cosmic event has questioned the nature and timing of the related impact processes. A global signal should trace the invoked airshocks and/or surface impacts from a swarm of comets or carbonaceous chondrites. Here we report on the contextual analytical study of debris fall events from three reference sequences of the Younger Dyras period (11-13 ka cal BP) : (1) sand dune fields along the French Atlantic coast at the Audenge site; (2) A 10 m record of detrital/bioorganic accumulation in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea with regular sedimentation rate (0.1 to 3 mm per year) from 14 to 2-ka BP cal; (3) the Paijan sequence (Peruvian coastal desert) offering fossiliferous fluvial layers with the last large mammals and aquatic fauna at 13 ka BP sealed by abiotic sand dunes. The three sequences display one remarkable layer of exogenous air-transported microdebris that is part of a complex time series of recurrent fine dust/wildfire events. The sharp debris-rich microfacies and its association to ashes derived from calcination of the local vegetation suggest instantaneous deposition synchronous to a high intensity wildfire. The debris assemblage comprises microtektite-like glassy spherules, partly devitrified glass shards, unmelted to partly melted sedimentary and igneous clasts, terrestrial native metals, and carbonaceous components. The later occur as grape-clustered polymers, vitrified graphitic carbon, amorphous carbon spherules with a honeycomb pattern, and green carbon fibres with recrystallized quartz and metal blebs. Evidence for high temperature formation from a heterogeneous melt with solid debris and volatile components derived from carbonaceous precursors supports an impact origin from an ejecta plume. The association of debris deposition to total firing would trace a high energy airburst with surface effects of the fireball. In

  3. Aerobic Exercise and Resting Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi A.; Tran, Zung Vu

    2007-01-01

    In this study the authors used the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. Forty-seven clinical trials representing a total of 72 effect sizes in 2543 subjects (1653 exercise, 890 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Statistically significant exercise-minus-control decreases were found for changes in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both hypertensive (systolic, -6 mm Hg, 95% CI, -8 to -3; diastolic, -5 mm Hg, 95% CI, -7 to -3) and normotensive (systolic, -2 mm Hg, 95% CI, -3 to -1; diastolic, -1 mm Hg, 95% CI, -2 to -1) groups. The differences between groups were statistically significant (systolic, p=0.008; diastolic, p=0.000). Relative decreases were approximately 4% (systolic) and 5% (diastolic) in hypertensives, and 2% (systolic) and 1% (diastolic) in normotensives. It was concluded that aerobic exercise reduces resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. PMID:11828203

  4. The sensitivity of acoustic cough recording relative to intraesophageal pressure recording and patient report during reflux testing.

    PubMed

    Rosen, R; Amirault, J; Heinz, N; Litman, H; Khatwa, U

    2014-11-01

    One of the primary indications for reflux testing with multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH (pH-MII) is to correlate reflux events with symptoms such as cough. Adult and pediatric studies have shown, using cough as a model, that patient report of symptoms is inaccurate. Unfortunately, intraesophageal pressure recording (IEPR) to record coughs is more invasive which limits its utility in children. The primary aim of this study was to validate the use of acoustic cough recording (ACR) during pH-MII testing. We recruited children undergoing pH-MII testing for the evaluation of cough. We simultaneously placed IEPR and pH-MII catheters and an ACR device in each patient. Each 24 h ACR, pH-MII, and IEPR tracing was scored by blinded investigators. Sensitivities for each method of symptom recording were calculated. A total of 2698 coughs were detected; 1140 were patient reported PR, 2425 were IEPR detected, and 2400 were ACR detected. The sensitivity of PR relative to ACR was 45.9% and the sensitivity of IEPR relative to ACR was 93.6%. There was strong inter-rater reliability (κ = 0.78) for the identification of cough by ACR. Acoustic recording is a non-invasive, sensitive method of recording cough during pH-MII testing that is well suited for the pediatric population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Pressure ulcer care quality indicator: analysis of medical records and incident report].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cássia Teixeira; Oliveira, Magáli Costa; Pereira, Ana Gabriela da Silva; Suzuki, Lyliam Midori; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2013-03-01

    Cross-sectional study that aimed to compare the data reported in a system for the indication of pressure ulcer (PU) care quality, with the nursing evolution data available in the patients' medical records, and to describe the clinical profile and nursing diagnosis of those who developed PU grade 2 or higher Sample consisted of 188 patients at risk for PU in clinical and surgical units. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and a computerized system of care indicators and statistically analyzed. Of the 188 patients, 6 (3%) were reported for pressure ulcers grade 2 or higher; however, only 19 (10%) were recorded in the nursing evolution records, thus revealing the underreporting of data. Most patients were women, older adults and patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent nursing diagnosis was risk of infection. The use of two or more research methodologies such as incident reporting data and retrospective review of patients' records makes the results trustworthy.

  6. Broadening of analyte streams due to a transverse pressure gradient in free-flow isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis

    2017-02-10

    Pressure-driven cross-flows can arise in free-flow isoelectric focusing systems (FFIEF) due to a non-uniform electroosmotic flow velocity along the channel width induced by the pH gradient in this direction. In addition, variations in the channel cross-section as well as unwanted differences in hydrostatic heads at the buffer/sample inlet ports can also lead to such pressure-gradients which besides altering the equilibrium position of the sample zones have a tendency to substantially broaden their widths deteriorating the separations. In this situation, a thorough assessment of stream broadening due to transverse pressure-gradients in FFIEF devices is necessary in order to establish accurate design rules for the assay. The present article describes a mathematical framework to estimate the noted zone dispersion in FFIEF separations based on the method-of-moments approach under laminar flow conditions. A closed-form expression has been derived for the spatial variance of the analyte streams at their equilibrium positions as a function of the various operating parameters governing the assay performance. This expression predicts the normalized stream variance under the chosen conditions to be determined by two dimensionless Péclet numbers evaluated based on the transverse pressure-driven and electrophoretic solute velocities in the separation chamber, respectively. Moreover, the analysis shows that while the stream width can be expected to increase with an increase in the value of the first Péclet number, the opposite trend will be followed with respect to the latter. The noted results have been validated using Monte Carlo simulations that also establish a time/length scale over which the predicted equilibrium stream width is attained in the system.

  7. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massoud, M

    1987-01-01

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  8. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  9. Performance evaluation of medical records departments by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach in the selected hospitals in Isfahan : medical records dep. & AHP.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2012-06-01

    Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important unit for evaluating and planning of care services. The goal of this study is evaluating the performance of the Medical Records Departments (MRDs) of the selected hospitals in Isfahan, Iran by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This was an analytic of cross-sectional study that was done in spring 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The statistical population consisted of MRDs of Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan. Data were collected by forms and through brainstorm technique. To analyze and perform AHP, Expert Choice software was used by researchers. Results were showed archiving unit has received the largest importance weight with respect to information management. However, on customer aspect admission unit has received the largest weight. Ordering weights of Medical Records Departments' Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan were with 0.394, 0.342 and 0.264 respectively. It is useful for managers to allocate and prioritize resources according to AHP technique for ranking at the Medical Records Departments.

  10. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-01-01

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20–25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution. PMID:27595795

  11. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-09-06

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20-25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution.

  12. Hornblende phenocrysts record a pressure gradient in and contamination of the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.; Wittke, J. ); Duffield, W. ); Davis, A. )

    1993-04-01

    The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwestern New Mexico comprises 20 coeval porphyritic lava domes erupted from a large vertically zoned reservoir of silicic magma. The rhyolite is high-silica, subalkaline, and is nearly constant in major-element composition. Trace elements and [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr[sub i] (0.705 to 0.713) define vertical zoning that records a downward-decreasing imprint of minor (<1 wt%) partial assimilation of Proterozoic roof rocks. Consistent with the major-element homogeneity, electron-microprobe analyses of hornblende phenocrysts show little or no measurable variation in principal constituents. The hornblende is edenite whose mean composition and standard deviation of 110 analyses are SiO[sub 2], 44.66 [+-] 0.64; TiO[sub g], 1.27 [+-] 0.13; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 6.80 [+-] 0.31; FeO, 21.00 [+-] 1.60; MnO, 1.19 [+-] 0.16; MgO, 9.94 [+-] 1.09; CaO, 10.51 [+-] 0.22; Na[sub 2]O, 2.22 [+-] 0.13; K[sup 2]O, 0.98 [+-] 0.08; F, 2.04 [+-] 0.35; Cl, 0.20 [+-] 0.03. Except for FeO, MnO, and MgO, compositional variations are non systematic and mostly within analytical uncertainty. FeO and Mno exhibit strong negative correlation with MgO. Individual hornblende crystals are zoned to relatively MgO-rich and FeO-MnO-poor rims, opposite what might be expected if the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma reservoir evolved chemically isolated from its surroundings. Hornblende with rims richest in MgO occurs in domes fed from the uppermost part of the reservoir. Calculated pressures based on Al in hornblende range from 1.6 to 2.0 kb, [+-] 0.5 kb. Though the range of calculated P is encompassed within the uncertainty, the lowest hornblende pressure is for a dome fed from, or near, the top of the reservoir, whereas the chemically defined vertical zoning.

  13. Extracting long-term trends and high frequency pressure fluctuations from seafloor pressure records using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, H. W.; Gennerich, H.

    2009-12-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a well-established tool for exploratory data analysis of non-stationary and nonlinear data. It decomposes the data set into a series of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) which separate the analyzed data set into a set of functions with different characteristics, representing the underlying physical processes. Pressure sensors at the seafloor record a time-varying pressure signal which is a composition of periodic and aperiodic signal components such as (1) atmospheric and oceanic tides as well as solid earth tides, (2) water level changes due to dynamic effects of the ocean (3) internal density fluctuations in the water column caused by salinity and/or temperature variations, (4) atmospheric disturbances, (5) vertical motions of the ocean floor (subsidence/uplift), (6) settling of the instrument, (7) sensor drift, and (8) sensor noise. Our goal is to examine the signal components like long-period pressure changes associated with uplift or subsidence and on the other hand short-period fluctuations associated with earthquakes or tremor-like signals. The amplitude of these pressure signals are on the order of only 1 kPa and smaller and difficult to extract from a signal which is dominated by tidal and strong oceanographic components. A number of pressure time series from different sources (DART, CORK, OBP, PIES) is analyzed and results are presented. The EMD is very powerful in extracting the long-period changes but also allows to isolating short term pressure fluctuations related to earthquakes and periods with increased background pressure noise. The major difficulty is, however, still to associate the observed pressure changes with tectonic or magmatic events because a number of effects -in the subsurface as well as in the water column - may be the cause.

  14. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  15. [Method of continuous direct recording of arterial pressure from a mercury manometer].

    PubMed

    Antelava, A L

    1978-01-01

    The article describes a transducer for continuous recording of the readings of a mercury manometer in which, to simplify the construction and calibration, the transducer of pressure changes to electric current changes is made of high-resistant (nichrome) wire passed through the tube of the mercury manometer and incorporated in the circuit of the measuring bridge.

  16. Perspectives on Using Video Recordings in Conversation Analytical Studies on Learning in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Fredrik; Pörn, Michaela; Sahlström, Fritjof; Slotte-Lüttge, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Video is currently used in many studies to document the interaction in conversation analytical (CA) studies on learning. The discussion on the method used in these studies has primarily focused on the analysis or the data construction, whereas the relation between data construction and analysis is rarely brought to attention. The aim of this…

  17. Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu

    2017-07-05

    We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers

  18. Analytical method for predicting the pressure distribution about a nacelle at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, J. S.; Ferguson, D. R.; Merkle, C. L.; Heck, P. H.; Lahti, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The formulation and development of a computer analysis for the calculation of streamlines and pressure distributions around two-dimensional (planar and axisymmetric) isolated nacelles at transonic speeds are described. The computerized flow field analysis is designed to predict the transonic flow around long and short high-bypass-ratio fan duct nacelles with inlet flows and with exhaust flows having appropriate aerothermodynamic properties. The flow field boundaries are located as far upstream and downstream as necessary to obtain minimum disturbances at the boundary. The far-field lateral flow field boundary is analytically defined to exactly represent free-flight conditions or solid wind tunnel wall effects. The inviscid solution technique is based on a Streamtube Curvature Analysis. The computer program utilizes an automatic grid refinement procedure and solves the flow field equations with a matrix relaxation technique. The boundary layer displacement effects and the onset of turbulent separation are included, based on the compressible turbulent boundary layer solution method of Stratford and Beavers and on the turbulent separation prediction method of Stratford.

  19. An analytical model for calculating pressure rise in a room due to refrigerant spills from piping rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is presented to describe quasi- steady release of a two-phase refrigerant mixture into a room and the associated pressure transient of the room atmosphere with limited capability to discharge the atmosphere. The analytical model is based on simple, approximate thermodynamic relationships applied along isentropes, which is used to describe the release of refrigerant and the coupled set of equation of energy and mass conservation and other auxiliary equations describing pressure transient of a room atmosphere. The analytical model, which consists of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, is solved numerically by the Mathematica computer program. As an example the safety problem of a Freon-22 spill in a refrigeration equipment room, resulting from piping rupture due to an earthquake, is analyzed and discussed.

  20. The effect of solar wind dynamic pressure changes on low and mid-latitude magnetic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Ginskey, M.; Petrinec, S.; Le, G.

    1992-06-01

    Magnetic records from low- and mid-latitude stations have been examined to determine their response to solar wind pressure changes. The best correlation between ground level changes and the change in the square root of the solar wind dynamic pressure occurs for stations at latitudes from 15 to 30 deg such as Tahiti, Honolulu, San Juan and Midway. The horizontal component of the field changes on average 16.5 nT for each change of 1(nPa) exp 1/2 of the square root of dynamic pressure. This is 50 percent greater than the vacuum model of Tsyganenko would predict for a nonconducting earth and therefore what would be expected for a perfectly conducting interior. Thus, low- and mid-latitude ground level response to solar wind pressure changes is dominated by the variation of the strength and location of the magnetopause current system and the corresponding induced currents within the earth rather than ionospheric current sources.

  1. Patient initiated home blood pressure recordings are accurate in hypertensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Jason; Habiba, Marwan A; Bosio, Paul; Boyce, Trudy; Shennan, Andrew; Halligan, Aidan W F

    2003-01-01

    We undertook this study to determine the accuracy and reliability of patient initiated blood pressure measurement and recording. We recruited 72 women from the antenatal hypertension clinic in a university teaching hospital. All were at high risk for preeclampsia and were asked to measure and record their blood pressure three times per day at home using a validated blood pressure device with an internal memory. From 979 measurements taken only 28 (2.9% were inaccurate). The inaccurate readings were restricted to three women. On further questioning two women admitted that the device had been used by other family members thus making comparison with the memory impossible. Thus the true nonconcordance rate amongst participants was 1/72 (1.4%). We conclude that blood pressure recordings taken and documented by high-risk women at home are accurate. This allows more frequent measurements to be taken without the inconvenience of additional visits to hospital and may therefore lead to the earlier detection of preeclampsia.

  2. Effect of static pressure on absolute paleointensity recording with implications for meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic stress on the recording process of magnetic field intensity with particular relevance for meteorites that experienced pressures lower than 5 GPa corresponding to the lowest shock stage classification (S1) in meteorites. Thermal remanent magnetizations were imparted on natural obsidian samples containing pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite, analogous to some achondritic meteorites. Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were carried out at ambient conditions after pressure cycling to 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 GPa. Each experiment used 10 samples to assess reproducibility, which is better than ±5%. The recorded paleointensity decreased 10%/GPa under hydrostatic stress and 20%/GPa under nonhydrostatic stress, leading to the fundamental conclusion that paleointensity results from meteorites may be appreciably underestimated. Pressure cycling shifts the blocking and unblocking spectra, thereby producing more linear slopes on an Arai diagram with increasing strain. We explain why, for samples with a single magnetization component that does not alter, a two-step paleointensity protocol sufficiently resolves the true paleointensity. Moreover, we propose that pressure cycling of pseudo-single domain bearing samples will remove the inherent curvature of the Arai slope, thereby allowing one to obtain a more accurate estimate of the true paleointensity. This likely also holds true for samples possessing multidomain grains. Conversely, linear trends on Arai plots in meteorites might have their origin in a pressure effect that does not necessarily reflect the ubiquitous presence of single domain particles.

  3. The effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of small analytes and large biomolecules in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; McCalley, David V; Guillarme, Davy

    2012-12-28

    A possible complication of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is related to the effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of the analytes. In the present work, numerous model compounds have been selected including small molecules, peptides, and proteins (such as monoclonal antibodies). Two instrumental setups were considered to attain elevated pressure drops, firstly the use of a post-column restrictor capillary at low mobile phase flow rate (pure effect of pressure) and secondly the increase of mobile phase flow rate without restrictor (i.e. a combined effect of pressure and frictional heating). In both conditions, the goal was to assess differences in retention behaviour, depending on the type or character of the analyte. An important conclusion is that the effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on retention varied in proportion with the size of the molecule and in some cases showed very different behaviour. In isocratic mode, the pure effect of pressure (experiments with a post-column restrictor capillary) induces an increase in retention by 25-100% on small molecules (MW<300 g/mol), 150% for peptides (~1.3 kDa), 800% for insulin (~6 kDa) and up to >3000% for myoglobin (~17 kDa) for an increase in pressure from 100 bar up to 1100 bar. The important effect observed for the isocratic elution of proteins is probably related to conformational changes of the protein in addition to the effect of molecular size. Working in gradient elution mode, the pressure related effects on retention were found to be less pronounced but still present (an increase of apparent retention factor between 0.2 and 2.5 was observed).

  4. Analytical Analysis of the Effect of the Radiation Pressure on Planetary Exospheres: Application to Earth, Mars, Titan and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I. S.; Mazelle, C. X.

    2014-12-01

    Because of rare collisions, the motion of light species (H, H2) in the planetary exospheres is essentially determined by the external forces: the gravitation from the planet and the radiation pressure, ... Currently, the only analytical model used to model exospheric neutral density profiles is the well-known Chamberlain model which takes into account only the gravity. In this work and in the same way as Chamberlain, we solve rigorously and analytically, based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and Liouville theorem, the additional effect of the radiation pressure in particular for hydrogen (the model works for any species sensitive to the radiation pressure) on the structure of the exosphere and on the density profiles of ballistic particles. This approach was initially developed by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) only in the Sun-planet direction. We extend it here to the whole exosphere with a 2D model. Also, we determine analytically the escape flux on the dayside at SZA=0, which can be compared with the Jeans' escape flux. We thus show that the radiation pressure induces : strong density asymmetries at high altitudes in the planetary exospheres, leading to the phenomenon of geotail at Earth for example the natural existence of an external limit (or exopause) for the exosphere, whose location is analytically determined an increase of the exospheric densities compared with Chamberlain profiles without radiation pressure (e.g. up to +150% at 5 Martian radius) a significant increase of the thermal escape flux (up to 30/35% for Earth/Mars today), until a «blow-off » regime with a constant escape flux for an extreme radiation pressure. The influence of the radiation pressure on the escape flux may thus bring conditions on the size of primary atmospheres, because of a strong radiation pressure in the Sun's young years. Finally, we show that this model may be applied to exoplanets, in particular to the hot Jupiters that are also subject to additional effects: centrifugal

  5. Development of a tonometric sensor for measurement and recording of arterial pressure waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczuk, K.; Werszko, M.; Sasiadek, J. Z.; Kosek, J.; Berny, W.; Weiser, A.; Feder-Kubis, J.

    2013-09-01

    There are many techniques and devices for measurement and recording of arterial blood pressure. Some of them allow (enable) additionally to observe the shape of a wave of arterial pressure, which can be regarded as one of the most important diagnostic parameters of human cardiovascular system. This paper presents a novel design and prototype of a new, non-invasive blood waveform measuring device. It expounds theoretical and experimental (including latest preliminary clinical) results obtained during several years of extensive investigations into blood pressure waveform measuring and monitoring problem. According to investigations performed in the laboratory and preliminary clinical evaluation, the sensor has linear steady-state characteristics and satisfactory dynamic properties. It is an efficient and accurate tool for blood pressure waveform monitoring and assessing the cardiovascular condition of the patients. The novelty of this solution is that the device is equipped with a pneumatic pressure sensor based on the pneumatic nozzle flapper amplifier principle with negative feedback. Due to such a technical solution, the device does not require any cuff, which remains an essential component of the majority of contemporary non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices; therefore, it can be used on the artery where the application of a cuff would be impossible (e.g., carotid artery). This advantage makes possible to obtain an accurate shape of blood pressure waveform with high fidelity, comparable to a direct measurement method. Moreover, during the measurement the device converts directly "pressure into pressure." Such a principle of operation makes possible to eliminate additional calibration (at the current stage of research we have eliminated the necessity of calibration in laboratory conditions).

  6. Acute Effects of Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Carpio-Rivera, Elizabeth; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Salazar-Rojas, Walter; Solera-Herrera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension affects 25% of the world's population and is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and other diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the evidence regarding the acute effect of exercise on blood pressure (BP) using meta-analytic measures. Sixty-five studies were compared using effect sizes (ES), and heterogeneity and Z tests to determine whether the ES were different from zero. The mean corrected global ES for exercise conditions were -0.56 (-4.80 mmHg) for systolic BP (sBP) and -0.44 (-3.19 mmHg) for diastolic BP (dBP; z ≠ 0 for all; p < 0.05). The reduction in BP was significant regardless of the participant's initial BP level, gender, physical activity level, antihypertensive drug intake, type of BP measurement, time of day in which the BP was measured, type of exercise performed, and exercise training program (p < 0.05 for all). ANOVA tests revealed that BP reductions were greater if participants were males, not receiving antihypertensive medication, physically active, and if the exercise performed was jogging. A significant inverse correlation was found between age and BP ES, body mass index (BMI) and sBP ES, duration of the exercise's session and sBP ES, and between the number of sets performed in the resistance exercise program and sBP ES (p < 0.05). Regardless of the characteristics of the participants and exercise, there was a reduction in BP in the hours following an exercise session. However, the hypotensive effect was greater when the exercise was performed as a preventive strategy in those physically active and without antihypertensive medication. PMID:27168471

  7. Acute Effects of Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analytic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Carpio-Rivera, Elizabeth; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Salazar-Rojas, Walter; Solera-Herrera, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension affects 25% of the world's population and is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and other diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the evidence regarding the acute effect of exercise on blood pressure (BP) using meta-analytic measures. Sixty-five studies were compared using effect sizes (ES), and heterogeneity and Z tests to determine whether the ES were different from zero. The mean corrected global ES for exercise conditions were -0.56 (-4.80 mmHg) for systolic BP (sBP) and -0.44 (-3.19 mmHg) for diastolic BP (dBP; z ≠ 0 for all; p < 0.05). The reduction in BP was significant regardless of the participant's initial BP level, gender, physical activity level, antihypertensive drug intake, type of BP measurement, time of day in which the BP was measured, type of exercise performed, and exercise training program (p < 0.05 for all). ANOVA tests revealed that BP reductions were greater if participants were males, not receiving antihypertensive medication, physically active, and if the exercise performed was jogging. A significant inverse correlation was found between age and BP ES, body mass index (BMI) and sBP ES, duration of the exercise's session and sBP ES, and between the number of sets performed in the resistance exercise program and sBP ES (p < 0.05). Regardless of the characteristics of the participants and exercise, there was a reduction in BP in the hours following an exercise session. However, the hypotensive effect was greater when the exercise was performed as a preventive strategy in those physically active and without antihypertensive medication.

  8. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  9. Liquid film thickness inside the high pressure swirl injectors: Real scale measurement and evaluation of analytical equations

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik; Abo-Serie, Essam

    2010-02-15

    Liquid film thickness inside two swirl injectors for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines was measured at different injection pressure conditions ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 MPa and then previous analytical and empirical equations were examined from the experimental results. Based on the evaluation, a new equation for the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors was introduced. A direct photography using two real scale transparent nozzles and a pulsed light source was employed to measure the liquid film thickness inside the swirl injectors. The error in the liquid film thickness measurement, generated from different refractive indices among transparent nozzle, fuel and air, was estimated and corrected based on the geometric optics. Two injectors which have different nozzle diameter and nozzle length were applied to introduce a more general empirical equation for the liquid film thickness inside the pressure swirl injectors. The results showed that the liquid film thickness remains constant at the injection pressures for direct injection gasoline engines while the ratio of nozzle length to nozzle diameter (L/D) shows significant effect on the liquid film thickness. The previously introduced analytical and empirical equations for relatively low injection pressure swirl injectors overestimated the effect of injection pressure at the operating range of high pressure swirl injectors and, in addition, the effect of L/D ratio and swirler geometry was rarely considered. A new empirical equation was suggested based on the experimental results by taking into account the effects of fuel properties, nozzle diameter, nozzle length and swirler geometry. (author)

  10. Genome-wide association analyses using electronic health records identify new loci influencing blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Thomas J; Ehret, Georg B; Nandakumar, Priyanka; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Iribarren, Carlos; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Risch, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal electronic health records on 99,785 Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort individuals provided 1,342,814 systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements for a genome-wide association study on long-term average systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure. We identified 39 new loci among 75 genome-wide significant loci (P ≤ 5 × 10(-8)), with most replicating in the combined International Consortium for Blood Pressure (ICBP; n = 69,396) and UK Biobank (UKB; n = 152,081) studies. Combining GERA with ICBP yielded 36 additional new loci, with most replicating in UKB. Combining all three studies (n = 321,262) yielded 241 additional genome-wide significant loci, although no replication sample was available for these. All associated loci explained 2.9%, 2.5%, and 3.1% of variation in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, respectively, in GERA non-Hispanic whites. Using multiple blood pressure measurements in GERA doubled the variance explained. A normalized risk score was associated with time to onset of hypertension (hazards ratio = 1.18, P = 8.2 × 10(-45)). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis of blood pressure loci showed enrichment in aorta and tibial artery.

  11. Recording and analysis of transient otoacoustic emissions during outer ear canal pressure compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Moises

    Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) are sounds generated by an active process in the auditory system's cochlea. It has been widely accepted that the generation of OAEs is a precursor for healthy hearing. The measurement of evoked OAEs can be used to determine the general health of the cochlea and basilar membrane's response and sound transmission forward and backwards through the inner ear. OAEs are commonly used for newborn infant hearing screening where many middle ear pathologies are first detected. In most cases, secondary screening tests such as tympanometry are not conducted unless the patient has failed the OAE screening first. Increases in ear canal pressure have an almost identical effect on OAE recordings when compared to naturally occurring negative middle ear pressures (NMEPs) (Sun & Shaver, 2009). Thus arises the need for pressure compensated OAE screening. This study aims at reviewing the design of a self-compensating pressure system capable of generating steady meatal pressures during OAE subject screening. Facets of system design including patient safety, software interaction, and initial test results will be presented. We will also present the results of a volunteer study which collected the TEOAE and meatal responses of 20 individual ears during multiple pressure criteria. Testing and analysis of signals in both the time and frequency domains will be reviewed.

  12. Analytical investigation of microwave resonances of a curling probe for low and high-pressure plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) has attracted greater interest in recent years as an established plasma diagnostic technique. The APRS describes a class of related methods utilizing the intrinsic ability of plasma to resonate at or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} . The Curling probe (CP) as a novel realization of the APRS idea, is a miniaturized spiral slot embedded flatly in the chamber wall. Consequently, a plasma diagnostic technique with minimum disturbance and without metal contamination can be developed. To measure the plasma parameters the CP is fed with a weak frequency-swept signal from the exterior of the plasma chamber by a network analyzer which also records the response of the plasma versus the frequency. The resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the electron density and the gas pressure. The CP has also the advantage of resonating at a frequency greater than {ω\\text{pe}} which is dependent on the spiral’s length. The double resonance characteristic gives the CP the ability to be applied in varying plasma regimes. Assuming that the spiralization does not have a considerable effect on the resonances, a ‘straightened’ infinite length CP has recently been investigated (Arshadi and Brinkmann 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 045014) to obtain the surface wave resonances. This work generalizes the approach and models the CP by a rectangular slot-type resonator located between plasma and quartz. Cold plasma theory and Maxwell’s equations are utilized to compute the electromagnetic fields propagating into the plasma by the diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot. A mathematical model is employed and both kinds of resonances are derived. The analytical study of this paper shows good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  13. Analytical approach to transforming filter design for sound field recording and reproduction using circular arrays with a spherical baffle.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shoichi; Furuya, Ken'ichi; Wakayama, Keigo; Shimauchi, Suehiro; Saruwatari, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A sound field recording and reproduction method using circular arrays of microphones and loudspeakers with a spherical baffle is proposed. The spherical baffle is an acoustically rigid object on which the microphone array is mounted. The driving signals of the loudspeakers must be obtained from the signals received by the microphones. A transform filter for this signal conversion is analytically derived, which is referred to as the wave field reconstruction filter. The proposed method using a spherical baffle is compared with methods using an array of directional microphones and a microphone array mounted on a cylindrical baffle. Numerical simulations indicated that the proposed method is advantageous for sound field recording and reproduction compared with the other two methods. The results of measurement experiments in a real environment are also demonstrated.

  14. Harmonic oscillator in heat bath: exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data and exact analytical benchmark statistics.

    PubMed

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time-lapse recordings. Three applications are discussed: (i) The effects of finite sampling rate and time, described exactly here, are similar for other stochastic dynamical systems--e.g., motile microorganisms and their time-lapse-recorded trajectories. (ii) The same statistics is satisfied by any experimental system to the extent that it is interpreted as a damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature-such as an AFM cantilever. (iii) Three other models of fundamental interest are limiting cases of the damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature; it consequently bridges their differences and describes the effects of finite sampling rate and sampling time for these models as well. ©2011 American Physical Society

  15. Dynamic changes in right ventricular pressures during haemodialysis recorded with an implantable haemodynamic monitor.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Frieder; Kjellström, Barbro; Söderhäll, Mats; Clyne, Naomi; Linde, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Intermittent and chronic volume overload contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD). Continuous monitoring of central haemodynamic parameters may provide valuable information to improve volume control, particularly in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Five patients on HD, age 53-76 years, with systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction (EF 20-50%) received an implantable haemodynamic monitor (IHM) (Chronicle model 9520, Medtronic). The IHM consists of a memory device implanted subcutaneously and a transveneous right ventricular (RV) lead carrying a pressure sensor. It continuously records heart rate, RV systolic (RVSP) and diastolic pressures (RVDP), RV dP/dt and an estimate of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (ePAD). Continuous haemodynamic profiles were recorded in all patients. During dialysis RVSP and ePAD dropped by a mean of 39 and 50%, respectively. RVDP decreased by 6.6 mmHg. The lowest pressures occurred during the first 90 min of dialysis and were partly restored at the end of the procedure. Long-term haemodynamic monitoring unmasked severe volume overload in one patient, when dry weight was kept stable despite a decrease in lean body mass. In another patient with recurrent dyspnea after dialysis, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, regularly occurring during dialysis, was identified as the cause of symptoms. The implanted haemodynamic monitor was a sensitive indicator for changes in volume load. Continuous haemodynamic monitoring may offer a valuable tool to improve volume management in dialysis patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

  16. An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays

    PubMed Central

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cappetta, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern selachians and their supposed sister group (hybodont sharks) have a long and successful evolutionary history. Yet, although selachian remains are considered relatively common in the fossil record in comparison with other marine vertebrates, little is known about the quality of their fossil record. Similarly, only a few works based on specific time intervals have attempted to identify major events that marked the evolutionary history of this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic hypotheses concerning modern selachians’ interrelationships are numerous but differ significantly and no consensus has been found. The aim of the present study is to take advantage of the range of recent phylogenetic hypotheses in order to assess the fit of the selachian fossil record to phylogenies, according to two different branching methods. Compilation of these data allowed the inference of an estimated range of diversity through time and evolutionary events that marked this group over the past 300 Ma are identified. Results indicate that with the exception of high taxonomic ranks (orders), the selachian fossil record is by far imperfect, particularly for generic and post-Triassic data. Timing and amplitude of the various identified events that marked the selachian evolutionary history are discussed. Conclusion/Significance Some identified diversity events were mentioned in previous works using alternative methods (Early Jurassic, mid-Cretaceous, K/T boundary and late Paleogene diversity drops), thus reinforcing the efficiency of the methodology presented here in inferring evolutionary events. Other events (Permian/Triassic, Early and Late Cretaceous diversifications; Triassic/Jurassic extinction) are newly identified. Relationships between these events and paleoenvironmental characteristics and other groups’ evolutionary history are proposed. PMID:22957091

  17. A study of ureteric peristalsis using a single catheter to record EMG, impedance, and pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Roshani, H; Dabhoiwala, N F; Tee, S; Dijkhuis, T; Kurth, K H; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; de Jong, J M; Lamers, W H

    1999-03-01

    Ureteric peristalsis transports a urinary bolus from the renal pelvis to the bladder. We developed an intraluminal catheter with a pressure transducer on it to study intraluminal pressure changes and a twin bipolar electrode to record the ureteric EMG and impedance (Z) changes during a peristaltic wave. Five female New Yorkshire pigs (50-60 kg) were studied under light halothane anesthesia (5% at induction/1% for maintenance). A steady state of hydration was maintained using intravenous saline infusion. EMG spike burst activity was studied at a 10-cm interval using low (0-30) Hz filters. Impedance between the same electrodes is measured simultaneously in higher frequencies (1-5 KHz) as a function of ureteric motor activity. Pressure generation in the ureteric lumen was also measured simultaneously by a transducer on the same catheter. A digital signal processing program (Poly 4.9) was used for analysis. Parenteral furosemide was used to induce diuresis. Resting ureteric impedance (Z(R)) decreases to Z(B) (Z bolus) during the passage of the urinary bolus. Passage of a contractile zone during a peristaltic wave increases impedance from Z(B) to its Z(R) level and initiates a pressure rise. Bolus length (the length Z(B)) is not constant and decreases distally. EMG corresponds well in time to impedance. Z(R) disappears after infusion of furosemide because of increased urine load and changes of intraluminal ionic environment. The contractile segment of a ureteric peristaltic wave appears to be represented by an elevated Z segment (Z(C)). Pressure rise is recorded only at the beginning of a contractile zone. A specially adapted intraluminal catheter can be used to study peristalsis in the upper urinary tract. One can study all the three components of ureteric peristalsis (excitation, contraction, and intraluminal pressure rise) using such a catheter.

  18. The Effects of Rilmenidine and Perindopril on Arousal Blood Pressure during 24 Hour Recordings in SHR

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungjoon; Jackson, Kristy L.; Burke, Sandra L.; Head, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The surge in arterial pressure during arousal in the waking period is thought to be largely due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In this study we compared in SHR the effects of chronic administration of the centrally acting sympatholytic agent rilmenidine with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on the rate of rise and power of the surge in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that occurs with arousal associated with the onset of night. Recordings were made using radiotelemetry in 17 adult SHR before and after treatment with rilmenidine (2mg/kg/day), perindopril (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Rilmenidine reduced MAP by 7.2 ± 1.7mmHg while perindopril reduced MAP by 19 ± 3mmHg. Double logistic curve fit analysis showed that the rate and power of increase in systolic pressure during the transition from light to dark was reduced by 50% and 65%, respectively, but had no effect on diastolic pressure. Rilmenidine also reduced blood pressure variability in the autonomic frequency in the active period as assessed by spectral analysis which is consistent with reduction in sympathetic nervous system activity. Perindopril had no effect on the rate or power of the arousal surge in either systolic or diastolic pressure. These results suggest that the arousal induced surge in blood pressure can largely be reduced by an antihypertensive agent that inhibits the sympathetic nervous system and that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, while effective in reducing blood pressure, does not alter the rate or power of the surge associated with arousal. PMID:28002478

  19. Aquifer Response to Record Low Barometric Pressures in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    A late-winter cyclone classified as one of the most intense of the 20th century moved across the Southeastern states of Georgia and South Carolina and onto the Northeast during March 12-14, 1993. Record low barometric pressures were recorded in Augusta, Georgia (28.93 inches of mercury) and Columbia, South Carolina (28.63 inches of mercury) on March 13,1993, and pressures returned to normal values (near 3D inches of mercury) within one day following these record lows. This relatively unusual event provided an opportunity to examine the attendant water-level response in continuously monitored ground-water wells in regional Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge aquifers in the Southeast. Water levels in all wells examined responded inversely to the short duration, extreme drop in barometric pressure. Barometric efficiencies (??ground-water level/??barometric-pressure level) calculated were dependent on depth to screened- or open-interval midpoint (highest correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.89) and, to a lesser extent, total thickness of confining material above the aquifer tapped (highest r2 = 0.65). Wells in crystalline-rock aquifers had a correlation with depth to open-interval midpoint (r2 = 0.89) similar to the sedimentary aquifers examined. The magnitude of barometric efficiency was also strongly related to a well's increased distance from aquifer outcrop areas in the Cretaceous aquifers in South Carolina (r2 = 0.95) and the upper Brunswick aquifer in Georgia (r2 = 0.90), because these aquifers are more deeply buried toward the coast. This relation between barometric efficiency, well depth, and extent of confinement suggests that barometric efficiency determinations can provide useful information to hydrologists concerned with examining an aquifer's degree of confinement and corresponding isolation from land surface, particularly when the aquifer is used as a source for public supply.

  20. A computer-based method for comparisons of continuous intracranial pressure recordings within individual cases.

    PubMed

    Eide, P K; Fremming, A D

    2003-05-01

    This study assessed two strategies of comparing continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings within individual cases, namely either by calculation of differences in mean ICP or by calculation of differences in numbers of ICP elevations. Continuous ICP recordings before and after cranial surgery were both presented as mean ICP and as numbers of ICP elevations of different levels (20 and 25 mmHg lasting either 0.5 or 1 minute). Since the length of pressure recordings differed somewhat between individuals, the numbers of ICP elevations were standardised by computing the numbers of elevations during a 10 hours period. The ICP recordings were analysed by the Sensometrics Pressure Analyser software. The ICP curves included here were selected from a group of 15 children undergoing calvarial expansion surgery for craniosynostosis, in whom continuous ICP monitoring was performed both before and after surgery as part of the diagnostic workout to rule out lasting intracranial hypertension. After surgery, mean ICP during sleep was reduced by 5 mmHg or more in 5 cases, minimally changed (i.e. 2 mmHg or less) in 6 cases, and variably increased in the other 4 cases. In one of these 4 latter cases, numbers of ICP elevations were increased after surgery, but in all other 14 cases the numbers of ICP elevations were significantly reduced. Reduction of mean ICP by more than 2 mmHg associated with good outcome was observed in 3 of 15 cases (20%), whereas marked and significant reductions in numbers of ICP elevations during sleep combined with good outcome was observed in 12 of 15 cases (80%). Outcome after the 2nd ICP monitoring was more reliably predicted by computing differences in numbers of ICP elevations than by calculation of mean ICP.

  1. Optimization of the Pressurized Logistics Module - A Space Station Freedom analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallan, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis for determining the optimum cylindrical length of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Pressurized Logistics Module, whose task is to transport the SSF pressurized cargo via the NSTS Shuttle Orbiter, is described. The major factors considered include the NSTS net launch lift capability, the pressurized cargo requirements, and the mass properties of the module structures, mechanisms, and subsystems.

  2. Effect Of The Radiation Pressure On Planetary Exospheres: Analytical Approach And Application To Earth, Mars and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I. S.; Mazelle, C. X.

    2015-12-01

    The atomic Hydrogen is one of the most abundant species in many planetary exospheres, such as on Earth, on planets in the Solar System and on Hot Jupiters. Because the exosphere is a quasi-collisionless medium, the atomic Hydrogen can reach several planetary radii without collisions and its motion is only determined by external forces such as the gravity and the radiation pressure. However, the exosphere still remains a complex medium : 1) to model because, on one hand, this is a region of interaction between the interplanetary medium and the planetary atmosphere and, on another hand, the fluid approach is not appropriate and a kinetic should be used instead, 2) to observe because of the extremely low densities. Currently, the most used analytical model to determine the neutral density profiles is the well-known Chamberlain's one, which however includes only the gravity. We have developed an analytical model based on the previous work by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) with a Hamiltonian approach, taking into account both the gravity and the radiation pressure. We extend their previous 1D model (density profiles on the Sun-planet axis only) into a 2D model depending on the distance from the planet and the zenith angle to derive density profiles (Beth et al. 2015b, in review). Moreover, we derived an analytical formula for the thermal escape to compare with the classical Jeans' escape flux. We thus show that the radiation pressure induces : Strong density asymmetries at high altitudes in the planetary exospheres, leading to the phenomenon of "geotail" at Earth, Natural existence of an external limit (or exopause) for the exosphere, whose location is analytically determined, Increase of the exospheric densities compared with Chamberlain profiles without radiation pressure (e.g. up to +150% at 5 Martian radius), Significant increase of the thermal escape flux (up to 30/35% for Earth/Mars today), until a "blow-off" regime with a constant escape flux for an extreme

  3. Discriminating exhumation models of ultra-high-pressure rocks in the Western Alps by structural record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefam; Pleuger, Jan; Epard, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    Despite extensive research, the dynamics of tectonic nappes exhibiting high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks [(U)HP] is still debated. We classify existing models for nappe formation into two types, and refer to them as the thrust and intrusion models. Classical thrust models approximate the orogen as a wedge with a rigid buttress behind and a subducting lithospheric slab beneath. The dominant process of nappe formation is thrusting (brittle and/or ductile) that generates a dominant top-to-the-foreland sense of shear. Thrust models can explain the imbricate nappe stacking and first-order structural observations in the Western Alps. However, in the last decades (U)HP rocks were found in nappes, and it is usually assumed that metamorphic pressure is a good indicator of maximum burial. In intrusion models, (U)HP rocks are subducted to mantle depths (>100 km) and return to crustal depths by buoyancy-driven or tectonically-forced flow. Intrusion models could reproduce the first-order patterns of P-T-t paths of the Western Alps. Nappe formation at such mantle depths cannot be explained by the thrust model; nappe intrusion from large depths into shallower areas seems more appropriate. This argument against thrust models, however, is solely based on the assumption that metamorphic pressure indicates maximum burial (assuming lithostatic pressure). This very assumption is the only argument in favour of the intrusion models. If, however, significant and positive deviations from lithostatic pressure existed during nappe formation, then (U)HP rocks would have been formed at significantly shallower depth, and thrust models could be applicable to the Western Alps reconciling both structural and P-T-t records. Discrimination between the two nappe-forming models can better be achieved by examining the absence of a particular structural record and not by evaluating the existing structural and P-T-t records. A fundamental kinematic (rheology and driving force independent) feature of the

  4. Utilizing distributional analytics and electronic records to assess timeliness of inpatient blood glucose monitoring in non-critical care wards.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Kao, Shih Ling; Tai, E-Shyong; Wee, Hwee Lin; Khoo, Eric Yin Hao; Ning, Yilin; Salloway, Mark Kevin; Deng, Xiaodong; Tan, Chuen Seng

    2016-04-08

    Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG) levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a measurement of quality of care are lacking. We propose an analytical approach that utilizes BG measurements from electronic records to assess adherence to an inpatient BG monitoring protocol in hospital wards. We applied our proposed analytical approach to electronic records obtained from 24 non-critical care wards in November and December 2013 from a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. We applied distributional analytics to evaluate daily adherence to BG monitoring timings. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (1S-KS) test was performed to test daily BG timings against non-adherence represented by the uniform distribution. This test was performed among wards with high power, determined through simulation. The 1S-KS test was coupled with visualization via the cumulative distribution function (cdf) plot and a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (2S-KS) test, enabling comparison of the BG timing distributions between two consecutive days. We also applied mixture modelling to identify the key features in daily BG timings. We found that 11 out of the 24 wards had high power. Among these wards, 1S-KS test with cdf plots indicated adherence to BG monitoring protocols. Integrating both 1S-KS and 2S-KS information within a moving window consisting of two consecutive days did not suggest frequent potential change from or towards non-adherence to protocol. From mixture modelling among wards with high power, we consistently identified four components with high concentration of BG measurements taken before mealtimes and around bedtime. This agnostic analysis provided additional evidence that the wards were adherent to BG monitoring protocols. We demonstrated the utility of our proposed analytical approach as a monitoring tool. It provided information to healthcare providers regarding

  5. REE Zoning in Garnet as a Record of Pressure Changes During Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, E. D.; Carlson, W. D.

    2003-12-01

    Radial variations in the concentrations of rare-earth elements (REE) in garnets from metamorphic rocks of the Llano Uplift of central Texas display systematic patterns that indicate that the REE may be sensitive recorders of changes in pressure during growth. LA-ICP-MS analysis of REE concentrations was performed at interior and rim positions of centered sections through garnets from garnet-clinopyroxenites at Whitt Ranch (WR) and from garnet-clinopyroxenites (PHM) and pelitic gneisses (PHP) at Purdy Hill. REE-abundance curves are flatter for PHM garnets than for WR garnets. Curves for WR garnets flatten towards rims; curves for PHM garnets steepen towards rims; and curves for PHP garnets first steepen in HREE toward rims, and then flatten, with negative slopes in HREE for some rim analyses. WR garnets contain negative Eu anomalies in interiors that disappear towards rims; PHM garnets contain small positive Eu anomalies throughout; and PHP garnets contain small negative Eu anomalies in both interiors and rims. Garnet-inclusion suites document that PH garnets formed at higher pressures than WR garnets, which suggests that flatter REE-abundance curves reflect higher pressures, corroborating the observations of Bea et al. (1997, Geostds Newsltr 21:253). Flattening of curves from interiors to rims suggests that WR garnets grew as pressure increased, which is supported by the distribution of inclusions in garnet: interiors contain plagioclase inclusions but rims do not, accounting for the rimward loss of negative Eu anomalies. Conversely, steepening of curves in PHM garnets may imply that they grew during decompression, although positive Eu anomalies suggest breakdown of plagioclase during garnet growth. Relative depletion of HREE in the rims of PHP garnets may record the growth of xenotime. Application of the Gd/Dy-in-garnet barometer of Bea et al. to PHP samples yielded pressures of 0.4-0.5 GPa, inconsistent with their eclogite-facies origin and with prior grt

  6. Water surface elevations recorded by submerged pressure transducers along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, Spring, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Greg D.; Wellman, Roy E.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2017-01-01

    Water-surface elevations were recorded by submerged pressure transducers in Spring, 2015 along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, between Eugene and Corvallis. The water-surface elevations were surveyed by using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) at each pressure sensor location. These water-surface elevations were logged over a small range of discharges, from 4,600 cubic feet per second to 10,800 cubic feet per second at Harrisburg, OR. These datasets were collected for equipment calibration and validation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. This is one of multiple datasets that will be released for this effort.

  7. Analytical comparison of circular diaphragm based simple, single and double touch mode - MEMS capacitive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Sumit Kumar; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a comparative study is done between normal capacitive pressure sensor, a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor and a double touch mode capacitive pressure sensor. The diaphragm in use is of circular shape. The theory and underlying equations has been described for the said devices and then simulations have been done for different performance parameters to understand the advantage of one over the other.

  8. Pressure data for four analytically defined arrow wings in supersonic flow. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide experimental data for comparison with newly developed finite difference methods for computing supersonic flows over aircraft configurations, wind tunnel tests were conducted on four arrow wing models. The models were machined under numeric control to precisely duplicate analytically defined shapes. They were heavily instrumented with pressure orifices at several cross sections ahead of and in the region where there is a gap between the body and the wing trailing edge. The test Mach numbers were 2.36, 2.96, and 4.63. Tabulated pressure data for the complete test series are presented along with selected oil flow photographs. Comparisons of some preliminary numerical results at zero angle of attack show good to excellent agreement with the experimental pressure distributions.

  9. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  10. Tsunami data assimilation of Cascadia seafloor pressure gauge records from the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Sheehan, Anne F.; Satake, Kenji; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mulia, Iyan Eka; Maeda, Takuto

    2016-05-01

    We use tsunami waveforms recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges offshore Oregon and California from the 2012 Haida Gwaii, Canada, earthquake to simulate the performance of two different real-time tsunami-forecasting methods. In the first method, the tsunami source is first estimated by inversion of recorded tsunami waveforms. In the second method, the array data are assimilated to reproduce tsunami wavefields. These estimates can be used for forecasting tsunami on the coast. The dense seafloor array provides critical data for both methods to produce timeliness (>30 min lead time) and accuracy in both timing and amplitude (>94% confidence) tsunami forecasts. Real-time tsunami data on dense arrays and data assimilation can be tested as a possible new generation tsunami warning system.

  11. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  12. Evaluation of a fiber-optic technique for recording intramuscular pressure in the human leg.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Andreas; Zhang, Qiuxia; Styf, Jorma

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate a forward-sensing fiber-optic pressure technique for recording of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in the human leg and investigate factors that may influence IMP measurements used in diagnosing compartment syndromes. IMP in the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded simultaneously by a fiber-optic technique and needle-injection technique in 12 legs of 7 healthy subjects. Both measurement catheters were placed in parallel with the muscle fibers to the same depth, as verified by sonography. IMP recordings were performed at rest before, during and after applying a model of abnormally elevated IMP (simulated compartment syndrome). IMP was elevated by venous obstruction induced by a thigh tourniquet of a casted leg. IMP was also measured during injections of 0.1 ml of saline into the muscle through the catheters. IMP at baseline was 5.1 (SD = 2.6) mmHg measured with the fiber-optic technique and 7.1 (SD = 2.5) mmHg with the needle-injection technique (p < 0.001). It increased to 48.5 (SD = 6.9) mmHg and 47.6 (SD = 6.6) mmHg respectively, during simulated compartment syndrome. IMP increased significantly following injection of 0.1 ml of saline, measured by both techniques. It remained increased 1 min after injection. The fiber-optic technique was able to record pulse-synchronous IMP oscillations. The fiber-optic technique may be used for IMP measurements in a muscle with both normal and abnormally elevated IMP. It has good dynamic properties allowing for measurement of IMP oscillations. Saline injection used with needle-injection systems to ensure catheter patency compromises IMP readings at least one minute after injection.

  13. Tephrostratigraphic record from the Northern Ionian Sea and geochemical analytic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, B.; Siani, G.; Sanatcroce, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Paterne, M.; Villemant, B.

    2012-12-01

    condition in the Ionian Sea and can be used for land-sea correlations for this important climatic event. More in general, these data allow a significant update of the knowledge of the volcanic ash dispersal from Lipari and Somma-Vesuvius volcanoes. Caron et al., 2012, Late Pleistocene to Holocene tephrostratigraphic record from the Northern Ionian Sea. Marine Geology, 311-314; 41-51

  14. The influence of magma degassing on entrapment pressures recorded in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide estimates for the pressures at which they were entrapped, and represent an important source of information on the depths at which basaltic magmas crystallize [1]. Results from recent dehydration experiments demonstrate that diffusive loss of H2O from melt inclusions, driven by degassing of the external magma, leads to significant decreases to pressure within the inclusion [2, 3]. This, in turn, lowers the solubility of CO2 in the included melt causing a vapor to exsolve and form a bubble. This process has the potential to significantly modify estimates of entrapment pressures derived from volatile concentrations in olivine hosted melt inclusions. I have developed a quantitative model that describes this process, allowing the influence of degassing on entrapment pressures to be rigorously evaluated. Diffusive loss of H2O from the inclusions was determined using the model of [3]. An equation of state (EOS) for the silicate melt was taken from the results of [4] and [5], while the EOS for H2O-CO2 vapor was taken from [6]. The solubilities of H2O and CO2 in the silicate melt were derived from VolatileCalc [7]. Modeling results demonstrate that degassing of H2O-rich magma produces significant pressure drops, so that entrapment pressures never exceed crustal values and always represent a minimum. Conversely, degassing of H2O-poor magma does not significantly perturb the H2O content of olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Therefore, these inclusions preserve reliable records of the pressures at which they were entrapped. These results are consistent with a global compilation of olivine-hosted melt inclusion entrapment pressures presented by [3]. References: [1] Wanless, VD, and Shaw, AM, Nature Geosci, 5, 651-655 (2012); [2] Gaetani, GA, et al., Geology, 40, 915-918 (2012); [3] Bucholz, CE, et al., Earth Planet Sci Lett, 374, 145-155 (2013); [4] Lange, R. A., and Carmichael, ISE, Geochim Cosmochim Acta

  15. Pressure tide gauge records from the Atlantic shelf off Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Mendoza, Luciano; Perdomo, Raúl; Hormaechea, José Luis; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Based on pressure tide gauge observations at three sites off the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego main island, time series spanning one to seven months of bottom pressure and sea-level variations are derived and analysed to reveal the major driving mechanisms. Ocean tides account for 99.5% of the total energy of the sea-level variations. The amplitudes and phases of a comprehensive set of tidal constituents resulting from a harmonic tidal analysis are presented. Exceptionally large shallow-water tides are identified. The second largest contribution is due to the local inverse barometer model accounting for up to 65% of the variance of the tide residual sea-level variations. Close to the shore a significant topographic modulation of the sea-level variations is revealed. The in situ observations are compared with six recent global ocean tide models, official tide tables, and sea-surface heights derived from satellite altimetry data. The amplitudes and phases predicted by the ocean tide models for the semidiurnal and diurnal constituents agree with those derived from our tide gauge records on average within 2 cm and 5°, respectively. In the time domain the tidal signal represented by the models deviates typically by a few decimetres from that extracted from our records. Absolute altimeter biases were determined for the Jason-2, Jason-1 extended mission, and Envisat satellite altimeters. Relative sea-level variations are represented by the altimetry data with an accuracy of the order of 5 cm.

  16. Digitized pressure-time records, selected nuclear events. Technical report, 1 September 1982-1 April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    McMullan, F.W.; Bryant, E.J.

    1986-04-30

    Pressure-time records are presented for selected atmospheric nuclear events. The records were extracted from published test reports, digitized, and given uniform pressure-time scales for a given event and a given range to permit easier comparison. Data include p-t, q-t, p(tot)-t, Mach No-t, and Impulse-t as appropriate. Selected data were scaled to 1 kT.

  17. A new method and software for quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Eide, P K; Fremming, A D

    2001-12-01

    A computer software utilising a new method for quantitative analysis of intracranial pressure (ICP), was developed to provide a more accurate analysis of continuously recorded ICP. Intracranial pressure curves were analysed by the software to explore the relationship between mean ICP and the presence of ICP elevations. The Sensometrics Pressure Analyser (version 1.2) software provides a quantitative analysis of the ICP curve, presenting the ICP recordings as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations of different levels (e.g. 20 or 30 or 40 mmHg) and durations (e.g. 0.5, 5 or 10 minutes). The number of ICP elevations may be standardised by calculating the number of elevations during for instance a 10 hour period. The computer software was used to retrospectively analyse the ICP curves in our first consecutive 127 patients undergoing continuous 24 hours ICP monitoring during the two-year period from February 1997 to December 1998. The indications for ICP monitoring were suspected hydrocephalus, craniosynostosis or shunt failure. Analysis of the ICP curves revealed a rather weak relationship between mean ICP and the number of apparently abnormal ICP elevations (that is elevations of 20 mmHg or above). Abnormal ICP elevations were present in a relatively high proportion of cases with a normal mean ICP below 10 mmHg, or a borderline mean ICP between 10 and 15 mmHg. In addition, the ICP data of two cases are presented suggesting that mean ICP may be an inaccurate measure of ICP. The results of analysing ICP curves by means of this method and software reveal that calculation of ICP elevations of different levels and durations may represent a more accurate description of the ICP curve than calculation of mean ICP. The method may enhance the clinical application of ICP monitoring.

  18. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10-100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa-1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas.

  19. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10–100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa−1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas. PMID:25721159

  20. [Evaluation of a delayed-action beta blocker by 24-hour ambulatory recording of the arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Campanini, C; Adamec, R; Barthélémy, J C; Mérier, G

    1984-01-07

    Twelve students aged 21 to 39 years (mean age 26) with borderline hypertension underwent three 24 hours ambulatory recordings of blood pressure using an Avionics Pressurometer II device: the first recording under basic conditions, the second after taking placebo and the third after being treated for 3 days with a betablocker of long acting effect (oxprenolol R 160 mg) in a randomized study. The blood pressure mean profile showed a double peak during daily activity with a progressive lowering of the blood pressure during sleep. The effect on the blood pressure of long acting oxprenolol begins four hours later, remains for about ten hours and may be still present next day. The shape of the circadian blood pressure profile is not modified. No significant difference between the pressure profiles on the basic conditions and placebo is noticed.

  1. Data-infilling in daily mean river flow records: first results using a visual analytics tool (gapIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, Laura; Parisot, Olivier; Ghoniem, Mohammad; Trebs, Ivonne; Médoc, Nicolas; Faber, Olivier; Hostache, Renaud; Matgen, Patrick; Otjacques, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Missing data in river flow records represent a loss of information and a serious drawback in water management. An incomplete time series prevents the computation of hydrological statistics and indicators. Also, records with data gaps are not suitable as input or validation data for hydrological or hydrodynamic modelling. In this work we present a visual analytics tool (gapIT), which supports experts to find the most adequate data-infilling technique for daily mean river flow records. The tool performs an automated calculation of river flow estimates using different data-infilling techniques. Donor station(s) are automatically selected based on Dynamic Time Warping, geographical proximity and upstream/downstream relationships. For each gap the tool computes several flow estimates through various data-infilling techniques, including interpolation, multiple regression, regression trees and neural networks. The visual application provides the possibility for the user to select different donor station(s) w.r.t. those automatically selected. The gapIT software was applied to 24 daily time series of river discharge recorded in Luxembourg over the period 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2013. The method was validated by randomly creating artificial gaps of different lengths and positions along the entire records. Using the RMSE and the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient as performance measures, the method is evaluated based on a comparison with the actual measured discharge values. The application of the gapIT software to artificial gaps led to satisfactory results in terms of performance indicators (NS>0.8 for more than half of the artificial gaps). A case-by-case analysis revealed that the limited number of reconstructed record gaps characterized by a high RMSE values (NS>0.8) were caused by the temporary unavailability of the most appropriate donor station. On the other hand, some of the gaps characterized by a high accuracy of the reconstructed record were filled by using the data from

  2. Scoring polysomnography respiratory events: the utility of nasal pressure and oro-nasal thermal sensor recordings.

    PubMed

    Teichtahl, Harry; Cunnington, David; Cherry, Gaye; Wang, David

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of nasal cannula/pressure (NP) and oro-nasal thermal sensor (Th) recordings, alone and in combination for scoring respiratory events during routine diagnostic polysomnography (PSG). The use of Th devices to measure airflow during PSG is not recommended because Th are insensitive to airflow changes other then complete airflow cessation. It has been suggested that NP recording is a better measure of airflow and can also detect increased upper airway resistance during PSG. Thirty consecutive PSG's were examined using 13 standard channels including Th and NP recordings. Respiratory events were scored separately utilizing NP+Th, Th alone and NP alone in a blinded fashion using modified AASM criteria. Respiratory events were time matched to within 5 s for each of the recording methods. NP+Th detected more events than Th alone (P<0.0001); NP+Th detected more events than NP alone (P<0.0001) and NP alone detected more events than Th alone (P<0.0001). For AHI >50, NP alone and Th alone each detected 90% of matched NP+Th events. However, for AHI <50, NP alone detects 54% and Th alone detects 42% (P<0.005) of matched NP+Th events. For AHI >50, NP alone scored 97% of matched Th alone scored respiratory events, and Th alone scored 94% of NP alone scored respiratory events (P>0.05). However, for AHI<50, NP alone scored 90% of matched Th alone scored respiratory events, whereas Th alone scored 62% of matched NP alone scored events (P<0.0001). In severe sleep disordered breathing (AHI >50), NP+Th, NP alone and Th alone have similar ability to detect respiratory events. When AHI <50, NP+Th appears better for detecting respiratory events than NP or Th alone. If only one measure of airflow is used, NP detects more events than Th.

  3. Analytical solution of combined electroosmotic/pressure driven flows in two-dimensional straight channels: finite Debye layer effects.

    PubMed

    Dutta, P; Beskok, A

    2001-05-01

    Analytical results for the velocity distribution, mass flow rate, pressure gradient, wall shear stress, and vorticity in mixed electroosmotic/pressure driven flows are presented for two-dimensional straight channel geometry. We particularly analyze the electric double-layer (EDL) region near the walls and define three new concepts based on the electroosmotic potential distribution. These are the effective EDL thickness, the EDL displacement thickness, and the EDL vorticity thickness. We show that imposing Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity at the edge of the EDL as the velocity matching condition between the EDL and the bulk flow region is incomplete under spatial bulk flow variations across the finite EDL. However, the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity can be used as the appropriate slip velocity on the wall. We discuss the limitations of this approach in satisfying the global conservation laws.

  4. Blood pressure control in hypertensive patients within Family Health Program versus at Primary Healthcare Units: analytical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martins, Telma Lima; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem due to its high prevalence and long-term cardiovascular complications. In Brazil in 2005, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 28% of all deaths. Efforts are being made within primary care to achieve adequate hypertension control. The Family Health Program (FHP) has the aims of promoting quality of life and intervening in factors that put this at risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of blood pressure control among patients followed up at FHP units compared with those at primary healthcare units (PHUs). Analytical cross-sectional study in the municipality of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, from January to December 2005. Five hundred patients with a diagnosis of hypertension were included: 250 were being followed up at two FHP units and 250 at two PHUs. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on the Fourth Brazilian Hypertension Consensus, and the patients needed to have been under follow-up at the units for at least 12 months. Patients' blood pressure was considered to be under control if it was less than 140/90 mmHg at the last consultation. Blood pressure was under control in 29.2% (n = 73) at FHP units and 39.23% (n = 98) at PHUs (odds ratio = 0.64; confidence interval = 0.44-0.93; P = 0.024). Blood pressure control was better among patients followed up at PHUs than among those followed up at FHP units.

  5. Analytical considerations and dimensionless analysis for a description of particle interactions in high pressure processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    High pressures of up to several hundreds of MPa are utilized in a wide range of applications in chemical, bio-, and food engineering, aiming at selective control of (bio-)chemical reactions. Non-uniformity of process conditions may threaten the safety and quality of the resulting products because processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and treatment history are crucial for the course of (bio-)chemical reactions. Therefore, thermofluid-dynamical phenomena during the high pressure process have to be examined, and numerical tools to predict process uniformity and to optimize the processes have to be developed. Recently applied mathematical models and numerical simulations of laboratory and industrial scale high pressure processes investigating the mentioned crucial phenomena are based on continuum balancing models of thermofluid dynamics. Nevertheless, biological systems are complex fluids containing the relevant (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms). These compounds are particles that interact with the surrounding medium and between each other. This contribution deals with thermofluid-dynamical interactions of the relevant particulate (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms) with the surrounding fluid. By consideration of characteristic time and length scales and particle forces, the motion of the (bio-)chemical compounds is characterized.

  6. Synthesizing ocean bottom pressure records including seismic wave and tsunami contributions: Toward realistic tests of monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tatsuhiko; Tsushima, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The present study proposes a method for synthesizing the ocean bottom pressure records during a tsunamigenic earthquake. First, a linear seismic wave simulation is conducted with a kinematic earthquake fault model as a source. Then, a nonlinear tsunami simulation is conducted using the sea bottom movement calculated in the seismic wave simulation. By using these simulation results, this method can provide realistic ocean bottom pressure change data, including both seismic and tsunami contributions. A simple theoretical consideration indicates that the dynamic pressure change caused by the sea bottom acceleration can contribute significantly until the duration of 90 s for a depth of 4000 m in the ocean. The performance of a tsunami monitoring system was investigated using the synthesized ocean bottom pressure records. It indicates that the system based on the hydrostatic approximation could not measure the actual tsunami height when the time does not elapse enough. The dynamic pressure change and the permanent sea bottom deformation inside the source region break the condition of a simple hydrostatic approximation. A tsunami source estimation method of tFISH is also examined. Even though the synthesized records contain a large dynamic pressure change, which is not considered in the algorithm, tFISH showed a satisfactory performance 5 min after the earthquake occurrence. The pressure records synthesized in this study, including both seismic wave and tsunami contributions, are more practical for evaluating the performance of our monitoring ability, whereas most tsunami monitoring tests neglect the seismic wave contribution.

  7. On the effects of clouds and hazes in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters: semi-analytical temperature-pressure profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin; Hayek, Wolfgang; Pont, Frédéric; Sing, David K.

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by the work of Guillot, we present a semi-analytical formalism for calculating the temperature-pressure profiles in hot Jovian atmospheres which includes the effects of clouds/hazes and collision-induced absorption. Using the dual-band approximation, we assume that stellar irradiation and thermal emission from the hot Jupiter occur at distinct wavelengths ('shortwave' versus 'longwave'). For a purely absorbing cloud/haze, we demonstrate its dual effect of cooling and warming the upper and lower atmosphere, respectively, which modifies, in a non-trivial manner, the condition for whether a temperature inversion is present in the upper atmosphere. The warming effect becomes more pronounced as the cloud/haze deck resides at greater depths. If it sits below the shortwave photosphere, the warming effect becomes either more subdued or ceases altogether. If shortwave scattering is present, its dual effect is to warm and cool the upper and lower atmospheres, respectively, thus counteracting the effects of enhanced longwave absorption by the cloud/haze. We make a tentative comparison of a four-parameter model to the temperature-pressure data points inferred from the observations of HD 189733b and estimate that its Bond albedo is approximately 10 per cent. Besides their utility in developing physical intuition, our semi-analytical models are a guide for the parameter space exploration of hot Jovian atmospheres via three-dimensional simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  8. Experimental and analytical program to determine strains in 737 LAP splice joints subjected to normal fuselage pressurization loads

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.P.; Jeong, D.Y.

    1996-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) has initiated several research projects to assess the structural integrity of the aging commercial aircraft fleet. One area of research involves the understanding of a phenomenon known as ``Widespread Fatigue Damage`` or WFD, which refers to a type of multiple element cracking that degrades the damage tolerance capability of an aircraft structure. Research on WFD has been performed both experimentally and analytically including finite element modeling of fuselage lap splice joints by the Volpe Center. Fuselage pressurization tests have also been conducted at the FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to obtain strain gage data from select locations on the FAA/AANC 737 Transport Aircraft Test Bed. One-hundred strain channels were used to monitor five different lap splice bays including the fuselage skin and substructure elements. These test results have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models and to support general aircraft analysis efforts. This paper documents the strain fields measured during the AANC tests and successfully correlates the results with analytical predictions.

  9. Semi-analytical solar radiation pressure modeling for QZS-1 orbit-normal and yaw-steering attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, Peter; Darugna, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the dominant non-gravitational perturbation of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) satellites. In the absence of detailed surface models, empirical SRP models, such as the Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM), are widely used in practice for GNSS orbit determination but may require an undue number of parameters to properly describe the actual motion. Building up on previous research for spacecraft in yaw-steering (YS) attitude, analytical expressions for the SRP acceleration in orbit-normal (ON) attitude are established based on a generic box-wing model, and related to the corresponding parameters of the ECOM. The results are used to obtain an a priori SRP model for the QZS-1 satellite of the Quasi Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), which achieves a modeling accuracy of about 1 nm/s2 using as little as 6 parameters. To compensate remaining modeling deficiencies, we combine the analytical a priori model with a complementary set of five empirical parameters based on an ECOM-type formulation. QZS-1 orbits based on the resulting ;semi-analytical; SRP model exhibit a better than 10 cm RMS consistency with satellite laser ranging measurements for both YS and ON attitude modes, which marks a 2-4 times improvement over legacy orbit products without a priori model.

  10. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  11. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  12. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [data aquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information regarding the safety limits of hydrocarbons in liquid and gaseous oxygen, the steps taken for hydrocarbon removal from liquified gases, and the analysis of the contaminants was searched and the results are presented. The safety of hydrocarbons in gaseous systems was studied, and the latest hydrocarbon test equipment and methodology is reviewed. A detailed sampling and analysis plan is proposed to evaluate high pressure GN2 and LOX systems.

  13. Analyses of a 426-Day Record of Seafloor Gravity and Pressure Time Series in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosat, S.; Escot, B.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-04-01

    Continuous gravity observations of ocean and solid tides are usually done with land-based gravimeters. In this study, we analyze a 426-day record of time-varying gravity acquired by an ocean-bottom Scintrex spring gravimeter between August 2005 and November 2006 at the Troll A site located in the North Sea at a depth of 303 m. Sea-bottom pressure changes were also recorded in parallel with a Paroscientific quartz pressure sensor. From these data, we show a comparison of the noise level of the seafloor gravimeter with respect to two standard land-based relative gravimeters: a Scintrex CG5 and a GWR Superconducting Gravimeter that were recording at the J9 gravimetric observatory of Strasbourg (France). We also compare the analyzed gravity records with the predicted solid and oceanic tides. The oceanic tides recorded by the seafloor barometer are also analyzed and compared to the predicted ones using FES2014b ocean model. Observed diurnal and semi-diurnal components are in good agreement with FES2014b predictions. Smallest constituents reflect some differences that may be attributed to non-linearity occurring at the Troll A site. Using the barotropic TUGO-m dynamic model of sea-level response to ECMWF atmospheric pressure and winds forcing, we show a good agreement with the detided ocean-bottom pressure residuals. About 4 hPa of standard deviation of remaining sea-bottom pressure are, however, not explained by the TUGO-m dynamic model.

  14. Ion suppression and enhancement effects of co-eluting analytes in multi-analyte approaches: systematic investigation using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization or electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Meyer, Markus R; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-11-15

    In multi-analyte procedures, sufficient separation is important to avoid interferences, particularly when using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) because of possible ion suppression or enhancement. However, even using ultra-high-performance LC, baseline separation is not always possible. For development and validation of an LC/MS/MS approach for quantification of 140 antidepressants, benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, beta-blockers, oral antidiabetics, and analytes measured in the context of brain death diagnosis in plasma, the extent of ion suppression or enhancement of co-eluting analytes within and between the drug classes was investigated using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). Within the drug classes, five analytes showed ion enhancement of over 25% and six analytes ion suppression of over 25% using APCI and 16 analytes ion suppression of over 25% using ESI. Between the drug classes, two analytes showed ion suppression of over 25% using APCI. Using ESI, one analyte showed ion enhancement of over 25% and five analytes ion suppression of over 25%. These effects may influence the drug quantification using calibrators made in presence of overlapping and thus interfering analytes. Ion suppression/enhancement effects induced by co-eluting drugs of different classes present in the patient sample may also lead to false measurements using class-specific calibrators made in absence of overlapping and thus interfering analytes. In conclusion, ion suppression and enhancement tests are essential during method development and validation in LC/MS/MS multi-analyte procedures, with special regards to co-eluting analytes.

  15. Bubble geobarometry: A record of pressure changes, degassing, and regassing at Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. M.; Manga, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The mass discharge rate of volcanic eruptions depends on the amount and rate of volatile exsolution, and the efficiency of gas removal from rising magma. Although methods exist to estimate the total volatile budget of volcanic systems, it is more difficult to get information about the rates of exsolution and mechanisms of gas loss during magma ascent. Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. We focus specifically on detecting and characterizing gradients in dissolved H2O and CO2 concentration around small (ca. 1 mm diameter) bubbles (vesicles) in glass fragments. If diffusion prevents bubbles from growing (or shrinking) fast enough to maintain equilibrium, the sign and magnitude of pressure changes in the volcanic feeder systems can be inferred from H2O or CO2 concentration profiles adjacent to bubbles. We measured H2O and CO2 profiles in bubble-bearing pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California, using high spatial resolution (5 μm) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (SS-FTIR) at the Advanced Light Source. A key result is that H2O is enriched in the glass surrounding bubbles, indicating that (1) bubbles were redissolving into the melt just prior to the eruption, and (2) volatile concentration gradients are preserved during the eruption and record information about conduit processes at depth. We propose that bubble dissolution was triggered by a pressure increase within the conduit. The required pressure increase is inferred to be the last in a series of pressure cycles with amplitude 5-30 MPa that are caused by repeated fragmentation and annealing. Using a bubble dissolution model, we calculate a timescale of several hours for bubble dissolution at magmatic temperatures prior to quenching during the ca. 1340 A.D. Mono Craters eruption. Unlike H2O concentrations, CO2 concentrations are heterogeneous in the obsidian

  16. A Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Determined Isothermal Pressure Losses in a Heat-Exchanger Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-01

    sponding to a mean- elbow radius/diameter ratio R/D of 1 has a value of 0.25. This Is considered to he good agreement and the loas corresponding...or B the inlet header (fig, 4(a)), It Is immediately turned through approximately 90° in an elbow having a circu- lar cross section. Following the...turn it passes through an expansion in duct area. An elbow which is followed by a straight section of duct causes a lower pressure loss than one

  17. Analytical analysis of slow and fast pressure waves in a two-dimensional cellular solid with fluid-filled cells.

    PubMed

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir; Van Damme, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Wave propagation in cellular and porous media is widely studied due to its abundance in nature and industrial applications. Biot's theory for open-cell media predicts the existence of two simultaneous pressure waves, distinguished by its velocity. A fast wave travels through the solid matrix, whereas a much slower wave is carried by fluid channels. In closed-cell materials, the slow wave disappears due to a lack of a continuous fluid path. However, recent finite element (FE) simulations done by the authors of this paper also predict the presence of slow pressure waves in saturated closed-cell materials. The nature of the slow wave is not clear. In this paper, an equivalent unit cell of a medium with square cells is proposed to permit an analytical description of the dynamics of such a material. A simplified FE model suggests that the fluid-structure interaction can be fully captured using a wavenumber-dependent spring support of the vibrating cell walls. Using this approach, the pressure wave behavior can be calculated with high accuracy, but with less numerical effort. Finally, Rayleigh's energy method is used to investigate the coexistence of two waves with different velocities.

  18. Quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in symptomatic patients with extracranial shunts

    PubMed Central

    Eide, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the outcome of management of possible shunt related symptoms using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and to identify potential methodological limitations with the current strategies of ICP assessment. Methods: The distribution of persistent symptoms related to extracranial shunt treatment was compared before and after management of shunt failure in 69 consecutive hydrocephalic cases. Management was heavily based on ICP monitoring (calculation of mean ICP and visual determination of plateau waves). After the end of patient management, all ICP curves were re-evaluated using a quantitative method and software (SensometricsTM pressure analyser). The ICP curves were presented as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg) or depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg) of different durations (0.5, 1, or 5 minutes). The numbers of ICP elevations/depressions standardised to 10 hours recording time were calculated to allow comparisons of ICP between individuals. Results: After ICP monitoring and management of the putative shunt related symptoms, the symptoms remained unchanged in as many as 58% of the cases, with the highest percentages in those patients with ICP considered normal or too low at the time of ICP monitoring. The quantitative analysis revealed a high frequency of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg lasting 0.5 to 1 minute) and ICP depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg lasting 0.5, 1, or 5 minutes), particularly in patients with ICP considered normal. Conclusions: The value of continuous ICP monitoring with ICP analysis using current criteria appears doubtful in the management of possible shunt related symptoms. This may reflect limitations in the strategies of ICP analysis. Calculation of the exact numbers of ICP elevations and depressions may provide a more accurate description of the ICP profile. PMID:12531957

  19. Quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in symptomatic patients with extracranial shunts.

    PubMed

    Eide, P K

    2003-02-01

    To explore the outcome of management of possible shunt related symptoms using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and to identify potential methodological limitations with the current strategies of ICP assessment. The distribution of persistent symptoms related to extracranial shunt treatment was compared before and after management of shunt failure in 69 consecutive hydrocephalic cases. Management was heavily based on ICP monitoring (calculation of mean ICP and visual determination of plateau waves). After the end of patient management, all ICP curves were re-evaluated using a quantitative method and software (Sensometrics pressure analyser). The ICP curves were presented as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg) or depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg) of different durations (0.5, 1, or 5 minutes). The numbers of ICP elevations/depressions standardised to 10 hours recording time were calculated to allow comparisons of ICP between individuals. After ICP monitoring and management of the putative shunt related symptoms, the symptoms remained unchanged in as many as 58% of the cases, with the highest percentages in those patients with ICP considered normal or too low at the time of ICP monitoring. The quantitative analysis revealed a high frequency of ICP elevations (20 to 35 mm Hg lasting 0.5 to 1 minute) and ICP depressions (-10 to -5 mm Hg lasting 0.5, 1, or 5 minutes), particularly in patients with ICP considered normal. The value of continuous ICP monitoring with ICP analysis using current criteria appears doubtful in the management of possible shunt related symptoms. This may reflect limitations in the strategies of ICP analysis. Calculation of the exact numbers of ICP elevations and depressions may provide a more accurate description of the ICP profile.

  20. Homogenization of atmospheric pressure time series recorded at VLBI stations using a segmentation LASSO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Lu, Cuixian; Soja, Benedikt; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Time series of meteorological parameters recorded at VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observatories allow us to realistically model and consequently to eliminate the atmosphere-induced effects in the VLBI products to a large extent. Nevertheless, this advantage of VLBI is not fully exploited since such information is contaminated with inconsistencies, such as uncertainties regarding the calibration and location of the meteorological sensors, outliers, missing data points, and breaks. It has been shown that such inconsistencies in meteorological data used for VLBI data analysis impose problems in the geodetic products (e.g vertical site position) and result in mistakes in geophysical interpretation. The aim of the procedure followed here is to optimally model the tropospheric delay and bending effects that are still the main sources of error in VLBI data analysis. In this study, the meteorological data recorded with sensors mounted in the vicinity of VLBI stations have been homogenized spanning the period from 1979 until today. In order to meet this objective, inhomogeneities were detected and adjusted using test results and metadata. Some of the approaches employed include Alexandersson's Standard Normal Homogeneity Test and an iterative procedure, of which the segmentation part is based on a dynamic programming algorithm and the functional part on a LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) estimator procedure. For the provision of reference time series that are necessary to apply the aforementioned methods, ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis surface data were employed. Special care was taken regarding the datum definition of this model. Due to the significant height difference between the VLBI antenna's reference point and the elevation included in geopotential fields of the specific numerical weather models, a hypsometric adjustment is applied using the absolute pressure level from the WMO

  1. Application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the analysis of barbiturates by high-speed analytical countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan J; Kidwell, Huw; Games, David E

    2003-01-01

    Four barbiturates (barbital, allobarbital, phenobarbital and butalbital) were analysed using high-speed analytical countercurrent chromatography (HSACCC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with mass spectrometry, using negative mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). The polar biphasic solvent system of butyronitrile/acetonitrile/water (1:1:1) was used, in the upper-stationary, lower-mobile mode of operation, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a rotational speed of 1200 rpm, equating to an applied "g"-field of 177 g. The fractional stationary phase retention (S(F)) was 0.58. Representative mass spectral data are presented from the HPLC and the HSACCC analyses. Structural information was obtained using source-induced fragmentation at increased source block voltages. The effect of increasing g-field on chromatographic resolution is illustrated using the binary base system of butyronitrile/water (1:1), under electrospray ionisation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Numerical and analytical solutions for sound propagation and absorption in porous media at high sound pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tianning; Zhao, Yuyuan; Zhang, Weiyong; Zhu, Jian

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of the work of Wilson et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 350-359 (1988)], a more exact numerical approach was constructed for predicting the nonlinear sound propagation and absorption properties of rigid porous media at high sound pressure levels. The numerical solution was validated by the experimental results for sintered fibrous porous steel samples and its predictions were compared with the numerical solution of Wilson et al. An approximate analytical solution was further put forward for the normalized surface acoustic admittance of rigid air-saturated porous materials with infinite thickness, based on the wave perturbation method developed by Lambert and McIntosh [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1950-1959 (1990)]. Comparisons were made with the numerical results.

  3. Atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry: a new analytical chemical characterization method for dissolved organic matter in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Seitzinger, Sybil P; Styles, Renée M; Lauck, Ron; Mazurek, Monica A

    2003-01-01

    The complex mixture of organic compounds in the atmosphere influences climate, air quality, and ecosystem processes. Atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (APESI-MS) was evaluated as a potential tool for direct measurement of the total suite of individual dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds in rainwater. The APESI-MS response was linear to all DOM compounds of atmospheric significance examined as standard solutions. Urban precipitation samples from New Brunswick, NJ (USA) were analyzed by APESI-MS over the mass-to-charge (m/z) range 50-3,000. Over 95% of the m/z ions detected were in the low m/z range (50-500). Over 300 unique m/z ions were detected across the 11 rainwater samples indicating the complexity of the mixture of DOM in rainwater. Forty percent of the organic bases (positive mode detection) and 22% of the organic acids (negative mode) occurred in at least 6 of the 11 rainwater samples. Ions corresponding to the m/z of carboxylic acids standards (nonanedioic acid; 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid; pentanedioic acid; hydroxybutanedioic acid; and butanedioic acid) and to reduced N standards (allylurea; caffeine; imidazole; and N-2-propenylurea) occurred in at least one of the 11 rainwater samples. Total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) estimated from the APESI-MS analysis and measured by standard DOC methods were not statistically different.

  4. Continual monitoring of intraocular pressure: effect of central venous pressure, respiration, and eye movements on continual recordings of intraocular pressure in the rabbit, dog, and man.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R. L.; Beale, D. G.; Constable, I. J.; Grose, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    A new method has been devised for continual monitoring of intraocular pressure by radiotelemetry. The use of this instrument for monitoring intraocular pressure by a variety of ophthalmic conditions is described. Images PMID:526459

  5. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  6. Coupling of Pore Pressure and Ground Motion: Further Studies using Data Recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, S. H.; Lavallee, D.; Archuleta, R. J.; Steidl, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure built up during an earthquake and the hazard associated with soil liquefaction present a major challenge for our society, as has been dramatically illustrated by recent large events (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake). There is consensus among scientists that a better assessment of the liquefaction risk requires a better understanding of the coupling between pore pressure and ground motion time histories. There is a basic need to investigate coupling as a function of the frequency content of the ground motion. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah event has provided a remarkable opportunity to investigate and model the coupling. The event was well recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife station located 110 km from the hypocenter. The station is equipped with three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and with pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. The recorded pore pressure and ground motion time histories both have frequency content that is a function of time. We have applied a wavelet decomposition technique to the El Mayor ground motion and pore pressure data, looking for a linear relationship between the signals. The analysis shows that the early P-wave accelerations (vertical component) initiate pore pressure response. However, the pore pressure records contain a low-frequency component that dominates the signal with no corresponding low-frequency component in the ground motion signals recorded near-by. Although uncommon, a similar behavior has been also reported in the literature for pore pressure signals recoded during the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake. We have extended this work to the analysis of 4 other seismic events that have induced an increase in pore pressure at WLA. As the response of pore pressure is potentially a local phenomenon, we have restricted our analysis to recordings from the same site. These events include the M5.8 Ocotillo

  7. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...

  8. Validation of a new device for transcutaneous oxygen pressure recordings in real and simulated exercise tests.

    PubMed

    Grouiller, F; Jaquinandi, V; Picquet, J; Souday, V; Saumet, J L; Abraham, P

    2006-06-01

    Measurement of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcpO2) is of interest in critical limb ischemia at rest and also during exercise in patients suffering proximal claudication or claudication of questionable origin. The recent commercialization of the computerized multiprobe-TCM400 device (Radiometer, Copenhagen, DK) appears attractive for exercise tests but comparison with the previous devices has not been reported. Indeed, the final endpoint for the physician is to be sure that a new apparatus will not interfere with the results observed in patients. Using a 5 probe-TCM400 and 5 single probe-TCM3s, simultaneous recordings of tcpO2 were performed: 1) in vitro during 25 simulated exercises and 2) in vivo during exercise treadmill tests in 27 vascular patients. We analyzed resting (REST), minimal absolute (MIN) and DROP (limb-changes minus chest-changes) values. TcpO2 absolute and DROP profiles were analyzed through cross-correlation to detect response delays between the devices. In simulated tests, the Pearson coefficient of correlation between TCM400 and TCM3 was r=0.99 for REST, MIN and minimal DROP. In treadmill tests, the Pearson coefficient of correlation between TCM400 and TCM3 was significantly higher with minimal DROP (r=0.88) than with REST (r=0.63) or MIN (r=0.7). A 15 s delay was observed with TCM3 as compared to TCM400 responses for both tcpO2 and DROP profiles. The rmax(2) of the cross-correlation was 0.74 and 0.67 for tcpO2 and DROP, respectively. Our observations underline the limits of the clinical in vivo comparison of 2 transcutaneous devices. Despite the differences observed in absolute values during in vivo tests with simultaneous recordings (assumed to rely on physiological and not technical problems), we suggest that TCM400 is valid for exercise tests with the advantage of improved user interface, automatic memorization and integrated multiple probes of this newly commercially available apparatus.

  9. 49 CFR 192.741 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Each distribution system supplied by more than one district pressure regulating station must be...) On distribution systems supplied by a single district pressure regulating station, the operator shall... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating stations...

  10. Prognostic importance of ambulatory blood pressure recordings in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R; Andersen, M J

    2006-04-01

    Ambulatory systolic blood pressure (BP) correlates better with risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to clinic measured BP, but its role in predicting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death in patients with CKD is unknown. In a cohort study of 217 Veterans with CKD BP was measured by ambulatory monitoring and in the clinic. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP was 133.5 +/- 16.6/73.1 +/- 11.1 mm Hg and clinic BP was 155.2 +/- 25.6/84.7 +/- 14.2 mm Hg. The composite renal end point of ESRD or death over a median follow-up of 3.5 years occurred in 75 patients (34.5%), death occurred in 52 patients (24.0%), and ESRD in 36/178 patients (20.2%). Thirty-nine patients died before reaching ESRD. One standard deviation (s.d.) increase in systolic BP increased the risk of composite outcome to 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.17) for standard clinic measurement and to 1.88 (95% CI 1.48-2.39) for 24 h ambulatory BP recording. One s.d. increase in 24 h ambulatory systolic BP increased the risk of ESRD to 3.04 (95% CI 2.13-4.35) and to 2.20 (95% CI 1.43-3.39) when adjusted for standard clinic systolic BP. Non-dipping was associated with increased risk of total mortality and composite end point. In patients with CKD, BPs obtained by ambulatory monitoring are a stronger predictor of ESRD or death compared to BPs obtained in the clinic. Systolic ambulatory BP and nondipping are independent predictors for ESRD after adjusting for clinic BP. However, adjustment for other risk factors for CKD progression removes the independent prognostic value of ambulatory BP.

  11. The effect of an electronic health record-based tool on abnormal pediatric blood pressure recognition.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah A; Rea, Corinna J; Melvin, Patrice; Capraro, Andrew J; Mandel, Joshua C; Ferguson, Michael A; Nigrin, Daniel J; Mandl, Kenneth D; Graham, Dionne; Zachariah, Justin P

    2017-07-01

    Recognition of high blood pressure (BP) in children is poor, partly due to the need to compute age-sex-height referenced percentiles. This study examined the change in abnormal BP recognition before versus after the introduction of an electronic health record (EHR) app designed to calculate BP percentiles with a training lecture. Clinical data were extracted on all ambulatory, non-urgent encounters for children 3-18 years old seen in primary care, endocrinology, cardiology, or nephrology clinics at an urban, academic hospital in the year before and the year after app introduction. Outpatients with at least 1 BP above the age-gender-height referenced 90th percentile were included. Abnormal BP recognition was defined as a BP related ICD-9 code, referral to nephrology or cardiology, an echocardiogram or renal ultrasound to evaluate BP concern, or a follow-up primary care visit for BP monitoring. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression compared odds of recognition before and after app introduction. Of 78 768 clinical encounters, 3521 had abnormal BP in the pre- and 3358 in the post-app period. App use occurred in 13% of elevated BP visits. Overall, abnormal BP was recognized in 4.9% pre-app period visits and 7.1% of visits post-app (P < .0001). Recognition was significantly higher when the app was actually used (adjusted OR 3.17 95% CI 2.29-4.41, P < .001). Without app use recognition was not different. BP app advent modestly increased abnormal BP recognition in the entire cohort, but actual app use was associated with significantly higher recognition. Predictors of abnormal BP recognition deserve further scrutiny. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessing Stationarity in Ice Core Record-Sea Level Pressure Relationships for Yukon Territory Ice Core Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, E. P.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the stationarity of the relationship between Northern Hemisphere winter (Dec-Feb) sea-level pressure (SLP) and proxy time series (major ions, accumulation, and stable isotopes) from the Eclipse (3017 m asl) and the Mt. Logan Prospector-Russell Col (PRCol; 5340 m asl) ice cores from Yukon, Canada. We develop a novel spatial calibration procedure to identify ranges of ice core values that are associated with consistent winter SLP anomaly patterns. Each ice core variable time series was ranked and divided into groups of 13 years each. We assess stationarity by splitting the 1872-2001 analysis period in half (1872-1936 and 1937-2001) and comparing the locations and magnitudes of SLP anomaly patterns during the two periods for each group of ice core values. Northern Hemisphere monthly mean SLP from the 20th Century Reanalysis dataset are used. The high accumulation rate (1.38 m a-1) at Eclipse allows us to analyze 6-month seasonal mean values (Oct-Mar and Apr-Sep), whereas annual mean values are used from PRCol where the accumulation rate is lower (0.40 m a-1). The Eclipse cold season accumulation and PRCol annual mean sodium concentrations (Na+) exhibit the strongest correlations with winter SLP anomaly patterns. In particular, the lowest and highest 20% annual Na+ values at PRCol and lowest 10% cold season accumulation values at Eclipse exhibit stationarity with consistent SLP anomaly patterns in the North Pacific for all three time periods. A weaker Aleutian Low consistently occurred in the central to eastern North Pacific for the lowest Na+ years at PRCol and lowest accumulation cold seasons at Eclipse, although these groups of years are mostly independent. A stronger Aleutian Low occurs in the North Pacific for the highest Na+ years at PRCol. A stationary SLP anomaly pattern is not observed through all three time periods for high cold season accumulation at Eclipse. Application of this calibration procedure with other traditional calibration and

  13. A new algorithm for quadratic sample entropy optimization for very short biomedical signals: application to blood pressure records.

    PubMed

    Cirugeda-Roldán, E M; Cuesta-Frau, D; Miró-Martínez, P; Oltra-Crespo, S; Vigil-Medina, L; Varela-Entrecanales, M

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a new method to optimize the computation of the quadratic sample entropy (QSE) metric. The objective is to enhance its segmentation capability between pathological and healthy subjects for short and unevenly sampled biomedical records, like those obtained using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In ABPM, blood pressure is measured every 20-30 min during 24h while patients undergo normal daily activities. ABPM is indicated for a number of applications such as white-coat, suspected, borderline, or masked hypertension. Hypertension is a very important clinical issue that can lead to serious health implications, and therefore its identification and characterization is of paramount importance. Nonlinear processing of signals by means of entropy calculation algorithms has been used in many medical applications to distinguish among signal classes. However, most of these methods do not perform well if the records are not long enough and/or not uniformly sampled. That is the case for ABPM records. These signals are extremely short and scattered with outliers or missing/resampled data. This is why ABPM Blood pressure signal screening using nonlinear methods is a quite unexplored field. We propose an additional stage for the computation of QSE independently of its parameter r and the input signal length. This enabled us to apply a segmentation process to ABPM records successfully. The experimental dataset consisted of 61 blood pressure data records of control and pathological subjects with only 52 samples per time series. The entropy estimation values obtained led to the segmentation of the two groups, while other standard nonlinear methods failed.

  14. Evaluation between ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for characterizing natural dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; van Bommel, Maarten; Hallett, Jessica

    2013-11-29

    An evaluation was undertaken of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for characterizing natural dyes in cultural heritage objects. A new UHPLC method was optimized by testing several analytical parameters adapted from prior UHPLC studies developed in diverse fields of research. Different gradient elution programs were tested on seven UHPLC columns with different dimensions and stationary phase compositions by applying several mobile phases, flow rates, temperatures, and runtimes. The UHPLC method successfully provided more improved data than that achieved by the HPLC method. Indeed, even though carminic acid has shown circa 146% higher resolution with HPLC, UHPLC resulted in an increase of 41-61% resolution and a decrease of 91-422% limit of detection, depending on the dye compound. The optimized method was subsequently assigned to analyse 59 natural reference materials, in which 85 different components were ascribed with different physicochemical properties, in order to create a spectral database for future characterization of dyes in cultural heritage objects. The majority of these reference samples could be successfully distinguished with one single method through the examination of these compounds' retention times and their spectra acquired with a photodiode array detector. These results demonstrate that UHPLC analyses are extremely valuable for the acquisition of more precise chromatographic information concerning natural dyes with complex mixtures of different and/or closely related physicochemical properties, essential for distinguishing similar species of plants and animals used to colour cultural heritage objects.

  15. Blood pressure recordings during hemodialysis access interventions: implications for acute management.

    PubMed

    Asif, Arif; Castro, Hector; Waheed, Ahmed Ameen; Kumar, Vishesh; Haqqie, Syed S; Siskin, Gary; Mathew, Roy O; Mason, Darius; Vachharajani, Tushar; Nayer, Ali; Merrill, Donna; Akmal, Muhammad U T; Salman, Loay

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study evaluating the pattern of blood pressure and its related complications before, during, and after percutaneous hemodialysis interventions was performed in patients presenting with asymptomatic hypertension. Hemodialysis patients undergoing percutaneous interventions including tunneled hemodialysis catheter insertion, percutaneous balloon angioplasty and thrombectomy procedure, and stage II hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg) were included in this analysis. Blood pressure medications were not used while midazolam and fentanyl were routinely administered. Patients were followed for up to 4 weeks to monitor any complications. The mean blood pressure before, during, and after the procedures were 185 ± 18/96 ± 14, 172 ± 22/92 ± 15, and 153 ± 25/87 ± 14, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the blood pressure readings before and after the procedure (before = 185 ± 18/96 ± 14, after = 153 ± 25/87 ± 14; p = 0.001). None of the patients had a stroke, myocardial infarction, or acute pulmonary edema before, during, or after the procedure or during the 4-week follow-up period. A significant reduction in blood pressure was observed after the procedure without the administration of any antihypertensive medication. These results suggest that the reduction in blood pressure observed after percutaneous dialysis access interventions (particularly in the presence of midazolam and fentanyl) may make it unnecessary to treat asymptomatic hypertension prior to these procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sleep apnea diagnosis using an ECG Holter device including a nasal pressure (NP) recording: validation of visual and automatic analysis of nasal pressure versus full polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Pépin, Jean-Louis; Defaye, Pascal; Vincent, Elodie; Christophle-Boulard, Sylvain; Tamisier, Renaud; Lévy, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    New simplified techniques for diagnosing sleep apnea should be specially tailored for easy use in cardiologic practice. e dedicated one of the channels of a Holter Electrocardiogram (ECG) device (SpiderView() ELA Medical, France) to nasal pressure (NP) recordings. We also developed an automatic analysis of NP signal providing an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) for physicians without the know-how in sleep medicine. Thirty-four unselected patients referred for symptoms suggesting sleep apnea underwent a polysomnography (PSG) with simultaneous NP and Holter ECG recordings. An expert blinded to PSG results visually scored the Holter plus NP recordings. The results of the AHI obtained in PSG (AHI-PSG) were compared, respectively, to the AHI-NP obtained by visual analysis and automatic analysis (AHI-NP Auto) of Holter ECG nasal pressure. In 10 randomly selected subjects (development set), the best cut-off on Holter ECG for diagnosing sleep apnea patients as defined by AHI>20/h in PSG was determined at 35 events/h by a receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Prospective testing of this threshold was then performed in 19 subjects (test set). For visually scored recordings of Holter ECG plus NP, we obtained a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% for sleep apnea. The area under the ROC curve was 0.97. For the automatic analysis, the NPV was 86% and the PPV value 100%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85. NP recording using a Holter system is an efficient and easy-to-use tool for screening for sleep-disordered breathing in routine cardiology practice.

  17. Experience with noninvasive ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure recording in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    van de Weijgert, E J; Braun, J J

    1992-04-01

    In 40 subjects (23 treated with antihypertensive medication), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure monitor (Spacelabs model 90202). We studied applicability in the out-patient department with regard to patient tolerance, correlation with mercury manometer measurements, 24-h blood pressure variability and the use in detecting "white-coat" hypertension. The measurements were tolerated quite well except for complaints of sleep disturbance and local irritation from the cuff. The average percentage of missed measuring points was 9.2%. Correlation between blood pressure with the mercury manometer and the Spacelabs monitor (averages of three consecutive readings) was: systolic 0.87 and diastolic 0.73 (P less than 0.001). No evidence for systematic error between the two methods was found. Diurnal blood pressure variation was significant with an average night-time drop of 12 +/- 15 mmHg systolic and 12 +/- 11 mmHg diastolic. "Office" blood pressure measured with the Spacelabs monitor was in the hypertensive range for 28 patients (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mmHg). Only 15 of these subjects still met the hypertension criteria on the basis of mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure values. When ambulatory blood pressures during arbitrary 3-h periods of the daytime were studied, the number of patients with established hypertension did not change. The patients with this "office" or "white-coat" hypertensive response could not be distinguished on the basis of variability in daytime blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Fracture opening/propagation behavior and their significance on pressure-time records during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kojima; Yasuhiko Nakagawa; Koji Matsuki; Toshiyuki Hashida

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing with constant fluid injection rate was numerically modeled for a pair of rectangular longitudinal fractures intersecting a wellbore in an impermeable rock mass, and numerical calculations have been performed to investigate the relations among the form of pressure-time curves, fracture opening/propagation behavior and permeability of the mechanically closed fractures. The results have shown that both permeability of the fractures and fluid injection rate significantly influence the form of the pressure-time relations on the early stage of fracture opening. Furthermore it has been shown that wellbore pressure during fracture propagation is affected by the pre-existing fracture length.

  19. Grain-scale pressure variations recorded in orthopyroxene from the diamond grade ultra-high pressure Svartberget peridotite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.

    2014-05-01

    The ultra-high pressure (UHP) area in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) in Norway is recognized as a giant UHP domain that resulted from the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the Caledonian Orogeny. Recent geochronological data suggest the WGR resided at UHP for several tens of millions of years and slowly exhumed near- isothermally to amphibolite facies conditions. The Svartberget peridotite body is located in the north-westernmost part of the UHP area of the WGR. The rocks record diamond grade peak metamorphism at ~800 ° C in crosscutting pyroxenite veins as evidenced by micro-diamond inclusions in Caledonian metamorphic garnet. The peridotite body preserves primary spinel-garnet-peridotite assemblages stable at much lower pressure (~2.0 GPa at ~800 ° C). Orthopyroxene typically shows bowl-shaped aluminium (Al) zoning and conventional geothermobarometry using core compositions of garnet-opx mineral pairs yields P-T estimates of 5.5 GPa at ~800 ° C. Besides Al increasing toward the rims of orthopyroxene grains, concentrations also increase in cracks and veins crosscutting the mineral. Here, recently developed unconventional geobarometry and Gibbs minimization methods are used to derive the grain-scale pressure variations corresponding to the observed Al-zoning. The methods independently result in pressure variations from core to rim on the order of 2.0 GPa. Interestingly, low-Al cores correspond to low pressures whereas high-Al rims correspond to high pressures, opposite to conventional geothermobarometry results. However, the new estimates are in agreement with the consideration that at high pressure the high density phases become more stable. In a binary orthopyroxene in the MAS-system, the Mg-Tschermak endmember thought to be the dominant Al-species in the mineral has a higher density then the Al-free enstatite endmember. Therefore at higher pressure the Mg-Tschermak endmember in orthopyroxene is favoured over the enstatite endmember. This is similar

  20. Doctors record higher blood pressures than nurses: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher E; Horvath, Isabella A; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the ‘white coat effect’, the alerting rise in blood pressure, is greater for doctors than nurses. This could bias interpretation of studies on nurse-led care in hypertension, and risks overestimating or overtreating high blood pressure by doctors in clinical practice. Aim To quantify differences between blood pressure measurements made by doctors and nurses. Design and setting Systematic review and meta-analysis using searches of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, journal collections, and conference abstracts. Method Studies in adults reporting mean blood pressures measured by doctors and nurses at the same visit were selected, and mean blood pressures extracted, by two reviewers. Study risk of bias was assessed using modified Cochrane criteria. Outcomes were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Results In total, 15 studies (11 hypertensive; four mixed hypertensive and normotensive populations) were included from 1899 unique citations. Compared with doctors’ measurements, nurse-measured blood pressures were lower (weighted mean differences: systolic −7.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = −4.7 to −9.2] mmHg, diastolic −3.8 [95% CI = −2.2 to −5.4] mmHg). For studies at low risk of bias, differences were lower: systolic −4.6 (95% CI = −1.9 to −7.3) mmHg; diastolic −1.7 (95% CI = −0.1 to −3.2) mmHg. White coat hypertension was diagnosed more frequently based on doctors’ than on nurses’ readings: relative risk 1.6 (95% CI =1.2 to 2.1). Conclusions The white coat effect is smaller for blood pressure measurements made by nurses than by doctors. This systematic difference has implications for hypertension diagnosis and management. Caution is required in pooling data from studies using both nurse- and doctor-measured blood pressures. PMID:24686887

  1. Doctors record higher blood pressures than nurses: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher E; Horvath, Isabella A; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L

    2014-04-01

    The magnitude of the 'white coat effect', the alerting rise in blood pressure, is greater for doctors than nurses. This could bias interpretation of studies on nurse-led care in hypertension, and risks overestimating or overtreating high blood pressure by doctors in clinical practice. To quantify differences between blood pressure measurements made by doctors and nurses. Systematic review and meta-analysis using searches of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, journal collections, and conference abstracts. Studies in adults reporting mean blood pressures measured by doctors and nurses at the same visit were selected, and mean blood pressures extracted, by two reviewers. Study risk of bias was assessed using modified Cochrane criteria. Outcomes were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. In total, 15 studies (11 hypertensive; four mixed hypertensive and normotensive populations) were included from 1899 unique citations. Compared with doctors' measurements, nurse-measured blood pressures were lower (weighted mean differences: systolic -7.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = -4.7 to -9.2] mmHg, diastolic -3.8 [95% CI = -2.2 to -5.4] mmHg). For studies at low risk of bias, differences were lower: systolic -4.6 (95% CI = -1.9 to -7.3) mmHg; diastolic -1.7 (95% CI = -0.1 to -3.2) mmHg. White coat hypertension was diagnosed more frequently based on doctors' than on nurses' readings: relative risk 1.6 (95% CI =1.2 to 2.1). The white coat effect is smaller for blood pressure measurements made by nurses than by doctors. This systematic difference has implications for hypertension diagnosis and management. Caution is required in pooling data from studies using both nurse- and doctor-measured blood pressures.

  2. Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging: studies of the glymphatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Raatikainen, Ville; Ferdinando, Hany; Vihriälä, Erkki; Korhonen, Vesa; Myllylä, Teemu; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2017-03-01

    The lymph system is responsible for cleaning the tissues of metabolic waste products, soluble proteins and other harmful fluids etc. Lymph flow in the body is driven by body movements and muscle contractions. Moreover, it is indirectly dependent on the cardiovascular system, where the heart beat and blood pressure maintain force of pressure in lymphatic channels. Over the last few years, studies revealed that the brain contains the so-called glymphatic system, which is the counterpart of the systemic lymphatic system in the brain. Similarly, the flow in the glymphatic system is assumed to be mostly driven by physiological pulsations such as cardiovascular pulses. Thus, continuous measurement of blood pressure and heart function simultaneously with functional brain imaging is of great interest, particularly in studies of the glymphatic system. We present our MRI compatible optics based sensing system for continuous blood pressure measurement and show our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral brain dynamics, with a focus on the glymphatic system. Blood pressure was measured simultaneously with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an ultrafast functional brain imaging (fMRI) sequence magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG, 3D brain 10 Hz sampling rate).

  3. Reliability and validity of pressure and temporal parameters recorded using a pressure-sensitive insole during running.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert; Malisoux, Laurent; Brunner, Roman; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Statham, Andrew; Meijer, Kenneth; Theisen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Running biomechanics has received increasing interest in recent literature on running-related injuries, calling for new, portable methods for large-scale measurements. Our aims were to define running strike pattern based on output of a new pressure-sensitive measurement device, the Runalyser, and to test its validity regarding temporal parameters describing running gait. Furthermore, reliability of the Runalyser measurements was evaluated, as well as its ability to discriminate different running styles. Thirty-one healthy participants (30.3 ± 7.4 years, 1.78 ± 0.10 m and 74.1 ± 12.1 kg) were involved in the different study parts. Eleven participants were instructed to use a rearfoot (RFS), midfoot (MFS) and forefoot (FFS) strike pattern while running on a treadmill. Strike pattern was subsequently defined using a linear regression (R(2)=0.89) between foot strike angle, as determined by motion analysis (1000 Hz), and strike index (SI, point of contact on the foot sole, as a percentage of foot sole length), as measured by the Runalyser. MFS was defined by the 95% confidence interval of the intercept (SI=43.9-49.1%). High agreement (overall mean difference 1.2%) was found between stance time, flight time, stride time and duty factor as determined by the Runalyser and a force-measuring treadmill (n=16 participants). Measurements of the two devices were highly correlated (R ≥ 0.80) and not significantly different. Test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients for all parameters were ≥ 0.94 (n=14 participants). Significant differences (p<0.05) between FFS, RFS and habitual running were detected regarding SI, stance time and stride time (n=24 participants). The Runalyser is suitable for, and easily applicable in large-scale studies on running biomechanics.

  4. Blood pressure level impacts risk of death among HIV seropositive adults in Kenya: a retrospective analysis of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Hogan, Joseph W; Keter, Alfred; Holland, Thomas L; Sang, Edwin; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Velazquez, Eric J

    2014-05-22

    Mortality among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasingly due to non-communicable causes. This has been observed mostly in developed countries and the routine care of HIV infected individuals has now expanded to include attention to cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure are often overlooked among HIV seropositive (+) individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the effect of blood pressure on mortality among HIV+ adults in Kenya. We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya between 2005 and 2010. All included individuals were HIV+. We excluded participants with AIDS, who were <16 or >80 years old, or had data out of acceptable ranges. Missing data for key covariates was addressed by inverse probability weighting. Primary outcome measures were crude mortality rate and mortality hazard ratio (HR) using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders including HIV stage. There were 49,475 (74% women) HIV+ individuals who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mortality rates for men and women were 3.8 and 1.8/100 person-years, respectively, and highest among those with the lowest blood pressures. Low blood pressure was associated with the highest mortality incidence rate (IR) (systolic <100 mmHg IR 5.2 [4.8-5.7]; diastolic <60 mmHg IR 9.2 [8.3-10.2]). Mortality rate among men with high systolic blood pressure without advanced HIV (3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-5.5) was higher than men with normal systolic blood pressure (1.1, 95% CI: 0.7-1.7). In weighted proportional hazards regression models, men without advanced HIV disease and systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg carried a higher mortality risk than normotensive men (HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 0.94-6.08). Although there has been little attention paid to high blood pressure among HIV+ Africans, we show that blood pressure level among HIV+ patients in Kenya

  5. 10+ years of ACORK: Continuous pore pressure record from the decollement zone at Nankai Trough off Muroto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; Miyazaki, J.; Hulme, S.; Mendrum, R.; Toki, T.; Wheat, C. G.; Kasaya, T.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure and hydrological properties play key roles in governing coupling and slip behavior along the subducting plate interface. During the KR22-12 cruise, three dives were completed using ROV KAIKO onboard R/V KAIREI during Dec. 20-25, 2011, to retrieve pore pressure data and interstitial fluid samples from ACORKs at ODP Holes 808I and 1173B situated landward and seaward of the deformation front in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto. With 3-year-long and a 4-year-long new data records from Holes 808I and 1173B, respectively, we now have over 10-year-long continuous pressure records since June 2001 at both sites. Data from most monitoring depths show systematic variations in average pressure, and in formation pressure response to seafloor tidal loading. In 2005 and 2009, we observed significant decrease in the amplitudes of pressure response to semi-diurnal tidal loading at Hole 808I. Transient changes were observed at the time of several nearby earthquakes, including the 2011 Mar. 11 Tohoku earthquake, followed by long-lasting pressure changes in both holes starting on Mar. 23, 2011. Gas-tight fluid sampling operations were successfully carried out from the hydraulic port attached to the swellable packer inserted within the ACORK head at Hole 808I. The swellable packer was set in order to isolate the décollement zone that lies roughly 20 m below the bottom of casing at 922 m below the seafloor. We observed shimmering water venting through the port, and the flow rate was measured using a ball-type flowmeter. Fluid samples looked muddy, probably as a result of staining from the casing steel. We believe that the packer seal at the ACORK head is set properly, although the pore pressure at 922 m does not seem to have increased up to 2011. Still, the observed fluid seepage suggests a significant amount of fluid evacuated from the décollement zone since ACORK installation, which may have changed its hydrogeological condition.

  6. Instantaneous separation between coseismic deformation and tsunami height from pressure gauge records based on the data assimilation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Data assimilation method provides a successive estimation of tsunami wavefield rather than the seismic source fault slip or initial sea height. This method well assimilates the incoming tsunami wavefield without relying on seismic wave observations, which is suitable for real-time monitoring and forecasting. The ocean bottom pressure gauge records, however, contain an offset due to coseismic deformation beneath the sensor. This characteristics of observation caused a difficulty on using pressure records of tsunami caused inside of the tsunametor network. In the original data assimilation, the pressure gauge data are directly assimilated to the shallow water equation. The tsunami height at one-time step away is forecasted by numerical simulation, and the tsunami height at the station location is compared with the observed data. The residual between the forecast and the observation is used to assimilate the surrounding tsunami wavefield by the optimum interpolation method. Since the data assimilation uses the tsunami height estimated by pressure gauge (hereinafter referred to as pressure height), the assimilated tsunami wavefield should be contaminated by the coseismic deformation. In the new proposed method, we estimate the coseismic deformation at the same time. The tsunami height, given by the sum of the coseismic deformation and pressure height, is assimilated by the optimum interpolation method. It is shown that the coseismic deformation can be approximately­­ expressed as a solution of Laplace equation having pressure height as the inhomogeneous term. This Laplace equation is numerically solved for estimation of coseismic deformation term at the present time with using pressure height estimated by the data assimilation. Numerical experiments for this method was performed. First the synthetic tsunami was simulated for obtaining hypothetical observation data at stations, and then they are used for data assimilation at every one second. By applying the proposed

  7. [Use of spreadsheet for statistical and graphical processing of records from the ambulatory blood pressure monitor Spacelabs 90207].

    PubMed

    Borges, N; Polónia, J

    1993-04-01

    The introduction of portable devices for non-invasive ambulatory blood-pressure measurement is recognized as an advance in the study of human arterial hypertension, allowing a significant improvement in the selection of hypertensive patients as well as in the analysis of the effects of antihypertensive drugs during clinical trials. The Spacelabs 90207 is a recent example of this kind of apparatus, possessing high levels of portability and being highly classified in validation studies. Nevertheless, the software of this apparatus (like other similar devices) has severe limitations in what concerns the calculation of the area under the curve of blood pressure during the time of measurement, as well as in the possibility of grouping several records in a database for easy statistic and graphic analysis of different groups of records. In order to overcome these difficulties, the authors describe the development of a group of programs, using Microsoft Excel v3.0 spreadsheets and macros, that allow a direct import of individual files from the Spacelabs software to a spreadsheet and its further processing in three phases. These three phases, which we designated by "conversion", "export to database" and "statistic and graphic analysis", will permit an easy and fast statistic and graphic analysis of selected groups of records.

  8. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  9. Cross-stream diffusion under pressure-driven flow in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios: a phase diagram study using a three-dimensional analytical model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional analytical model to investigate cross-stream diffusion transport in rectangular microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios under pressure-driven flow. The Fourier series solution to the three-dimensional convection–diffusion equation is obtained using a double integral transformation method and associated eigensystem calculation. A phase diagram derived from the dimensional analysis is presented to thoroughly interrogate the characteristics in various transport regimes and examine the validity of the model. The analytical model is verified against both experimental and numerical models in terms of the concentration profile, diffusion scaling law, and mixing efficiency with excellent agreement (with <0.5% relative error). Quantitative comparison against other prior analytical models in extensive parameter space is also performed, which demonstrates that the present model accommodates much broader transport regimes with significantly enhanced applicability. PMID:22247719

  10. Yeast and mammalian metabolism continuous monitoring by using pressure recording as an assessment technique for xenobiotic agent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Ballerini, Monica; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Marelli, E.; Mazza, Francesca; Zabeo, Matteo

    2002-06-01

    Our work is devoted to the study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human lymphocytes cellular metabolism in order to develop a reference model to assess biological systems responses to chemical or physical agents exposure. CO2 variations inside test-tubes are measured by differential pressure sensors; pressure values are subsequently converted in voltage. The system allows to test up to 16 samples at the same time. Sampling manages up to 100 acquisitions per second. Values are recorded by a data acquisition card connected to a computer. This procedure leads to a standard curve (pressure variation versus time), typical of the cellular line, that describe cellular metabolism. The longest time lapse used is of 170 h. Different phases appear in this curve: an initial growth up to a maximum, followed by a decrement that leads to a typical depression (pressure value inside the test-tubes is lower than the initial one) after about 35 h from the beginning of yeast cells. The curve is reproducible within an experimental error of 4%. The analysis of many samples and the low cost of the devices allow a good statistical significance of the data. In particular as a test we will compare two sterilizing agents effects: UV radiation and amuchina.

  11. Fast gradient separation by very high pressure liquid chromatography: reproducibility of analytical data and influence of delay between successive runs.

    PubMed

    Stankovicha, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Beaver, Lois Ann; Stevensona, Paul G; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-11-29

    Five methods were used to implement fast gradient separations: constant flow rate, constant column-wall temperature, constant inlet pressure at moderate and high pressures (controlled by a pressure controller),and programmed flow constant pressure. For programmed flow constant pressure, the flow rates and gradient compositions are controlled using input into the method instead of the pressure controller. Minor fluctuations in the inlet pressure do not affect the mobile phase flow rate in programmed flow. There producibilities of the retention times, the response factors, and the eluted band width of six successive separations of the same sample (9 components) were measured with different equilibration times between 0 and 15 min. The influence of the length of the equilibration time on these reproducibilities is discussed. The results show that the average column temperature may increase from one separation to the next and that this contributes to fluctuation of the results.

  12. CrowdHEALTH: Holistic Health Records and Big Data Analytics for Health Policy Making and Personalized Health.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Dimosthenis; Autexier, Serge; Brondino, Iván; Boniface, Michael; Donat, Lucas; Engen, Vegard; Fernandez, Rafael; Jimenez-Peris, Ricardo; Jordan, Blanca; Jurak, Gregor; Kiourtis, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Thanos; Lustrek, Mitja; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Mantas, John; Martinez, Antonio; Mavrogiorgou, Argyro; Menychtas, Andreas; Montandon, Lydia; Nechifor, Cosmin-Septimiu; Nifakos, Sokratis; Papageorgiou, Alexandra; Patino-Martinez, Marta; Perez, Manuel; Plagianakos, Vassilis; Stanimirovic, Dalibor; Starc, Gregor; Tomson, Tanja; Torelli, Francesco; Traver-Salcedo, Vicente; Vassilacopoulos, George; Wajid, Usman

    2017-01-01

    Today's rich digital information environment is characterized by the multitude of data sources providing information that has not yet reached its full potential in eHealth. The aim of the presented approach, namely CrowdHEALTH, is to introduce a new paradigm of Holistic Health Records (HHRs) that include all health determinants. HHRs are transformed into HHRs clusters capturing the clinical, social and human context of population segments and as a result collective knowledge for different factors. The proposed approach also seamlessly integrates big data technologies across the complete data path, providing of Data as a Service (DaaS) to the health ecosystem stakeholders, as well as to policy makers towards a "health in all policies" approach. Cross-domain co-creation of policies is feasible through a rich toolkit, being provided on top of the DaaS, incorporating mechanisms for causal and risk analysis, and for the compilation of predictions.

  13. How pressure is applied in shared decisions about antipsychotic medication: a conversation analytic study of psychiatric outpatient consultations.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Alan; Chaplin, Rob; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of psychiatry depends on it being regarded as one amongst many medical specialties and sharing ideals of good practice with other specialties, an important marker of which is the achievement of shared decision-making and avoiding a reputation for being purely agents of social control. Yet the interactions involved in trying to achieve shared decision-making are relatively unexplored in psychiatry. This study analyses audiotapes of 92 outpatient consultations involving nine consultant psychiatrists focusing on how pressure is applied in shared decisions about antipsychotic medication. Detailed conversation analysis reveals that some shared decisions are considerably more pressured than others. At one end of a spectrum of pressure are pressured shared decisions, characterised by an escalating cycle of pressure and resistance from which it is difficult to exit without someone losing face. In the middle are directed decisions, where the patient cooperates with being diplomatically steered by the psychiatrist. At the other extreme are open decisions where the patient is allowed to decide, with the psychiatrist exerting little or no pressure. Directed and open decisions occurred most frequently; pressured decisions were rarer. Patient risk did not appear to influence the degree of pressure applied in these outpatient consultations. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Signal quality quantification and waveform reconstruction of arterial blood pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, A; Heldt, T

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important vital sign of the cardiovascular system. As with other physiological signals, its measurement can be corrupted by different sources of noise, interference, and artifact. Here, we present an algorithm for the quantification of signal quality and for the reconstruction of the ABP waveform in noise-corrupted segments of the measurement. The algorithm quantifies the quality of the ABP signal on a beat-by-beat basis by computing the normalized mean of successive differences of the ABP amplitude over each beat. In segments of poor signal quality, the ABP wavelets are then reconstructed on the basis of the expected cycle duration and envelope information derived from neighboring ABP wavelet segments. The algorithm was tested on two datasets of ABP waveform signals containing both invasive radial artery ABP and noninvasive ABP waveforms. Our results show that the approach is efficient in identifying the noisy segments (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity over 95%) and reliable in reconstructing beats that were artificially corrupted.

  15. An Absolute Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder for Campaign-Style Detection of Vertical Seafloor Deformation in the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. J.; Roland, E. C.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Schmidt, D. A.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seawater pressure can be used to detect vertical seafloor deformation because small changes in seafloor height produce measurable pressure changes. Vertical deformation rates in subduction zones due to secular strain are expected to be less than 1 cm/year, signals that are difficult to measure with pressure gauges because of gauge drift. The Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder (SCPR) was designed to circumvent the problem of gauge drift by employing a deadweight calibrator, which periodically provides a reference pressure that is used to correct for drift in a continuously recorded pressure record. Alternatively, the SCPR can be used to make campaign-style determinations of true seafloor pressure to support long-term deformation measurements and provide an exact reference for nearby pressure gauges. This Absolute Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder (ASCPR) requires a metrological assessment of measurement parameters to ensure that its absolute accuracy is sufficient to resolve secular deformation. While on a concrete seafloor benchmark, alternating calibration and seawater observations are made every 10-20 minutes for several hours. The difference between the known reference pressure and the seafloor pressure is observed, which allows the calculation of the true, absolute seafloor pressure. In 2014 and 2015, seven concrete benchmarks were placed on the seafloor in the Cascadia subduction zone off central Oregon along a profile that extends from 20 km to 105 km offshore. We surveyed two benchmarks in 2014, 2015, and 2016, a third one in 2015 and 2016, and four more in 2016. Current measurement repeatability varies from 2 to 5 cm, but several corrections still need to be incorporated. The expected resolution is 1 cm.

  16. A 240 ka terrestrial 18O record from a NE-Siberian loess-like permafrost paleosol-sequence based on a novel analytical 18O method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthorn, M.; Zech, M.; Detsch, F.; Juchelka, D.; Kalbitz, K.; Mayr, C.; Werner, R.; Zech, R.; Zech, W.; Glaser, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, we developed a novel analytical tool for paleoclimate research based on compound-specific delta18O analyses of hemicellulose-derived monosaccharides using gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-IRMS) (Zech and Glaser, 2009. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 23, 3522-3532). This method overcomes extraction, purification and hygroscopicity problems of so far applied cellulose methods based on TC/EA-IRMS delta18O analyses and allows establishing 18O records from sedimentary organic matter. Taking advantage of plant samples from a climate chamber experiment we can demonstrate that our novel method yields similar results like cellulose for plant material. Furthermore, we demonstrate using 18O-enriched water that the hydroxyl-groups of hemicelluloses are not prone to oxygen exchange reactions (Zech et al., 2012. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1470-1475). Ongoing methodological improvements will be shortly reported. By applying our novel 18O method to a loess-like permafrost paleosol-sequence we established a presumably 240 ka terrestrial 18O record for NE-Siberia. While the modern topsoil and the interglacial/-stadial paleosols reveal more positive delta18O values, the glacial paleosols reveal more negative delta18O values. The 18O variability is generally confirmed by a respective deltaD record which is based on sedimentary plant leafwax-derived n-alkanes. This finding suggests that our high-latitude 240 ka terrestrial 18O and D/H record from NE-Siberia reflects the temperature-dependent isotopic composition of precipitation and the increased isotopic enrichment of leaf-water during interglacials/-stadials.

  17. An analytical model of the effects of pulse pileup on the energy spectrum recorded by energy resolved photon counting x-ray detectors

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Frey, Eric C.; Wang, Xiaolan; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Barber, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, novel CdTe photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) with energy discrimination capabilities have been developed. When such detectors are operated under a high x-ray flux, however, coincident pulses distort the recorded energy spectrum. These distortions are called pulse pileup effects. It is essential to compensate for these effects on the recorded energy spectrum in order to take full advantage of spectral information PCXDs provide. Such compensation can be achieved by incorporating a pileup model into the image reconstruction process for computed tomography, that is, as a part of the forward imaging process, and iteratively estimating either the imaged object or the line integrals using, e.g., a maximum likelihood approach. The aim of this study was to develop a new analytical pulse pileup model for both peak and tail pileup effects for nonparalyzable detectors. Methods: The model takes into account the following factors: The bipolar shape of the pulse, the distribution function of time intervals between random events, and the input probability density function of photon energies. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the model. Results: The recorded spectra estimated by the model were in an excellent agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for various levels of pulse pileup effects. The coefficients of variation (i.e., the root mean square difference divided by the mean of measurements) were 5.3%–10.0% for deadtime losses of 1%–50% with a polychromatic incident x-ray spectrum. Conclusions: The proposed pulse pileup model can predict recorded spectrum with relatively good accuracy. PMID:20879558

  18. Decoding carotid pressure waveforms recorded by laser Doppler vibrometry: Effects of rebreathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaccia, Sara; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Richter, Edward; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rohrbaugh, John W.

    2014-05-01

    The principal goal of this study was to assess the capability of the laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) method for assessing cardiovascular activity. A rebreathing task was used to provoke changes within individuals in cardiac and vascular performance. The rebreathing task is known to produce multiple effects, associated with changes in autonomic drive as well as alterations in blood gases. The rise in CO2 (hypercapnia), in particular, produces changes in the cerebral and systemic circulation. The results from a rebreathing task (involving rebreathing the same air in a rubber bag) are presented for 35 individuals. The LDV pulse was measured from a site overlying the carotid artery. For comparison and validation purposes, several conventional measures of cardiovascular function were also obtained, with an emphasis on the electrocardiogram (ECG), continuous blood pressure (BP) from the radial artery, and measures of myocardial performance using impedance cardiography (ICG). During periods of active rebreathing, ventilation increased. The conventional cardiovascular effects included increased mean arterial BP and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac stroke volume (SV) and pulse transit time (PTT). These effects were consistent with a pattern of α-adrenergic stimulation. During the immediate post-rebreathing segments, in contrast, mean BP was largely unaffected but pulse BP increased, as did PTT and SV, whereas systemic vascular resistance decreased-a pattern consistent with β-adrenergic effects in combination with the direct effects of hypercapnia on the vascular system. Measures of cardiovascular activity derived from the LDV pulse velocity and displacement waveforms revealed patterns of changes that mirrored the results obtained using conventional measures. In particular, the ratio of the maximum early peak in the LDV velocity pulse to the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse (in an early systolic interval) closely mirrored the conventional

  19. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-07-15

    A number of (semi-)analytical solutions are available to drawdown analysis and leakage estimation of shallow aquifer-aquitard systems. These solutions assume that the systems are laterally infinite. When a large-scale pumping from (or injection into) an aquifer-aquitard system of lower specific storativity occurs, induced pressure perturbation (or hydraulic head drawdown/rise) may reach the lateral boundary of the aquifer. We developed semi-analytical solutions to address the induced pressure perturbation and vertical leakage in a 'laterally bounded' system consisting of an aquifer and an overlying/underlying aquitard. A one-dimensional radial flow equation for the aquifer was coupled with a one-dimensional vertical flow equation for the aquitard, with a no-flow condition imposed on the outer radial boundary. Analytical solutions were obtained for (1) the Laplace-transform hydraulic head drawdown/rise in the aquifer and in the aquitard, (2) the Laplace-transform rate and volume of leakage through the aquifer-aquitard interface integrated up to an arbitrary radial distance, (3) the transformed total leakage rate and volume for the entire interface, and (4) the transformed horizontal flux at any radius. The total leakage rate and volume depend only on the hydrogeologic properties and thicknesses of the aquifer and aquitard, as well as the duration of pumping or injection. It was proven that the total leakage rate and volume are independent of the aquifer's radial extent and wellbore radius. The derived analytical solutions for bounded systems are the generalized solutions of infinite systems. Laplace-transform solutions were numerically inverted to obtain the hydraulic head drawdown/rise, leakage rate, leakage volume, and horizontal flux for given hydrogeologic and geometric conditions of the aquifer-aquitard system, as well as injection/pumping scenarios. Application to a large-scale injection-and-storage problem in a bounded system was demonstrated.

  20. Garnet from diamondiferous metamorphic rocks of Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan as a peak pressure recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Palyanov, Y. N.; Shatsky, V. S.; Sokol, A. G.; Tomilenko, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Garnet is a key mineral coexisting with diamond both in kimberlite (as xenocrysts, in diamondiferous garnet peridotites and eclogites, as inclusions in diamond) and in UHP metamorphic rocks of Kokchetav massif (diamondiferous gneisses, garnet-pyroxene rocks, dolomitic marbles and diamond facies eclogites). In UHPM rocks garnets are of particular importance as inclusions in zircons protected from retrograde metamorphism. Diamond formation conditions in eclogitic (E-type) upper mantle environment are estimated based upon Grt-Cpx thermometry and coesite barometry (e.g. Sobolev et al., PNAS, 2000, 97:11875) at P=5.5-6.0 GPa and T=1000-1300° C. These data are supported by diamond synthesis in carbonate-silicate fluid (e.g. Palyanov et al., Nature, 1999, 400: 417). E-type garnet may dissolve up to 0.3 wt.% Na2O (Sobolev, Lavrentyev, Contr. Min. Petr., 1971, 31:1) depending on pressure and Na2O contents in coexisting pyroxene and melts (fluids). Majorite component (pyroxene solid solution) was reported in rare garnets from diamonds (e.g. Moore, Gurney, Nature, 1985, 318:553) and UHP conditions were experimentally confirmed for such garnets (Irifune, Phys. Eart. Pl. Int., 1987, 45:324; Gasparik, Phys. Chem. Min., 2002, 29:170; Luth, Am. Miner., 1997, 82:1198). Garnets from Kokchetav diamondiferous metamorphic rocks demonstrate considerably lower Na2O solubility (up to 0.2 wt.% in rare samples) and absence of majorite component. However, coexisting pyroxenes may contain up to 50 mol.% jadeite. Several UHP experiments performed with Kokchetav eclogites and dolomitic marbles using a split-sphere apparatus resulted in detection of up to 0.3-0.4 wt.% Na2O in newly formed eclogitic garnets at P=5.7 and 7.0 GPa, T=1400 and 1700° C respectively. Majorite component was also determined in newly formed garnets reaching about 5% with Si (pfu)=3.05-3.06. Similar garnets without Na2O were also obtained in UHP experiments with diamondiferous dolomitic marbles (e.g. Palyanov et al

  1. A semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and fluid configurations in uniformly-wet pore spaces from 2D rock images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frette, O. I.; Helland, J. O.

    2010-08-01

    A novel semi-analytical model for computation of capillary entry pressures and associated fluid configurations in arbitrary, potentially non-convex, 2D pore space geometries at uniform wettability is developed. The model computes all possible centre positions of circular arcs, and physically sound criteria are implemented to determine the set of these arcs that correspond to geometrically allowed interfaces. Interfaces and pore boundary segments are connected to form closed boundaries of identified geometrical regions. These regions are classified as either oil regions, located in the wider parts of the pore space, or as water regions located in pore space constrictions. All possible region combinations are identified and evaluated for each radius value in an iterative procedure to determine the favourable entry radius and corresponding configuration based on minimisation of free energy. The model has been validated by comparison with known analytical solutions in idealised pore geometries. In cases where different analytical solutions are geometrically possible, the model generates several oil and water regions, and the valid solution is determined by the region combination that corresponds to the most favourable entry pressure, consistent with the analytical solution. Entry pressure radii and configurations are computed in strongly non-convex pore spaces extracted from an image of Bentheimer sandstone, which demonstrates that the model captures successfully well-known characteristics of capillary behaviour at different wetting conditions. The computations also demonstrate the importance of selecting the fluid configuration of minimum change in free energy. In some cases, a merged region formed by a combination of oil and water regions corresponds to the favourable entry configuration of oil, whereas in other cases, an individual oil region may correspond to the favourable oil entry configuration. It is also demonstrated that oil entry configurations may

  2. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  3. Atomic hydrogen emission induced by TEA CO(2) laser bombardment on solid samples at low pressure and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nasrullah; Terai, Sumito; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Hendrik; Kobayashi, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen emission has been studied in laser plasmas by focusing a TEA CO(2) laser (10.6 microm, 500 mJ, 200 ns) on various types of samples, such as glass, quartz, black plastic sheet, and oil on copper plate sub-target. It was found that H(alpha) emission with a narrow spectral width occurs with high efficiency when the laser plasma is produced in the low-pressure region. On the contrary, the conventional well-known laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which is usually carried out at atmospheric air pressure, cannot be applied to the analysis of hydrogen as an impurity. By combining low-pressure laser-induced plasma spectroscopy with laser surface cleaning, a preliminary quantitative analysis was made on zircaloy pipe samples intentionally doped with hydrogen. As a result, a good linear relationship was obtained between H(alpha) emission intensity and its concentration.

  4. [A validation of the data obtained with the simultaneous recording of blood pressure and the 24-hour electrocardiogram].

    PubMed

    Germanò, G; Caparra, A; Valentino, S; Coia, F; Federico, L; Santucci, A

    1993-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the blood pressure (BP) measurement reliability of a light weight ambulatory BP and ECG recorder. Micro AM is a new 300 g portable apparatus that combines in one device both the ambulatory BP and solid state ECG recording. The dimensions of the Micro AM are 75 x 140 x 29 mm. The monitor measures BP using Korotkoff phase 1 for systolic and phase 5 for diastolic BP, and concurrently measures oscillometric BP, one method validating the other. In addition, the manual and programmed BP measurement modes can be supplemented by an "intelligent" mode in which the ECG triggers an ambulatory BP reading during an abnormal ST segment change. A standard mercury manometer was connected with the cuff of the Micro AM with a Y-shaped part, and 12 BP measurements were simultaneously taken at 5 min intervals by the automatic device in auscultatory mode and by a trained technician in 86 normotensive volunteers (aged from 18 to 44 years, 37 males and 49 females). The algebraic differences, the frequency distribution and the difference distribution of systolic and diastolic data between the 2 methods were calculated. The results show that the automatic method gives values for systolic BP that are lower than conventional ones (average differences -0.643 mmHg), whereas for diastolic BP, the values are higher (average differences +0.229 mmHg). Then, Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences. The test relative to systolic BP was significant to the critical level of 0.1%, but the differences being 3 times smaller than the instrumental tolerance. On the contrary, diastolic BP differences were non significant. In conclusion, we found a good agreement between BP recorded automatically and by sphygmomanometer.

  5. Advective transport of CO2 in permeable media induced by atmospheric pressure fluctuations: 1. An analytical model

    Treesearch

    W. J. Massman

    2006-01-01

    Advective flows within soils and snowpacks caused by pressure fluctuations at the upper surface of either medium can significantly influence the exchange rate of many trace gases from the underlying substrate to the atmosphere. Given the importance of many of these trace gases in understanding biogeochemical cycling and global change, it is crucial to quantify (as much...

  6. Numerical and analytical assessment of the influence of blood flow through arterial perforators on the pulse pressure shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Piechna, Adam; Cieślicki, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Most of the existing models of cardiovascular system do not take into account the leakage of blood through a number of small vessels branching the main arterial trunks and called perforators. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate their influence on the pulse pressure waveform. Linearized, 1D computer model of a minute part of the cardiovascular system has been designed and series of simulations with and without leakage have been conducted. Blood flow in a single segment of the arterial system and pressure in vascular nodes were described by the two first order partial differential equations. A set of boundary conditions on both ends of a single vascular segment and at nodal point have been formulated. To solve the linear set of above equations, a numerical method of characteristic has been used. It was shown that the leakage reduces reflection from the peripheral resistance. The simulations have also shown a decrease of the average pressure value with increase of leakage and modification of the pulse pressure waveform. All these effects depended strongly on the assumed leakage value and practically died out when its value was reduced to about 10% of the main flow.

  7. Onion cells after high pressure and thermal processing: comparison of membrane integrity changes using different analytical methods and impact on tissue texture.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    Two different analytical methods were evaluated for their capacity to provide quantitative information on onion cell membrane permeability and integrity after high pressure and thermal processing and to study the impact of these processing treatments on cell compartmentalization and texture quality. To determine changes in cell membrane permeability and/or integrity the methodologies utilized were: (1) measurement of a biochemical product, pyruvate, formed as a result of membrane permeabilization followed by enzymatic activity and (2) leakage of electrolytes into solution. These results were compared to previously determined methods that quantified cell viability and ¹H-NMR T(2) of onions. These methods allowed for the monitoring of changes in the plasma and tonoplast membranes after high pressure or thermal processing. High pressure treatments consisted of 5 min holding times at 50, 100, 200, 300, or 600 MPa. Thermal treatments consisted of 30 min water bath exposure to 40, 50, 60, 70, or 90 °C. There was strong agreement between the methods in the determination of the ranges of high pressure and temperature that induce changes in the integrity of the plasma and tonoplast membranes. Membrane rupture could clearly be identified at 300 MPa and above in high pressure treatments and at 60 °C and above in the thermal treatments. Membrane destabilization effects could already be visualized following the 200 MPa and 50 °C treatments. The texture of onions was influenced by the state of the membranes and was abruptly modified once membrane integrity was lost. In this study, we used chemical, biochemical, and histological techniques to obtain information on cell membrane permeability and onion tissue integrity after high pressure and thermal processing. Because there was strong agreement between the various methods used, it is possible to implement something relatively simple, such as ion leakage, into routine quality assurance measurements to determine the severity of

  8. Analytical Modeling of Pressure Wall Hole Size and Maximum Tip-to-Tip Crack Length for Perforating Normal and Oblique Orbital Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Mohamed, Essam

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study whose objective was to develop first-principles-based models of hole size and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for a spacecraft module pressure wall that has been perforated in an orbital debris particle impact. The hole size and crack length models are developed by sequentially characterizing the phenomena comprising the orbital debris impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the pressure wall, the deformation of the pressure wall due to debris cloud impact loading prior to crack formation, pressure wall crack initiation, propagation, and arrest, and finally pressure wall deformation following crack initiation and growth. The model development has been accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory, as well as the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The predictions of the model developed herein are compared against the predictions of empirically-based equations for hole diameters and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for three International Space Station wall configurations. The ISS wall systems considered are the baseline U.S. Lab Cylinder, the enhanced U.S. Lab Cylinder, and the U.S. Lab Endcone. The empirical predictor equations were derived from experimentally obtained hole diameters and crack length data. The original model predictions did not compare favorably with the experimental data, especially for cases in which pressure wall petalling did not occur. Several modifications were made to the original model to bring its predictions closer in line with the experimental results. Following the adjustment of several empirical constants, the predictions of the modified analytical model were in much closer agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Analytical interference of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine with the measurement of plasma free normetanephrine by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunand, Marielle; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Rickli, Anna; Hysek, Cédric M; Liechti, Matthias E; Grouzmann, Eric

    2014-08-01

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma relies on the measurement of plasma free metanephrines assay whose reliability has been considerably improved by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Here we report an analytical interference occurring between 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), a metabolite of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"), and normetanephrine (NMN) since they share a common pharmacophore resulting in the same product ion after fragmentation. Synthetic HMMA was spiked into plasma samples containing various concentrations of NMN and the intensity of the interference was determined by UPLC-MS/MS before and after improvement of the analytical method. Using a careful adjustment of chromatographic conditions including the change of the UPLC analytical column, we were able to distinguish both compounds. HMMA interference for NMN determination should be seriously considered since MDMA activates the sympathetic nervous system and if confounded with NMN may lead to false-positive tests when performing a differential diagnostic of pheochromocytoma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tracking Ocean Gravity Waves in Real-time: Highlights of Bottom Pressure Data Recorded on Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, Martin; Mihaly, Steve; Gemmrich, Johannes; Davis, Earl; Thomson, Richard; Dewey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two cabled ocean observatories off Vancouver Island on Canada's west coast. The regional NEPTUNE observatory spans the entire Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from the coast across the subduction zone to the hydrothermally active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Segment while the VENUS observatory focuses on coastal processes. Both observatories collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex earth processes. High-precision bottom pressure recorders (BPR) deployed on the NEPTUNE observatory are capable of detecting a wide range of phenomena related to sea level variations. The observatory BPRs provide observations of nano-resolution (with respect to full scale of the instrument) pressure variations which correspond to sub-millimeter scale surface water displacements in several kilometers of water. Detected signals include tides, tsunamis, infragravity waves, swell, wave-induced microseisms, storm surge, and seismic signals. Spectral analysis reveals many of these phenomena with periods ranging from a few seconds to many hours. Dispersion patterns from distant swells are prominent in the swell and microseism bands. By comparing the difference of arrival times between longer period waves, which arrive first, and shorter period waves we can estimate the distance the swells travelled since they were generated. Using this information, swell can be tracked back to specific storms across the Pacific. The presentation will high-light some examples of the mentioned phenomena in the continuous time-series that in some instances are more than seven years long.

  11. Automated office and home phone-transmitted blood pressure recordings in uncontrolled hypertension treated with valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Girerd, Xavier; Denolle, Thierry; Yau, Caroline; Fiquet, Béatrice; Brunel, Patrick; Moulin, Bruno; Herpin, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate, by means of automated office and phone-transmitted home blood pressure (OBP and HBP) recordings, the effects of a fixed combination of valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg in hypertensive patients previously uncontrolled with the combination of an angiotensin receptor antagonist and HCTZ. From 241 selected patients, 171 (71%) had uncontrolled hypertension OBP and HBP [mean baseline OBP and HBP systolic and diastolic (SBP/DBP): 157/91 and 152/87 mmHg]. In this open-design study, patients were directly switched from other angiotensin receptor blocker combination products to valsartan/HCTZ for 6 weeks. The same validated automated device was used for OBP and HBP recordings. At baseline, mean HBP was 152 +/- 15/87 +/- 10 mmHg and mean OBP was 157 +/- 12/91 +/- 9 mmHg. After 6 weeks of treatment with valsartan 160 mg and HCTZ 25 mg, a significant decrease in BP was observed both at home (146 +/- 17/83 +/- 12 mmHg) and at the office (151 +/- 18/87 +/- 11 mmHg), with a difference from baseline of -4 mmHg, p < 0.001 for DBP and of -6 mmHg for SBP, p < 0.001. The percentage of patients with office and home control was 24% and 23% respectively, with a kappa index at 0.459. Elevated OBP only (office hypertension) was observed in 3.6% and elevated HBP only (masked hypertension) in 10% of patients. In conclusion, treatment with valsartan and HCTZ 25 mg in patients with confirmed uncontrolled hypertension induced a clinically relevant decrease in BP with approximately 23% of additional patients strictly controlled with a single tablet. The use of an automated oscillometric device at the office and at home allowed the detection of controlled subjects with good agreement.

  12. Nurse Continuity and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers: A Comparative Analysis Using an Electronic Health Record "Big Data" Set.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Little research demonstrating the association between nurse continuity and patient outcomes exists despite an intuitive belief that continuity makes a difference in care outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of nurse continuity with the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). A secondary use of data from the Hands on Automated Nursing Data System (HANDS) was performed for this comparative study. The HANDS is a nursing plan of care data set containing 42,403 episodes documented by 787 nurses, on nine units, in four hospitals and includes nurse staffing and patient characteristics. The HANDS data set resides in a "big data" relational database consisting of 89 tables and 747 columns of data. Via data mining, we created an analytic data set of 840 care episodes, 210 with and 630 without HAPUs, matched by nursing unit, patient age, and patient characteristics. Logistic regression analysis determined the association of nurse continuity and additional nurse-staffing variables on HAPU occurrence. Poor nurse continuity (unit mean continuity index = .21-.42 [1.0 = optimal continuity]) was noted on all nine study units. Nutrition, mobility, perfusion, hydration, and skin problems on admission, as well as patient age, were associated with HAPUs (p < .001). Controlling for patient characteristics, nurse continuity, and the interactions between nurse continuity and other nurse-staffing variables were not significantly associated with HAPU development. Patient characteristics including nutrition, mobility, and perfusion were associated with HAPUs, but nurse continuity was not. We demonstrated a high level of variation in the degree of continuity between patient episodes in the HANDS data, showing that it offers rich potential for future study of nurse continuity and its effect on patient outcomes.

  13. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  14. Knocking Combustion Observed in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Simultaneous Direct and Schlieren High-Speed Motion Pictures and Pressure Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1948-01-01

    Simultaneous direct and Schlieren photographs at 40,000 frames per second and correlated pressure records were taken of knocking combustion in a special spark-ignition engine to ascertain the intensity of certain end-zone reactions previously noted from Schlieren photography alone. A violent propagated homogeneous autoignition, or a similar phenomenon, previously observed, was again observed. The pressure records show autoignition of varying violence before the passage of a probable detonation wave. Extensive autoignition without occurrence of gas vibrations was seen in one explosion.

  15. Timing of strain localization in high-pressure low-temperature shear zones: The argon isotopic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Scaillet, Stéphane; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain

    2017-04-01

    The complex interplay between rheology, temperature and deformation profoundly influences how crustal-scale shear zones form and then evolve across a deforming lithosphere. Understanding early exhumation processes in subduction zones requires quantitative age constraints on the timing of strain localization within high-pressure shear zones. Using both the in situ laser ablation and conventional step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dating (on phengite single grains and populations) methods, this study aims at quantifying the duration of ductile deformation and the timing of strain localization within HP-LT shear zones of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU, Greece). The rate of this progressive strain localization is unknown, and in general, poorly known in similar geological contexts. Critical to retrieve realistic estimates of rates of strain localization during exhumation, dense 40Ar/39Ar age transects were sampled along shear zones recently identified on Syros and Sifnos islands. There, field observations suggest that deformation progressively localized downward in the CBU during exhumation. In parallel, these shear zones are characterized by different degrees of retrogression from blueschist-facies to greenschist-facies P-T conditions overprinting eclogite-facies record throughout the CBU. Results show straightforward correlations between the degree of retrogression, the finite strain intensity and 40Ar/39Ar ages; the most ductilely deformed and retrograded rocks yielded the youngest 40Ar/39Ar ages. The possible effects of strain localization during exhumation on the record of the argon isotopic system in HP-LT shear zones are addressed. Our results show that strain has localized in shear zones over a 30 Ma long period and that individual shear zones evolve during 7-15 Ma. We also discuss these results at small-scale to see whether deformation and fluid circulations, channelled within shear bands, can homogenize chemical compositions and reset the 40Ar/39Ar isotopic record

  16. Multinight Recording and Analysis of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Airflow in the Home for Titration and Management of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Cynthia Y.; Norman, Robert G.; Taxin, Zachary; Mooney, Anne M.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The authors examined magnitude/variability of residual sleep disordered breathing (SDB) at pressures around the therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and described a multinight approach to CPAP titration/retitration consisting of recording airflow and summarizing SDB over multiple nights at multiple pressures and choosing an optimal pressure from these summarized data. Design: Prospective, single-center nonblinded study. Patients: Ten female/18 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] 67/h), 17 newly-initiated, 11 chronic CPAP users. Interventions: A custom CPAP device (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare) recording airflow and pre-programmed to vary CPAP between 2-3 cm H2O below and 1-2 cm H2O above prescription pressure as determined by a full laboratory titration. Results: Airflow and pressure continuously recorded for multiple nights (15.9 ± 5.1 nights) at four to seven different pressures in each patient. SDB events manually scored from the airflow as apnea (airflow reduction > 90%), hypopnea (airflow reduction > 30% lasting 10 to 120 sec with inspira-tory flow limitation [IFL]) and runs of sustained IFL > 2 min identified. RDI = (apnea + hypopnea)/total sleep time calculated for each night and an obstruction index, including sustained IFL, also was calculated. PressureMultinight was obtained for each patient from multiple nights of data using two mathematical techniques. Night-to-night variability of SDB indices was low in some patients and significant in others. PressureMultinight could be determined in 17 of 28 patients and was similar to the in-laboratory pressure. Conclusions: This study showed that recording multiple nights of CPAP airflow in the home and analyzing these data for residual SDB provided useful information, including the possibility of determining a therapeutic prescription for fixed CPAP in most patients and identification of others with significant

  17. Non-BCS superconducting state in yttrium hydride at a record low value of the external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosik, Marcin W.; Szczȩśniak, Radosław; Wrona, Izabela A.; Kostrzewa, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The ab initio calculations suggest that YH3 compound is a superconductor with the maximum value of the critical temperature (TC) for the record low external pressure equal to 17.7 GPa. Due to the high value of the electron-phonon coupling constant, the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in YH3 have been determined in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. It has been shown that TC changes in the range from 45.91K to 27.29 K, for the value of the Coulomb pseudopotential μ⋆ ∈ < 0.1 , 0.3 > . The parameters of the superconducting phase differ significantly from the values predicted by the BCS theory due to the significant strong-coupling and retardation effects: kBTC /ωln ∈ < 0.138 , 0.082 > , where ωln denotes the logarithmic phonon frequency. In particular, the dimensionless ratios: RΔ = 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC = Δ C (TC) /CN (TC) and RH =TCCN (TC) /HC2(0) take the following values: RΔ ∈ < 4.38 , 4.20 > , RC ∈ < 2.18 , 2.02 > and RH ∈ < 0.151 , 0.168 > . The symbol Δ represents the order parameter, Δ C is the specific heat jump, CN is the specific heat of the normal state, and HC is the thermodynamic critical field.

  18. Characterization of Zebrafish Green Cone Photoresponse Recorded with Pressure-Polished Patch Pipettes, Yielding Efficient Intracellular Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Marco; Benedusi, Mascia; Fasoli, Anna; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The phototransduction enzymatic cascade in cones is less understood than in rods, and the zebrafish is an ideal model with which to investigate vertebrate and human vision. Therefore, here, for the first time, the zebrafish green cone photoresponse is characterized also to obtain a firm basis for evaluating how it is modulated by exogenous molecules. To this aim, a powerful method was developed to obtain long-lasting recordings with low access resistance, employing pressure-polished patch pipettes. This method also enabled fast, efficient delivery of molecules via a perfusion system coupled with pulled quartz or plastic perfusion tubes, inserted very close to the enlarged pipette tip. Sub-saturating flashes elicited responses in different cells with similar rising phase kinetics but with very different recovery kinetics, suggesting the existence of physiologically distinct cones having different Ca2+ dynamics. Theoretical considerations demonstrate that the different recovery kinetics can be modelled by simulating changes in the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the outer segment. Importantly, the Ca2+-buffer action preserves the fast response rising phase, when the Ca2+-dependent negative feedback is activated by the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+.

  19. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R.; Hiremath, Kirankumar R.; Sharma, Manvendra

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  20. Analytical Evaluation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann Velocity Average in Pressure-Broadened Half-Width Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamache, Robert R.

    2001-07-01

    For the first time the half-width within the complex Robert-Bonamy (CRB) formalism is calculated without making the mean relative thermal velocity approximation. The application is to the nitrogen-broadened half-width of the 500.4-GHz transition (342 32←341 33) of the ground vibrational state of ozone. For each state of the perturber, the optical cross sections are determined at a number of velocities with the intermolecular potential taken as a sum of electrostatic contributions and Lennard-Jones (6-12) atom-atom components. The dynamics of the collision process are correct to second order in time. Using a nonlinear least-squares fitting method, the optical cross sections are fit to a double power law, which allows the velocity integral for the half-width to be done analytically. The results are compared with the mean relative thermal velocity complex Robert-Bonamy calculations and with measurement. The temperature dependence of the half-width, which is necessary for reduction of remotely sensed data, is determined from both methods and compared with experiment.

  1. A home-made low-cost hydraulic swivel and catheter assembly for blood pressure recording and drug infusion in freely moving mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Li; Huang, Jian-Jia; Chou, Li-Min; Chen, Chien-Chang

    2008-06-01

    We constructed a chassis that tightly fixes catheters for cannulation to the muscle. It can buffer pulling forces to avoid a mechanical tearing of the skin of mice as a result of movement. A simple hydraulic swivel was also made for blood pressure recording and drug infusion in freely moving mice.

  2. Photoprotective Strategies of Mediterranean Plants in Relation to Morphological Traits and Natural Environmental Pressure: A Meta-Analytical Approach.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Gómez-Sagasti, Maria T

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a small geographic extension, Mediterranean Basin is characterized by an exceptional plant biodiversity. Adaptive responses of this biocoenosis are delineated by an unusual temporal dissociation along the year between optimal temperature for growth and water availability. This fact generates the combination of two environmental stress factors: a period of summer drought, variable in length and intensity, and the occurrence of mild to cold winters. Both abiotic factors, trigger the generation of (photo)oxidative stress and plants orchestrate an arsenal of structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to withstand such environmental injuries. In the last two decades an important effort has been made to characterize the adaptive morphological and ecophysiological traits behind plant survival strategies with an eye to predict how they will respond to future climatic changes. In the present work, we have compiled data from 89 studies following a meta-analytical approach with the aim of assessing the composition and plasticity of photosynthetic pigments and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (tocopherols, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) of wild Mediterranean plant species. The influence of internal plant and leaf factors on such composition together with the stress responsiveness, were also analyzed. This approach enabled to obtain data from 73 species of the Mediterranean flora, with the genus Quercus being the most frequently studied. Main highlights of present analysis are: (i) sort of photoprotective mechanisms do not differ between Mediterranean plants and other floras but they show higher plasticity indexes; (ii) α-tocopherol among the antioxidants and violaxanthin-cycle pigments show the highest responsiveness to environmental factors; (iii) both winter and drought stresses induce overnight retention of de-epoxidised violaxanthin-cycle pigments; (iv) this retention correlates with depressions of Fv/Fm; and (v) contrary to what

  3. Photoprotective Strategies of Mediterranean Plants in Relation to Morphological Traits and Natural Environmental Pressure: A Meta-Analytical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I.; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Gómez-Sagasti, Maria T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a small geographic extension, Mediterranean Basin is characterized by an exceptional plant biodiversity. Adaptive responses of this biocoenosis are delineated by an unusual temporal dissociation along the year between optimal temperature for growth and water availability. This fact generates the combination of two environmental stress factors: a period of summer drought, variable in length and intensity, and the occurrence of mild to cold winters. Both abiotic factors, trigger the generation of (photo)oxidative stress and plants orchestrate an arsenal of structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to withstand such environmental injuries. In the last two decades an important effort has been made to characterize the adaptive morphological and ecophysiological traits behind plant survival strategies with an eye to predict how they will respond to future climatic changes. In the present work, we have compiled data from 89 studies following a meta-analytical approach with the aim of assessing the composition and plasticity of photosynthetic pigments and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (tocopherols, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) of wild Mediterranean plant species. The influence of internal plant and leaf factors on such composition together with the stress responsiveness, were also analyzed. This approach enabled to obtain data from 73 species of the Mediterranean flora, with the genus Quercus being the most frequently studied. Main highlights of present analysis are: (i) sort of photoprotective mechanisms do not differ between Mediterranean plants and other floras but they show higher plasticity indexes; (ii) α−tocopherol among the antioxidants and violaxanthin-cycle pigments show the highest responsiveness to environmental factors; (iii) both winter and drought stresses induce overnight retention of de-epoxidised violaxanthin-cycle pigments; (iv) this retention correlates with depressions of Fv/Fm; and (v) contrary to what

  4. Recorded lower esophageal pressures as a function of electronic sleeve placement and location of gastric pressure measurement in patients with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Basseri, Benjamin; Pimentel, Mark; Chang, Christopher; Soffer, Edy E; Conklin, Jeffrey L

    2013-10-01

    In high-resolution manometry lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) is measured relative to intragastric pressure, however Gastric Marker™ (GM) location used to determine resting LESP is not well established with hiatal hernia (HH). We test the hypothesis that measured resting LESP varies with HH based on GM location. Subjects with HH ≥ 2 cm were included. The eSleeve™ was adjusted to span only the LES, excluding the crural diaphragm (CD). Resting LESP was determined by placing the GM below and above the CD (in the position yielding the highest resting LESP). Resting pressure across the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to CD and pressure in the HH relative to subdiaphragmatic intragastric pressure were also measured. HH ≥ 2 cm was present in 98 patients (mean length 2.7 cm). LESP decreased when GM was moved from below the CD into the HH: respiratory minimum LESP 7.5 ± 1.1 to 3.6 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001, mean LESP 17.7 ± 1.3 to 13.7 ± 1.1 mmHg; P < 0.001. When the eSleeve encompassed the LES and CD, the respiratory minimum pressure was 12.2 ± 0.9 mmHg and mean pressure was 23.9 ± 1.0 mmHg pressure (P < 0.001 for both). Pressure in the hernia pouch was greater than intragastric pressure: respiratory minimum 3.0 ± 0.7 mmHg and mean 9.0 ± 0.8 mmHg (P < 0.001 for both). pH studies showed a trend toward an association between abnormal distal esophagus acid exposure and lower resting LESP. GM placement in the HH produces lower resting LESPs. This may provide a more physiologic representation of LESP in HH.

  5. Zero end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure and its impact on classification of patients for pharmacologic management in primary care — PREDICT-CVD–6

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Joanna; Wells, Sue; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Rod

    2007-01-01

    Background Most blood pressure recordings end with a zero end-digit despite guidelines recommending measurement to the nearest 2 mmHg. The impact of rounding on management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is unknown. Aim To document the use of rounding to zero end-digit and assess its potential impact on eligibility for pharmacologic management of CVD risk. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 23 676 patients having opportunistic CVD risk assessment in primary care practices in New Zealand. Method To simulate rounding in practice, for patients with systolic blood pressures recorded without a zero end-digit, a second blood pressure measure was generated by arithmetically rounding to the nearest zero end-digit. A 10-year Framingham CVD risk score was estimated using actual and rounded blood pressures. Eligibility for pharmacologic treatment was then determined using the Joint British Societies' JBS2 and the British Hypertension Society BHS–IV guidelines based on actual and rounded blood pressure values. Results Zero end-digits were recorded in 64% of systolic and 62% of diastolic blood pressures. When eligibility for drug treatment was based only on a Framingham 10-year CVD risk threshold of 20% or more, rounding misclassified one in 41 of all those patients subject to this error. Under the two guidelines which use different combinations of CVD risk and blood pressure thresholds, one in 19 would be misclassified under JBS2 and one in 12 under the BHS–IV guidelines mostly towards increased treatment. Conclusion Zero end-digit preference significantly increases a patient's likelihood of being classified as eligible for drug treatment. Guidelines that base treatment decisions primarily on absolute CVD risk are less susceptible to these errors. PMID:17976291

  6. Effects of varying CoCrV seed layer deposition pressure on Ru crystallinity in perpendicular magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Joost, W.; Das, A.; Alford, T. L.

    2009-10-01

    The effects of varying deposition parameters of a CoCrV seed layer under Ru on the structural and interfacial properties of both layers were studied. While sputtering power showed little effect on film structure, sputtering pressure during deposition of the seed layer had a significant effect on the structural properties of the seed layer. In particular, the grain morphology and crystallinity of the seed layer varied considerably with deposition pressure. Deposition of Ru using a constant recipe for all samples demonstrated the effect of varying seed layer deposition pressure on the Ru layer. The strain energy of the Ru film, a measurement of contraction due to the registry with the seed layer, was greatest at moderate seed layer sputtering pressures, while the Ru(0002) peak area was greatest at low sputtering pressures. The competing contributions of interfacial energy and strain energy describe this effect, with interfacial energy dominating at low sputtering pressures.

  7. Spectral Analysis of Pore Pressure Data Recorded from the 2010 Sierra EL Mayor (baja California) Earthquake at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, S. H.; Lavallee, D.; Steidl, J. H.; Ratzesberger, H.; Hegarty, P.

    2010-12-01

    On 4 April 2010, the M7.2 Sierra el Mayor event occurred in Baja California, Mexico. The NEES@UCSB Wildlife field site in the Imperial Basin is located 110 km NNW of the hypocenter. The event was recorded on all channels: by three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and by pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. We have computed the spectra of the pore pressure response in the frequency domain for signals recorded at different depths. At each depth, the spectrum is attenuated as a power law with a sharp discontinuity at a frequency close to 1 Hz. We report the value of the exponents that characterize the power-law behavior of these spectra. We also computed cross-spectral analysis of the pore pressure records from different depths. The functional behaviors of the curves of the cross-spectra are similar to that of the original spectra. For comparison, we present the spectrum of each component of the ground motion recorded at a nearby accelerometer. Partially due to the late arrival of the surface waves, the frequency content of the recorded pore pressure signal is a function of time. To gain a better understanding of the time-dependence of the frequency content, we performed spectral analysis of the signal in a moving window and wavelet transforms of the full signals. The spectral analysis suggests that, except for high frequencies, the curves exhibit a complex behavior as a function of the window position. We interpret and discuss the consequences of the estimated spectra, the cross-spectra, and the wavelet transforms.

  8. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  9. [Possibilities of data acquisition, recording and processing based on the system for continuous intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure monitoring designed at the Department of Neurosurgery of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow].

    PubMed

    Czepko, Ryszard; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Niedźwiedzki, Jerzy; Libionka, Witold; Pietraszko, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    To describe computer system for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and for infusion testing (IT), and to present current possibilities of analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure signal. Computer system for pressure signal measurement and acquisition consists of three sensors: for ICP, infusion pressure during IT, and blood pressure measurements. Electric signal from the sensors is transmitted to Temed RMN-201M cardiomonitor, and next after enhancement is subjected to Data Shuttle DS-12-8-5B-AO analog to digital converter. Digital output signal is recorded and analysed'on standard personal computer. Original Windows-compatible software was developed to control the system. The program consists of three blocs: configuration, measurement and readout, and enables selection of voltage range for each of the signal channels, measurement resolution, sampling frequency, calibration and zeroing of the sensors, visualisation of pressure signals on graph, data storage in text format and automatic analysis of IT. Main characteristics of the system include: high sampling frequency (up to 500 Hz), simultaneous data recording from all signal channels, and access to terminal cistern with one puncture needle on IT. Laboratory and clinical tests confirmed high precision of the developed system. ICP CURVE ANALYSIS: The developed software allows for evaluation of the main parameters, of CSF dynamics, prediction of IT course before a steady state is reached as well as spectral analysis of pressure signal. Computer measurement system developed at our department is clinically useful and allows for high precision signal acquisition necessary for advanced scientific analyses of hydrocephalus and intracranial pressure.

  10. Redox processes in subducting oceanic crust recorded by sulfide-bearing high-pressure rocks and veins (SW Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; John, Timm; Wang, Xin-Shui

    2016-09-01

    The oxidized nature of the sub-arc mantle and hence arc magmas is generally interpreted as a result of the migration of subduction-related oxidizing fluids or melts from the descending slab into the mantle wedge. This is of particular importance seeing that the oxidization state of sub-arc magmas seems to play a key role in the formations of arc-related ore deposits. However, direct constraints on the redox state of subducted oceanic crust are sparse. Here, we provide a detailed petrological investigation on sulfide- and oxide-bearing eclogites, blueschists, micaschists, eclogite-facies and retrograde veins from the Akeyazi high-pressure (HP) terrane (NW China) in order to gain insight into the redox processes recorded in a subducting oceanic slab. Sulfides in these rocks are mainly pyrite and minor pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, sphalerite and chalcocite, including exsolution textures of bornite-chalcopyrite intergrowth. Magnetite, ilmenite and pyrite occur as inclusions in garnet, whereas sulfides are dominant in the matrix. Large pyrite grains in the matrix contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and other HP index minerals. However, magnetite replacing pyrite textures are commonly observed in the retrograded samples. The eclogite-facies and retrograde veins display two fluid events, which are characterized by an early sulfide-bearing and a later magnetite-bearing mineral assemblage, respectively. Textural and petrological evidences show that the sulfides were mainly formed during HP metamorphism. Mineral assemblage transitions reveal that the relative oxygen fugacity of subducted oceanic crust decreases slightly with increasing depths. However, according to oxygen mass balance calculations, based on the oxygen molar quantities ( nO2), the redox conditions remain constant during HP metamorphism. At shallow levels (<60 km) in the subduction channel, interaction with oxidized fluid seems to have caused an increase of the oxygen fugacity and the

  11. Optimization of drug-drug interaction alert rules in a pediatric hospital's electronic health record system using a visual analytics dashboard.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Desai, Bimal R; Bonafide, Christopher P; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A; Jawad, Abbas F; Palma, Krisha L; Shelov, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    To develop and evaluate an electronic dashboard of hospital-wide electronic health record medication alerts for an alert fatigue reduction quality improvement project. We used visual analytics software to develop the dashboard. We collaborated with the hospital-wide Clinical Decision Support committee to perform three interventions successively deactivating clinically irrelevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) alert rules. We analyzed the impact of the interventions on care providers' and pharmacists' alert and override rates using an interrupted time series framework with piecewise regression. We evaluated 2 391 880 medication alerts between January 31, 2011 and January 26, 2014. For pharmacists, the median alert rate prior to the first DDI deactivation was 58.74 alerts/100 orders (IQR 54.98-60.48) and 25.11 alerts/100 orders (IQR 23.45-26.57) following the three interventions (p<0.001). For providers, baseline median alert rate prior to the first round of DDI deactivation was 19.73 alerts/100 orders (IQR 18.66-20.24) and 15.11 alerts/100 orders (IQR 14.44-15.49) following the three interventions (p<0.001). In a subgroup analysis, we observed a decrease in pharmacists' override rates for DDI alerts that were not modified in the system from a median of 93.06 overrides/100 alerts (IQR 91.96-94.33) to 85.68 overrides/100 alerts (IQR 84.29-87.15, p<0.001). The medication serious safety event rate decreased during the study period, and there were no serious safety events reported in association with the deactivated alert rules. An alert dashboard facilitated safe rapid-cycle reductions in alert burden that were temporally associated with lower pharmacist override rates in a subgroup of DDIs not directly affected by the interventions; meanwhile, the pharmacists' frequency of selecting the 'cancel' option increased. We hypothesize that reducing the alert burden enabled pharmacists to devote more attention to clinically relevant alerts. © The Author 2014. Published by

  12. An analytical comparison of gas gain in spherical, cylindrical and hemispherical low-pressure proportional counters intended for use in experimental microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, David; Waker, Anthony J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally experimental microdosimetry has employed low pressure single cavity spherical Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs). Multi-Element Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (METEPCs) with numerous cylindrical cavities have been constructed in order to increase sensitivity per unit volume; however existing METEPC designs are prohibitively complex and sensitive to motion and audible noise. This work proposes a novel hemispherical element with a wire-less anode ball as a solution to these issues. The gas gain characteristics of this hemispherical METEPC element were analyzed first for a single hemispherical TEPC to evaluate performance relative to current cylindrical and spherical counter designs that have been demonstrated experimentally to perform very well. This gain analysis evaluated relative avalanche size and the uniformity in maximum gain for electrons originating throughout the gas cavities of each of the three counters. Radial gas gain distributions for each counter were determined using both theoretical potential distributions as well as analytical equipotential distributions generated with ANSYS Maxwell (V. 14.0) to solve the Townsend equation. It was found that the hemispherical counter exhibits completely uniform gas gain for electrons approaching the anode from all directions and its avalanche region occupies only 3.5×10-3% of the entire gas cavity volume, whereas in the cylindrical and spherical counters the avalanche occupies 0.6% and 0.12% of the total respective gas cavity volumes. These analytical gas gain results are promising, suggesting that the hemisphere should exhibit uniform signal amplification throughout the gas cavity and if the recommended follow-up experimental work demonstrates the hemispherical counter works as anticipated it will be ready to be incorporated into an METEPC design.

  13. Leveraging Electronic Health Care Record Information to Measure Pressure Ulcer Risk in Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Susan S; Sabharwal, Sunil; Finch, Dezon K; McCart, James; Toyinbo, Peter; Bouayad, Lina; Matheny, Michael E; Gobbel, Glenn T; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a frequent, serious, and costly complication for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). The health care team should periodically identify PrU risk, although there is no tool in the literature that has been found to be reliable, valid, and sensitive enough to assess risk in this vulnerable population. Objective The immediate goal is to develop a risk assessment model that validly estimates the probability of developing a PrU. The long-term goal is to assist veterans with SCI and their providers in preventing PrUs through an automated system of risk assessment integrated into the veteran’s electronic health record (EHR). Methods This 5-year longitudinal, retrospective, cohort study targets 12,344 veterans with SCI who were cared for in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and had no record of a PrU in the prior 12 months. Potential risk factors identified in the literature were reviewed by an expert panel that prioritized factors and determined if these were found in structured data or unstructured form in narrative clinical notes for FY 2009-2013. These data are from the VHA enterprise Corporate Data Warehouse that is derived from the EHR structured (ie, coded in database/table) or narrative (ie, text in clinical notes) data for FY 2009-2013. Results This study is ongoing and final results are expected in 2017. Thus far, the expert panel reviewed the initial list of risk factors extracted from the literature; the panel recommended additions and omissions and provided insights about the format in which the documentation of the risk factors might exist in the EHR. This list was then iteratively refined through review and discussed with individual experts in the field. The cohort for the study was then identified, and all structured, unstructured, and semistructured data were extracted. Annotation schemas were developed, samples of documents were extracted, and annotations are ongoing. Operational

  14. Analytical Treatment for Deriving the Constitutive Relationship and the Function Governing the System Behavior in the Framework Associated with Heat, Fluid Pressure and Inelastic Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamashita, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have treated the interaction among heat, fluid pressure and inelastic pore creation to explain diversity of dynamic earthquake rupture process. In the present study, we introduce the third nondimensional parameter, Ta, to describe the effect of the upper limit of inelastic porosity, into our previous model, which includes two nondimensional parameters Su and Su'; the parameter Su represents the relative dominance of the effect of inelastic pore creation on the fluid pressure change over that of shear heating, while Su' is associated with the dominance of fluid flow effect over the effect of shear heating. New nonlinearity associated with the upper limit generates qualitatively different behaviors from those shown in our previous studies. With an assumption Su>1-v0* (where v0* is the initial value of normalized slip velocity v*) and without the fluid flow (that is, Su'=0), some solutions show an apparent stable point, v*=0, while the others have the actual stable point v*=0. We can show transient behavior from v*=0 to the actual stable point v*=1 in the former case, which is sometimes observed for nonlinear systems like the Gray-Scott model. Both acceleration accompanied with high-speed slip due to complete stress release and spontaneous slip cessation can be understood in the present single framework. It is important to note that while the governing equations are nonlinear, we can investigate the system behavior in an analytical way. In particular, the analytical form of function dividing those two behaviors, G, has been found and mathematical significance of the present study should be emphasized. Whether G>0 or G<0 completely determines the system behavior: if G>0, slip acceleration occurs, while if G<0, slip ceases spontaneously. In other words, the function G(Su, Ta) determines the qualitative nature of slip behavior, which suggests the slip behavior can be understood in terms of the two nondimensional parameters Su and Ta. Additionally, wide application of

  15. Long-term telemetric recording of arterial pressure and heart rate in mice fed basal and high NaCl diets.

    PubMed

    Carlson, S H; Wyss, J M

    2000-02-01

    Research examining the control of arterial pressure in mice has primarily relied on tail-cuff plethysmography and, more recently, on tethered arterial catheters. In contrast, the radiotelemetry method has largely become the "gold standard" for long-term monitoring of arterial pressure and heart rate in rats. Whereas smaller telemetry probes have recently been developed, no published studies have used radiotelemetric monitoring of arterial pressure in mice, largely because of a relatively low success rate in small mice (ie, <30 g body weight). We report on the development of a protocol for the use of these probes to continuously monitor arterial pressure and heart rate in mice as small as 19 g body weight. To test the accuracy and reliability of this method, adult C57/BL6 mice were monitored for 3 weeks during exposure to a basal followed by a high NaCl diet. The results demonstrate that carotid and aortic placements of the telemetry probe provide equally accurate monitoring of arterial pressure and heart rate, but the carotid placement has a much greater rate of success. Exposure to a high NaCl diet increases both the amplitude of the arterial pressure rhythm (+ 6.0+/-0.6 mm Hg, approximately 32%) and the average mean arterial pressure (+ 8.6+/-1.1 mm Hg, approximately 8%), as would be predicted from previous studies in NaCl-resistant rats. Thus, the data demonstrate that telemetric recording of long-term arterial pressure and heart rate provides a powerful tool with which to define the mechanisms of cardiovascular control in mice.

  16. Self-blood pressure monitoring in an urban, ethnically diverse population: a randomized clinical trial utilizing the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Tabaei, Bahman P; Angell, Sonia Y; Rapin, Anne; Buck, Michael D; Pagano, William G; Maselli, Frank J; Simmons, Alvaro; Chamany, Shadi

    2015-03-01

    Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although control rates have improved over time, racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension control persist. Self-blood pressure monitoring, by itself, has been shown to be an effective tool in predominantly white populations, but less studied in minority, urban communities. These types of minimally intensive approaches are important to test in all populations, especially those experiencing related health disparities, for broad implementation with limited resources. The New York City Health Department in partnership with community clinic networks implemented a randomized clinical trial (n=900, 450 per arm) to investigate the effectiveness of self-blood pressure monitoring in medically underserved and largely black and Hispanic participants. Intervention participants received a home blood pressure monitor and training on use, whereas control participants received usual care. After 9 months, systolic blood pressure decreased (intervention, 14.7 mm Hg; control, 14.1 mm Hg; P=0.70). Similar results were observed when incorporating longitudinal data and calculating a mean slope over time. Control was achieved in 38.9% of intervention and 39.1% of control participants at the end of follow-up; the time-to-event experience of achieving blood pressure control in the intervention versus control groups were not different from each other (logrank P value =0.91). Self-blood pressure monitoring was not shown to improve control over usual care in this largely minority, urban population. The patient population in this study, which included a high proportion of Hispanics and uninsured persons, is understudied. Results indicate these groups may have additional meaningful barriers to achieving blood pressure control beyond access to the monitor itself. http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01123577. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Web Analytics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  18. A new technique for obtaining high-resolution pore pressure records in thick claystone aquitards and its use to determine in situ compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Laura A.; van der Kamp, Garth; Jim Hendry, M.

    2013-02-01

    Laboratory tests are commonly used to determine properties (vertical compressibility, α; specific storage, SS; and vertical hydraulic conductivity, Kv) of claystone aquitards; however, whether data representative of in situ conditions can be obtained from disturbed samples is questionable. Here, we present a method to determine the in situ α and SS of a thick sequence of Cretaceous aged claystone by estimating the loading efficiency (γ) of a formation from pore pressure responses to barometric pressure fluctuations. We installed 10 vibrating wire pressure transducers at different depths (25-325 m below ground) in a thick claystone aquitard by placing them directly within the cement-bentonite grout. Two years of continuous transducer records using this method appeared to provide pore pressure data with a resolution of better than one part in 105, equivalent to millimeter of hydraulic head change. Pore pressure responses to barometric pressure changes, earth tides, and precipitation events can be clearly identified, and the barometric responses can be easily analyzed. The resulting values of γ (0.6-0.93), α (2.5 × 10-7 to 2.2 × 10-6 kPa-1), and SS (2.6 × 10-5 to 4.5 × 10-6 m-1) all decrease with depth. The results are comparable with the limited existing data for in situ estimates of SS and are as much as an order of magnitude smaller than laboratory estimates of SS for similar aquitard deposits. Our findings suggest that the fully grouted transducer method can provide an accurate and reliable means to monitor pore pressure changes and to determine in situ parameters for bedrock aquitard systems.

  19. A comparison study of brachial blood pressure recorded with Spacelabs 90217A and Mobil-O-Graph NG devices under static and ambulatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarafidis, P A; Lazaridis, A A; Imprialos, K P; Georgianos, P I; Avranas, K A; Protogerou, A D; Doumas, M N; Athyros, V G; Karagiannis, A I

    2016-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is an important tool in hypertension diagnosis and management. Although several ambulatory devices exist, comparative studies are scarce. This study aimed to compare for the first time brachial blood pressure levels of Spacelabs 90217A and Mobil-O-Graph NG, under static and ambulatory conditions. We examined 40 healthy individuals under static (study A) and ambulatory (study B) conditions. In study A, participants were randomized into two groups that included blood pressure measurements with mercury sphygmomanometer, Spacelabs and Mobil-O-Graph devices with reverse order of recordings. In study B, simultaneous 6-h recordings with both devices were performed with participants randomized in two sequences of device positioning with arm reversal at 3 h. Finally, all the participants filled in a questionnaire rating their overall preference for a device. In study A, brachial systolic blood pressure (117.2±10.3 vs 117.1±9.8 mm Hg, P=0.943) and diastolic blood pressure (73.3±9.4 mm Hg vs 74.1±9.4 mm Hg, P=0.611) did not differ between Spacelabs and Mobil-O-Graph or vs sphygmomanometer (117.8±11.1 mm Hg, P=0.791 vs Spacelabs, P=0.753 vs Mobil-O-Graph). Similarly, no differences were found in ambulatory systolic blood pressure (117.9±11.4 vs 118.3±11.0 mm Hg, P=0.864), diastolic blood pressure (73.7±7.4 vs 74.7±8.0 mm Hg, P=0.571), mean blood pressure and heart rate between Spacelabs and Mobil-O-Graph. Correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots showed agreement between the monitors. Overall, the participants showed a preference for the Mobil-O-Graph. Spacelabs 90217A and Mobil-O-Graph NG provide practically identical measurements during the static and ambulatory conditions in healthy individuals and can be rather used interchangeably in clinical practice.

  20. 30 CFR 250.524 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.524 How long do I keep... kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for...

  1. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.523 How long do I keep... kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for...

  2. 30 CFR 250.524 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.524 How long do I keep... kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for...

  3. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.523 How... diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last...

  4. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  5. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  6. Coupling of Pore Pressure and Ground Motion Data Recorded During the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Baja California) Earthquake at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, D.; Seale, S. H.; Steidl, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Pore pressure built up during an earthquake and the hazard associated with soil liquefaction present a major challenge for our society, as was dramatically displayed during the 2011 Higashi Nihon Daishinsai (Tohoku-oki, Japan) earthquake. Currently, there is a consensus among scientists that a better assessment of the risk associated with liquefaction requires a better understanding of the coupling between pore pressure time histories and ground motion time histories. Specifically, there is a basic need to investigate the coupling as a function of the frequency content of the ground motion. The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Baja California) earthquake (M 7.2) provides a remarkable opportunity to undertake such an investigation and lay the basis to model the coupling. The event was well recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife station located 110 km from the hypocenter. The station is equipped with three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and with pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. The recorded pore pressure and ground motion time histories are both characterized by a frequency content that is a function of time. A wavelet representation is a natural approach to investigate non-stationary time histories. To study the coupling between two signals we use the following procedure: We first compute the wavelet coefficients associated with the two signals. Then we compute the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of the two signals as a function of the frequency. Correlation coefficients provide information about the degree of linear dependence between the two signals. To account for the presence of multiplicative constants relating the wavelet coefficients of the first signal to the wavelet coefficients of the second signal, we compare the square norm of the wavelet coefficients of the two signals for the available frequency range. Additionally, investigating the distribution of the square

  7. Record rates of pressurized gas-flow in the great horsetail, Equisetum telmateia. Were Carboniferous Calamites similarly aerated?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jean; Armstrong, William

    2009-01-01

    Significant pressurized (convective) ventilation has been demonstrated in some flowering wetland plants, for example water-lilies and reeds, but not previously in nonflowering plants. Here we investigated convective flows in the great horsetail, Equisetum telmateia, and the possibility that convections aerated the massive rhizomes of the Calamites, extinct giant horsetails of the Carboniferous. Convection in E. telmateia was examined in relation to induction sites, anatomical pathways, relative humidity (RH), external wind-speed, diurnal effects, rhizome resistance and pressure-gradients. A mathematical model, incorporating Calamite aeration anatomy, was applied in assessing potentials for convective aeration. Individual shoots of E. telmateia generated extremely high rates of humidity-induced convection: < or = 120 cm(3) min(-1) (internal wind-velocity: 10 cm s(-1)) with rates proportional to branch numbers and 1/RH. Flows passed through branches, stem and rhizome via low-resistance lacunae (vallecular canals) and vented via stubble. Stomata supported internal pressures up to 800 Pa. Anatomically, E. telmateia resembles the Calamites and modelling predicted possible flows of 70 l min(-1) per Calamite tree. This is the first demonstration of significant convective flow in a nonflowering species, indicating that plant ventilation by a type of 'molecular gas-pump' may date back 350 million yr or more. Stomatal form and low-resistance pathways may facilitate high flow rates.

  8. Time frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koïtka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-03-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  9. NASA LaRC FIB Multi-Channel Anemometry Recording System-User's Manual. [conducted at the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sherylene (Compiler); Bertelrud, Arild (Compiler); Anders, J. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report is part of a series of reports describing a flow physics high-lift experiment conducted in NASA Langley Research Center's Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) in 1996. The anemometry system used in the experiment was originally designed for and used in flight tests with NASA's Boeing 737 airplane. Information that may be useful in the evaluation or use of the experimental data has been compiled. The report also contains details regarding record structure, how to read the embedded time code, as well as the output file formats used in the code reading the binary data.

  10. Response to long-period seismic waves recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure sensor at IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, K.; Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Saffer, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Long term in situ monitoring of seismic activity, slow slip event, and pore fluid behavior around mega earthquake zone is important for understanding the processes of earthquake generation and strain accumulation. In order to characterize the response to long-period seismic waves, we compared waveforms and hydroseismograms recorded by broadband seismometer and pore pressure transducers, respectively, which were installed at IODP Site C0002 in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin. The borehole monitoring system sensor array at Site C0002 is designed to collect multiparameter observations covering a dynamic range of events, including local microearthquakes, low frequency earthquakes, and large-scale earthquakes similar to the Tonankai earthquake. The suite of sensors for the downhole portion of the observatory includes a broadband seismometer (CMG3TBD, Guralp Systems Ltd.) with sampling rate of 100Hz at the depth of 907mbsf, and four pressure ports connected to pressure gauges located at 948mbsf, 917mbsf, 766mbsf, and at the seafloor. The sampling rate of the data logger was set to 1Hz after successful connection to the DONET seafloor cable network for real-time monitoring on 24 Jan 2013. Since then, we processed 12 earthquakes between a moment magnitude of 6.5 to 8.3. In addition to the comparison of long-period surface waves waveform and pressure data, we compared the records with theoretical strain seismograms. The latter were calculated by normal mode summation using the earth model PREM of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). A Butterworth bandpass filter was applied to the records with cut-off frequencies of 0.003 and 0.1 Hz. Our initial results indicate that the hydroseismograms correspond well with the vertical rather than the horizontal (radial and transverse) components in seismic data. The observed hydroseismogram have a good correlation with the predicted volumetric strain seismogram, especially for the Okhotsk (2013/05/24 14:17UT, Mw8.3, 632km depth), the Chishima

  11. TitaniQ Records of P-T-D Paths from Metapelites during Burial Metamorphism and Orogenesis: Evidence for the Role of Pressure Solution Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, L. E.; Dyess, P.; Ashley, K. T.; Spear, F. S.; Thomas, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    TitaniQ (Ti-in-quartz) thermobarometry of metapelites recording crenulation cleavage development during prograde metamorphism reveals that quartz grains in different fabric domains may record distinct stages of P-T-D paths and further testifies to the importance of pressure solution creep in the rheology of the upper and middle continental crust. This study integrates microstructural analyses, petrologic modeling, cathodoluminscence (CL) imaging, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of samples with known tectonic histories. Samples were collected along E-W transects across the Rowe-Hawley Belt (RHB) and the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe Trough (CVG) of central Vermont. Rocks of the RHB record both the Taconic and Acadian orogenies; CVG rocks record the Acadian orogeny only. CL and SIMS analyses were conducted on quartz in different microstructural contexts such as fold hinges, microlithons and cleavage domains, inclusion suites defining internal foliations in garnet, and pressure shadows. In each generation of foliation, metapelites of the RHB and CVG display pressure solution seams, flattened quartz grains neighboring micas in cleavage domains, and more equant quartz grains with foam textures in quartz-rich microlithons and hinges of microfolds. Quartz grains in prograde fabric domains lack lattice preferred orientations. CL (415 nm) zoning patterns of quartz are typically complex and associated with sharp boundaries. Patterns include: rounded-to-anhedral dark cores with bright rims (indicating an increase in [Ti] from core to rim); bright cores with dark rims; dark cores with bright mantles, and dark rims; patchy zoning; and striated grains. RHB chlorite-garnet grade metapelites yielded [Ti] from 0.4-157 ppm; a small fraction of analyses yielded [Ti] greater than that predicted for peak metamorphic conditions and are interpreted as detrital signatures. Garnet-staurolite grade CVG metapelites yielded [Ti] of 2.2-9.8 ppm. The degree of geochemical recycling of

  12. Surface pressure data on a series of analytic forebodies at Mach numbers from 1.70 to 4.50 and combined angles of attack and sideslip. [Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Howell, D. T.; Collins, I. K.; Hayes, C.

    1979-01-01

    Tabulated surface pressure data for a series of four forebodies which have analytically defined cross sections and which are based on a parabolic arc profile having a 20 deg half angle at the nose are presented without analysis. The first forebody has a circular cross section, and the second has a cross section which is an ellipse with an axis ratio of 2/1. The third has a cross section defined by a lobed analytic curve. The fourth forebody has cross sections which develop smoothly from circular at the pointed nose through the lobed analytic curve and back to circular at the aft end. The data generally cover angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg at angles of sideslip from 0 deg to 5 deg for Mach numbers of 1.70, 2.50, 3.95, and 4.50 at a constant Reynolds number.

  13. Development of a low-pressure diamond anvil cell and analytical tools to monitor microbial activities in situ under controlled P and T.

    PubMed

    Oger, Phil M; Daniel, Isabelle; Picard, Aude

    2006-03-01

    We have designed a new low-pressure Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC), calibrated two novel pressure calibrants and validated the use of semi-quantitative Raman and X-ray spectroscopies to monitor the fate of microbes, their metabolism or their cellular components under controlled pressures and temperatures in the 0.1-1.4 GPa and 20-300 degrees C P,T range. The low-pressure DAC has a 250- to 600-microm-thick observation diamond window to allow for lower detection limits and improved microscopic imaging. This new design allows the determination of cellular growth parameters from automated image analysis, which can be correlated with the spectroscopic data obtained on metabolism, ensuring high quality data collection on microbial activity under pressure. The novel pressure sensors offer the ease of use of the well-known ruby scale, while being more sensitive and reacting to pressure variations instantaneously.

  14. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-08-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell-1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  15. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-08-12

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell(-1). Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  16. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell−1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea. PMID:27515484

  17. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from GRACE, steric-corrected altimetry, in situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Zhong, M.; Hsu, H. T.

    2014-08-01

    An annual amplitude of ∼18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and steric-corrected altimetry from 2003 to 2011. The annual mass variations in the region dominate the mean SLV, and generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The annual steric component of the mean SLV is relatively small (<3 cm) and out of phase of the mass-induced SLV. In situ bottom pressure records at the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. In addition, the horizontal water mass flux of the Red Sea estimated from GRACE and steric-corrected altimetry is validated by hydrographic observations.

  18. Autocyclic eruptivity of basaltic systems: New insights into processes of reservoir replenishment and pressurization from high-resolution borehole strain data recorded at Hekla Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautmann, S.; Linde, A. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sacks, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are typically accompanied by ground deflation due to the withdrawal of magma from depth and its effusion at the surface. Based on continuous high-resolution borehole strain data, we show that ground deformation was absent during the major effusion phases of the 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla Volcano, Iceland. This lack of surface deformation provides a novel window into processes in subsurface reservoirs of basaltic volcanoes as the records challenge the classic model of magma intrusion/withdrawal as source for volcanic ground uplift/subsidence. We incorporate geodetic, petrologic and geochemical observables into theoretical models of magma chamber dynamics in order to constrain quantitatively alternative co- and inter-eruptive physical mechanisms that govern magma propagation and system pressurization. We find the lack of surface deformation during lava effusion to be linked to chamber replenishment from below whilst magma migrates as a buoyancy-driven flow from the reservoir top towards the surface. We further demonstrate that volatile ascent generates the pressure build-up in the reservoir during episodes of volcanic repose and surface re-inflation. Our model explains the persistent periodic eruptivity at Hekla throughout historic times with self-initiating cycles and is conceptually relevant to other studies on basaltic volcanic systems.

  19. Comparison of sea level pressure reconstructions from western North American tree rings with a proxy record of winter severity in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.A. ); Lough, J.M.; Fritts, H.C. ); Kelley, P.M. )

    1985-11-01

    Reconstructions of winter (December-February) sea level pressure (SLP) from western North American tree-ring chronologies are compared with a proxy record of winter severity in Japan derived from the historically documented freeze dates of Lake Suwa. The SLP reconstructions extend from 1602 to 1961 and freeze dates from 1443 to 1954. The instrumental and reconstructed SLP for the 20th century reveal two distinct circulation regimes (teleconnection patterns) over the North Pacific that appear to be associated with severe and mild winters and, consequently, with early and late freezing of the lake. The reconstructed SLPO anomaly map for severe winters prior to 1683 shows a pattern similar to those in the instrumental and reconstructed records of the 20th century. The analysis reveals that the reliability of the reconstruction may vary with the configuration of the actual SLP pattern as the mild winter pattern is not as well reconstructed as the severe winter pattern. That result illustrates the importance of testing the reliability of a reconstruction within the context of the intended interpretation. This analysis demonstrates how different types of proxy climate data can be compared and verified.

  20. Analytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90° rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  1. Analytic materials.

    PubMed

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  2. SNC Oxygen Fugacity Recorded in Pyroxenes and its Implications for the Oxidation State of the Martian Interior: An Experimental and Analytical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCanta, M. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation state of a magma is critical as it is one of the parameters which controls the nature and composition of the resulting crystals. In terrestrial magmatic systems, oxygen fugacity (fo2) is known to vary by over nine orders of magnitude. With variations of this magnitude, understanding the compositional differences, phase changes, and crystallization sequence variations, caused by the magma fo2, is essential in deciphering the origin of all igneous rocks. Magmatic oxidation state is of great importance in that it reflects the degree of oxidation of the source region and can provide insight into magmatic processes, such as metasomatism, degassing, and assimilation, which may have changed them. Carmichael [1991] argues that most magmas are unlikely to have their redox states altered from those of their source region. This assumption allows for estimation of the oxidation state of planetary interiors. Conversely, it is known that the fo2 of the magma can be affected by other processes, which occur outside of the source region and therefore, the oxidation state may record those too. Processes which could overprint source region fugacities include melt dehydrogenation or other volatile loss, water or melt infiltration, or assimilation of oxidized or reduced wallrock. Understanding which of these processes is responsible for the redox state of a magma can provide crucial information regarding igneous processes and other forces active in the region. The composition of the SNC basalts and their widely varying proposed oxidation states raise some interesting questions. Do the SNC meteorites have an oxidized or reduced signature? What was the oxygen fugacity of the SNC source region at the time of melt generation? Is the fugacity calculated for the various SNC samples the fugacity of the magma source region or was it overprinted by later events? Are there different oxidation states in the Martian interior or a single one? This proposal seeks to

  3. Analytical asymptotic solutions for heat transfer during transient compression filling of spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels in the limit of small Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Melissa; Woodfield, Peter Lloyd; Hall, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Taking the limit of small Reynolds number for a vessel being filled with compressed gas, the energy equation was found to asymptote to the unsteady heat conduction equation with heat generation and variable density. This equation was solved analytically for cylindrical and spherical geometry. Assuming the density changes linearly with time, a solution is obtained which is identical in form to the constant density solution if the Fourier number is defined using the log-mean density rather than the instantaneous density. At steady state conditions, the Nusselt number based on the diameter for cylinders with aspect ratios larger than 1 rapidly approaches an integer solution of NuD = 8. For cylinders with aspect ratios less than 1, the Nusselt number based on the cylinder length (height) characteristic dimension rapidly approaches NuL = 6. It is shown experimentally and numerically that during compression filling, the heat transfer asymptotically approaches this analytical solution at low Reynolds numbers.

  4. Analytical asymptotic solutions for heat transfer during transient compression filling of spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels in the limit of small Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Melissa; Woodfield, Peter Lloyd; Hall, Wayne

    2017-06-01

    Taking the limit of small Reynolds number for a vessel being filled with compressed gas, the energy equation was found to asymptote to the unsteady heat conduction equation with heat generation and variable density. This equation was solved analytically for cylindrical and spherical geometry. Assuming the density changes linearly with time, a solution is obtained which is identical in form to the constant density solution if the Fourier number is defined using the log-mean density rather than the instantaneous density. At steady state conditions, the Nusselt number based on the diameter for cylinders with aspect ratios larger than 1 rapidly approaches an integer solution of NuD = 8. For cylinders with aspect ratios less than 1, the Nusselt number based on the cylinder length (height) characteristic dimension rapidly approaches NuL = 6. It is shown experimentally and numerically that during compression filling, the heat transfer asymptotically approaches this analytical solution at low Reynolds numbers.

  5. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Sérouènout Terrane, Central Hoggar, Algeria) comprises mainly a high-pressure Neoproterozoic metamorphic formation consisting of talc-kyanite-quartz whiteschists, chlorite schists, marbles, sulphide ores, partially serpentinized peridotites and partially amphibolitized eclogites, and reminiscent of an ophiolitic mélange that was metamorphosed and strongly deformed under eclogite-facies conditions. Major and trace elements indicate that the whiteschists underwent intense hydrothermal alteration, with Mg enrichment and leaching of alkalis and Ca, prior to high-pressure metamorphism. The main talc-kyanite-quartz paragenesis is stable within a large multivariant P-T field extending from high-P amphibolite to eclogite facies; the Tschermak substitution in talc marginally constrains peak pressure conditions to P > 11 kbar and 600 < T < ~ 800 °C. The subsequent development of cordierite ± sapphirine ± corundum symplectites and coronae at the contact between talc and kyanite was due to isochemical and almost univariant reactions (Tlc + Ky + Qtz → Crd; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Crn; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Spr) which combined together to produce hybrid microstructures. These metamorphic reactions indicate a thermal overprint under granulite-facies conditions (T = 650-860 °C; P < 12 kbar). The peraluminous Mg-rich sapphirine observed in the symplectites reaches one of the highest degrees of Tschermak substitution ever reported for this mineral (with n = 3.6), intermediate between the 13:19:5 (n = 3) and 3:5:1 (n = 4) theoretical compositions. The neighbouring eclogites record a similar P-T evolution: after the eclogite-facies metamorphic peak, they underwent partial amphibolitization and a subsequent high-temperature overprint under granulite-facies conditions that led to partial dehydration. The Ti-N-Eggoleh series is interpreted as the product of the thermal alteration of oceanic rocks that were subducted prior to the continental collision that formed

  6. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    PubMed

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  7. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Three-Dimensional Flow Field and Relative Analyte Concentration Distribution in an Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  8. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  9. Experimental and analytical study of cryogenic propellant boiloff to develop and verify alternate pressurization concepts for Space Shuttle external tank using a scaled down tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, K. M.; Jones, S.; Meredith, T.

    1993-01-01

    Self pressurization by propellant boiloff is experimentally studied as an alternate pressurization concept for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET). The experimental setup used in the study is an open flow system which is composed of a variable area test tank and a recovery tank. The vacuum jacketed test tank is geometrically similar to the external LOx tank for the Space Shuttle. It is equipped with instrumentation to measure the temperature and pressure histories within the liquid and vapor, and viewports to accommodate visual observations and Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements of fluid velocities. A set of experiments were conducted using liquid Nitrogen to determine the temperature stratification in the liquid and vapor, and pressure histories of the vapor during sudden and continuous depressurization for various different boundary and initial conditions. The study also includes the development and calibration of a computer model to simulate the experiments. This model is a one-dimensional, multi-node type which assumes the liquid and the vapor to be under non-equilibrium conditions during the depressurization. It has been tested for a limited number of cases. The preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the simulations is determined by the accuracy of the heat transfer coefficients for the vapor and the liquid at the interface which are taken to be the calibration parameters in the present model.

  10. A falling-pressure method for measuring air permeability of asphalt in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Luk, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analytical solution for estimating air permeability using the test data obtained by a falling-pressure method in laboratory. The perimeter of the column-shaped sample is fixed in a steel cylinder with the upper sample surface open to the atmosphere. The lower surface of the sample and the cylinder form an air chamber. A water manometer is connected to the air chamber to measure the air pressure inside after the chamber is pressurized. The data of pressure versus time in the air chamber are recorded and analyzed. An approximate analytical solution is derived to describe the pressure-time relationship in the air chamber. The air permeability can be easily estimated using the approximate analytical solution based on the linear least-squares fitting to the recorded pressure-time test data. This method is used to estimate the falling-pressure test data of 15 asphalt samples. The agreement between the test data and the analytical prediction is satisfactory for all the samples. To investigate the error caused by the approximate analytical solution, the air permeabilities are also estimated based on fully numerical solutions. The permeability values obtained from analytical and numerical solutions are very close. The maximum relative error is less than 6% for samples with more than five pressure-time records. A quantitative condition is given under which the analytical solution applies with negligible estimation error. Compared with the common, steady-state method for measuring air permeability, the falling-pressure method has its advantages such as simplicity and economy. The steady-state method has to measure the air flux through the sample, while the falling-pressure method does not.

  11. Source depth dependence of micro-tsunamis recorded with ocean-bottom pressure gauges: The January 28, 2000 Mw 6.8 earthquake off Nemuro Peninsula, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirata, K.; Takahashi, H.; Geist, E.; Satake, K.; Tanioka, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Mikada, H.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-tsunami waves with a maximum amplitude of 4-6 mm were detected with the ocean-bottom pressure gauges on a cabled deep seafloor observatory south of Hokkaido, Japan, following the January 28, 2000 earthquake (Mw 6.8) in the southern Kuril subduction zone. We model the observed micro-tsunami and estimate the focal depth and other source parameters such as fault length and amount of slip using grid searching with the least-squares method. The source depth and stress drop for the January 2000 earthquake are estimated to be 50 km and 7 MPa, respectively, with possible ranges of 45-55 km and 4-13 MPa. Focal depth of typical inter-plate earthquakes in this region ranges from 10 to 20 km and stress drop of inter-plate earthquakes generally is around 3 MPa. The source depth and stress drop estimates suggest that the earthquake was an intra-slab event in the subducting Pacific plate, rather than an inter-plate event. In addition, for a prescribed fault width of 30 km, the fault length is estimated to be 15 km, with possible ranges of 10-20 km, which is the same as the previously determined aftershock distribution. The corresponding estimate for seismic moment is 2.7x1019 Nm with possible ranges of 2.3x1019-3.2x1019Nm. Standard tide gauges along the nearby coast did not record any tsunami signal. High-precision ocean-bottom pressure measurements offshore thus make it possible to determine fault parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in subduction zones using open-ocean tsunami waveforms. Published by Elsevier Science B. V.

  12. First application of tsunami back-projection and source inversion for the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake using tsunami data recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Sheehan, A. F.; Mulia, I. E.; Heidarzadeh, M.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Adaption of absolute or differential pressure gauges (APG or DPG) to Ocean Bottom Seismometers has provided the opportunity to study tsunamis. Recently we extracted tsunami waveforms of the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake recoded by the APG and DPG of Cascadia Initiative program (Sheehan et al., 2015, SRL). We applied such dense tsunami observations (48 stations) together with other records from DARTs (9 stations) to characterize the tsunami source. This study is the first study that used such a large number of offshore tsunami records for earthquake source study. Conventionally the curves of tsunami travel times are drawn backward from station locations to estimate the tsunami source region. Here we propose a more advanced technique called tsunami back-projection to estimate the source region. Our image produced by tsunami back-projection has the largest value or tsunami centroid that is very close to the epicenter and above the Queen Charlotte transform fault (QCF), whereas the negative values are mostly located east of Haida Gwaii in the Hecate Strait. By using tsunami back-projection we avoid picking initial tsunami phase which is a necessary step in the conventional method that is rather subjective. The slip distribution of the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake estimated by tsunami waveform inversion shows large slip near the trench (4-5 m) and also on a plate interface southeast the epicenter (3-4 m) below QCF. From the slip distribution, the calculated seismic moment is 5.4 × 1020 N m (Mw 7.8). The steep bathymetry offshore Haida Gwaii and the horizontal movement caused by the earthquake possibly affects the sea surface deformation. The potential tsunami energy calculated from the sea-surface deformation of pure faulting is 2.20 × 1013 J, while that from the bathymetry effect is 0.12 × 1013 J or about 5% of the total potential energy. The significant deformation above the steep slope is confirmed by another tsunami inversion that disregards fault

  13. Analytical capabilities of high performance liquid chromatography - Atmospheric pressure photoionization - Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS) for the trace determination of novel and emerging flame retardants in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2015-10-22

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including so called "emerging" and "novel" BFRs (EBFRs and NBFRs) in fish samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the identification/quantitation of contaminants. HPLC-Orbitrap-MS analysis provided a fast separation of selected analytes within 14 min, thus demonstrating a high throughput processing of samples. The developed methodology was tested by intralaboratory validation in terms of recovery, repeatability, linear calibration ranges, instrumental and method limits of quantitation (i-LOQ and m-LOQ), and where possible, trueness was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Recoveries of analytes were between 80 and 119%, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 1.2 to 15.5%. The measured values for both analyzed CRMs agreed with the provided consensus values, revealing the recovery of reference concentrations in 72-119% range. The elaborated method met the sensitivity criterion according to Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on monitoring of BFRs in food products for majority of the compounds. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in real samples determined by HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS method and validated gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method were found to be in a good agreement.

  14. Microstructural record of pressure solution and crystal plastic deformation in carbonate fault rocks from a shallow crustal strike-slip fault, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Helene; Rogowitz, Anna; Grasemann, Benhard; Decker, Kurt

    2017-04-01

    show also ductile deformation microstructures, including deformation twinning, undulose extinction, subgrain rotation recrystallization and even grain boundary migration. Especially coarse grained calcites from veins localized ductile deformation and record dislocation glide. The investigated fault rocks are excellent examples of frictional, pressure solution and crystal plastic deformation processes. We speculated that crystal plastic deformation typical for higher metamorphic shear zones in marbles, can be either produced under much lower temperature conditions or the temperature necessary for crystal plastic deformation was generated by frictional slip or strain heating within the fault zone.

  15. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  16. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry, GRACE, in-situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze

    2014-05-01

    An annual amplitude of ~18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from steric-corrected altimetry and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites from 2003 to 2011, which dominates the mean sea level in the region. Seawater mass variations here generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The steric component of SLV calculated from oceanographic temperature and salinity data is relatively small and peaks about seven months later than mass variations. The phase difference between the steric SLV and the mass-induced SLV indicates that when the Red Sea gains the mass from inflow water in winter, the steric SLV fall, and vice versa in summer. In-situ bottom pressure records in the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. Furthermore, we compare the horizontal water mass flux in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE with that estimated from hydrographic observations.

  17. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. The monitor senses the pressure inside the skull and sends measurements to a recording device. ... are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is ...

  18. Yield-pressure determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Stress/strain relationship of complex-shape vessel is recorded under hydrostatic pressure. Technique is used to test pressurized gas cylinders and tubular transition joints made of dissimilar metals and to determine burst or system-failure pressures.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  20. A meta-analytical comparison of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on arterial stiffness, peripheral blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Luo, Gaoqing; Zheng, Yong; Peng, Feng; Xie, Liangdi

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis of randomized parallel controlled trials was designed to compare the efficacy of atenolol with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in changing pulse wave velocity (PWV), peripheral blood pressure and heart rate (HR) among patients with essential hypertension. This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guideline. Data collection was independently completed by two investigators. Statistical analyses were completed by Stata software (v12.0). Eight clinical trials were meta-analyzed in this study. Overall changes in PWV (weighted mean difference or WMD = 0.068, 95% confidence interval or CI: -0.487 to -0.623, P = 0.811) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (PSBP) (WMD = -1.281 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.936 to 4.375, P = 0.657) did not differ significantly between atenolol and ACEIs treatment. Relative to ACEIs, atenolol had a more favorable impact on peripheral diastolic blood pressure (PDBP) (WMD = -1.912 mmHg, 95% CI: -3.732 to -0.091, P = 0.040) and HR (WMD = -9.23 bpm, 95% CI: -12.53 to -5.93, P < 0.001). In stratified analyses, particularly by follow-up period, atenolol was observed to be superior over ACEIs within early 3-month treatment in PSBP (WMD = -4.097 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.589 to -1.605, P = 0.001), PDBP (WMD = -6.802 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.517 to -5.087, P < 0.001) and HR (WMD = -14.242 bpm, 95% CI: -16.427 to -12.058, P = 0.028), without heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.0%). There were low probabilities of publication bias for all comparisons. Our findings demonstrate that atenolol and ACEIs were equally effective in reducing PWV and PSBP, while atenolol was superior over ACEIs in improving PDBP and HR, especially within short-term treatment.

  1. Plasma emission induced by an Nd-YAG laser at low pressure on solid organic sample, its mechanism, and analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Sardy, Sar; Kusnowo, Anung; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, T.J.; Pardede, Marincan; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, M.O.

    2005-03-01

    An Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm, 120 mJ, 8 ns) was focused on various types of solid organic samples such as a black acrylic plate, a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet, and a methoxy polyaniline film coated on the surface of a glass substrate, under a surrounding air pressure of 2 Torr. A modulated plasma technique was used to study the mechanism of excitation of the emission of the organic material. As a result, we conclude that ablated atoms and molecules are excited by a shock-wave mechanism, similar to the case of hard samples such as metal. The ablation speed of hydrogen emission (H I 656.2 nm) was examined and the results show that the release speed of the ablated atoms is relatively low (less than Mach 10) and persists for a longer period of time (around 1 {mu}s); this phenomenon can be understood by assuming that the soft target absorbs recoil energy, causing a low release speed of ablated atoms which would form the shock wave. This was overcome by placing a subtarget on the back of the soft sample so as to enhance the repelling force, thus increasing the release speed of the atoms. A possible application of the low-pressure plasma on an organic solid was demonstrated in the detection of chlorine in a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet.

  2. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  3. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of different classes of ultraviolet filters in cosmetics by pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marlene; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2015-07-31

    A methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of UV filters including methoxycinnamates, benzophenones, salicylates, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, and others in cosmetic products. The extractions were carried out in 1mL extraction cells and the amount of sample extracted was only 100mg. The experimental conditions, including the acetylation of the PLE extracts to improve GC performance, were optimized by means of experimental design tools. The two main factors affecting the PLE procedure such as solvent type and extraction temperature were assessed. The use of a matrix matched approach consisting of the addition of 10μL of diluted commercial cosmetic oil avoided matrix effects. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9970), quantitative recoveries (>80% for most of compounds, excluding three banned benzophenones) and satisfactory precision (RSD<10% in most cases) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including sunscreens, hair products, nail polish, and lipsticks, amongst others.

  4. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  5. Real-world glycemic, blood pressure, and weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with canagliflozin-an electronic health-record-based study.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Patrick; Pilon, Dominic; Robitaille, Marie-Noëlle; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Chow, Wing; Pfeifer, Michael; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Canagliflozin (CANA) has been shown to improve HbA1c, blood pressure (BP), and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in clinical trials. This study describes HbA1c, BP, and weight in T2DM patients treated with CANA in a real-world setting. Adults with ≥1 diagnosis for T2DM and ≥12 months of clinical activity before the first CANA prescription (index) were identified in the IMS Health Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records - US database. Patient quality measures were described at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-index. Selected goals were HbA1c <7% (<53 mmol/mol), <8% (<64 mmol/mol), and >9% (>75 mmol/mol, poor control), BP <140/90 mmHg, and weight loss ≥5%. In total, 16,163 patients were identified (mean age = 58.5 years; 47.9% female; 75.8% white). At baseline, 90.4% of patients used ≥1 anti-hyperglycemic agent. Among patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% (n = 10,478; 64.8%; mean HbA1c = 8.8%), 21.2%, 59.5%, and 17.6% had an HbA1c <7%, <8%, and >9% after 3 months, respectively; these proportions remained stable through 12 months. Among patients with baseline BP ≥140/90, 60.0% and 75.6% attained systolic BP <140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg after 3 months, respectively; proportions remained stable through 12 months. Weight loss ≥5% was observed in 13.3% of patients at 3 months and the proportion increased to 25.8% at 12 months. This study relied on prescription data, which does not necessarily indicate that the medication was taken as prescribed. Some patients were also treated with other anti-hyperglycemics, anti-hypertensives, and weight loss medications during the follow-up, which may have contributed to the effects reported. Most patients with inadequate HbA1c and BP levels at baseline achieved respective goals after 3 months of CANA, and the proportions of responders remained stable through 12 months. Weight loss ≥5% was increasingly observed over time.

  6. Quantification of furanic derivatives in fortified wines by a highly sensitive and ultrafast analytical strategy based on digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2015-02-13

    An improved, reliable and powerful analytical strategy based on digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of major furanic derivatives, namely 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5HMF), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (5MF), 2-furaldehyde (2F) and 2-furyl methyl ketone (2FMK), in fortified wines. To enhance the extraction efficiency of the target furanic derivates, several influencing extraction parameters, such as number of loading cycles, nature of elution solvent and elution volume, were evaluated and optimized. In addition the ability of different MEPS sorbent materials, namely C2, C8, C18, SIL, M1, R-AX, R-CX and PGC, were also tested. The optimal analytical conditions involved loading 3×200 μL of wine samples through a C8 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVolH syringe followed by elution using 200 μL MeOH:H2O (95:5, v/v). The furanic derivates separation was achieved using a CORTECS UPLC(®) C18 analytical column in an ultrafast chromatographic run (within 4 min). The method performance was assessed for dry/medium dry (D/MD) and sweet/medium sweet (S/MS) model wines in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, precision and matrix effect, using model wine matrix-matched calibration. Good linearity was obtained with a regression coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.992. A good precision was attained (RSD<5%) and low LODs were achieved for D/MD (4.5-129.3 ng L(-1)) and S/MS (6.9-285.2 ng L(-1)) model wines. The quantification limits (LOQ) for D/MD model wines ranged from 14.9 to 431.0 ng L(-1), whereas for S/MS model wines range from 23.1 to 950.5 ng L(-1). The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, ranging from 74 to 97% for D/MD wines and between 84 and 99% for S/MS wines. The MEPS(C8)/UHPLC-PDA analytical strategy was

  7. Pressure-Induced Site-Selective Disordering of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}: A New Insight into Phase-Change Optical Recording

    SciTech Connect

    Kolobov, A. V.; Haines, J.; Pradel, A.; Ribes, M.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.; Katayama, Y.; Hammouda, T.; Uruga, T.

    2006-07-21

    We demonstrate that Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, the material of choice in phase-change optical recording (such as DVD-RAM), can be rendered amorphous by the application of hydrostatic pressure. It is argued that this structural change is due to a very strong second-nearest-neighbor Te-Te interaction that determines the long-range order in the metastable cubic phase of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and also to the presence of vacancies. This newly discovered phenomenon suggests that pressure is an important factor for the formation of the amorphous phase which opens new insight into the mechanism of phase-change optical recording.

  8. The Economic Burden of Urinary Tract Infection and Pressure Ulceration in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Admissions: Evidence for Comparative Economics and Decision Analytics from a Matched Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    White, Barry; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John; Cheng, Christiana L; Rivers, Carly S; Attabib, Najmedden; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2017-08-09

    Secondary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) are a burden to afflicted individuals and the rest of society. However, there is limited evidence of the economic burden or cost of complications in SCI populations in Canada, which is necessary for comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling of possible solutions to these common health problems. Comparative economic analyses can inform resource allocation decisions, but the outputs are only as good as the inputs. In this article, new evidence of the excess or incremental costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) and pressure ulceration (PU) in acute traumatic SCI from an exploratory case series analysis of admissions to a Level I specialized Canadian spine facility (2008-2013) is presented. Participants in a national SCI registry were case-control matched (1:1) on the predicted probability of experiencing UTI or PU during initial acute SCI admission. The excess costs of UTI and PU are estimated as the mean of the differences in total direct acute SCI admission costs (length of stay, accommodation, nursing, pharmacy) from the perspective of the admitting facility between participants matched or paired on demographic and SCI characteristics. Even relatively minor UTI and PU, respectively, added an average of $7,790 (SD $6,267) and $18,758 (SD $27,574) to the direct cost of acute SCI admission in 2013 Canadian dollars (CAD). This case series showed that UTI and PU in acute SCI admission are associated with excess cost and will facilitate comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling in SCI.

  9. Osbornite (TiN) and boron nitride nanoinclusions in coesite from Tibet: a first record of nitrogen in a terrestrial ultrahigh pressure environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Wirth, R.; Yang, J.; Hutcheon, I.; Weber, P.; Green, H. W.

    2007-12-01

    lighter (crustal) carbon. These observations, coupled with the occurrence of the TiN and c-BN in coesite, record a mantle history of nitrogen and indicate that natural osbornite formation is not restricted to high-temperature gas-to-solid condensation reported from studies of meteorites. These nitrides may have been formed during ultrahigh pressure metamorphism of nitrogen- and boron-bearing sediments subducted to mantle depths or, given that this material may have come to the surface from > 300 km (Yang et al., 2007), they could possibly reflect a role of nitrogen in Earth's core formation and cast light on the geochemical budget of nitrogen ¡°escaped from¡± and ¡°retained within¡± the Earth during its accretion and atmosphere formation.

  10. Records Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be found when needed, the identification and retention of permanent records are facilitated, and permanent and temporary records are physically segregated, or for electronic records, segregable.

  11. The analytical modeling of planetary exospheres: a) the satellite particles at Earth, Titan and Mars, b) the influence of the radiation pressure on the ballistic and escaping particles density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I. S.; Mazelle, C. X.

    2013-12-01

    a) The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We revisit here the importance of a specific exospheric population, i.e. the satellite particles, which is usually neglected in the models (see also Beth et al., Icarus, accepted). These particles are indeed produced through rare collisions in the exospheres, and may either be negligible or dominate the exospheres of all planets with dense atmospheres in our solar system, depending on the balance between their sources and losses. Richter et al. (1979) were the first to propose, beyond the Chamberlain's (Chamberlain (1963)) rough approximation, a rigorous approach for these particles by using the Boltzmann equation in the Earth exosphere below 3000 km altitude. We here further investigate this approach and determine the contribution of satellite populations to the densities of light elements at Titan (H2 species) and Mars (H species). The results confirm that the Chamberlain approximation overestimates the satellite particles densities at high altitudes, but that there may be enough collisions to produce a significant amount of satellite particles in some conditions, up to more than 50% of the contributions due to ballistic and escaping populations (i.e. those considered in the collisionless models) in the case of Mars or even 36% at Titan. This suggests that considering collisionless exospheric profiles for light species can lead to an underestimation of the total densities at high altitudes. b) We also present a new analytical approach to understand the structure of the exospheres submitted to the radiation pressure and determine the densities of others populations, i.e. ballistic and escaping particles, using the Liouville theorem and Hamiltonian mechanics. Our modeling work will in particular enable to better

  12. Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Arterial pressure compared with ambient bodily-fluid pressure. Implanted apparatus, capable of measuring blood pressure of patient, includes differential-pressure transducer connected to pressure sensor positioned in major artery. Electrical signal is function of differential pressure between blood-pressure sensor and reference-pressure sensor transmitted through skin of patient to recorder or indicator.

  13. 49 CFR 192.517 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall make, and retain for the useful life of the pipeline, a record of each test performed under §§ 192... used. (2) Test medium used. (3) Test pressure. (4) Test duration. (5) Pressure recording charts, or other record of pressure readings. (6) Elevation variations, whenever significant for the particular...

  14. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  15. Rate-of-climb Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielzig, Helmut

    1938-01-01

    The chief advantage of the instrument lies in the degree of accuracy obtainable with suitably flexible capsule (dynamic pressure recorder with small test range) and in its sensitivity for recording static-pressure changes. A description and hook-up of the instrument is provided along with calculations of error.

  16. 49 CFR 195.310 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records. 195.310 Section 195.310 Transportation... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.310 Records. (a) A record must be made of each pressure test required by this subpart, and the record of the latest test must be retained as long as the facility tested is in...

  17. 49 CFR 195.310 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records. 195.310 Section 195.310 Transportation... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.310 Records. (a) A record must be made of each pressure test required by this subpart, and the record of the latest test must be retained as long as the facility tested is in...

  18. 49 CFR 195.310 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Records. 195.310 Section 195.310 Transportation... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.310 Records. (a) A record must be made of each pressure test required by this subpart, and the record of the latest test must be retained as long as the facility tested is in...

  19. 49 CFR 195.310 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records. 195.310 Section 195.310 Transportation... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.310 Records. (a) A record must be made of each pressure test required by this subpart, and the record of the latest test must be retained as long as the facility tested is...

  20. Systematic investigation of ion suppression and enhancement effects of fourteen stable-isotope-labeled internal standards by their native analogues using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization and the relevance for multi-analyte liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric procedures.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-15

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, multi-analyte procedures are very useful to quantify drugs and poisons of different classes in one run. For liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) multi-analyte procedures, often only a limited number of stable-isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs) are available. If an SIL-IS is used for quantification of other analytes, it must be excluded that the co-eluting native analyte influences its ionization. Therefore, the effect of ion suppression and enhancement of fourteen SIL-ISs caused by their native analogues has been studied. It could be shown that the native analyte concentration influenced the extent of ion suppression and enhancement effects leading to more suppression with increasing analyte concentration especially when electrospray ionization (ESI) was used. Using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), methanolic solution showed mainly enhancement effects, whereas no ion suppression and enhancement effect, with one exception, occurred when plasma extracts were used under these conditions. Such differences were not observed using ESI. With ESI, eleven SIL-ISs showed relevant suppression effects, but only one analyte showed suppression effects when APCI was used. The presented study showed that ion suppression and enhancement tests using matrix-based samples of different sources are essential for the selection of ISs, particularly if used for several analytes to avoid incorrect quantification. In conclusion, only SIL-ISs should be selected for which no suppression and enhancement effects can be observed. If not enough ISs are free of ionization interferences, a different ionization technique should be considered.

  1. Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Blood Pressure Recorded From 2004 to 2014 During World Hypertension Day in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tocci, Giuliano; Muiesan, Maria L; Parati, Gianfranco; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Ferri, Claudio; Virdis, Agostino; Pontremoli, Roberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Estimates of blood pressure (BP) control in real life are not systematically collected in Italy. We evaluated trends in systolic/diastolic BP levels, as well as prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension among adult individuals visiting open checkpoints during the 2004 to 2014 annual editions of World Hypertension Day. Hypertension was defined as BP level ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication, whereas BP control was defined as BP level <140/90 mm Hg. We included 10,051 individuals (53.2% female, age 56.2±16.8 years, body mass index 25.7±7.6 kg/m(2) , systolic/diastolic BP 131.9±18.6/79.1±10.5 mm Hg). Hypertension prevalence and treatment were substantially unchanged, whereas awareness appears to increase over time. Controlled hypertension in diagnosed treated patients increased from 50.0% in 2004-2010 to 55.5% in 2011-2012 towards 57.6% in 2013-2014. This analysis provides real-life snapshots of hypertension over the years in the occasion of World Hypertension Day, showing increased awareness and improved control rates among treated hypertensive patients attending open checkpoints during 2004 to 2014 in Italy. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. T-phase and tsunami pressure waveforms recorded by near-source IMS water-column hydrophone triplets during the 2015 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Haralabus, G.; Zampolli, M.; Özel, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Underwater acoustic signal waveforms recorded during the 2015 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.3) by the hydrophones of hydroacoustic station HA03, located at the Juan Fernandez Islands, are analyzed. HA03 is part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System. The interest in the particular data set stems from the fact that HA03 is located only approximately 700 km SW from the epicenter of the earthquake. This makes it possible to study aspects of the signal associated with the tsunamigenic earthquake, which would be more difficult to detect had the hydrophones been located far from the source. The analysis shows that the direction of arrival of the T phase can be estimated by means of a three-step preprocessing technique which circumvents spatial aliasing caused by the hydrophone spacing, the latter being large compared to the wavelength. Following this preprocessing step, standard frequency-wave number analysis (F-K analysis) can accurately estimate back azimuth and slowness of T-phase signals. The data analysis also shows that the dispersive tsunami signals can be identified by the water-column hydrophones at the time when the tsunami surface gravity wave reaches the station.

  3. Analytical solution approximation for bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafi, Lukman; Mufid, M. Syifaul

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of lubrication is to separate two surfaces sliding past each other with a film of some material which can be sheared without causing any damage to the surfaces. Reynolds equation is a basic equation for fluid lubrication which is applied in the bearing problem. This equation can be derived from Navier-Stokes equation and continuity equation. In this paper Reynolds equation is solved using analytical approximation by making simplification to obtain pressure distribution.

  4. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  5. Extended analysis of constant-height hydraulic fractures for the estimation of in-situ crack-opening modulus from bottomhole pressure records

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1987-03-01

    Hydraulic fractures created in oil and gas bearing rock formations can be made to propagate for a limited time at approximately constant height if favorable stress, deformation modulus or fracture toughness barriers to height growth exist and if the fracture design is suitably optimized to exploit these favorable conditions and reduce height growth. In this report, a unified theoretical formulation for the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) and Christianovitch-Geertsma-De Klerk-Daneshy (CGDD) constant height fracture models is first presented. For a fracture fluid injection rate that varies as an arbitrary power of time, growth laws for fracturing fluid pressure, fracture width, and flow rate are rigorously derived for PKN and CGDD types of fractures. These similarity solutions account for non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow, transient fluid storage and generalized power-law fluid leak-off to the rock formation. They include and extend the results currently available in the literature for PKN and CGDD fractures. The results for PKN and CGDD fractures are then generalized to obtain an approximate hybrid CGDD-PKN fracture model that can be applied to constant height fractures of arbitrary length/height aspect ratio and arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Characteristic times for fracture extension are identified and estimates are given for the transition times when the fracture evolves from a CGDD-type fracture at small aspect ratio to a PKN-type fracture at large aspect ratio. These results are useful for interpreting fracturing data and for designing fractures for crack-opening modulus measurements.

  6. An autocalibrating algorithm for non-invasive cardiac output determination based on the analysis of an arterial pressure waveform recorded with radial artery applanation tonometry: a proof of concept pilot analysis.

    PubMed

    Saugel, Bernd; Meidert, Agnes S; Langwieser, Nicolas; Wagner, Julia Y; Fassio, Florian; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prechtl, Luisa M; Huber, Wolfgang; Schmid, Roland M; Gödje, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to describe and evaluate an autocalibrating algorithm for determination of cardiac output (CO) based on the analysis of an arterial pressure (AP) waveform recorded using radial artery applanation tonometry (AT) in a continuous non-invasive manner. To exemplarily describe and evaluate the CO algorithm, we deliberately selected 22 intensive care unit patients with impeccable AP waveforms from a database including AP data obtained with AT (T-Line system; Tensys Medical Inc.). When recording AP data for this prospectively maintained database, we had simultaneously noted CO measurements obtained from just calibrated pulse contour analysis (PiCCO system; Pulsion Medical Systems) every minute. We applied the autocalibrating CO algorithm to the AT-derived AP waveforms and noted the computed CO values every minute during a total of 15 min of data recording per patient (3 × 5-min intervals). These 330 AT-derived CO (AT-CO) values were then statistically compared to the corresponding pulse contour CO (PC-CO) values. Mean ± standard deviation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 7.0 ± 2.0 and 6.9 ± 2.1 L/min, respectively. The coefficient of variation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 0.280 and 0.299, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias of +0.1 L/min (standard deviation 0.8 L/min; 95% limits of agreement -1.5 to 1.7 L/min, percentage error 23%). CO can be computed based on the analysis of the AP waveform recorded with AT. In the selected patients included in this pilot analysis, a percentage error of 23% indicates clinically acceptable agreement between AT-CO and PC-CO.

  7. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a < 1.71 Ga protolith and was affected by continuous interactions of oceanic plates to the west and the northwestern corner of the South American continental plate. The exposed metamorphic core of the massif offers a unique opportunity to understand the tectonic evolution of northwestern South America. We present new metamorphic petrology and geochemistry data from the Bucaramanga Gneiss in the Santander Massif to document part of this tectonic evolution from late Proterozoic to Jurassic times. Metapelitic migmatite gneiss, quartz-feldspathic gneiss, and amphibolite from the Bucaramanga Gneiss recorded metamorphic peak conditions in the range of 660-850 °C at pressures of > 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are < 750 °C and < 6.5 kbar. Observed leucosomes display significant compositional variations and can be grouped in three groups: i) Group One leucosomes with high total REE content, high LREE/HREE, and negative Eu anomaly, ii) Group Two leucosomes with low total REE, low LREE/HREE, and positive Eu anomalies, and iii) Group Three leucosomes with relatively low LREE/HREE and strong positive Eu anomaly. Geochemical data support the interpretation that Group Two leucosomes crystallized from melts originated in a partial melting event affecting mostly pelitic and quartz-feldspathic lithologies with fluid-present melting reactions. The evaluation of mesosomes (amphibolite, pelitic and quartz-feldspathic rocks) as potential protoliths or restites indicates that at least two pelitic samples of the analyzed lithologies have characteristics consistent with the occurrence of fluid-present melting reactions involving quartz and feldspar. The leucosomes produced by

  8. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  9. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Analytical one-dimensional model for laser-induced ultrasound in planar optically absorbing layer.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Erika; Linder, Tomas; Löfqvist, Torbjörn

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound generated by means of laser-based photoacoustic principles are in common use today and applications can be found both in biomedical diagnostics, non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. For certain measurement applications it could be beneficial to shape the generated ultrasound regarding spectral properties and temporal profile. To address this, we studied the generation and propagation of laser-induced ultrasound in a planar, layered structure. We derived an analytical expression for the induced pressure wave, including different physical and optical properties of each layer. A Laplace transform approach was employed in analytically solving the resulting set of photoacoustic wave equations. The results correspond to simulations and were compared to experimental results. To enable the comparison between recorded voltage from the experiments and the calculated pressure we employed a system identification procedure based on physical properties of the ultrasonic transducer to convert the calculated acoustic pressure to voltages. We found reasonable agreement between experimentally obtained voltages and the voltages determined from the calculated acoustic pressure, for the samples studied. The system identification procedure was found to be unstable, however, possibly from violations of material isotropy assumptions by film adhesives and coatings in the experiment. The presented analytical model can serve as a basis when addressing the inverse problem of shaping an acoustic pulse from absorption of a laser pulse in a planar layered structure of elastic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  12. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications. PMID:28895928

  13. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of 'common ground' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve 'common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  14. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  15. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  16. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  17. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  18. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  19. Modeling Cyclic Variation of Intracranial Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    with increasing vascular dilation induced by increasing the level of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) within the arterial blood ...ventilation. Simulated model recordings demonstrated that the correlation index between arterial blood pressure and ICP progressively increased... blood pressure (ABP) recording, the ICP Figure 1. Experimental Recordings of ABP and ICP during Normocapnia and Hypercapnia. a) Normocapnia with

  20. Dissipation of anomalous pressures in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Abacioglu, Yafes; England, William; Smalley, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Zones of anomalous pressure, higher and lower than hydrostatic pressure, have been observed in many sedimentary basins around the world. These normally consist of groups of pressure compartments: volumes of higher-permeability rock surrounded on all sides by lower-permeability barriers. Knowledge of the timescales over which these abnormal pressures are maintained and the mechanisms by which they dissipate is critical for understanding how fluids, such as oil and gas, move in the subsurface. Existing analytic solutions investigate pressure dissipation through low-permeability barriers on top of or underneath an isolated pressure compartment. There are no analytic solutions describing pressure dissipation through lateral barriers, such as faults, or investigating the impact of groups of pressure compartments on the rate of pressure dissipation. This paper presents simple analytic models to investigate pressure dissipation through barriers, such as faults, forming the sides of pressure compartments. The timescales are compared with a solution for pressure dissipation through barriers on top of and underneath the compartment. It also investigates analytically the rate of pressure dissipation from groups of pressure compartments. Lateral seal permeabilities of 10-19 m2 may delay pressure equilibration for millions of years provided the compartment has a sufficiently high fluid storage capacity. Factors contributing toward a high fluid storage capacity include a high fluid compressibility (as is the case in hydrocarbon reservoirs) and a high porosity. The grouping of abnormally pressured compartments into "megacompartment complexes" may delay pressure dissipation for hundreds of millions of years.

  1. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  2. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  3. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  4. Video recording.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Sato, S; Long, R L

    1985-01-01

    Two video techniques are commonly used for biomedical monitoring. The simplest technique uses 2 or 3 video cameras with a special-effects generator. The more advanced method uses one video camera with a reformatter, a special-effects generator and a time-code generator. The main components of a video recording system are the camera, tape recorder, monitor, special-effects generator, reformatter, audio system and time-code generator. Video recordings can be edited electronically, but the quality of the copies is dependent on the type of editing equipment and the technical expertise available. Video recording has helped to improve the diagnosis and treatment of seizures and has been widely used in clinical epilepsy research. Video monitoring is now generally available in large medical centers for the diagnosis of difficult patients.

  5. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-08-02

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  6. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-11-15

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  7. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  8. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  9. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  10. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  11. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  12. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  13. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  14. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  15. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  16. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  17. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  18. Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Dechang; Senesac, Lawrence R; Thundat, Thomas G

    2011-07-05

    A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

  19. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  20. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus. III. Scaling theory for high pressure operation and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Recent work on the revised Gratton-Vargas model (Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013); 22, 112509 (2015) and references therein) has demonstrated that there are some aspects of Dense Plasma Focus (DPF), which are not sensitive to details of plasma dynamics and are well captured in an oversimplified model assumption, which contains very little plasma physics. A hyperbolic conservation law formulation of DPF physics reveals the existence of a velocity threshold related to specific energy of dissociation and ionization, above which, the work done during shock propagation is adequate to ensure dissociation and ionization of the gas being ingested. These developments are utilized to formulate an algorithmic definition of DPF optimization that is valid in a wide range of applications, not limited to neutron emission. This involves determination of a set of DPF parameters, without performing iterative model calculations, that lead to transfer of all the energy from the capacitor bank to the plasma at the time of current derivative singularity and conversion of a preset fraction of this energy into magnetic energy, while ensuring that electromagnetic work done during propagation of the plasma remains adequate for dissociation and ionization of neutral gas being ingested. Such a universal optimization criterion is expected to facilitate progress in new areas of DPF research that include production of short lived radioisotopes of possible use in medical diagnostics, generation of fusion energy from aneutronic fuels, and applications in nanotechnology, radiation biology, and materials science. These phenomena are expected to be optimized for fill gases of different kinds and in different ranges of mass density compared to the devices constructed for neutron production using empirical thumb rules. A universal scaling theory of DPF design optimization is proposed and illustrated for designing devices working at one or two orders higher pressure of deuterium than the current

  1. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2014-07-22

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  2. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  3. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2008-03-11

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  4. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  5. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  6. Visual Analytics 101

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  7. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M+. decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques.

  8. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... night. Pressure sores also are called bedsores or pressure ulcers. The sores change appearance over 4 stages. In ... SeniorsTags: antibiotics, Dermatologic, elderly, higher, older adults, Overview, Pressure Ulcers Family Health, Seniors September 2000 Copyright © American Academy ...

  10. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  11. Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Teens > Peer Pressure A A A ... for the school play. previous continue When the Pressure's On Sometimes, though, the stresses in your life ...

  12. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  13. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  14. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  15. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  16. The improvement of the analytical performance of direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with the small-sized liquid cathode after the addition of non-ionic surfactants to electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Gręda, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Piotr; Pohl, Paweł

    2013-04-15

    A low power direct current atmospheric glow discharge sustained in the open to air atmosphere in contact with a small-sized flowing liquid cathode was used as an excitation source in optical emission spectrometry. The composition of electrolyte solutions served as the liquid cathode was modified by the addition of non-ionic surfactants, namely Triton x-45, Triton x-100, Triton x-405 and Triton x-705. The effect of the concentration of each surfactant was thoroughly studied on the emission characteristic of molecular bands identified in spectra, atomic emission lines of 16 metals studied and the background level. It was found that the presence of both heavy surfactants results in a significant increase in the net intensity of analytical lines of metals and a notable reduction of the intensity of bands of diatomic molecules and the background. In conditions considered to be a compromise for all metals, selected figures of merit for this excitation source combined with the optical emission spectrometry detection were determined. Limits of detection for all metals were within the range of 0.0003-0.05 mg L(-1), the precision was better than 6%, while calibration curves were linear over 2 orders of the magnitude of the concentration or more, e.g., for K, Li, Mg, Na and Rb. The discharge system with the liquid cathode modified by the addition of the surfactant found its application in the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in selected environmental samples, i.e., waters, soils and spruce needles, with the quite good precision and the accuracy comparable to that for measurements with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  18. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima

    2016-06-24

    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodological Challenges in Examining the Impact of Healthcare Predictive Analytics on Nursing-Sensitive Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Alvin D

    2015-06-01

    The expansion of real-time analytic abilities within current electronic health records has led to innovations in predictive modeling and clinical decision support systems. However, the ability of these systems to influence patient outcomes is currently unknown. Even though nurses are the largest profession within the healthcare workforce, little research has been performed to explore the impact of clinical decision support on their decisions and the patient outcomes associated with them. A scoping literature review explored the impact clinical decision support systems containing healthcare predictive analytics have on four nursing-sensitive patient outcomes (pressure ulcers, failure to rescue, falls, and infections). While many articles discussed variable selection and predictive model development/validation, only four articles examined the impact on patient outcomes. The novelty of predictive analytics and the inherent methodological challenges in studying clinical decision support impact are likely responsible for this paucity of literature. Major methodological challenges include (1) multilevel nature of intervention, (2) treatment fidelity, and (3) adequacy of clinicians' subsequent behavior. There is currently insufficient evidence to demonstrate efficacy of healthcare predictive analytics-enhanced clinical decision support systems on nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Innovative research methods and a greater emphasis on studying this phenomenon are needed.

  20. SRL online Analytical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R&D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R&D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control & Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  1. SRL online Analytical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  2. [Contributions and novelties from Functional Analytic Psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ferro García, Rafael; Valero Aguayo, Luis; López Bermúdez, Miguel A

    2007-08-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is based on the principles of radical behaviourism. It emphasises the impact of events occurring during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence of environments, natural reinforcement, and shaping by the therapist. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy makes use of both the basic principles of behaviour analysis: individual functional assessment and application of in vivo treatment. This paper analyses novelties and new contributions of this therapy. New contributions are classified in various categories: integration with other psychotherapies, improvement of therapeutic skills, methods for evaluation and data recording in therapy, its application to several clinical problems, and studies of its efficacy.

  3. Analytical evaluation of the ADAMS(™) A1c HA 8180 thalassemia mode high-pressure liquid chromatography analyser for the measurement of HbA2 and HbF.

    PubMed

    Urrechaga, E

    2016-12-01

    ADAMS(™) A1cHA-8180T is a HPLC system; within 3.5 min, it quantifies HbF, HbA2 , and HbA0 and flags abnormal peaks. We evaluate its analytical performance for routine estimation of HbA2 and HbF, and critical tests were performed for identifying β-thalassemia carriers. Trueness imprecision, carry over, linearity, and effect of anemia were evaluated according to ICLH, ICLS, or manufacture's guidelines. Comparison (ADAMS(™) A1c HA-8160T) was performed by running 400 samples from healthy subjects, 30 alpha and 80 beta carriers (range: 1.9-5.7 %). Trueness - HbA2 2.7 %, bias 0.81 %; HbA2 5.8 %, bias 0.38 %. HbA2 4.0% is not affected by Hb in the range 221-40 g/L. Carry over was negligible. Within run: normal control - CV 1.5 %, high control - CV 0.9 %.Within laboratory: normal control - total CV% 1.59%; high control - 0.92 %. Linearity - y = 1.034x - 0.17, R(2 ) = 0.998 (range: 2.8-4.8%).Method comparison - y = 0.93x + 0.22, R(2)  = 0.997. HbF imprecision CVs between 0.66 and 1.24% and trueness between 0 and 2.8%. Linearity - y = 1.088x - 0.27, R(2)  = 0.999 (0.1-5.7%). ADAMS(™) A1c HA-8180T provides a rapid and reliable separation of HbA2 . The measurement is accurate and reproducible, which is needed because of the slight difference between normal and pathological values. The gap in HbA2 values between normal subjects and β-thalassemia carriers makes this an appropriate method for rapid screening for carriers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An Analytic Model of Dusty, Stratified, Spherical H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Lora, V.; Cantó, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. We compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.

  5. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-06

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  6. Analytical decoupling techniques for fully implicit reservoir simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Changhe; Wu, Shuhong; Xu, Jinchao; Zhang, Chen-Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines linear algebraic solvers for a given general purpose compositional simulator. In particular, the decoupling stage of the constraint pressure residual (CPR) preconditioner for linear systems arising from the fully implicit scheme is evaluated. An asymptotic analysis of the convergence behavior is given when Δt approaches zero. Based on this analysis, we propose an analytical decoupling technique, from which the pressure equation is directly related to an elliptic equation and can be solved efficiently. We show that this method ensures good convergence behavior of the algebraic solvers in a two-stage CPR-type preconditioner. We also propose a semi-analytical decoupling strategy that combines the analytical method and alternate block factorization method. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the analytical and semi-analytical decoupling methods compared to existing methods.

  7. Climate Data Analytics Workflow Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Mattmann, C. A.; Lee, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    In this project we aim to pave a novel path to create a sustainable building block toward Earth science big data analytics and knowledge sharing. Closely studying how Earth scientists conduct data analytics research in their daily work, we have developed a provenance model to record their activities, and to develop a technology to automatically generate workflows for scientists from the provenance. On top of it, we have built the prototype of a data-centric provenance repository, and establish a PDSW (People, Data, Service, Workflow) knowledge network to support workflow recommendation. To ensure the scalability and performance of the expected recommendation system, we have leveraged the Apache OODT system technology. The community-approved, metrics-based performance evaluation web-service will allow a user to select a metric from the list of several community-approved metrics and to evaluate model performance using the metric as well as the reference dataset. This service will facilitate the use of reference datasets that are generated in support of the model-data intercomparison projects such as Obs4MIPs and Ana4MIPs. The data-centric repository infrastructure will allow us to catch richer provenance to further facilitate knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the Earth science community. This project is part of Apache incubator CMDA project.

  8. Pressure measurements of nonplanar stress waves

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.H.; Charest, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Measuring the pressure of non-planar stress waves using thin piezo-resistive gages requires correcting for induced strain parallel to the sensing elements. A technique has been developed that permits such measurements, making use of a dual element gage. One element, Manganin, is sensitive to stress both parallel and perpendicular to the sensing element; the other element, Constantan, is primarily sensitive to stress parallel to the sensing element. The change in resistance in the Constantan element is thereby used to correct for the strain effect parallel to the Manganin element axis. Individual and combined Manganin and Constantan elements were subjected to controlled gas gun impact tests in the pressure and strain ranges of 0 to 50 kbar and 0 to 7%, respectively. From planar wave tests, the piezoresistivity of Constantan was found to be positive but negligible in comparison with Manganin. From combined stress and strain environments, the compression and tension strain factors of Constantan were found to be constant and equal to 2.06. The strain factors of Manganin were found to increase from 1.2 to 2.0 asymptotically in the range of 0 to 3% strain. It was experimentally demonstrated that, because of the closeness of their strain factors, the Manganin-Constantan dual element gage could be used in the differential recording mode to yield pressure directly. In this mode the gage is a strain compensating gage. Analytical techniques have also been developed for more accurate strain compensation.

  9. Recent advances in analytical satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work on analytical satellite perturbation theory has involved the completion of a revision to 4th order for zonal harmonics, the addition of a treatment for ocean tides, an extension of the treatment for the noninertial reference system, and the completion of a theory for direct solar-radiation pressure and earth-albedo pressure. Combined with a theory for tesseral-harmonics, lunisolar, and body-tide perturbations, these formulations provide a comprehensive orbit-computation program. Detailed comparisons with numerical integration and observations are presented to assess the accuracy of each theoretical development.

  10. Analytical tools and isolation of TOF events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical tools are presented in two reports. The first is a probability analysis of the orbital distribution of events in relation to dust flux density observed in Pioneer 8 and 9 distributions. A distinction is drawn between asymmetries caused by random fluctuations and systematic variations, by calculating the probability of any particular asymmetry. The second article discusses particle trajectories for a repulsive force field. The force on a particle due to solar radiation pressure is directed along the particle's radius vector, from the sun, and is inversely proportional to its distance from the sun. Equations of motion which describe both solar radiation pressure and gravitational attraction are presented.

  11. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  12. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  13. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  14. Post-operative cranial pressure monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fager, C. A., Jr.; Long, L. E.; Trent, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System for monitoring of fluidic pressures in cranial cavity uses a miniaturized pressure sensing transducer, combined with suitable amplification means, a meter with scale calibrated in terms of pressures between minus 100 and plus 900 millimeters of water, and a miniaturized chart recorder covering similar range of pressures.

  15. Evaluation of Analytical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. Scott

    The field of food analysis, or any type of analysis, involves a considerable amount of time learning principles, methods, and instrument operations and perfecting various techniques. Although these areas are extremely important, much of our effort would be for naught if there were not some way for us to evaluate the data obtained from the various analytical assays. Several mathematical treatments are available that provide an idea of how well a particular assay was performed or how well we can reproduce an experiment. Fortunately, the statistics are not too involved and apply to most analytical determinations.

  16. Monitoring the analytic surface.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Mayes, L C; Dahl, H

    1994-01-01

    How do we listen during an analytic hour? Systematic analysis of the speech patterns of one patient (Mrs. C.) strongly suggests that the clustering of shared pronouns (e.g., you/me) represents an important aspect of the analytic surface, preconsciously sensed by the analyst and used by him to determine when to intervene. Sensitivity to these patterns increases over the course of treatment, and in a final block of 10 hours shows a striking degree of contingent responsivity: specific utterances by the patient are consistently echoed by the analyst's interventions.

  17. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  18. The Measurement of Pressure Through Tubes in Pressure Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemke, Paul E

    1928-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made to determine the error caused by using small tubes to connect orifices on the surface of aircraft to central pressure capsules in making pressure distribution tests. Aluminum tubes of 3/16-inch inside diameter were used to determine this error. Lengths from 20 feet to 226 feet and pressures whose maxima varied from 2 inches to 140 inches of water were used. Single-pressure impulses for which the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum varied from 0.25 second to 3 seconds were investigated. The results show that the pressure recorded at the capsule on the far end of the tube lags behind the pressure at the orifice end and experiences also a change in magnitude. For the values used in these tests the time lag and pressure change vary principally with the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum and the tube length. Curves are constructed showing the time lag and pressure change. Empirical formulas are also given for computing the time lag. Analysis of pressure distribution tests made on airplanes in flight shows that the recorded pressures are slightly higher than the pressures at the orifice and that the time lag is negligible. The apparent increase in pressure is usually within the experimental error, but in the case of the modern pursuit type of airplane the pressure increase may be 5 per cent. For pressure-distribution tests on airships the analysis shows that the time lag and pressure change may be neglected.

  19. Managing School Social Work Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents results of a survey of 73 school social workers regarding their record-keeping practices. These social workers indicated that time pressures are a major challenge to documentation; they struggle to know what to include, and they worry about privacy. More than half fail to consistently include assessment information, progress…

  20. Managing School Social Work Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents results of a survey of 73 school social workers regarding their record-keeping practices. These social workers indicated that time pressures are a major challenge to documentation; they struggle to know what to include, and they worry about privacy. More than half fail to consistently include assessment information, progress…

  1. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  2. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  3. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  4. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  5. Social Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  6. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  7. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  8. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. Analytic Modeling of Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    influenced by interests and utilities. 4.1 Carrots and Sticks An analytic model that captures the aforementioned utilitarian aspect is presented in...instead of the insurgents, to improve or worsen their welfare . The insurgents execute two types of actions: (a) violent actions, aimed to coerce potential

  11. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  12. Analytic characterization of biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Peter M; DiGrazia, Lisa M

    2017-04-15

    The biosimilar development process, comparability for biological agents, and analytic characterization of biosimilars are described. Healthcare providers must understand the requirements for biosimilar approval, including the science behind biosimilar development and testing that contributes to the totality of evidence. The foundation of development is to demonstrate that a biosimilar is highly similar to the reference product through analytic characterization. Advances in analytic techniques enable scientists to extensively characterize biological products to identify potential product differences compared with the reference product that may affect the purity, safety, and efficacy of the biosimilar candidate. When developing a biosimilar, the clinical efficacy of the biological product has been proven with trials from the reference biological product; therefore, analytic testing on the molecular structure and biological function becomes the focus. In addition, nonclinical studies in animals are performed, including toxicology and immunogenicity testing. In humans, clinical pharmacology studies are performed to evaluate the safety and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the proposed biosimilar. If there is any residual uncertainty about the proposed biological product after this testing, the developer should use guidance from the Food and Drug Administration to determine what additional clinical studies may be needed to adequately address that uncertainty. Requirements for the approval of a biosimilar product include analytic characterization, which tests for similarity in primary amino acid structure, analysis of higher-order structure using circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, detection of posttranslational modifications, assessment of optimal target binding, and testing for impurities and optimal potency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Externally Pressurized Journal Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Externally pressurized gas-lubricated bearings with multiple orifice feed are investigated. An analytical treatment is developed for a semi-cylindrical bearing with 9 orifices and for a cylindrical journal bearing with 192 radial and 24 axial orifices. Experiments are described on models of the two bearing configurations with specially designed fixtures which incorporate pneumatic loading and means for determining pressure profiles, gas flow and gap height. The correlation between theory and experiment is satisfactory.

  14. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  15. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  16. Barometric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of alterations in barometric pressure on human beings are described. Human tolerances for gaseous environments and low and high barometric pressure are discussed, including effects on specific areas, such as the ear, lungs, teeth, and sinuses. Problems due to trapped gas within the body, high dynamic pressures on the body, and blasts are also considered.

  17. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  18. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; DeNap, Frank A; Potok, Thomas E; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  19. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; Senter, James K; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  20. Low Differential Pressure Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen J. (Inventor); Deyoe, Richard T. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for evaluating low differential pressure transducers includes a pressure generator in the form of a piston-cylinder assembly having a piston that may be manually positioned precisely within the cylinder to change the volume and thus the pressure at respective sides of the piston. At one side of the piston the cylinder communicates with a first chamber and at the other side of the piston the cylinder communicates with a second chamber, the first and second chambers being formed within a common tank by a partition wall. The chambers each communicate with the transducer to be evaluated and a standard pre-calibrated transducer the transducers being connected fluidly in parallel so that a pressure differential between air in the two chambers resulting from movement of the piston within the cylinder is communicated to both the transducer to be evaluated and the standard transducer, and the outputs of the transducers is observed and recorded.

  1. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  2. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  3. Multifunctional nanoparticles: analytical prospects.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Alejandro Simón; Díaz-García, Marta Elena

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  4. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  5. Ultrasound in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Priego Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection. A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the main area of application. In sample preparation ultrasound is used to assist solid-sample treatment (e.g. digestion, leaching, slurry formation) and liquid-sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction, emulsification, homogenization) or to promote heterogeneous sample treatment (e.g. filtration, aggregation, dissolution of solids, crystallization, precipitation, defoaming, degassing). Detection techniques based on use of ultrasonic radiation, the principles on which they are based, responses, and the quantities measured are also discussed.

  6. Analytical applications of aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  7. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  8. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  9. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  10. PSP Measurement of Stator Vane Surface Pressures in a High Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of static pressures on the stator vane suction side of a high-speed single stage fan using the technique of pressure sensitive paint (PSP). The paper illustrates development in application of the relatively new experimental technique to the complex environment of internal flows in turbomachines. First, there is a short explanation of the physics of the PSP technique and a discussion of calibration methods for pressure sensitive paint in the turbomachinery environment. A description of the image conversion process follows. The recorded image of the stator vane pressure field is skewed due to the limited optical access and must be converted to the meridional plane projection for comparison with analytical predictions. The experimental results for seven operating conditions along an off-design rotational speed line are shown in a concise form, including performance map points, mindspan static tap pressure distributions, and vane suction side pressure fields. Then, a comparison between static tap and pressure sensitive paint data is discussed. Finally, the paper lists shortcomings of the pressure sensitive paint technology and lessons learned in this high-speed fan application.

  11. Fabricating Cotton Analytical Devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-30

    A robust, low-cost analytical device should be user-friendly, rapid, and affordable. Such devices should also be able to operate with scarce samples and provide information for follow-up treatment. Here, we demonstrate the development of a cotton-based urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, total protein, and urobilinogen assays) analytical device that employs a lateral flow-based format, and is inexpensive, easily fabricated, rapid, and can be used to conduct multiple tests without cross-contamination worries. Cotton is composed of cellulose fibers with natural absorptive properties that can be leveraged for flow-based analysis. The simple but elegant fabrication process of our cotton-based analytical device is described in this study. The arrangement of the cotton structure and test pad takes advantage of the hydrophobicity and absorptive strength of each material. Because of these physical characteristics, colorimetric results can persistently adhere to the test pad. This device enables physicians to receive clinical information in a timely manner and shows great potential as a tool for early intervention.

  12. Visual Analytics: How Much Visualization and How Much Analytics?

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Daniel; Mansmann, Florian; Thomas, James J.

    2009-12-16

    The term Visual Analytics has been around for almost five years by now, but still there are on-going discussions about what it actually is and in particular what is new about it. The core of our view on Visual Analytics is the new enabling and accessible analytic reasoning interactions supported by the combination of automated and visual analytics. In this paper, we outline the scope of Visual Analytics using two problem and three methodological classes in order to work out the need for and purpose of Visual Analytics. Thereby, the respective methods are explained plus examples of analytic reasoning interaction leading to a glimpse into the future of how Visual Analytics methods will enable us to go beyond what is possible when separately using the two methods.

  13. High pressure pulsed capillary viscometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Walowitt, J. A.; Pan, C. H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted in order to establish the feasibility of a multichamber pulsed-capillary viscometer. The initial design incorporated a piston, ram, and seals which produced measured pulses up to 30,000 psi in the closed chamber system. Pressure pulses from one to ten milliseconds were investigated in a system volume of 1 cuin. Four test fluids: a MIL-L-7808, a 5P4E polyphenyl ether, a MIL-L-23699A, and a synthetic hydrocarbon were examined in the test pressure assembly. The pressure-viscosity coefficient and viscosity delay time were determined for the MIL-L-7808 lubricant tested.

  14. Analytical considerations in the code qualification of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1995-02-01

    The paper addresses several analytical topics in the design and qualification of piping systems which have a direct bearing on the prediction of stresses in the pipe and hence on the application of the equations of NB, NC and ND-3600 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. For each of the analytical topics, the paper summarizes the current code requirements, if any, and the industry practice.

  15. Pressure thermal holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2005-04-01

    A new recorder material with the ability to store information by pressure and temperature parameters, computer phase holograms were obtained whit this material, which it is used a coating of polyester resin mixing with nitrocellulose. The major improvements from our material are: high diffraction efficiency (91.9 %), reduced cost, easily to apply on any substrate and the hologram is making with out develop process, and this does not need carefully controlled environment conditions. In this approach the hologram is formed under pressure and temperature.

  16. Pressure gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, S.

    1985-04-02

    A pressure receiving element for receiving an external pressure is attached to one end of a body and a temperature compensating diaphragm is attached to the other end of the body. A coupling shaft disposed in the body is fixed at both ends to the pressure receiving element and the diaphragm, respectively. A liquid is sealed in the body and means is provided for detecting displacement or force applied to the coupling shaft in accordance with a pressure received by the pressure receiving element. The diaphragm has corrugations of concentric circles and the crests of a plurality of them are made flat and one of the flat crests is fixed to the body. The effective area of the diaphragm inside of the flat crest that is fixed to the body is selected substantially to be equal to the effective area of the pressure receiving element.

  17. Instrumentation: Analytical Capabilities on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, Frances; Allen, Carl; Braiser, Martin; Farmer, Jack; Massell, Wulf; Agee, Carl B.; Steele, Andrew; Fortson, Russ

    1998-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will consist of a series of long-term missions, with early missions focusing upon establishing the Mars base, and undertaking basic field reconnaissance. A capable laboratory on Mars is an essential element in the exploration strategy. Analytical equipment both in the field and in the laboratory serves to extend the senses of the crew and help them sharpen their sampling skills as they learn to recognize rocks in the field and understand their geologic context and significance. On-site sample analyses allow results to be incorporated into evolving surface exploration plans and strategies, which will be developing in real-time as we learn more about Mars. Early Mars missions will focus on reconnaissance EVAs to collect rock and soil samples, maximizing the amount of Mars material returned to Earth. Later missions will be increasingly devoted to both extensive field campaigns and laboratory analyses. The capabilities and equipment described below will be built up at the Mars base incrementally over many missions, with science payloads and investigative infrastructure being partitioned among launch opportunities. This discussion considers what we require to measure, observe, and explore on a new planetary territory. Alternatively, what do we need to know and how do we equip ourselves to provide ample capabilities to acquire these data? Suggestions follow describing specific instruments that we could use. Appendix 5 lists a strawman science instrument payload, and a feasibility study of equipment transportation into the field on pressurized or unpressurized rovers.

  18. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  19. Mars Analytical Microimager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  20. A review of opportunities for electrospun nanofibers in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson

    2011-11-07

    Challenges associated with analyte and matrix complexities and the ever increasing pressure from all sectors of industry for alternative analytical devices, have necessitated the development and application of new materials in analytical chemistry. To date, nanomaterials have emerged as having excellent properties for analytical chemistry applications mainly due to their large surface area to volume ratio and the availability of a wide variety of chemical and morphological modification methods. Of the available nanofibrous material fabrication methods, electrospinning has emerged as the most versatile. It is the aim of this contribution to highlight some of the recent developments that harness the great potential shown by electrospun nanofibers for application in analytical chemistry. The review discusses the use of electrospun nanofibers as a platform for low resolution separation or as a chromatographic sorbent bed for high resolution separation. It concludes by discussing the applications of electrospun nanofibers in detection systems with a specific focus on the development of simple electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probes.

  1. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  2. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  3. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  4. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  5. VisualDecisionLinc: a visual analytics approach for comparative effectiveness-based clinical decision support in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Mane, Ketan K; Bizon, Chris; Schmitt, Charles; Owen, Phillips; Burchett, Bruce; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Gersing, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is designed to provide research evidence on the effectiveness and risks of different therapeutic options on the basis of data compiled from subpopulations of patients with similar medical conditions. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system contain large volumes of patient data that could be used for CER, but the data contained in EHR system are typically accessible only in formats that are not conducive to rapid synthesis and interpretation of therapeutic outcomes. In the time-pressured clinical setting, clinicians faced with large amounts of patient data in formats that are not readily interpretable often feel 'information overload'. Decision support tools that enable rapid access at the point of care to aggregate data on the most effective therapeutic outcomes derived from CER would greatly aid the clinical decision-making process and individualize patient care. In this manuscript, we highlight the role that visual analytics can play in CER-based clinical decision support. We developed a 'VisualDecisionLinc' (VDL) tool prototype that uses visual analytics to provide summarized CER-derived data views to facilitate rapid interpretation of large amounts of data. We highlight the flexibility that visual analytics offers to gain an overview of therapeutic options and outcomes and if needed, to instantly customize the evidence to the needs of the patient or clinician. The VDL tool uses visual analytics to help the clinician evaluate and understand the effectiveness and risk of different therapeutic options for different subpopulations of patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct ;Analytic Renormalization Group; linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  7. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences.

  8. Pressurized Sleeve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Amy

    1988-01-01

    Garment part sustains pressure differential without unduly restricting the user. Sleeve withstands pressure difference of 8 lb/in2 while allowing wearer fairly easy movement. Sleeve consists of low-torque joint hardware, sewn fabric sections, and lengthwise strips of fabric that restrain sections.

  9. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  11. Synthesizing analytic evidence to refine care pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haifeng; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yiqin; Mei, Jing; Xie, Guotong; Perer, Adam; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Care pathways play significant roles in delivering evidence-based and coordinated care to patients with specific conditions. In order to put care pathways into practice, clinical institutions always need to adapt them based on local care settings so that the best local practices can be incorporated and used to develop refined pathways. However, it is knowledge-intensive and error-prone to incorporate various analytic insights from local data sets. In order to assist care pathway developers in working effectively and efficiently, we propose to automatically synthesize the analytical evidences derived from multiple analysis methods, and recommend modelling operations accordingly to derive a refined care pathway for a specific patient cohort. We validated our method by adapting a Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Ambulatory Care Pathway for patients with additional condition of COPD through synthesizing the results of variation analysis and frequent pattern mining against patient records.

  12. Breaking the pumping speed barrier in mass spectrometry: discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    The performance of mass spectrometers with limited pumping capacity is shown to be improved through use of a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI). A proof-of-concept DAPI interface was designed and characterized using a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. The interface consists of a simple capillary directly connecting the atmospheric pressure ion source to the vacuum mass analyzer region; it has no ion optical elements and no differential pumping stages. Gases carrying ionized analytes were pulsed into the mass analyzer for short periods at high flow rates rather than being continuously introduced at lower flow rates; this procedure maximized ion transfer. The use of DAPI provides a simple solution to the problem of coupling an atmospheric pressure ionization source to a miniature instrument with limited pumping capacity. Data were recorded using various atmospheric pressure ionization sources, including electrospray ionization (ESI), nano-ESI, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. The interface was opened briefly for ion introduction during each scan. With the use of the 18 W pumping system of the Mini 10, limits of detection in the low part-per-billion levels were achieved and unit resolution mass spectra were recorded.

  13. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-11-15

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. It is necessary to have analytical tools to help analysts identify anomalies that span seconds, days, and weeks. Unfortunately, providing analytical tools effective access to the volumes of underlying data requires novel architectures, which is often overlooked in operational deployments. Our work is focused on a summary record of communication, called a flow. Flow records are intended to summarize a communication session between a source and a destination, providing a level of aggregation from the base data. Despite this aggregation, many enterprise network perimeter sensors store millions of network flow records per day. The volume of data makes analytics difficult, requiring the development of new techniques to efficiently identify temporal patterns and potential threats. The massive volume makes analytics difficult, but there are other characteristics in the data which compound the problem. Within the billions of records of communication that transact, there are millions of distinct IP addresses involved. Characterizing patterns of entity behavior is very difficult with the vast number of entities that exist in the data. Research has struggled to validate a model for typical network behavior with hopes it will enable the identification of atypical behavior. Complicating matters more, typically analysts are only able to visualize and interact with fractions of data and have the potential to miss long term trends and behaviors. Our analysis approach focuses on aggregate views and visualization techniques to enable flexible and efficient data exploration as well as the capability to view trends over long periods of time. Realizing that interactively exploring summary data allowed analysts to effectively identify

  14. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  15. Analytic pion form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.

  16. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  17. [Analytical epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is reviewed from the standpoint of analytical epidemiology, which examines a statistical association between a given disease and a hypothesized factor with an aim of inferring its causality. Factors incriminated epidemiologically for stone formation include age, sex, occupation, social class (level of affluence), season of the year and climate, dietary and fluid intake and genetic prodisposition. Since some of these factors are interlinked, they are broadly classified into five categories and epidemiologically looked over here. Genetic predisposition is essentially endorsed by the more frequent episodes of stone formation in the family members of stone formers, as compared to non-stone formers. Nevertheless, some environmental factors (likely to be dietary habits) shared by family members are believed to be relatively more important than genetic predisposition. A hot, sunny climate may influence stone formation through inducing dehydration with increased perspiration and increased solute concentration with decreased urine volume, coupled with inadequate liquid intake, and possibly through the greater exposure to ultraviolet radiation which eventually results in an increased vitamin D production, conceivably correlated with seasonal variation in calcium and oxalate excretion to the urine. Urinary tract infections are importantly involved in the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones in particular. The association with regional water hardness is still in controversy. Excessive intake of coffee, tea and alcoholic beverages seemingly increase the risk of renal calculi, though not consistently confirmed. Many dietary elements have been suggested by numerous clinical and experimental investigations, but a few elements are substantiated by analytical epidemiological investigations. An increased ingestion of animal protein and sugar and a decreased ingestion of dietary fiber and green-yellow vegetables are linked with the higher

  18. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. Analisar a frequência de registros da pressão arterial realizados por profissionais de enfermagem em uma unidade de emergência. Estudo transversal, observacional, descritivo e analítico, que incluiu registros de pacientes adultos admitidos em leitos de observação de uma unidade de emergência no período de março a maio de 2014. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de um instrumento de coleta de dados dividido em três partes: identificação do paciente, dados de triagem e registro da pressão arterial. Para a análise estatística, foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com nível de significância de α<0,05. Foram analisados

  19. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytic integrable systems: Analytic normalization and embedding flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    In this paper we mainly study the existence of analytic normalization and the normal form of finite dimensional complete analytic integrable dynamical systems. More details, we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism F(x)=Bx+f(x) in (Cn,0) with B having eigenvalues not modulus 1 and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Meanwhile, we also prove that any complete analytic integrable differential system x˙=Ax+f(x) in (Cn,0) with A having nonzero eigenvalues and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Furthermore we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism defined on an analytic manifold can be embedded in a complete analytic integrable flow. We note that parts of our results are the improvement of Moser's one in J. Moser, The analytic invariants of an area-preserving mapping near a hyperbolic fixed point, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9 (1956) 673-692 and of Poincaré's one in H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré, II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 11 (1897) 193-239. These results also improve the ones in Xiang Zhang, Analytic normalization of analytic integrable systems and the embedding flows, J. Differential Equations 244 (2008) 1080-1092 in the sense that the linear part of the systems can be nonhyperbolic, and the one in N.T. Zung, Convergence versus integrability in Poincaré-Dulac normal form, Math. Res. Lett. 9 (2002) 217-228 in the way that our paper presents the concrete expression of the normal form in a restricted case.

  1. Pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  2. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  3. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  4. Pressure regulator

    DOEpatents

    Ebeling, Jr., Robert W.; Weaver, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure within a pressurized flow reactor operated under harsh environmental conditions is controlled by establishing and maintaining a fluidized bed of uniformly sized granular material of selected density by passing the gas from the reactor upwardly therethrough at a rate sufficient to fluidize the bed and varying the height of the bed by adding granular material thereto or removing granular material therefrom to adjust the backpressure on the flow reactor.

  5. 14 CFR 125.226 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information source is installed); (77) Hydraulic pressure (each system); (78) Loss of cabin pressure; (79... chapter. A correlation must be established between the values recorded by the flight data recorder and the corresponding values being measured. The correlation must contain a sufficient number of correlation points to...

  6. 14 CFR 125.226 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information source is installed); (77) Hydraulic pressure (each system); (78) Loss of cabin pressure; (79... chapter. A correlation must be established between the values recorded by the flight data recorder and the corresponding values being measured. The correlation must contain a sufficient number of correlation points to...

  7. 14 CFR 125.226 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information source is installed); (77) Hydraulic pressure (each system); (78) Loss of cabin pressure; (79... chapter. A correlation must be established between the values recorded by the flight data recorder and the corresponding values being measured. The correlation must contain a sufficient number of correlation points to...

  8. 14 CFR 125.226 - Digital flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information source is installed); (77) Hydraulic pressure (each system); (78) Loss of cabin pressure; (79... chapter. A correlation must be established between the values recorded by the flight data recorder and the corresponding values being measured. The correlation must contain a sufficient number of correlation points to...

  9. Academic Analytics: A New Tool for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John P.; DeBlois, Peter B.; Oblinger, Diana G.

    2007-01-01

    In responding to internal and external pressures for accountability in higher education, especially in the areas of improved learning outcomes and student success, IT leaders may soon become critical partners with academic and student affairs. IT can help answer this call for accountability through "academic analytics," which is emerging…

  10. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  11. Effect of nocturnal blood pressure measurement on sleep and blood pressure during sleep.

    PubMed

    Middeke, M

    1996-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension is of diagnostic interest and has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Nighttime blood pressure can easily be measured using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). However, during nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure measurement pump noise, tactile stimuli and pressure produced by cuff inflation may alter the quality of sleep and subsequently influence the physiological fall of night time blood pressure. Eight studies were performed to determine whether non-invasive automated blood pressure monitoring during day and/or night provokes alert reaction, arousal, sleep disturbances and changes in blood pressure and/or heart rate. From these studies it can be concluded: 1) Nighttime blood pressure can be evaluated properly using ABPM. 2) Nocturnal blood pressure is not overestimated by ABPM. 3) ABPM does not induce an alarm reaction and a blood pressure rise when monitored with a silently operating recorder. 4) Sleep is often disturbed by blood pressure measurement without provoking a blood pressure increase. 5) In older patients blood pressure measurement and age-related alterations in sleep quality may influence each other. A patient's protocol has to be carried out and sleep quality should be recorded to provide a proper interpretation of nocturnal blood pressure behavior. ABPM is an important and valuable method to record nocturnal blood pressure for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  12. Analytic definition of spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Fang, Yan-Long; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-08-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case, the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  13. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  14. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  15. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  16. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-11-15

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  17. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-12-13

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  18. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fixler, D E; Wallace, J M; Thornton, W E; Dimmitt, P

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify youths with chronic blood pressure elevation. Nineteen adolescent boys were studied, ten had 5-year average systolic or diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile, nine had normal pressure. A Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer III system recorded an average of 121 readings on each subject. The coefficients of variation for pressure were similar for hypertensive and normotensive individuals. During classes, eight of the ten hypertensive youths had elevated pressures in over half of the measurements. Also during these classes eight of ten hypertensive boys had average systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, whereas only one of nine normotensive boys had average pressures above this level. We suggest that schooltime ambulatory pressures may be most useful in classifying the blood pressure trend in a youth.

  20. Analytical steam injection model for layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

  1. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes, but many health care providers now keep electronic records. You might hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for ...

  3. Spatio-temporal mapping of intracardiac pressure gradients. A solution to Euler's equation from digital postprocessing of color Doppler M-mode echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, J; Antoranz, J C; Yotti, R; Moreno, M; García-Fernández, M A

    2001-05-01

    Doppler assessment of intracardiac pressure gradients using the simplified Bernoulli equation is inaccurate in the absence of a restricted orifice. The purpose of this study is to develop a new general method to map instantaneous pressure gradients inside the heart using Doppler echocardiography. Color Doppler M-mode recordings are digitally postprocessed with a software algorithm that decodes flow velocity and fits a bivariate spatio-temporal tensor-product smoothing spline. Temporal and spatial accelerations are then calculated by analytical derivation of the fitted velocity data, allowing solution of both inertial and convective terms of Euler's equation. A database of 39 transmitral inflow and transaortic outflow color Doppler M-mode recordings from 20 patients with a number of cardiac conditions was analysed, along with matched pulsed-wave spectral recordings. A close agreement was observed between the spectral and postprocessed color Doppler velocity values (error = 0.8 +/- 11.7 cm/s), validating the data decoding and fitting process. Spatio-temporal pressure-gradient maps were obtained from all studies, allowing visualisation of instantaneous pressure gradients from the atrium to the apex during left ventricular filling, and from the apex to the outflow tract during ejection. Instantaneous pressure differences between localised intracardiac sample points closely matched previously published catheterization findings, both in magnitude and waveform shape. Our method shows that intracardiac instantaneous pressure gradients can be analysed noninvasively using color Doppler M-mode echocardiography combined with image postprocessing methods.

  4. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr

    2017-04-01

    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  5. Emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Fintschenko, Yolanda; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Wong, Jon W

    2010-05-26

    The 46th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop of 2009 (FPRW 2009) held in St. Pete Beach, FL, is the latest in an annual tradition drawing scientists from U.S. federal and state government laboratories, industry, and other laboratories worldwide. In 2009, selected FPRW presenters were invited to contribute to this special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry with a section devoted to emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches. What follows is the written record of what should become a scientific conversation launched at FPRW 2009. There are two distinct approaches to organic residue analysis: instrumental methods and assays. In much of the world, scientists primarily rely on laboratories equipped with instrumentation for analysis, usually gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with some type of selective detector. In the discussion of instrumental approaches, the focus is on chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detection method. Approaches such as biomonitoring and assays fall outside the traditional instrumental method approach to residue analysis. Assays that do not require laboratory equipment are of greater interest for screening and are well-suited to field use. Regardless of the analytical method, the success of multiresidue analysis relies on the appropriate choice of sample preparation and cleanup methodologies. Many new sample preparation and cleanup approaches used for pesticide and other small molecule contaminant residue analyses in a variety of complex sample matrices are discussed in this special issue. The goal of these approaches is to reduce overall analysis time and solvent consumption without compromising the analytical results.

  6. Analytical solution for soil water redistribution during evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jidong; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Shiyu

    2013-01-01

    Simulating the dynamics of soil water content and modeling soil water evaporation are critical for many environmental and agricultural strategies. The present study aims to develop an analytical solution to simulate soil water redistribution during the evaporation process. This analytical solution was derived utilizing an exponential function to describe the relation of hydraulic conductivity and water content on pressure head. The solution was obtained based on the initial condition of saturation and an exponential function to model the change of surface water content. Also, the evaporation experiments were conducted under a climate control apparatus to validate the theoretical development. Comparisons between the proposed analytical solution and experimental result are presented from the aspects of soil water redistribution, evaporative rate and cumulative evaporation. Their good agreement indicates that this analytical solution provides a reliable way to investigate the interaction of evaporation and soil water profile.

  7. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Eye Tracking for Personal Visual Analytics.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Kuno

    2015-05-13

    In many research fields, eye tracking has become an established method to analyze the distribution of visual attention in various scenarios. With the trend toward increasingly affordable and easy-to-use consumer hardware, we expect mobile eye tracking to become ubiquitous, recording massive amounts of gaze data on a regular basis in everyday personal situations. To make use of this data, new approaches for personal visual analytics will be necessary to make the data accessible for non-expert users for self-reflection and re-experiencing interesting events. We discuss how eye tracking fits in the context of personal visual analytics, the challenges that arise with its application to everyday situations, and the research perspectives of personal eye tracking. Therefore, the extraction and representation of areas of interest (AOIs) in the recorded data is a crucial part of data processing. We present a new technique to represent these AOIs from multiple videos: the AOI cloud. In our example, we apply this technique to examine the personal encounters of a user with other persons. The technique provides an accessible user interface that is also applicable to touch devices and therefore suitable for an integration into the everyday life of a user.

  9. Visual Analytics for Mobile Eye Tracking.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Seeger, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of eye tracking data often requires the annotation of areas of interest (AOIs) to derive semantic interpretations of human viewing behavior during experiments. This annotation is typically the most time-consuming step of the analysis process. Especially for data from wearable eye tracking glasses, every independently recorded video has to be annotated individually and corresponding AOIs between videos have to be identified. We provide a novel visual analytics approach to ease this annotation process by image-based, automatic clustering of eye tracking data integrated in an interactive labeling and analysis system. The annotation and analysis are tightly coupled by multiple linked views that allow for a direct interpretation of the labeled data in the context of the recorded video stimuli. The components of our analytics environment were developed with a user-centered design approach in close cooperation with an eye tracking expert. We demonstrate our approach with eye tracking data from a real experiment and compare it to an analysis of the data by manual annotation of dynamic AOIs. Furthermore, we conducted an expert user study with 6 external eye tracking researchers to collect feedback and identify analysis strategies they used while working with our application.

  10. An analytical approach to obtaining JWL parameters from cylinder tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, B. D.; Ferguson, J. W.; Hodgson, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for determining parameters for the JWL Equation of State from cylinder test data is described. This method is applied to four datasets obtained from two 20.3 mm diameter EDC37 cylinder tests. The calculated pressure-relative volume (p-Vr) curves agree with those produced by hydro-code modelling. The average calculated Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) pressure is 38.6 GPa, compared to the model value of 38.3 GPa; the CJ relative volume is 0.729 for both. The analytical pressure-relative volume curves produced agree with the one used in the model out to the commonly reported expansion of 7 relative volumes, as do the predicted energies generated by integrating under the p-Vr curve. The calculated energy is within 1.6% of that predicted by the model.

  11. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  12. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  13. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  14. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  15. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  16. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  17. Effect of measuring ambulatory blood pressure on sleep and on blood pressure during sleep.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. J.; Jenkins, N. E.; Stradling, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether recording of ambulatory blood pressure at night causes arousal from sleep and a change in the continuous blood pressure recorded simultaneously. DESIGN--Repeated measurement of blood pressure with two ambulatory blood pressure machines (Oxford Medical ABP and A&D TM2420) during continuous measurement of beat to beat blood pressure and continuous electroencephalography. SETTING--Sleep research laboratory. SUBJECTS--Six normal subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The duration of electroencephalographic arousal and the beat to beat changes in blood pressure produced by the measurement of ambulatory blood pressure; the size of any changes that this arousal and change in blood pressure produced in the blood pressure recorded by the ambulatory machine. RESULTS--Both ambulatory blood pressure machines caused arousal from sleep: the mean duration of arousal was 16 seconds (95% range 0-202) with the ABP and 8 seconds (0-73) with the TM2420. Both also caused a rise in beat to beat blood pressure. During non-rapid eye movement sleep, this rise led to the ABP machine overestimating the true systolic blood pressure during sleep by a mean of 10 (SD 14.8) mm Hg and the TM2420 by a mean of 6.3 (8.2) mm Hg. On average, diastolic pressure was not changed, but measurements in individual subjects changed by up to 23 mm Hg. These changes varied in size among subjects and stages of sleep and were seen after measurements that did not cause any electroencephalographic arousal. CONCLUSIONS--Ambulatory blood pressure machines cause appreciable arousal from sleep and therefore alter the blood pressure that they are trying to record. This effect should be taken into account when recordings of blood pressure at night are interpreted in clinical work and epidemiological research. PMID:8167489

  18. Current practices in clinical analytics: a hospital survey report.

    PubMed

    Womack, Dana M; Kennedy, Rosemary; Bria, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Clinical analytics must become a pervasive activity in healthcare settings to achieve the global vision for timely, effective, equitable, and excellent care. Global adoption of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) has increased the volume of data available for performance measurement and healthcare organizational capacity for continuous quality improvement. However, EHR adoption does not automatically result in optimal use of clinical data for performance improvement. In order to understand organizational factors related to use of data for clinical analytics, a survey was conducted of hospitals and hospital-based clinics. The survey revealed sub-optimal use of data captured as a byproduct of care delivery, the need for tools and methodologies to assist with data analytics, and the need for disciplined organizational structure and strategies. Informatics nurse professionals are well-positioned to lead analytical efforts and serve as a catalyst in their facility's transformations into a data-driven organization.

  19. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  20. Earth's partial pressure of CO2 over the past 100-500 Ma; evidence from Ce anomalies in mostly shallow seas (less than 200 m) as recorded in carbonate sediments, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.-G.; Reinhardt, J. W.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    We reported the direct relationship of Ce anomalies recorded in 0.2-119 Ma CaCO3 sediments (Ce(sup A*)) to the Ce anomalies in the parental Pacific deep seawater (Ce(sup A)) and their relationship to atmospheric P(CO2) relative to present P(CO2). We have analyzed continental CaCO3 samples that were deposited in ancient oceans and shallow sea platforms less than 200 m over central USA, central Europe, China, and Saudi-Arabia/Oman. We have plotted Ce(sup A*) over the 75-470 Ma interval. For P(CO2) calculations, we assumed as a reference standard the less than 200 m mixed Pacific Ocean with a Ce(sup A) geometric mean of 0.22 and a range of 0.10-0.43. Because P(CO2) values obtained from reliable deep Pacific Ocean carbonates in the 67-119 Ma interval were similar to the present P(CO2) values, we have drawn a 1.0 ratio for that interval. Although there is considerable scatter among the approximately 150 Ma carbonates, the average Ce(sup A*) value suggests that P(CO2) increased during the early Cretaceous, from 1.0X at approximately 120 Ma to about 1.4X at approximately 150 Ma. At approximately 250 Ma, the average Ce(sup A*) in 13 shallow sea China carbonates agrees well with the single and more reliable approximately 250 Ma China carbonate deposited in deeper open platform. We suggest that P(CO2) ranged from 1.4-1.7X over the Jurassic and Triassic periods. At approximately 280 Ma, three China carbonates deposited in deeper open platforms and therefore considered more reliable are consistent with a European carbonate, which indicate Ce(sup A) and P(CO2) values similar to the present. The minimum at this time corresponds to the great Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. From 280 Ma to 470 Ma, the trend favors increasing Ce(sup A*) and corresponding P(CO2) values between 1.9-2.7X, with a more reliable value closer to 2.7X at 430 Ma because of the unknown higher temperature in the less than 100 m seawater over continental USA which was located just south of the equator at

  1. Long term accretion history (165-70 Ma) recorded by high-pressure rocks of Diego de Almagro Island (Patagonia, Chile): implications for understanding subduction zone interface tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Hyppolito, Thais; Glodny, Johannes; Cambeses, Aitor; Monié, Patrick; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderon, Mauricio; Juliani, Caetano

    2017-04-01

    -term tectonic processes rooted below the base of the accretionary wedge (c. 40-50 km). The exceptionally long residence time of the earlier accreted material -almost 100 Ma-, enables the record of multiple thermal gradient fluctuations and highlights the variability of the subduction interface thermal structure over tens of millions yrs.

  2. AUTOMATIC CALIBRATING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, E.L.; Rodgers, G.W.

    1958-01-01

    An automatic system for calibrating a number of pressure transducers is described. The disclosed embodiment of the invention uses a mercurial manometer to measure the air pressure applied to the transducer. A servo system follows the top of the mercury column as the pressure is changed and operates an analog- to-digital converter This converter furnishes electrical pulses, each representing an increment of pressure change, to a reversible counterThe transducer furnishes a signal at each calibration point, causing an electric typewriter and a card-punch machine to record the pressure at the instant as indicated by the counter. Another counter keeps track of the calibration points so that a number identifying each point is recorded with the corresponding pressure. A special relay control system controls the pressure trend and programs the sequential calibration of several transducers.

  3. Line broadening of confined CO gas: from molecule-wall to molecule-molecule collisions with pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, J-M; Boulet, C; Auwera, J Vander; El Hamzaoui, H; Capoen, B; Bouazaoui, M

    2014-02-14

    The infrared absorption in the fundamental band of CO gas confined in porous silica xerogel has been recorded at room temperature for pressures between about 5 and 920 hPa using a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. The widths of individual lines are determined from fits of measured spectra and compared with ab initio predictions obtained from requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. Good agreement is obtained from the low pressure regime where the line shapes are governed by molecule-wall collisions to high pressures where the influence of molecule-molecule interactions dominates. These results, together with those obtained with a simple analytical model, indicate that both mechanisms contribute in a practically additive way to the observed linewidths. They also confirm that a single collision of a molecule with a wall changes its rotational state. These results are of interest for the determination of some characteristics of the opened porosity of porous materials through optical soundings.

  4. A Joint Analytic Method for Estimating Aquitard Hydraulic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chao; Zhou, Zhifang; Illman, Walter A

    2017-01-10

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv ), elastic (Sske ), and inelastic (Sskv ) skeletal specific storage of aquitards are three of the most critical parameters in land subsidence investigations. Two new analytic methods are proposed to estimate the three parameters. The first analytic method is based on a new concept of delay time ratio for estimating Kv and Sske of an aquitard subject to long-term stable, cyclic hydraulic head changes at boundaries. The second analytic method estimates the Sskv of the aquitard subject to linearly declining hydraulic heads at boundaries. Both methods are based on analytical solutions for flow within the aquitard, and they are jointly employed to obtain the three parameter estimates. This joint analytic method is applied to estimate the Kv , Sske , and Sskv of a 34.54-m thick aquitard for which the deformation progress has been recorded by an extensometer located in Shanghai, China. The estimated results are then calibrated by PEST (Doherty 2005), a parameter estimation code coupled with a one-dimensional aquitard-drainage model. The Kv and Sske estimated by the joint analytic method are quite close to those estimated via inverse modeling and performed much better in simulating elastic deformation than the estimates obtained from the stress-strain diagram method of Ye and Xue (2005). The newly proposed joint analytic method is an effective tool that provides reasonable initial values for calibrating land subsidence models.

  5. Using predictive analytics and big data to optimize pharmaceutical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Inmaculada; Zhang, Yuting

    2017-09-15

    The steps involved, the resources needed, and the challenges associated with applying predictive analytics in healthcare are described, with a review of successful applications of predictive analytics in implementing population health management interventions that target medication-related patient outcomes. In healthcare, the term big data typically refers to large quantities of electronic health record, administrative claims, and clinical trial data as well as data collected from smartphone applications, wearable devices, social media, and personal genomics services; predictive analytics refers to innovative methods of analysis developed to overcome challenges associated with big data, including a variety of statistical techniques ranging from predictive modeling to machine learning to data mining. Predictive analytics using big data have been applied successfully in several areas of medication management, such as in the identification of complex patients or those at highest risk for medication noncompliance or adverse effects. Because predictive analytics can be used in predicting different outcomes, they can provide pharmacists with a better understanding of the risks for specific medication-related problems that each patient faces. This information will enable pharmacists to deliver interventions tailored to patients' needs. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, however, clinicians will have to understand the basics of big data and predictive analytics. Predictive analytics that leverage big data will become an indispensable tool for clinicians in mapping interventions and improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    High-level radioactive waste may be immobilized in borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Aiken, South Carolina, and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), Richland, Washington. The vitrified waste form will be stored in stainless steel canisters before its eventual transfer to a geologic repository for long-term disposal. Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) (DOE 1993), Section 1.1.2 requires that the waste form producers must report the measured chemical composition of the vitrified waste in their production records before disposal. Chemical analysis of glass waste forms is receiving increased attention due to qualification requirements of vitrified waste forms. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been supporting the glass producers` analytical laboratories by a continuing program of multilaboratory analytical testing using interlaboratory ``round robin`` methods. At the PNL Materials Characterization Center Analytical Round Robin 4 workshop ``Analysis of Nuclear Waste Glass and Related Materials,`` January 16--17, 1990, Pleasanton, California, the meeting attendees decided that simulated nuclear waste analytical reference glasses were needed for use as analytical standards. Use of common standard analytical reference materials would allow the glass producers` analytical laboratories to calibrate procedures and instrumentation, to control laboratory performance and conduct self-appraisals, and to help qualify their various waste forms.

  7. 40 CFR 1066.125 - Data updating, recording, and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment, Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and Analytical Gas Specifications § 1066.125 Data updating, recording, and control. This section specifies criteria that your test... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data updating, recording, and...

  8. 25 CFR 226.32 - Well records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... keep accurate and complete records of the drilling, redrilling, deepening, repairing, treating... cement record of casing used in drilling each well; the record of drill-stem and other bottom hole pressure or fluid sample surveys, temperature surveys, directional surveys, and the like; the materials...

  9. 25 CFR 226.32 - Well records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... keep accurate and complete records of the drilling, redrilling, deepening, repairing, treating... cement record of casing used in drilling each well; the record of drill-stem and other bottom hole pressure or fluid sample surveys, temperature surveys, directional surveys, and the like; the materials and...

  10. Spoken Records. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Helen

    Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…

  11. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Your Medical Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Your Medical Records A ... Records? en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  12. Thermodynamic Pressure/Temperature Transducer Health Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher D. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Deyoe, Richard T. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and procedure for checking the health of a pressure transducer in situ is provided. The procedure includes measuring a fixed change in pressure above ambient pressure and a fixed change in pressure below ambient pressure. This is done by first sealing an enclosed volume around the transducer with a valve. A piston inside the sealed volume is increasing the pressure. A fixed pressure below ambient pressure is obtained by opening the valve, driving the piston The output of the pressure transducer is recorded for both the overpressuring and the underpressuring. By comparing this data with data taken during a preoperative calibration, the health of the transducer is determined from the linearity, the hysteresis, and the repeatability of its output. The further addition of a thermometer allows constant offset error in the transducer output to be determined.

  13. A Visual Analytics Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were a wakeup call to the United States. The Hurricane Katrina disaster in August 2005 provided yet another reminder that unprecedented disasters can and do occur. And when they do, we must be able to analyze large amounts of disparate data in order to make sense of exceedingly complex situations and save lives. Responding to an Urgent Need This need to support penetrating analysis of massive data collections is not limited to security, though. From systems biology to human health, from evaluations of product effectiveness to strategizing for competitive positioning, to assessing the results of marketing campaigns, there is a critical need to analyze very large amounts of complex information. Simply put, our ability to collect data far outstrips our ability to analyze the data we have collected. Following the September 11 attacks, the government initiated efforts to evaluate the technologies that are available today or are on the near horizon. Two National Academy of Sciences reports identified serious gaps in the technologies. Making the Nation Safer [Alberts & Wulf, 2002] describes how science and technology can be advanced to protect the nation against terrorism. Information Technology for Counterterrorism [Hennessy et al., 2003] expands upon the work of Making the Nation Safer, focusing specifically on the opportunities for information technology to help counter and respond to terrorist attacks. Significant research progress has been made in disciplines such as scientific and information visualization, statistically-based exploratory and confirmatory analysis, data and knowledge representations, and perceptual and cognitive sciences, However, the research community has not adequately addressed the integration of these subspecialties to advance the ability for analysts to apply their expert human judgment to complex data in pressure-filled situations. Although some research is being done

  14. Pressure effect on the sensitivity of quartz Bourdon tube gauges.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity change for a commercial fused quartz Bourdon tube precision pressure gauge, due to a change in absolute pressure level, has been analytically computed and experimentally confirmed. The computed differential pressure error is 2.5% of full scale at a 100 atm absolute pressure level. The experimental method compared the fused quartz Bourdon tube gauge digital output to the results obtained from a nitrogen gas pressure system which had a high pressure, well-type mercury manometer as the differential pressure reference.

  15. Pressure driven flow in porous tubular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard

    2011-11-01

    We consider the steady laminar flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a porous tubular membrane with pressure-driven transmembrane flow. Due to its fundamental importance to membrane filtration systems, this flow has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically, yet a robust analytic solution has not been found. The problem is challenging due to the coupling between the transmembrane pressure and velocity with the simultaneous coupling between the axial pressure gradient and the axial velocity. We present a robust analytical solution which incorporates Darcy's law on the membrane surface. The solution is in the form of an asymptotic expansion about a small parameter related to the membrane permeability. We verify the analytical solution with comparison to 2-D spectral direct numerical simulations of ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems with typical operating conditions, as well as extreme cases of cross-flow reversal and axial flow exhaustion. In all cases, the agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent. Finally, we use the analytical and numerical results to provide guidelines about when common simplifying assumptions about the permeate flow may be made. Specifically, the assumptions of a parabolic axial velocity profile and uniform transmembrane velocity are valid only for small permeabilities.

  16. Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Brue, E.

    1995-04-10

    A series of preliminary experiments were conducted at the Iowa State University power plant circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB). Pressure fluctuation measurements were recorded from a pressure transducer located immediately above the primary air distributor at the base of the CFB boiler under normal operating conditions. The purpose of these initial experiments was to examine the general pressure fluctuation structure of the fluidized bed boiler in order to assess what further signal processing techniques may be necessary for valid pressure fluctuation analysis and analytical characterization. These initial results show that the CFB boiler pressure fluctuations obtained are highly periodic. Due to the dominance of this periodic component (and its subsequent harmonics), the Bode plots of these pressure fluctuation signals are difficult to interpret. While an overall system roll-off is apparent, neither the overall system order nor the system time constants can be adequately estimated from this initial data. Further data recorded from other locations in the CFB boiler should provide a more complete explanation of the nature of boiler pressure fluctuations. This initial experimentation suggests that a better description of pressure fluctuations could be attained using signal filtering techniques. Numerous experiments were also completed using the 2.0 inch diameter cold-model CFB, completing the first stage of a comprehensive set of similitude experiments. This bed was pressurized, and fluidized with 0.15 and 0.2 mm steel shot. A variety of operating conditions were selected such that similitude parameters could be matched in a 4.0 inch diameter CFB model exactly twice the scale of this small CFB. Currently, the final similitude tests in the small CFB with 0.1 mm steel shot are being performed.

  17. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors. A maximum operating pressure of 150 psig has been shown to be possible for C. ljungdahlli with the medium of Phillips et al. This medium was developed for atmospheric pressure operation in the CSTR to yield maximum ethanol concentrations and thus is not best for operation at elevated pressures. It is recommended that a medium development study be performed for C. ljungdahlii at increased pressure. Cell concentration, gas conversion and product concentration profiles were presented for C. ljungdahlii as a function of gas flow rate, the variable which affects bacterium performance the most. This pressure was chosen as a representative pressure over the 0--150 psig operating pressure range for the bacterium. Increased pressure negatively affected ethanol productivity probably due to the fact that medium composition was designed for atmospheric pressure operation. Medium development at increased pressure is necessary for high pressure development of the system.

  18. Censorship: Pressure Groups and Boycotts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Fred

    1978-01-01

    Records ABC President Fred Silverman's 1977 speech to the American Association of Advertising Agencies emphasizing the potential harm inherent in pressure groups and boycott's increasing power over broadcasters and advertisers. Available from: Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Company, Box 606, Southold, New York 11971. (MH)

  19. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de

    2016-06-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner-Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas.

  20. Analytical model for screening potential CO2 repositories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okwen, R.T.; Stewart, M.T.; Cunningham, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing potential repositories for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide using numerical models can be complicated, costly, and time-consuming, especially when faced with the challenge of selecting a repository from a multitude of potential repositories. This paper presents a set of simple analytical equations (model), based on the work of previous researchers, that could be used to evaluate the suitability of candidate repositories for subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide. We considered the injection of carbon dioxide at a constant rate into a confined saline aquifer via a fully perforated vertical injection well. The validity of the analytical model was assessed via comparison with the TOUGH2 numerical model. The metrics used in comparing the two models include (1) spatial variations in formation pressure and (2) vertically integrated brine saturation profile. The analytical model and TOUGH2 show excellent agreement in their results when similar input conditions and assumptions are applied in both. The analytical model neglects capillary pressure and the pressure dependence of fluid properties. However, simulations in TOUGH2 indicate that little error is introduced by these simplifications. Sensitivity studies indicate that the agreement between the analytical model and TOUGH2 depends strongly on (1) the residual brine saturation, (2) the difference in density between carbon dioxide and resident brine (buoyancy), and (3) the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation. The results achieved suggest that the analytical model is valid when the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation is linear or quasi-linear and when the irreducible saturation of brine is zero or very small. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. The Science of Analytic Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Pike, William A.

    2009-09-23

    The challenge of visually communicating analysis results is central to the ability of visual analytics tools to support decision making and knowledge construction. The benefit of emerging visual methods will be improved through more effective exchange of the insights generated through the use of visual analytics. This paper outlines the major requirements for next-generation reporting systems in terms of eight major research needs: the development of best practices, design automation, visual rhetoric, context and audience, connecting analysis to presentation, evidence and argument, collaborative environments, and interactive and dynamic documents. It also describes an emerging technology called Active Products that introduces new techniques for analytic process capture and dissemination.

  2. Atomic-Scale Analytical Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Thomas F

    2017-02-01

    The concept of atomic-scale tomography has been proposed in the past decade as a technique that could deliver the position of all atoms with high precision and their elemental (isotopic) identity. The technique was never intended to be limited to merely structural information and there is clearly a rich array of additional analytical information that can be brought to bear on such tomographs. In this paper, some of these types of information are considered and the implications are explored. The fuller realm of this analytical and structural information may be called atomic-scale analytical tomography.

  3. Pressure Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kate E; Yesudian, PD

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative or pressure alopecia (PA) is an infrequently reported group of scarring and non-scarring alopecias. It has been reported after immobilization of the head during surgery and following prolonged stays on intensive care units, and may be analogous to a healed pressure ulcer. This review presents a summary of cases published in pediatrics and after cardiac, gynecological, abdominal and facial surgeries. PA may manifest as swelling, tenderness, and ulceration of the scalp in the first few postoperative days; in other cases, the alopecia may be the presenting feature with a history of scalp immobilization in the previous four weeks. The condition may cause considerable psychological distress in the long term. Regular head turning schedules and vigilance for the condition should be used as prophylaxis to prevent permanent alopecia. A multi-center study in high-risk patients would be beneficial to shed further light on the etiology of the condition. PMID:23180911

  4. Pressurized hopper

    SciTech Connect

    Densley, P.J.; Goldmann, L.H. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    A Secure Automated Fuel Fabrication Line is being developed to reduce personnel exposure and to improve safeguards. Fertile and fissile fuel powders are blended in the line for making fuel pellets. A pressurized hopper was developed for use not only as a blender, but also as a storage and feeding device. It works with or without injection tubes to produce a well-blended powder with reduced agglomerate population. Results of blending experiments using dry Kaolin clay and Tempra pigment are given. (DLC)

  5. Pressure transducer

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Gunchin, E.R.

    1987-02-13

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output. 7 figs.

  6. Pressure transducer

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Gunchin, Elmer R.

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  7. An analytical model and verification for MEMS Pirani gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagata, F.; Iervolino, E.; Mele, L.; van Herwaarden, A. W.; Creemer, J. F.; Sarro, P. M.

    2011-11-01

    A new analytical model for the design of micromachined Pirani gauges operating in constant current mode is presented. This model expresses the pressure range as a closed-form analytical function of the design variables such as geometry and biasing. Furthermore, it yields simplified expressions for other performance parameters such as the sensitivity, output swing and power consumption. A Pirani gauge has been designed according to the presented model and has been fabricated and characterized in order to verify the validity of the model. The measurements match the theory closely. The model will be useful to designers who need to trade off performance against the costs of chip area and biasing power.

  8. The early eukaryotic fossil record.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J

    2007-01-01

    The Precambrian era records the evolution of the domain Eucarya. Although the taxonomy of fossils is often impossible to resolve beyond the level of domain, their morphology and chemistry indicate the evolution of major biological innovations. The late Archean record for eukaryotes is limited to trace amounts of biomarkers. Morphological evidence appears in late Paleoproterozoic and early Mesoproterozoic (1800-1300 Ma) rocks. The moderate diversity of preservable eukaryotic organisms includes cell walls without surface ornament (but with complex ultrastructure), with regularly distributed surface ornamentation, and with irregularly or regularly arranged processes. Collectively, these fossils suggest that eukaryotes with flexible membranes and cytoskeletons existed in mid-Proterozoic oceans. The late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic (1300-750 Ma) is a time of diversification and evolution when direct evidence for important biological innovations occurs in the fossil record such as multicellularity, sex, photosynthesis, biomineralization, predation, and heterotrophy. Members of extant clades can be recognized and include bangiophyte red algae, xanthophyte algae, cladophorale green algae, euglyphid, lobose, and filose amoebae and possible fungi. In the late Neoproterozoic, besides more diversification of ornamented fossils, florideophyte red algae and brown algae diversify, and animals take the stage. The record of biological innovations documented by the fossils shows that eukaryotes had evolved most cytological and molecular complexities very early in the Proterozoic but environmental conditions delayed their diversification within clades until oxygen level and predation pressure increased significantly.

  9. Liposomes: technologies and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-01-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  10. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  11. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  12. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples required by the Clean Water Act.

  13. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  14. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  15. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  16. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  17. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  18. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  19. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  20. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)