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Sample records for pressure recording analytic

  1. Measurement of cardiac output in children by pressure-recording analytical method.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; González, Rafael; Solana, María José; Fernández, Sarah N; Bellón, José M; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated two pressure-recording analytical method (PRAM) software versions (v.1 and v.2) to measure cardiac index (CI) in hemodynamically stable critically ill children and investigate factors that influence PRAM values. The working hypothesis was that PRAM CI measurements would stay within normal limits in hemodynamically stable patients. Ninety-five CI PRAM measurements were analyzed in 47 patients aged 1-168 months. Mean CI was 4.1 ± 1.4 L/min/m(2) (range 2.0-7.0). CI was outside limits defined as normal (3-5 L/min/m(2)) in 53.7% of measurements (47.8% with software v.1 and 69.2% with software v.2, p = 0.062). Moreover, 14.7% of measurements were below 2.5 L/min/m(2), and 13.6% were above 6 L/min/m(2). CI was significantly lower in patients with a clearly visible dicrotic notch than in those without (3.7 vs. 4.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.004) and in children with a radial arterial catheter (3.5 L/min/m(2)) than in those with a brachial (4.4 L/min/m(2), p = 0.021) or femoral catheter (4.7 L/min/m(2), p = 0.005). By contrast, CI was significantly higher in children under 12 months (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.034) and weighing under 10 kg (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between cardiac surgery patients and the rest of children. A high percentage of CI measurements registered by PRAM were outside normal limits in hemodynamically stable, critically ill children. CI measured by PRAM may be influenced by the age, weight, location of catheter, and presence of a dicrotic notch.

  2. Analytic Modeling of Pressurization and Cryogenic Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic model for pressurization and cryogenic propellant conditions during all mission phases of any liquid rocket based vehicle has been developed and validated. The model assumes the propellant tanks to be divided into five nodes and also implements an empirical correlation for liquid stratification if desired. The five nodes include a tank wall node exposed to ullage gas, an ullage gas node, a saturated propellant vapor node at the liquid-vapor interface, a liquid node, and a tank wall node exposed to liquid. The conservation equations of mass and energy are then applied across all the node boundaries and, with the use of perfect gas assumptions, explicit solutions for ullage and liquid conditions are derived. All fluid properties are updated real time using NIST Refprop.1 Further, mass transfer at the liquid-vapor interface is included in the form of evaporation, bulk boiling of liquid propellant, and condensation given the appropriate conditions for each. Model validation has proven highly successful against previous analytic models and various Saturn era test data and reasonably successful against more recent LH2 tank self pressurization ground test data. Finally, this model has been applied to numerous design iterations for the Altair Lunar Lander, Ares V Core Stage, and Ares V Earth Departure Stage in order to characterize Helium and autogenous pressurant requirements, propellant lost to evaporation and thermodynamic venting to maintain propellant conditions, and non-uniform tank draining in configurations utilizing multiple LH2 or LO2 propellant tanks. In conclusion, this model provides an accurate and efficient means of analyzing multiple design configurations for any cryogenic propellant tank in launch, low-acceleration coast, or in-space maneuvering and supplies the user with pressurization requirements, unusable propellants from evaporation and liquid stratification, and general ullage gas, liquid, and tank wall conditions as functions of time.

  3. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  4. Analytical vacuum force, atmospheric pressure dispute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    Typically, the gap gas molecules is 10-9 m, since the center speed of the tornado is over 100 m / sec, it divided by the speed of a tornado, the gap of the gas molecules becomes 10-11m. Equivalent to the gap when there is no tornado that the gas molecules allow radiation to pass through, equivalent to the gap is reduced gas molecules 100 times by a tornado. There is no change in the Earth's radiate, the Earth's radiation is reduced to one percent of the original intensity by the radiation through the tornado periphery into the center of the tornado. According to the APS Division of Nuclear Physics in APS -2013 Fall Meeting - Event - Gravitational radiation theory http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DNP13/Session/FB.8, which I published, the gravity will br reduced to the original gravity percentage one. Waterspout by the Earth's gravity to become the original one percent. Cause the external of the tornadoes atmospheric pressure is constant, the height waterspout should support column height atmospheric pressure is 100 times,that height waterspout may reach nearly kilometers.

  5. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  6. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. PMID:27474207

  7. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  8. An analytical pressure-transient model for complex reservoir scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Edmond; Ambastha, Anil K.

    1994-10-01

    Reservoir deposition occurs through long periods of time, thus most reservoirs are heterogeneous in nature. The presence of various zones and layers of different rock and fluid properties is the usual circumstance in petroleum reservoirs. A secondary recovery operation, such as steam-flooding, results in a composite reservoir situation because of the presence of zones of different fluid properties. Because of reservoir heterogeneity and gravity override effects, fluid boundaries separating two zones may have complicated or irregular shapes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new analytical pressure-transient model which can accommodate complex reservoir scenarios resulting from reservoir heterogeneity and from thermal recovery or other fluid-injection operations. Mathematically, our analytical model considers such complex situations as a generalized eigenvalue system resulting in a system of linear equations. Computational difficulties faced, validation approach of the new model, and an application for complex reservoir scenarios are discussed.

  9. High resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy of magnetic recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risner, Juliet Danielle

    Since the invention of the hard disk drive in 1954, the density of bits per disk has increased exponentially. This trend is partly due to improvements to the magnetic recording media. In current hard disks, each bit is approximately 0.04 mum in its smallest dimension and comprises ˜100 hexagonal close packed Co-alloy magnetic grains. These grains have magnetic "easy" axes oriented longitudinally, or parallel to the film plane. Future recording media have easy axes oriented perpendicular to the film plane. Perpendicular media are expected to provide continued increases in storage density above the limit of longitudinal media. Quantum-mechanical exchange coupling between magnetic grains degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and limits storage density in both media types. Controlling exchange coupling is possible by creating nonmagnetic grain boundaries which compositionally isolate the magnetic grains. High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is required to study these media because of their nano-scale grains and grain boundaries. Examining the microstructure and elemental distribution in these films at near atomic level is paramount to understanding their magnetic performance. The microstructure and elemental distribution in longitudinal and perpendicular media were examined using high resolution analytical TEM techniques, such as energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) using a 1.5 nm electron probe, and spectrum imaging with a scanning TEM. These techniques successfully determined how grain boundary Cr segregation varies with grain orientation in longitudinal media. Boundaries misoriented by 0° and 90° commonly occur and were found to have minimal Cr segregation, which limits storage density improvement in these media. Analytical TEM techniques applied to oxygen-enriched perpendicular media, fabricated using different deposition methods, effectively related microstructure and composition to magnetic

  10. The Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW): a Platform for Analytics using Electronic Health Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Kurc, Tahsin; Cholleti, Sharath; Gao, Jingjing; Lin, Xia; Bornstein, William; Cantrell, Dedra; Levine, David; Hohmann, Sam; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To create an analytics platform for specifying and detecting clinical phenotypes and other derived variables in electronic health record (EHR) data for quality improvement investigations. Materials and Methods We have developed an architecture for an Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW). It supports transforming data represented in different physical schemas into a common data model, specifying derived variables in terms of the common model to enable their reuse, computing derived variables while enforcing invariants and ensuring correctness and consistency of data transformations, long-term curation of derived data, and export of derived data into standard analysis tools. It includes software that implements these features and a computing environment that enables secure high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Results We have implemented and deployed the architecture in production locally. The software is available as open source. We have used it as part of hospital operations in a project to reduce rates of hospital readmission within 30 days. The project examined the association of over 100 derived variables representing disease and co-morbidity phenotypes with readmissions in five years of data from our institution’s clinical data warehouse and the UHC Clinical Database (CDB). The CDB contains administrative data from over 200 hospitals that are in academic medical centers or affiliated with such centers. Discussion and Conclusion A widely available platform for managing and detecting phenotypes in EHR data could accelerate the use of such data in quality improvement and comparative effectiveness studies. PMID:23402960

  11. Analytical parametric investigation of low pressure ratio fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. B.; Hanson, D. B.; Menthe, R. W.; Towle, G. B.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an analytical study are reported which shows the effect of various physical and operating parameters on noise produced by low pressure ratio propulsive fans operating at subsonic top speeds. Acoustical duct lining effects are included in the study. The concepts used to develop the noise theory used in the study, as well as the correlation between the theory and model test results are also presented. It is shown that good correlation has been established between theory and experiment. Using the theory, it is shown that good aerodynamic design, maximum acceptable fan solidity, low tip speed operation and use of few blades and vanes leads to the lowest noise levels. Typical results of the study indicate that a fan operating at 1.2 fan pressure ratio and 700 ft/second tip speed with 12 blades and 7 vanes and including modest acoustic treatment on the duct wall would produce levels allowing a 100,000 lb. STOL aircraft to meet a noise level objective of 95 PNdB at 500 ft at takeoff.

  12. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas coming into the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Portable digital pressure indicator for calibrating magnetic tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, Royce F.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a portable Digital Pressure Indicator (DPI) to be used for calibrating the pressure systems on Langley's magnetic tape recorders is described. High-speed magnetic tape recorders require pressure (0 to 20 psig) for providing an air cushion across the tape guides and a slight vacuum (30 inch H2O) for maintaining the proper number of tape loops in the advance and feed chamber. The DPI is a hand-held device that can be quickly coupled to a magnetic tape recorder and includes a two-position switch for selecting either measured pressure or vacuum, to be displayed digitally in engineering units (psig or inches H2O). The DPI is currently in use in Langley's Analysis and Computation Division.

  15. A new system for ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure recording

    PubMed Central

    Simon, J; Gibbs, R; MacLachlan, Donald; Fox, Kim M

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To develop a complete system for the measurement, recording, and analysis of ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure. Design—The new system consists of a pulmonary artery catheter, an ambulatory recorder, and a desktop computer. Pulmonary artery pressure is measured by a micromanometer tipped catheter with an in vivo calibration system to allow correction for zero drift. This catheter is plugged into a small battery powered recorder. The recorder has two input channels, one for pressure and one for an event marker. The pressure wave is sampled 32 times/s, processed by an in built computer, compressed, and stored in semiconductor memory. On completion of a recording, data is transferred from the ambulatory recorder through a serial data link to an Acorn Archimedes desktop computer on which further data processing, statistical analysis, graphics, and printouts can be obtained. Results—The system has been used in 18 patients, with technically successful recording in 14, less than 15 minutes of data loss in three, and 12 hours of data loss in one. Conclusions—A new system for ambulatory pulmonary artery monitoring has been developed and used clinically with success. It may provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of disease as it applies to everyday life. PMID:1389746

  16. Assessment of ambulatory blood pressure recorders: accuracy and clinical performance.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-06-01

    There are now more than ten different manufacturers of non-invasive, portable blood pressure monitors in North America, Europe, and Japan. These ambulatory blood pressure recorders measure blood pressure by either auscultatory or oscillometric methodology. Technologic advances in the recorders have resulted in reduction in monitor size, reduction in or absence of motor noise during cuff inflation, ability to program the recorder without an external computer system, and enhanced precision. Recently, there has been concern that more structured validation protocols have not been implemented prior to the widespread marking of ambulatory blood pressure recorders. There is a need for proper assessment of recorders prior to use in clinical research or practice. Data on several existing recorders suggest that while most are reasonably accurate during resting measurements, many lose this accuracy during motion, and clinical performance may vary among the monitors. Validation studies of ambulatory recorders should include comparison with mercury column and intra-arterial determinations, resting and motion measurements, and assessment of clinical performance in hypertensive patients. PMID:1893652

  17. Analytical interpretation of arc instabilities in a DC plasma spray torch: the role of pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    Arc instabilities in a plasma spray torch are investigated experimentally and theoretically thanks to a linear simplified analytical model. The different parameters that determine the useful properties of the plasma jet at the torch exit, such as specific enthalpy and speed, but also pressure inside the torch and time variations of the flow rate are studied. The work is particularly focused on the link between the recorded arc voltage and the pressure in the cathode cavity. A frequency analysis of the recorded voltage and pressure allows the separation of different contributions following their spectral characteristics and highlights a resonance effect due to Helmholtz oscillations; these oscillations are responsible for the large amplitude fluctuations of all the parameters investigated. The influence of heat transfer, friction forces and residence time of the plasma in the nozzle are taken into account, thanks to different characteristics’ times. The volume of the cathode cavity in which the cold gas is stored before entering the arc region appears to be of prime importance for the dynamics of instabilities, particularly for the non-intuitive effect that induces flow-rate fluctuations in spite of the fact that the torch is fed at a constant flow rate.

  18. Utilizing ambulatory blood pressure recordings to evaluate antihypertensive drug therapy.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1992-04-30

    Until recently, the efficacy and pharmacodynamics of antihypertensive agents were assessed by resting blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office or a research clinic. The limitations of the office or clinic blood pressure measurement include the lack of representation (from recording only 1 point of time in the dosing schedule), the effects of the doctor's office on the patient's blood pressure, and, perhaps more relevant, observer bias. Ambulatory monitoring of the blood pressure has gained worldwide acceptance as an alternative method to assess antihypertensive drug efficacy and the time-effect relation of a drug. The ambulatory monitoring devices have been refined and are smaller, more precise, and more reliable than earlier recording models. Although there are no reference standards for analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, international consensus groups are presently addressing this problem. Key roles for ambulatory blood pressure recordings in clinical trials of antihypertensive agents now include determination of the entry criteria for patients, improving the assessment of peak/trough pharmacodynamics in the patient's own environment (including nocturnal/sleep readings), and evaluating efficacy through calculation of the hypertensive burden, or blood pressure load. PMID:1575177

  19. Recording of intracranial pressure in conscious rats via telemetry.

    PubMed

    Guild, Sarah-Jane; McBryde, Fiona D; Malpas, Simon C

    2015-09-01

    Although cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known to be fundamental in the control of normal brain function, there have been no previous long-term measurements in animal models. The aim of this study was to explore the stability and viability of long-term recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP) in freely moving rats via a telemetry device. We also developed a repeatable surgical approach with a solid-state pressure sensor at the tip of the catheter placed under the dura and in combination with arterial pressure (AP) measurement to enable the calculation of CPP. Telemeters with dual pressure catheters were implanted in Wistar rats to measure ICP and AP. We found that the signals were stable throughout the 28-day recording period with an average ICP value of 6 ± 0.8 mmHg. Significant light-dark differences were found in AP (3.1 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.02) and HR (58 ± 12 beats/min, P = 0.003), but not ICP (0.3 ± 0.2 mmHg, P >0.05) or CPP (2.6 ± 2.8 mmHg, P > 0.05). Use of kaolin to induce hydrocephalus in several rats demonstrates the ability to measure changes in ICP throughout disease progression, validating this new solution for chronic measurement of ICP, CPP, and AP in conscious rats.

  20. High Pressures and Preserving the Records of Life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W.; Watson, J. S.; Sephton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The passage of organic matter from Earth's surface ecosystems to the geological record is marked by the loss of certain classes of organic compounds and the transformation of those classes which are preserved. Much effort has been expended to understand the effects of temperature on buried organic matter. It is thought that heat may destroy certain organic structures and help to polymerize others into oligomers and polymers with a high preservation potential. The consequences of pressure remain less well understood. The neglect of pressure as a transforming agent is surprising considering the proliferation of high-pressure environments on Earth and beyond. We have performed in situ high pressure synchrotron-source FTIR spectroscopy measurements on standards representing common units found within kerogens. These standards represent the aliphatic, aromatic and polar components of natural organic matter in monomeric and polymeric forms. Samples were taken to 11 GPa at ambient temperature; some were also heated to their melting point at <2 GPa. Heated large volume press experiments have allowed quantitative analysis of natural samples: Type I and II kerogens are inherently unstable under pressure, Type III and IV kerogens are more stable. Our diamond anvil cell measurements open a window onto the effects of pressure on individual classes of organic compounds, with consequences for the transformation and preservation of organic matter in the subsurface.

  1. Recording of intraureteric pressures in women with a new technique.

    PubMed

    Ulmsten, U

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for recording intraureteric pressures (ureterometry) and its application in the examination of ureteric peristalsis in 20 women. A multichannel catheter, connected to pressure transducers permits recording of the intraureteric pressure simultaneously at three levels, 5-7, 15-17, 25-27 cm from the ureteric orifice. The mean amplitudes of the peristaltic waves at these 3 levels were about 14, 19 and 26 cm H2O, respectively. The peristaltic travel rate averaged 33 mm per second in the lower and 40 mm per second in the upper part of the ureter. This technique was also used to study the ureteral function in women undergoing Wertheim hysterectomy. Moreover it was used to investigate the influence of different drugs and anaesthesias on ureteral motility. Simultaneous ureterometry and ureteropyelography gave the opportunity to correlate the morphology of the ureter to the intraureteric pressure. From consideration of space the results of these investigations are presented elsewhere (Ulmsten, 1974a).

  2. System automatically supplies precise analytical samples of high-pressure gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langdon, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    High-pressure-reducing and flow-stabilization system delivers analytical gas samples from a gas supply. The system employs parallel capillary restrictors for pressure reduction and downstream throttling valves for flow control. It is used in conjunction with a sampling valve and minimizes alterations of the sampled gas.

  3. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengfei; Li, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Biao; Tan, Huibing; Du, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Aims Urethral pressure profile (UPP) and leak-point pressure (LPP) measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats. Materials and Methods Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were analyzed. Results The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o’clock position and MUCP at the 12-o’clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings. Conclusions UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms. PMID:26502072

  4. Effect of Sediment on Dynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Using an Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Khiavi, Majid Pasbani; Gharabaghi, Ahmad R. M.; Abedi, Karim

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams by proposing closed-form formulas for the eigenvalues involved when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. A new analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on rigid gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. The obtained results are in good agreement with other classical solutions. The main capability of proposed analytical solution is direct calculation of eigenvalues, without any need for numerical solution. In addition the method can be easily incorporated in dynamic analysis of a dam.

  5. Approximate analytic solutions for the ionization structure of a pressure equilibrium Strömgren sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco Arenas, A.; González Bolívar, M.; Medina Covarrubias, R.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present analytic models for a photoionized region in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding, neutral material. The models are based on the assumption of a linear relation between the H ionization fraction and the square of the sound speed of the gas. We show that under these assumptions the "grey" radiative transfer equation has analytic solutions that provide the ionization structure and the density of the nebula as a function of radius.

  6. 49 CFR 192.741 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.741 Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges... equipped with telemetering or recording pressure gauges to indicate the gas pressure in the district. (b... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating...

  7. 49 CFR 192.741 - Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.741 Pressure limiting and regulating stations: Telemetering or recording gauges... equipped with telemetering or recording pressure gauges to indicate the gas pressure in the district. (b... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure limiting and regulating...

  8. Plasma flow structures as analytical solution of a magneto-hydro-dynamic model with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, R.

    2012-03-01

    In this work starting from a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven resistive/interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system, global solutions for the plasma flow relevant for toroidal pinches like tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs) are derived. Analytical solutions for the flow stream function associated with the dominant modes are presented.

  9. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters - II. Comparison with cosmological hydrodynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xun; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    Turbulent gas motion inside galaxy clusters provides a non-negligible non-thermal pressure support to the intracluster gas. If not corrected, it leads to a systematic bias in the estimation of cluster masses from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, and affects interpretation of measurements of the SZ power spectrum and observations of cluster outskirts from ongoing and upcoming large cluster surveys. Recently, Shi & Komatsu developed an analytical model for predicting the radius, mass, and redshift dependence of the non-thermal pressure contributed by the kinetic random motions of intracluster gas sourced by the cluster mass growth. In this paper, we compare the predictions of this analytical model to a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation. As different mass growth histories result in different non-thermal pressure, we perform the comparison on 65 simulated galaxy clusters on a cluster-by-cluster basis. We find an excellent agreement between the modelled and simulated non-thermal pressure profiles. Our results open up the possibility of using the analytical model to correct the systematic bias in the mass estimation of galaxy clusters. We also discuss tests of the physical picture underlying the evolution of intracluster non-thermal gas motions, as well as a way to further improve the analytical modelling, which may help achieve a unified understanding of non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters.

  10. Analytical Solution for Subsurface Gas Flow to a Well Induced by Surface Pressure Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    2001-06-20

    A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation.

  11. Analytical solution for subsurface gas flow to a well induced by surface pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Rossabi, Joseph; Falta, Ronald W

    2002-01-01

    A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose-zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks worth of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose-zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation. PMID:11798048

  12. Assessing electronic health record systems in emergency departments: Using a decision analytic Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, health providers have implemented information systems to improve accuracy in medical diagnosis and decision-making. This article evaluates the impact of an electronic health record on emergency department physicians' diagnosis and admission decisions. A decision analytic approach using a decision tree was constructed to model the admission decision process to assess the added value of medical information retrieved from the electronic health record. Using a Bayesian statistical model, this method was evaluated on two coronary artery disease scenarios. The results show that the cases of coronary artery disease were better diagnosed when the electronic health record was consulted and led to more informed admission decisions. Furthermore, the value of medical information required for a specific admission decision in emergency departments could be quantified. The findings support the notion that physicians and patient healthcare can benefit from implementing electronic health record systems in emergency departments.

  13. Self-Aspirated Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Source for Direct Sampling of Analytes on Surfaces and in Liquid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Keiji G; Ford, Michael J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol(reg. sign) and Evista(reg. sign) tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d{sub 3} as an internal standard.

  14. Self-aspirating atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for direct sampling of analytes on surfaces and in liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Asano, Keiji G; Ford, Michael J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    A self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe is described and demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of analytes on surfaces and in liquid samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry. Functionality and performance of the probe as a self-aspirating APCI source is demonstrated using reserpine and progesterone as test compounds. The utility of the probe to sample analytes directly from surfaces was demonstrated first by scanning development lanes of a reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plate in which a three-component dye mixture, viz., Fat Red 7B, Solvent Green 3, and Solvent Blue 35, was spotted and the components were separated. Development lanes were scanned by the sampling probe operated under computer control (x, y plane) while full-scan mass spectra were recorded using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. In addition, the ability to sample the surface of pharmaceutical tablets (viz., Extra Strength Tylenol and Evista tablets) and to detect the active ingredients (acetaminophen and raloxifene, respectively) selectively was demonstrated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Finally, the capability to sample analyte solutions from the wells of a 384-well microtiter plate and to perform quantitative analyses using MS/MS detection was illustrated with cotinine standards spiked with cotinine-d3 as an internal standard.

  15. An accurate analytic approximation to the non-linear change in volume of solids with applied pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic expression for the nonlinear change of the volume of a solid as a function of applied pressure is of great interest in high-pressure experimentation. It is found that a two-parameter analytic expression, fits the experimental volume-change data to within a few percent over the entire experimentally attainable pressure range. Results are presented for 24 different materials including metals, ceramic semiconductors, polymers, and ionic and rare-gas solids.

  16. Condensation pressures in small pores: An analytical model based on density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    R. H. Nilson; S. K. Griffiths

    1999-02-01

    Adsorption and condensation are critical to many applications of porous materials including filtration, separation, and the storage of gases. Integral methods are used to derive an analytical expression describing fluid condensation pressures in slit pores bounded by parallel plane walls. To obtain this result, the governing equations of Density Functional Theory (DFT) are integrated across the pore width assuming that fluid densities within adsorbed layers are spatially uniform. The thickness, density, and energy of these layers are expressed as composite functions constructed from asymptotic limits applicable to small and large pores. By equating the total energy of the adsorbed layers to that of a liquid-full pore, the authors arrive at a closed-form expression for the condensation pressure in terms of the pore size, surface tension, and Lennard-Jones parameters of the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The resulting equation reduces to the Kelvin equation in the large-pore limit. It further reproduces the condensation pressures computed by means of the full DFT equations for all pore sizes in which phase transitions are abrupt. Finally, in the limit of extremely small pores, for which phase transitions may be smooth and continuous, this simple analytical expression provides a good approximation to the apparent condensation pressure indicated by the steepest portion of the adsorption isotherm computed via DFT.

  17. An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Navarro, Tomas; Diaz-Martin, Diego

    2009-09-15

    This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

  18. Analytical applications of bioluminescence--a matter of proper kinetic design and recording.

    PubMed

    Brolin, S E; Wettermark, G

    1991-01-01

    The way bioluminescence analysis employs photometric technique is illustrated in relation to the resulting demands on signal processing and detectability. The analytical reaction may be regarded as composed of a supply reaction providing the excited species followed by a decay reaction in which light is emitted. Bioluminescence analysis implies the recording of a velocity, hence rate regulation forms the basis of the development of an analytical set-up. In principle two means of design are used, either the application of a pulse technique or the monitoring of a durable emission. Both methods have their respective pros and cons but operating in the intermediate time range is sometimes favorable. The pulse technique is an arrangement where the entire emission develops out during a limited amount of time usually as a flash of light in the subminute range. It is accompanied by demands for rapid mixing and initiation of the analytical process as well as fast recording techniques. Durable emission measurements are based on a slowing down of the process, e.g., by reducing the concentration of enzyme or by the addition of inhibitors, so that the light intensity may be regarded as constant during the measurements. This facilitates the measuring procedure and provides for simplified handling, but occurs at a cost of emission intensity and sensitivity. Bioluminescence analysis mimics metabolic routes yielding great possibilities for coupling with other metabolic pathways. Such coupled systems are suited for analysis of a wide variety of metabolites and enzymes. By proper kinetic design it is possible to make the analyses largely insensitive to variations in activity of the reagents. PMID:2005356

  19. Analytical model of atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive Penning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric and near-atmospheric pressure, helium/trace gas radio-frequency capacitive discharges have wide applications. An analytic equilibrium solution is developed based on a homogeneous, current-driven discharge model that includes sheath and electron multiplication effects and contains two electron populations. A simplified chemistry is used with four unknown densities: hot electrons, warm electrons, positive ions and metastables. The dominant electron-ion pair production is Penning ionization, and the dominant ion losses are to the walls. The equilibrium particle balances are used to determine a single ionization balance equation for the warm electron temperature, which is solved, both approximately within the α- and γ-modes, and exactly by conventional root-finding techniques. All other discharge parameters are found, the extinction and α-γ transitions are determined, and a similarity law is given, in which the equilibrium for a short gap at high pressure can be rescaled to a longer gap at lower pressure. Within the α-mode, we find the scaling of the discharge parameters with current density, frequency, gas density and gap width. The analytic results are compared to hybrid and particle-in-cell (PIC) results for He/0.1%N2, and to hybrid results for He/0.1%H2O. For nitrogen, a full reaction set is used for the hybrid calculations and a simplified reaction set for the PIC simulations. For the chemically complex water trace gas, a set of 209 reactions among 43 species is used. The analytic results are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the more elaborate hybrid and PIC calculations.

  20. Measuring Respiratory Pressures with Mercury Manometer in Low Economic Health Care Settings- An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Vishnupriya; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health care economics restricts many health centers from using hi-tech diagnostics equipment. Mercury manometers are used for calibration of pressure transducers. If standardized it would be a cost effective, simple alternative to transducers in low economic settings. Aim To analyse the feasibility of mercury manometer usage in respiratory pressure measurement. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted with 30 healthy volunteers of age group 17–19 yrs. They were recruited by using simple random sampling method. The volunteers were made familiarized to lab environment, instrument and techniques of maximum inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory pressures (Pemax). Then parameters were recorded using mercury manometer connected to different syringes as mouth piece (2.5 ml, 10 ml, and 20 ml) and with sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was done by using IBM SPSS statistics version 21. Results The Pimax was 111.07 ± 6.53 with a 2.5 ml syringe as mouth piece. With 20 ml syringe it was 61.47 ± 9.98. PEmax with 2.5 ml syringe was 70.33 ± 8.19 with a confidence limit of 2.93 and with sphygmomanometer was 99.33 ± 8.16 with a confidence limit of 2.92. There was a change in recorded pressure and the correlation analysis result showed a significant difference from both above and below 10 ml mouth piece range. Conclusion Mercury manometers could be used for recording respiratory pressures in low economic facilities once standardized. Size of syringe to be used as mouth piece needs further more works although this study finds 10 ml syringe as suitable. PMID:26894061

  1. Magnetic scavengers as carriers of analytes for flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS).

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Kurczewska, Joanna; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a procedure for the preconcentration and transport of mixtures of acids, bases, and drug components to a mass spectrometer using magnetic scavengers is presented. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (FAPA-MS) was used as an analytical method for identification of the compounds by thermal desorption from the scavengers. The proposed procedure is fast and cheap, and does not involve time-consuming purification steps. The developed methodology can be applied for trapping harmful substances in minute quantities, to transport them to specialized, remotely located laboratories.

  2. Analytically useful spectra excited in an atmospheric pressure active nitrogen afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.W.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure active nitrogen (APAN) discharge has been utilized for producing characteristic molecular emissions from nonmetallic species introduced into the afterglow region of the discharge. The addition of inorganic S-, P-, B-, Cl-, and Br-containing compounds into the afterglow has resulted in the formation of excited S/sub 2/, PN, BO, NCl, and NBr species, respectively. Intense molecular Br/sub 2/ emission and I/sub 2/ emission, as well as atomic I emission, have also been observed. Preliminary analytical utilization of the molecular or atomic emissions observed revealed that the APAN afterglow may serve as a potentially useful detector for the aforementioned elements.

  3. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [evaluation of methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Samples of liquid oxygen, high pressure nitrogen, low pressure nitrogen, and missile grade air were studied to determine the hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentration of the samples was achieved by adsorption on a molecular sieve and activated charcoal. The trapped hydrocarbons were then desorbed and transferred to an analytical column in a gas chromatograph. The sensitivity of the method depends on the volume of gas passed through the adsorbent tubes. The value of the method was verified through recoverability and reproducibility studies. The use of this method enables LOX, GN2, and missile grade air systems to be routinely monitored to determine low level increases in specific hydrocarbon concentration that could lead to potentially hazardous conditions.

  4. Analytical solution of geological carbon sequestration under constant pressure injection into a horizontal radial reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, R.; Liou, T.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is believed to be an economically feasible technology to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2), the major component of greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere and injecting it into deep geological formations.Several mechanisms can help trap CO2 in the pore space of a geological reservoir, stratigraphic and structural trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, and geochemical trapping.Besides these trapping mechanisms, another important issue that deserves careful attention is the risk of CO2 leakage. The common ';constant injection rate' scenario may induce high pressure buildup that will endanger the mechanical integrity as well as the sealing capability of the cap rock. Instead of injecting CO2 at a constant mass rate, CO2 can be injected into the reservoir by fixing the pressure (usually the bottom-hole pressure) in the injection borehole. By doing so, the inevitable pressure buildup associated with the constant injection scheme can be completely eliminated in the constant pressure injection scheme. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for CO2 injection with constant pressure was developed. For simplicity, structural and geochemical trapping mechanisms were not considered. Therefore, a horizontal reservoir with infinite radial extent was considered. Prior to injection, the reservoir is fully saturated with the formation brine. It is assumed that CO2 does not mix with brine such that a sharp interface is formed once CO2 invades the brine-saturated pores. Because of the density difference between CO2 and brine, CO2 resides above the interface. Additional assumptions were also made when building up the brine and CO2 mass balance equations: (1) both of the fluids and the geological formations are incompressible, (2) capillary pressure is neglected, (3)there is no fluid flow in the vertical direction, and the horizontal flow satisfies the Darcy's law.In order to solve for the height of brine-CO2 interface, the two

  5. A comparative study on the analytical utility of atmospheric and low-pressure MALDI sources for the mass spectrometric characterization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Moskovets, Eugene; Misharin, Alexander; Laiko, Viktor; Doroshenko, Vladimir

    2016-07-15

    A comparative MS study was conducted on the analytical performance of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sources that operated at either low pressure (∼1Torr) or at atmospheric pressure. In both cases, the MALDI sources were attached to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a two-stage ion funnel. The obtained results indicate that the limits of detection, in the analysis of identical peptide samples, were much lower with the source that was operated slightly below the 1-Torr pressure. In the low-pressure (LP) MALDI source, ion signals were observed at a laser fluence that was considerably lower than the one determining the appearance of ion signals in the atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI source. When the near-threshold laser fluences were used to record MALDI MS spectra at 1-Torr and 750-Torr pressures, the level of chemical noise at the 1-Torr pressure was much lower compared to that at AP. The dependency of the analyte ion signals on the accelerating field which dragged the ions from the MALDI plate to the MS analyzer are presented for the LP and AP MALDI sources. The study indicates that the laser fluence, background gas pressure, and field accelerating the ions away from a MALDI plate were the main parameters which determined the ion yield, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, the fragmentation of the analyte ions, and adduct formation in the LP and AP MALDI MS methods. The presented results can be helpful for a deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for the ion formation in MALDI.

  6. Risk factor detection for heart disease by applying text analytics in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Fan, Jung-Wei; Yang, Wei-Li; Lee, Theodore; Wiley, Matthew T; Zisook, Daniel S; Huang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, about 600,000 people die of heart disease every year. The annual cost of care services, medications, and lost productivity reportedly exceeds 108.9 billion dollars. Effective disease risk assessment is critical to prevention, care, and treatment planning. Recent advancements in text analytics have opened up new possibilities of using the rich information in electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify relevant risk factors. The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Challenge brought together researchers and practitioners of clinical natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the identification of heart disease risk factors reported in EMRs. We participated in this track and developed an NLP system by leveraging existing tools and resources, both public and proprietary. Our system was a hybrid of several machine-learning and rule-based components. The system achieved an overall F1 score of 0.9185, with a recall of 0.9409 and a precision of 0.8972.

  7. Extracting insights from electronic health records: case studies, a visual analytics process model, and design recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Taowei David; Wongsuphasawat, Krist; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    2011-10-01

    Current electronic health record (EHR) systems facilitate the storage, retrieval, persistence, and sharing of patient data. However, the way physicians interact with EHRs has not changed much. More specifically, support for temporal analysis of a large number of EHRs has been lacking. A number of information visualization techniques have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Unfortunately, due to their limited application to a single case study, the results are often difficult to generalize across medical scenarios. We present the usage data of Lifelines2 (Wang et al. 2008), our information visualization system, and user comments, both collected over eight different medical case studies. We generalize our experience into a visual analytics process model for multiple EHRs. Based on our analysis, we make seven design recommendations to information visualization tools to explore EHR systems.

  8. A New Analytical Solution for Diaphragm Deflection and its Application to a Surface-Micromachined Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bitsie, F.; Eaton, W.P.; Plummer, D.W.; Smith, J.H.

    1999-03-09

    An analytical solution for large deflections of a clamped circular diaphragm with built-in stress is presented. The solution is directly applicable to micromachined pressure sensors. The solution is compared to finite element analysis results and experimental data from a surface-micromachined pressure sensor.

  9. PARAMO: A Parallel Predictive Modeling Platform for Healthcare Analytic Research using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenney; Ghoting, Amol; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Stewart, Walter F.; Malin, Bradley; Sun, Jimeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Healthcare analytics research increasingly involves the construction of predictive models for disease targets across varying patient cohorts using electronic health records (EHRs). To facilitate this process, it is critical to support a pipeline of tasks: 1) cohort construction, 2) feature construction, 3) cross-validation, 4) feature selection, and 5) classification. To develop an appropriate model, it is necessary to compare and refine models derived from a diversity of cohorts, patient-specific features, and statistical frameworks. The goal of this work is to develop and evaluate a predictive modeling platform that can be used to simplify and expedite this process for health data. Methods To support this goal, we developed a PARAllel predictive MOdeling (PARAMO) platform which 1) constructs a dependency graph of tasks from specifications of predictive modeling pipelines, 2) schedules the tasks in a topological ordering of the graph, and 3) executes those tasks in parallel. We implemented this platform using Map-Reduce to enable independent tasks to run in parallel in a cluster computing environment. Different task scheduling preferences are also supported. Results We assess the performance of PARAMO on various workloads using three datasets derived from the EHR systems in place at Geisinger Health System and Vanderbilt University Medical Center and an anonymous longitudinal claims database. We demonstrate significant gains in computational efficiency against a standard approach. In particular, PARAMO can build 800 different models on a 300,000 patient data set in 3 hours in parallel compared to 9 days if running sequentially. Conclusion This work demonstrates that an efficient parallel predictive modeling platform can be developed for EHR data. This platform can facilitate large-scale modeling endeavors and speed-up the research workflow and reuse of health information. This platform is only a first step and provides the foundation for our ultimate

  10. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massoud, M

    1987-01-01

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  11. A Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Circulation Transients in a Model Pressurized Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Mahmoud

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy head. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled "Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS)," were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady -state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behaviour to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  12. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-09-06

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20-25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution.

  13. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-09-01

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20–25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution.

  14. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-01-01

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20–25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution. PMID:27595795

  15. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-01-01

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20-25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution. PMID:27595795

  16. Analytical TEM examinations of CoPt-TiO2 perpendicular magnetic recording media.

    PubMed

    Risner, Juliet D; Nolan, Thomas P; Bentley, James; Girt, Erol; Harkness, Samuel D; Sinclair, Robert

    2007-04-01

    For this analytical TEM study, nonmagnetic oxygen-rich boundaries were introduced into Co-Pt-alloy perpendicular recording media by cosputtering Co and Pt with TiO2. Increasing the TiO2 content resulted in changes to the microstructure and elemental distribution within grains and boundaries in these films. EFTEM imaging was used to generate composition maps spanning many tens of grains, thereby giving an overall depiction of the changes in elemental distribution occurring with increasing TiO2 content. Comparing EFTEM with spectrum-imaging maps created by high-resolution STEM with EDXS and EELS enabled both corroboration of EFTEM results and quantification of the chemical composition within individual grain boundary areas. The difficulty of interpreting data from EDXS for these extremely thin films is discussed. Increasing the TiO2 content of the media was found to create more uniformly wide Ti- and O-rich grain boundaries as well as Ti- and O-rich regions within grains.

  17. Observations of Seafloor Vertical Deformation on Axial Seamount with the Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. J.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    A geodetic pressure gauge, the Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder (SCPR), was deployed on Axial Seamount on September 7, 2013. The device performs in situ pressure calibrations every 10 days by applying a time-invariant reference pressure from a piston gauge (also known as a deadweight calibrator) to continuously recording quartz pressure gauges through a hydraulic valve. The reference pressure measurements are then used to estimate and correct for the inherent drift in the quartz resonant seafloor pressure gauges. Pressure data are collected at 100 s integration intervals. A small subset of a year-long data set was recovered via an acoustic modem in August 2014. Using three epoch measurements, the pressure rate of change from September 2013 to August 2014 was -4.1 to -4.2 kPa/year, equivalent to uplift of 41- 42 cm/year. Other pressure time series and micro-bathymetric repeat surveys are in rough agreement with this SCPR rate. The instrument is scheduled for recovery in August 2015; the anticipated data collection interval spans the eruption on April 24, 2015. We present the drift-corrected pressure series and constraints estimated for magma supply rates during the inflation, eruption, and post-eruptive phases.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigations of gas turbine model combustor acoustics operated at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richecoeur, Franck; Schuller, Thierry; Lamraoui, Ammar; Ducruix, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    When coupled to acoustics, unsteady heat release oscillations may cause recurrent problems in many combustion chambers, potentially leading to dramatic damages to the structure. Accumulation of acoustic energy around the eigenmodes of the combustor results from the resonant coupling between pressure disturbances in the flame region with synchronized heat release rate perturbations. Predicting these frequencies and the corresponding sound pressure field is a key issue to design passive or active control systems to prevent the growth of these instabilities. In this study, an acoustically controlled combustion test bench CESAM is used to stabilize a partially premixed swirling propane-air flame. In the premixing tube, reactants are injected tangentially to generate the swirling flow, the flame being stabilized in the combustion chamber by a sudden expansion of the cross section. The premixer backplane is equipped with an Impedance Control System (ICS) allowing to adjust the acoustic reflection coefficient at this location. Acoustics of the coupled-cavity system formed by the premixer and the combustion chamber is investigated analytically by taking into account the measured acoustic impedances at the premixer backplane and in the feeding lines. The chamber length is also modified to examine the effects of the geometry on these predictions. It is shown that the premixer and combustion chamber can be considered as acoustically decoupled for small values of the acoustic coupling index, defined in the article. This offers flexible solutions to control the pressure distribution within the combustor, except when these frequencies match. When the frequencies are close to each other, only the analysis of the damping of the different cavities enables to indicate whether the system is coupled or not. Modifying either the acoustic coupling index or the damping values featuring the same frequency appears then as alternative solutions to decouple cavities.

  19. Evaluation of the Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure-recording device.

    PubMed

    Sheps, S G; Elveback, L R; Close, E L; Kleven, M K; Bissen, C

    1981-12-01

    We have the opportunity to evaluate a portable ambulatory device for the recording of sequential indirect arterial blood pressure and continuous electrocardiogram (Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure recording device). With careful attention to technique, only 11% of systolic and 5% of diastolic blood pressure readings differed by more than 10 mm Hg as compared with a trained technician's observations simultaneously in the same arm. The device has been useful in the evaluation of borderline (labile) hypertension, hypertensive drug therapy programs, and various episodic cardiovascular phenomena--for example, vasodepressor syncope and pheochromocytoma crises.

  20. [Pressure ulcer care quality indicator: analysis of medical records and incident report].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cássia Teixeira; Oliveira, Magáli Costa; Pereira, Ana Gabriela da Silva; Suzuki, Lyliam Midori; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2013-03-01

    Cross-sectional study that aimed to compare the data reported in a system for the indication of pressure ulcer (PU) care quality, with the nursing evolution data available in the patients' medical records, and to describe the clinical profile and nursing diagnosis of those who developed PU grade 2 or higher Sample consisted of 188 patients at risk for PU in clinical and surgical units. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and a computerized system of care indicators and statistically analyzed. Of the 188 patients, 6 (3%) were reported for pressure ulcers grade 2 or higher; however, only 19 (10%) were recorded in the nursing evolution records, thus revealing the underreporting of data. Most patients were women, older adults and patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent nursing diagnosis was risk of infection. The use of two or more research methodologies such as incident reporting data and retrospective review of patients' records makes the results trustworthy.

  1. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  2. Field-Analytical approach of land-sea records for elucidating the Younger Dryas Boundary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, T.; Courty, M. M.; Guichard, F.

    2009-12-01

    Linking lonsdaleite crystals, carbon spherules and diamond polymorphs from the North American dark layers at 12.9 cal yr B.P. to a cosmic event has questioned the nature and timing of the related impact processes. A global signal should trace the invoked airshocks and/or surface impacts from a swarm of comets or carbonaceous chondrites. Here we report on the contextual analytical study of debris fall events from three reference sequences of the Younger Dyras period (11-13 ka cal BP) : (1) sand dune fields along the French Atlantic coast at the Audenge site; (2) A 10 m record of detrital/bioorganic accumulation in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea with regular sedimentation rate (0.1 to 3 mm per year) from 14 to 2-ka BP cal; (3) the Paijan sequence (Peruvian coastal desert) offering fossiliferous fluvial layers with the last large mammals and aquatic fauna at 13 ka BP sealed by abiotic sand dunes. The three sequences display one remarkable layer of exogenous air-transported microdebris that is part of a complex time series of recurrent fine dust/wildfire events. The sharp debris-rich microfacies and its association to ashes derived from calcination of the local vegetation suggest instantaneous deposition synchronous to a high intensity wildfire. The debris assemblage comprises microtektite-like glassy spherules, partly devitrified glass shards, unmelted to partly melted sedimentary and igneous clasts, terrestrial native metals, and carbonaceous components. The later occur as grape-clustered polymers, vitrified graphitic carbon, amorphous carbon spherules with a honeycomb pattern, and green carbon fibres with recrystallized quartz and metal blebs. Evidence for high temperature formation from a heterogeneous melt with solid debris and volatile components derived from carbonaceous precursors supports an impact origin from an ejecta plume. The association of debris deposition to total firing would trace a high energy airburst with surface effects of the fireball. In

  3. Formation of Metal-Adducted Analyte Ions by Flame-Induced Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Wang, Chin-Hsiung; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-05-17

    A flame-induced atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) source, consisting of a miniflame, nebulizer, and heated tube, was developed to ionize analytes. The ionization was performed by reacting analytes with a charged species generated in a flame. A stainless steel needle deposited with saturated alkali chloride solution was introduced into the mini oxyacetylene flame to generate alkali ions, which were reacted with analytes (M) generated in a heated nebulizer. The alkali-adducted 18-crown-6 ether ions, including (M + Li)(+), (M + Na)(+), (M + K)(+), (M + Rb)(+), and (M + Cs)(+), were successfully detected on the FAPCI mass spectra when the corresponding alkali chloride solutions were separately introduced to the flame. When an alkali chloride mixture was introduced, all alkali-adducted analyte ions were simultaneously detected. Their intensity order was as follows: (M + Cs)(+) > (M + Rb)(+) > (M + K)(+) > (M + Na)(+) > (M + Li)(+), and this trend agreed with the lattice energies of alkali chlorides. Besides alkali ions, other transition metal ions such as Ni(+), Cu(+), and Ag(+) were generated in a flame for analyte ionization. Other than metal ions, the reactive species generated in the fossil fuel flame could also be used to ionize analytes, which formed protonated analyte ions (M + H)(+) in positive ion mode and deprotonated analyte ions (M - H)(-) in negative ion mode.

  4. An analytical model for calculating pressure rise in a room due to refrigerant spills from piping rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is presented to describe quasi- steady release of a two-phase refrigerant mixture into a room and the associated pressure transient of the room atmosphere with limited capability to discharge the atmosphere. The analytical model is based on simple, approximate thermodynamic relationships applied along isentropes, which is used to describe the release of refrigerant and the coupled set of equation of energy and mass conservation and other auxiliary equations describing pressure transient of a room atmosphere. The analytical model, which consists of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, is solved numerically by the Mathematica computer program. As an example the safety problem of a Freon-22 spill in a refrigeration equipment room, resulting from piping rupture due to an earthquake, is analyzed and discussed.

  5. Hornblende phenocrysts record a pressure gradient in and contamination of the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.; Wittke, J. ); Duffield, W. ); Davis, A. )

    1993-04-01

    The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwestern New Mexico comprises 20 coeval porphyritic lava domes erupted from a large vertically zoned reservoir of silicic magma. The rhyolite is high-silica, subalkaline, and is nearly constant in major-element composition. Trace elements and [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr[sub i] (0.705 to 0.713) define vertical zoning that records a downward-decreasing imprint of minor (<1 wt%) partial assimilation of Proterozoic roof rocks. Consistent with the major-element homogeneity, electron-microprobe analyses of hornblende phenocrysts show little or no measurable variation in principal constituents. The hornblende is edenite whose mean composition and standard deviation of 110 analyses are SiO[sub 2], 44.66 [+-] 0.64; TiO[sub g], 1.27 [+-] 0.13; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 6.80 [+-] 0.31; FeO, 21.00 [+-] 1.60; MnO, 1.19 [+-] 0.16; MgO, 9.94 [+-] 1.09; CaO, 10.51 [+-] 0.22; Na[sub 2]O, 2.22 [+-] 0.13; K[sup 2]O, 0.98 [+-] 0.08; F, 2.04 [+-] 0.35; Cl, 0.20 [+-] 0.03. Except for FeO, MnO, and MgO, compositional variations are non systematic and mostly within analytical uncertainty. FeO and Mno exhibit strong negative correlation with MgO. Individual hornblende crystals are zoned to relatively MgO-rich and FeO-MnO-poor rims, opposite what might be expected if the Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma reservoir evolved chemically isolated from its surroundings. Hornblende with rims richest in MgO occurs in domes fed from the uppermost part of the reservoir. Calculated pressures based on Al in hornblende range from 1.6 to 2.0 kb, [+-] 0.5 kb. Though the range of calculated P is encompassed within the uncertainty, the lowest hornblende pressure is for a dome fed from, or near, the top of the reservoir, whereas the chemically defined vertical zoning.

  6. The effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of small analytes and large biomolecules in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; McCalley, David V; Guillarme, Davy

    2012-12-28

    A possible complication of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is related to the effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of the analytes. In the present work, numerous model compounds have been selected including small molecules, peptides, and proteins (such as monoclonal antibodies). Two instrumental setups were considered to attain elevated pressure drops, firstly the use of a post-column restrictor capillary at low mobile phase flow rate (pure effect of pressure) and secondly the increase of mobile phase flow rate without restrictor (i.e. a combined effect of pressure and frictional heating). In both conditions, the goal was to assess differences in retention behaviour, depending on the type or character of the analyte. An important conclusion is that the effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on retention varied in proportion with the size of the molecule and in some cases showed very different behaviour. In isocratic mode, the pure effect of pressure (experiments with a post-column restrictor capillary) induces an increase in retention by 25-100% on small molecules (MW<300 g/mol), 150% for peptides (~1.3 kDa), 800% for insulin (~6 kDa) and up to >3000% for myoglobin (~17 kDa) for an increase in pressure from 100 bar up to 1100 bar. The important effect observed for the isocratic elution of proteins is probably related to conformational changes of the protein in addition to the effect of molecular size. Working in gradient elution mode, the pressure related effects on retention were found to be less pronounced but still present (an increase of apparent retention factor between 0.2 and 2.5 was observed).

  7. Acute Effects of Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Carpio-Rivera, Elizabeth; Moncada-Jiménez, José; Salazar-Rojas, Walter; Solera-Herrera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension affects 25% of the world's population and is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and other diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the evidence regarding the acute effect of exercise on blood pressure (BP) using meta-analytic measures. Sixty-five studies were compared using effect sizes (ES), and heterogeneity and Z tests to determine whether the ES were different from zero. The mean corrected global ES for exercise conditions were -0.56 (-4.80 mmHg) for systolic BP (sBP) and -0.44 (-3.19 mmHg) for diastolic BP (dBP; z ≠ 0 for all; p < 0.05). The reduction in BP was significant regardless of the participant's initial BP level, gender, physical activity level, antihypertensive drug intake, type of BP measurement, time of day in which the BP was measured, type of exercise performed, and exercise training program (p < 0.05 for all). ANOVA tests revealed that BP reductions were greater if participants were males, not receiving antihypertensive medication, physically active, and if the exercise performed was jogging. A significant inverse correlation was found between age and BP ES, body mass index (BMI) and sBP ES, duration of the exercise's session and sBP ES, and between the number of sets performed in the resistance exercise program and sBP ES (p < 0.05). Regardless of the characteristics of the participants and exercise, there was a reduction in BP in the hours following an exercise session. However, the hypotensive effect was greater when the exercise was performed as a preventive strategy in those physically active and without antihypertensive medication. PMID:27168471

  8. Analytical Analysis of the Effect of the Radiation Pressure on Planetary Exospheres: Application to Earth, Mars, Titan and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I. S.; Mazelle, C. X.

    2014-12-01

    Because of rare collisions, the motion of light species (H, H2) in the planetary exospheres is essentially determined by the external forces: the gravitation from the planet and the radiation pressure, ... Currently, the only analytical model used to model exospheric neutral density profiles is the well-known Chamberlain model which takes into account only the gravity. In this work and in the same way as Chamberlain, we solve rigorously and analytically, based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and Liouville theorem, the additional effect of the radiation pressure in particular for hydrogen (the model works for any species sensitive to the radiation pressure) on the structure of the exosphere and on the density profiles of ballistic particles. This approach was initially developed by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) only in the Sun-planet direction. We extend it here to the whole exosphere with a 2D model. Also, we determine analytically the escape flux on the dayside at SZA=0, which can be compared with the Jeans' escape flux. We thus show that the radiation pressure induces : strong density asymmetries at high altitudes in the planetary exospheres, leading to the phenomenon of geotail at Earth for example the natural existence of an external limit (or exopause) for the exosphere, whose location is analytically determined an increase of the exospheric densities compared with Chamberlain profiles without radiation pressure (e.g. up to +150% at 5 Martian radius) a significant increase of the thermal escape flux (up to 30/35% for Earth/Mars today), until a «blow-off » regime with a constant escape flux for an extreme radiation pressure. The influence of the radiation pressure on the escape flux may thus bring conditions on the size of primary atmospheres, because of a strong radiation pressure in the Sun's young years. Finally, we show that this model may be applied to exoplanets, in particular to the hot Jupiters that are also subject to additional effects: centrifugal

  9. Validation of the new Complior sensor to record pressure signals non-invasively.

    PubMed

    Sztrymf, Benjamin; Jacobs, Frédéric; Chemla, Denis; Richard, Christian; Millasseau, Sandrine C

    2013-12-01

    The Complior device (Alam Medical, France) has contributed to the rise of arterial stiffness as a measure of cardiovascular risk. In its latest version (Complior Analyse) the sensor records pressure instead of distension waveforms thus allowing the measurement of central pressure and pulse wave analysis. The aim of our study was to verify that the new sensor measures pressure waveforms accurately in both time and frequency domain. Invasive and non-invasive signals were recorded simultaneously at the radial artery and compared in the frequency and time domain in haemodynamically stable intensive care unit patients. Twelve patients entered the study (8 men, 4 women, mean age 69 ± 17 years). Heart rate was 90 ± 15 bpm, systolic blood pressure 133 ± 19 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 68 ± 15 mmHg. There was no statistical difference in the amplitude of harmonics between the invasive signal and Complior signal. When superimposing waveforms in the time domain, there was a small difference in the form factor (4.2 ± 2.8 %) and in the absolute area between the 2 waveforms (3.3 ± 1.7 mmHg·s(-1)). These differences were of the same magnitude as the beat-to-beat variation of the form factor (3.3 %) and of the absolute area (3.1 mmHg·s(-1)), respectively. The second systolic peak was detectable in 4 subjects, with no statistical difference between invasive and non-invasive values. The new pressure sensor of the Complior Analyse device recorded pressure waveforms accurately and could be used to perform pressure wave analysis.

  10. Determination of permeabilities for two gases from recording the partial pressure of one gas.

    PubMed

    Hoofd, L; de Koning, J; Kreuzer, F; Lamboo, A

    1986-09-01

    When a flexible diffusion layer separates two closed gas chambers containing different mixtures of several gases, the different permeabilities of the layer for these gases lead to differences in the total gas pressures of the two chambers resulting in bulging of the layer and consequent changes in the chamber volumes. Application of the gas laws to binary gas mixtures provides two equations relating the partial pressure changes of one gas in any of the two chambers to the partial pressure difference between the two chambers across the layer. This permits the calculation of the two unknown factors, permeability (or Krogh's diffusion coefficient) of the layer for the measured gas and the permeability ratio of the two gases. Thus the permeabilities of both gases can be determined from recording the partial pressure of one of the gases only. We filled the gas chambers with different mixtures of oxygen and a second gas (nitrogen or carbon dioxide) at atmospheric pressure, closed the chambers, and measured the diffusion of the gases across thin (12-500 microns) layers of various materials by recording the oxygen partial pressure in both chambers with polarographic oxygen electrodes. Permeabilities of these layers for oxygen and the other gas were determined for plastic layers (MEM213, Silastic, Teflon), as well as water and methemoglobin solutions either in a fluid layer or soaked in Millipore filters. The data agreed well with those obtained from other studies in most cases.

  11. A numerical and analytical study of normal stresses and pressure differences in non-Newtonian creeping flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Minwu

    1989-12-01

    Analytical and numerical studies of some non-Newtonian creeping flows are pursued with particular interests in normal stresses and pressure differences. The study is started with the phenomenon of excess pressure rise across the pressure-hole which was observed in the Couette base flow over a transverse slot. This excess pressure rise phenomenon turns out to be very important in correctly applying the Higashitani and Pritchard (HP) theory. The correct application of HP theory involves a modified hole-pressure relation (MHPR). By studying the MHPR in streamline coordinate formulation, a fortuitous error cancellation phenomenon was found which provides a complete theoretical explanation for the paradox between an apparently flawed derivation and the fortunate success of the HP prediction. This error cancellation is proved to be exact for second-order fluid, and for Tanner's viscoelastic liquids under certain assumptions. For other non-Newtonian models, such as the Maxwell and modified Johnson-Segalman fluids, results also favor the error cancellation postulate. The theory numerical simulations of hole-pressure are conducted for second-order, Maxwell and Johnson-Segalman fluids. Some important results and conclusions are presented for creeping flows. Two unperturbed shearing flows, i.e., the plane Poiseuille flow and plate-driven tangential annular flow of modified Johnson-Segalman fluid are also studied. By changing integral variable and solving a cubic equation at each location, exact steady solutions were obtained for these two flows. Both monotone and non-monotone stress-strain-rate relations are considered and complete formulation and solution procedures are developed. Then the analytical solution technique and results are applied to the hole-pressure error prediction, convergence study of FEM solutions and reliability verification of the numerical methods used in the hole-pressure simulation.

  12. Optimization of the Pressurized Logistics Module - A Space Station Freedom analytical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallan, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis for determining the optimum cylindrical length of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Pressurized Logistics Module, whose task is to transport the SSF pressurized cargo via the NSTS Shuttle Orbiter, is described. The major factors considered include the NSTS net launch lift capability, the pressurized cargo requirements, and the mass properties of the module structures, mechanisms, and subsystems.

  13. Perspectives on Using Video Recordings in Conversation Analytical Studies on Learning in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Fredrik; Pörn, Michaela; Sahlström, Fritjof; Slotte-Lüttge, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Video is currently used in many studies to document the interaction in conversation analytical (CA) studies on learning. The discussion on the method used in these studies has primarily focused on the analysis or the data construction, whereas the relation between data construction and analysis is rarely brought to attention. The aim of this…

  14. Effect Of The Radiation Pressure On Planetary Exospheres: Analytical Approach And Application To Earth, Mars and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I. S.; Mazelle, C. X.

    2015-12-01

    The atomic Hydrogen is one of the most abundant species in many planetary exospheres, such as on Earth, on planets in the Solar System and on Hot Jupiters. Because the exosphere is a quasi-collisionless medium, the atomic Hydrogen can reach several planetary radii without collisions and its motion is only determined by external forces such as the gravity and the radiation pressure. However, the exosphere still remains a complex medium : 1) to model because, on one hand, this is a region of interaction between the interplanetary medium and the planetary atmosphere and, on another hand, the fluid approach is not appropriate and a kinetic should be used instead, 2) to observe because of the extremely low densities. Currently, the most used analytical model to determine the neutral density profiles is the well-known Chamberlain's one, which however includes only the gravity. We have developed an analytical model based on the previous work by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) with a Hamiltonian approach, taking into account both the gravity and the radiation pressure. We extend their previous 1D model (density profiles on the Sun-planet axis only) into a 2D model depending on the distance from the planet and the zenith angle to derive density profiles (Beth et al. 2015b, in review). Moreover, we derived an analytical formula for the thermal escape to compare with the classical Jeans' escape flux. We thus show that the radiation pressure induces : Strong density asymmetries at high altitudes in the planetary exospheres, leading to the phenomenon of "geotail" at Earth, Natural existence of an external limit (or exopause) for the exosphere, whose location is analytically determined, Increase of the exospheric densities compared with Chamberlain profiles without radiation pressure (e.g. up to +150% at 5 Martian radius), Significant increase of the thermal escape flux (up to 30/35% for Earth/Mars today), until a "blow-off" regime with a constant escape flux for an extreme

  15. Effect of static pressure on absolute paleointensity recording with implications for meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic stress on the recording process of magnetic field intensity with particular relevance for meteorites that experienced pressures lower than 5 GPa corresponding to the lowest shock stage classification (S1) in meteorites. Thermal remanent magnetizations were imparted on natural obsidian samples containing pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite, analogous to some achondritic meteorites. Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were carried out at ambient conditions after pressure cycling to 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 GPa. Each experiment used 10 samples to assess reproducibility, which is better than ±5%. The recorded paleointensity decreased 10%/GPa under hydrostatic stress and 20%/GPa under nonhydrostatic stress, leading to the fundamental conclusion that paleointensity results from meteorites may be appreciably underestimated. Pressure cycling shifts the blocking and unblocking spectra, thereby producing more linear slopes on an Arai diagram with increasing strain. We explain why, for samples with a single magnetization component that does not alter, a two-step paleointensity protocol sufficiently resolves the true paleointensity. Moreover, we propose that pressure cycling of pseudo-single domain bearing samples will remove the inherent curvature of the Arai slope, thereby allowing one to obtain a more accurate estimate of the true paleointensity. This likely also holds true for samples possessing multidomain grains. Conversely, linear trends on Arai plots in meteorites might have their origin in a pressure effect that does not necessarily reflect the ubiquitous presence of single domain particles.

  16. [Prospects of intraoperative dynamic cholangio-manometry by tensor detectors with graphic recording of pressure function].

    PubMed

    Tsatsanidi, K N; Pugaev, A V; Gordeev, P S; Sandrikov, V A; Mukha, A V; Gambarian, A R

    1991-02-01

    Intraoperative cholangio-manometry with a miniature tensor sensor and graphic recording of the results were conducted to study the function of the major duodenal papilla in 53 patients. A periodical activity of the ampulla of the papilla was revealed, which was characterized by certain values of the peak and basal pressure, and duration of contraction and relaxation periods. The numerical values and the pattern of the pressure curve differed in patients with obstructive cholecystitis, biliary pancreatitis, and a concrement incarcerated in the ampulla of the papilla. The informativeness of the study increases with the use of the glucagon test.

  17. Analytical comparison of circular diaphragm based simple, single and double touch mode - MEMS capacitive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Sumit Kumar; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a comparative study is done between normal capacitive pressure sensor, a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor and a double touch mode capacitive pressure sensor. The diaphragm in use is of circular shape. The theory and underlying equations has been described for the said devices and then simulations have been done for different performance parameters to understand the advantage of one over the other.

  18. Influence of the radiation pressure on the planetary exospheres : analytical modeling of density profiles and escape flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, Arnaud; Garnier, Philippe; Toublanc, Dominique; Dandouras, Iannis; Mazelle, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, the exosphere, is not well-known in its global structure since the densities are very low compared to instrument detection capabilities. Because of rare collisions and high Knudsen numbers, the motion of light species (H, H2) in the corona is essentially determined by the external forces: the gravitation from the planet, the radiation pressure, etc... In this work, we calculate rigorously and analytically, based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and Liouville theorem, the impact of the radiation pressure and gravitation from the planet on the structure of the exosphere. This approach was partially used by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) but only in the 2D case: we extend it to the 3D case. Assuming a collisionless exosphere, we determine the density profiles for ballistic particles (the main contribution for densities in the lower exosphere) for light species as a function of the angle with respect to the Sun direction. We also obtain an analytical formula for the escape flux on the dayside at SZA=0°, which can be compared with the Jeans' escape flux. Finally, we show that the relative difference between the escaping flux with and without the radiation pressure depends linearly on the square root of the radiation pressure in first approximation.

  19. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  20. Ocean Bottom Pressure Records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, Angela; Matthews, Andrew; Hughes, Chris W.; Tamisiea, Mark E.

    2014-05-01

    As part of a research effort funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) has been developing a repository of data from in-situ ocean bottom pressure recorders (OBPRs) from all possible sources. The data are being processed to a common format using a consistent methodology so that time series are directly comparable. Efforts are also being made to ensure that data are accompanied by comprehensive metadata. The OBPR data are supplied primarily for hourly and daily intervals, making them ideal for studies of tidal to seasonal variability. In addition, because bottom pressure recorders measure changes in ocean mass, these data are an ideal complement to GRACE satellite data and a useful accompaniment to sea level data from tide gauges and altimetry. Consequently, it is anticipated that the PSMSL OBPR repository will become a valuable product to the scientific community.

  1. Development of a tonometric sensor for measurement and recording of arterial pressure waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczuk, K.; Werszko, M.; Sasiadek, J. Z.; Kosek, J.; Berny, W.; Weiser, A.; Feder-Kubis, J.

    2013-09-01

    There are many techniques and devices for measurement and recording of arterial blood pressure. Some of them allow (enable) additionally to observe the shape of a wave of arterial pressure, which can be regarded as one of the most important diagnostic parameters of human cardiovascular system. This paper presents a novel design and prototype of a new, non-invasive blood waveform measuring device. It expounds theoretical and experimental (including latest preliminary clinical) results obtained during several years of extensive investigations into blood pressure waveform measuring and monitoring problem. According to investigations performed in the laboratory and preliminary clinical evaluation, the sensor has linear steady-state characteristics and satisfactory dynamic properties. It is an efficient and accurate tool for blood pressure waveform monitoring and assessing the cardiovascular condition of the patients. The novelty of this solution is that the device is equipped with a pneumatic pressure sensor based on the pneumatic nozzle flapper amplifier principle with negative feedback. Due to such a technical solution, the device does not require any cuff, which remains an essential component of the majority of contemporary non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices; therefore, it can be used on the artery where the application of a cuff would be impossible (e.g., carotid artery). This advantage makes possible to obtain an accurate shape of blood pressure waveform with high fidelity, comparable to a direct measurement method. Moreover, during the measurement the device converts directly "pressure into pressure." Such a principle of operation makes possible to eliminate additional calibration (at the current stage of research we have eliminated the necessity of calibration in laboratory conditions).

  2. Effects of insufficient sleep on blood pressure monitored by a new multibiomedical recorder.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, O; Ikeda, A; Miyajima, E; Ishii, M

    1996-06-01

    Blood pressure varies in relation to factors such as physical activity, body position, ambient temperature, and autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, we have developed a portable multibiomedical (PMB) recorder that monitors five parameters: indirect blood pressure, physical activity, body position, ambient temperature, and RR interval of the electrocardiogram. In the present study, we applied the PMB recorder over a 24-hour period to study the effect of insufficient sleep on blood pressure in subjects doing extensive overtime work. The parameters listed above were measured by the PMB recorder throughout a normal workday (mean period of sleep, 8 hours) and throughout a day with insufficient sleep (mean period of sleep, 3.6 hours) in 18 male technical workers aged 23 to 48 years old. Blood pressure (mean systolic/diastolic pressure +/- SD) significantly increased the day after a sleep-insufficient night (129 +/- 8/79 +/- 6 mm Hg) compared with the day after a normal night (123 +/- 8/76 +/- 7 mm Hg, P<.05). However, ambient temperature, mean number of steps per minute, and percentage of time spent in a standing position showed no significant difference between these days. Spectral analysis of RR intervals showed that the ratio of the low-frequency component on the RR power spectrum (0.05 to 0.15 Hz) to the high-frequency component (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) was higher on the sleep-insufficient day (2.17 +/- 0.37 versus 1.81 +/- 0.37), as was the urinary excretion of norepinephrine (P<.05). Heart rate was significantly higher on the sleep-insufficient day (81 +/- ll versus 76 +/- 8 beats per minute), after the data of two subjects with abnormal levels of physical activity were excluded (P<.Ol). These data suggest that lack of sleep may increase sympathetic nervous system activity on the following day, leading to increased blood pressure. The PMB recorder was useful for precisely evaluating the relationship between blood pressure and environmental factors. PMID:8641742

  3. Analytical approach to transforming filter design for sound field recording and reproduction using circular arrays with a spherical baffle.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shoichi; Furuya, Ken'ichi; Wakayama, Keigo; Shimauchi, Suehiro; Saruwatari, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A sound field recording and reproduction method using circular arrays of microphones and loudspeakers with a spherical baffle is proposed. The spherical baffle is an acoustically rigid object on which the microphone array is mounted. The driving signals of the loudspeakers must be obtained from the signals received by the microphones. A transform filter for this signal conversion is analytically derived, which is referred to as the wave field reconstruction filter. The proposed method using a spherical baffle is compared with methods using an array of directional microphones and a microphone array mounted on a cylindrical baffle. Numerical simulations indicated that the proposed method is advantageous for sound field recording and reproduction compared with the other two methods. The results of measurement experiments in a real environment are also demonstrated. PMID:27036240

  4. Recording and analysis of transient otoacoustic emissions during outer ear canal pressure compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Moises

    Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) are sounds generated by an active process in the auditory system's cochlea. It has been widely accepted that the generation of OAEs is a precursor for healthy hearing. The measurement of evoked OAEs can be used to determine the general health of the cochlea and basilar membrane's response and sound transmission forward and backwards through the inner ear. OAEs are commonly used for newborn infant hearing screening where many middle ear pathologies are first detected. In most cases, secondary screening tests such as tympanometry are not conducted unless the patient has failed the OAE screening first. Increases in ear canal pressure have an almost identical effect on OAE recordings when compared to naturally occurring negative middle ear pressures (NMEPs) (Sun & Shaver, 2009). Thus arises the need for pressure compensated OAE screening. This study aims at reviewing the design of a self-compensating pressure system capable of generating steady meatal pressures during OAE subject screening. Facets of system design including patient safety, software interaction, and initial test results will be presented. We will also present the results of a volunteer study which collected the TEOAE and meatal responses of 20 individual ears during multiple pressure criteria. Testing and analysis of signals in both the time and frequency domains will be reviewed.

  5. Simultaneous recording of blood pressure and ST-segment with combined, triggered ambulatory 24-h devices.

    PubMed

    Uen, Sakir; Vetter, Hans; Mengden, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is defined as an ischemic episode without chest pain but with transient ST abnormalities during stress testing or Holter monitoring. With Holter monitoring the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease is between 25% and 73%. Simultaneous recording of ambulatory 24-h ECG and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) with the option of additional ST-triggered blood pressure measurement is useful to detect silent ischemia and triggers of silent ischaemia. It is surprising that only a few combined 24-h Holter/ABPM devices are on the market, and in turn only three devices allow additional triggered blood pressure measurements. The paper provides an overview of studies investigating hypertensive patients with Holter monitoring for the detection of ST segment depression indicating myocardial ischaemia. Furthermore, requirements for combined devices allowing simultaneous ambulatory 24-h ECG and ABPM are defined.

  6. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Administered Analytical Questions for the Graduate Record Examinations General Test. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-06P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Rock, Donald A.

    Three new computer-administered item types for the analytical scale of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test were developed and evaluated. One item type was a free-response version of the current analytical reasoning item type. The second item type was a somewhat constrained free-response version of the pattern identification (or…

  7. An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays

    PubMed Central

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cappetta, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern selachians and their supposed sister group (hybodont sharks) have a long and successful evolutionary history. Yet, although selachian remains are considered relatively common in the fossil record in comparison with other marine vertebrates, little is known about the quality of their fossil record. Similarly, only a few works based on specific time intervals have attempted to identify major events that marked the evolutionary history of this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic hypotheses concerning modern selachians’ interrelationships are numerous but differ significantly and no consensus has been found. The aim of the present study is to take advantage of the range of recent phylogenetic hypotheses in order to assess the fit of the selachian fossil record to phylogenies, according to two different branching methods. Compilation of these data allowed the inference of an estimated range of diversity through time and evolutionary events that marked this group over the past 300 Ma are identified. Results indicate that with the exception of high taxonomic ranks (orders), the selachian fossil record is by far imperfect, particularly for generic and post-Triassic data. Timing and amplitude of the various identified events that marked the selachian evolutionary history are discussed. Conclusion/Significance Some identified diversity events were mentioned in previous works using alternative methods (Early Jurassic, mid-Cretaceous, K/T boundary and late Paleogene diversity drops), thus reinforcing the efficiency of the methodology presented here in inferring evolutionary events. Other events (Permian/Triassic, Early and Late Cretaceous diversifications; Triassic/Jurassic extinction) are newly identified. Relationships between these events and paleoenvironmental characteristics and other groups’ evolutionary history are proposed. PMID:22957091

  8. Aquifer Response to Record Low Barometric Pressures in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    A late-winter cyclone classified as one of the most intense of the 20th century moved across the Southeastern states of Georgia and South Carolina and onto the Northeast during March 12-14, 1993. Record low barometric pressures were recorded in Augusta, Georgia (28.93 inches of mercury) and Columbia, South Carolina (28.63 inches of mercury) on March 13,1993, and pressures returned to normal values (near 3D inches of mercury) within one day following these record lows. This relatively unusual event provided an opportunity to examine the attendant water-level response in continuously monitored ground-water wells in regional Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge aquifers in the Southeast. Water levels in all wells examined responded inversely to the short duration, extreme drop in barometric pressure. Barometric efficiencies (??ground-water level/??barometric-pressure level) calculated were dependent on depth to screened- or open-interval midpoint (highest correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.89) and, to a lesser extent, total thickness of confining material above the aquifer tapped (highest r2 = 0.65). Wells in crystalline-rock aquifers had a correlation with depth to open-interval midpoint (r2 = 0.89) similar to the sedimentary aquifers examined. The magnitude of barometric efficiency was also strongly related to a well's increased distance from aquifer outcrop areas in the Cretaceous aquifers in South Carolina (r2 = 0.95) and the upper Brunswick aquifer in Georgia (r2 = 0.90), because these aquifers are more deeply buried toward the coast. This relation between barometric efficiency, well depth, and extent of confinement suggests that barometric efficiency determinations can provide useful information to hydrologists concerned with examining an aquifer's degree of confinement and corresponding isolation from land surface, particularly when the aquifer is used as a source for public supply.

  9. The influence of institutional pressures on hospital electronic health record presence.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Naleef; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Farnsworth Mick, Stephen S; Harless, David W

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a promising form of health information technology that could help US hospitals improve on their quality of care and costs. During the study period explored (2005-2009), high expectations for EHR diffused across institutional stakeholders in the healthcare environment, which may have pressured hospitals to have EHR capabilities even in the presence of weak technical rationale for the technology. Using an extensive set of organizational theory-specific predictors, this study explored whether five factors - cause, constituents, content, context, and control - that reflect the nature of institutional pressures for EHR capabilities motivated hospitals to comply with these pressures. Using information from several national data bases, an ordered probit regression model was estimated. The resulting predicted probabilities of EHR capabilities from the empirical model's estimates were used to test the study's five hypotheses, of which three were supported. When the underlying cause, dependence on constituents, or influence of control were high and potential countervailing forces were low, hospitals were more likely to employ strategic responses that were compliant with the institutional pressures for EHR capabilities. In light of these pressures, hospitals may have acquiesced, by having comprehensive EHR capabilities, or compromised, by having intermediate EHR capabilities, in order to maintain legitimacy in their environment. The study underscores the importance of our assessment for theory and policy development, and provides suggestions for future research.

  10. Discriminating exhumation models of ultra-high-pressure rocks in the Western Alps by structural record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefam; Pleuger, Jan; Epard, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    Despite extensive research, the dynamics of tectonic nappes exhibiting high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks [(U)HP] is still debated. We classify existing models for nappe formation into two types, and refer to them as the thrust and intrusion models. Classical thrust models approximate the orogen as a wedge with a rigid buttress behind and a subducting lithospheric slab beneath. The dominant process of nappe formation is thrusting (brittle and/or ductile) that generates a dominant top-to-the-foreland sense of shear. Thrust models can explain the imbricate nappe stacking and first-order structural observations in the Western Alps. However, in the last decades (U)HP rocks were found in nappes, and it is usually assumed that metamorphic pressure is a good indicator of maximum burial. In intrusion models, (U)HP rocks are subducted to mantle depths (>100 km) and return to crustal depths by buoyancy-driven or tectonically-forced flow. Intrusion models could reproduce the first-order patterns of P-T-t paths of the Western Alps. Nappe formation at such mantle depths cannot be explained by the thrust model; nappe intrusion from large depths into shallower areas seems more appropriate. This argument against thrust models, however, is solely based on the assumption that metamorphic pressure indicates maximum burial (assuming lithostatic pressure). This very assumption is the only argument in favour of the intrusion models. If, however, significant and positive deviations from lithostatic pressure existed during nappe formation, then (U)HP rocks would have been formed at significantly shallower depth, and thrust models could be applicable to the Western Alps reconciling both structural and P-T-t records. Discrimination between the two nappe-forming models can better be achieved by examining the absence of a particular structural record and not by evaluating the existing structural and P-T-t records. A fundamental kinematic (rheology and driving force independent) feature of the

  11. Analytical considerations and dimensionless analysis for a description of particle interactions in high pressure processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    High pressures of up to several hundreds of MPa are utilized in a wide range of applications in chemical, bio-, and food engineering, aiming at selective control of (bio-)chemical reactions. Non-uniformity of process conditions may threaten the safety and quality of the resulting products because processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and treatment history are crucial for the course of (bio-)chemical reactions. Therefore, thermofluid-dynamical phenomena during the high pressure process have to be examined, and numerical tools to predict process uniformity and to optimize the processes have to be developed. Recently applied mathematical models and numerical simulations of laboratory and industrial scale high pressure processes investigating the mentioned crucial phenomena are based on continuum balancing models of thermofluid dynamics. Nevertheless, biological systems are complex fluids containing the relevant (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms). These compounds are particles that interact with the surrounding medium and between each other. This contribution deals with thermofluid-dynamical interactions of the relevant particulate (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms) with the surrounding fluid. By consideration of characteristic time and length scales and particle forces, the motion of the (bio-)chemical compounds is characterized.

  12. Prediction of pressure drop in fluid tuned mounts using analytical and computational techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasher, William C.; Khalilollahi, Amir; Mischler, John; Uhric, Tom

    1993-11-01

    A simplified model for predicting pressure drop in fluid tuned isolator mounts was developed. The model is based on an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and was made more general through the use of empirical coefficients. The values of these coefficients were determined by numerical simulation of the flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FIDAP.

  13. [A method for the noninvasive measurement and recording of intracranial pressure via the open fontanelle of infants].

    PubMed

    Brömme, W; Baum, W F; Hirsch, W; Schaps, P; Schobess, A

    1985-01-01

    Measurement and checking of the behaviour of the intracranial pressure (ICP) are of considerable clinical interest for the appraisal and treatment of primary or concomitant cerebral diseases. A non-invasive method of the measurement of the cerebral pressure is presented, which permits measurements and graphic recording according to the aplanation principle of the ICP via the open fontanelle. The pressure uptake of the instrument transformer is effected by a resistance strain gauge, measurement and recording by means of an equipment combination of VEB Messgerätewerk Zwönitz (GDR). Methodological and theoretical foundations are described and normal values of the fontanelle pressure of 80 newborns and babies are submitted.

  14. Tsunami data assimilation of Cascadia seafloor pressure gauge records from the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Sheehan, Anne F.; Satake, Kenji; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mulia, Iyan Eka; Maeda, Takuto

    2016-05-01

    We use tsunami waveforms recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges offshore Oregon and California from the 2012 Haida Gwaii, Canada, earthquake to simulate the performance of two different real-time tsunami-forecasting methods. In the first method, the tsunami source is first estimated by inversion of recorded tsunami waveforms. In the second method, the array data are assimilated to reproduce tsunami wavefields. These estimates can be used for forecasting tsunami on the coast. The dense seafloor array provides critical data for both methods to produce timeliness (>30 min lead time) and accuracy in both timing and amplitude (>94% confidence) tsunami forecasts. Real-time tsunami data on dense arrays and data assimilation can be tested as a possible new generation tsunami warning system.

  15. Evaluation of a fiber-optic technique for recording intramuscular pressure in the human leg.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Andreas; Zhang, Qiuxia; Styf, Jorma

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate a forward-sensing fiber-optic pressure technique for recording of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in the human leg and investigate factors that may influence IMP measurements used in diagnosing compartment syndromes. IMP in the tibialis anterior muscle was recorded simultaneously by a fiber-optic technique and needle-injection technique in 12 legs of 7 healthy subjects. Both measurement catheters were placed in parallel with the muscle fibers to the same depth, as verified by sonography. IMP recordings were performed at rest before, during and after applying a model of abnormally elevated IMP (simulated compartment syndrome). IMP was elevated by venous obstruction induced by a thigh tourniquet of a casted leg. IMP was also measured during injections of 0.1 ml of saline into the muscle through the catheters. IMP at baseline was 5.1 (SD = 2.6) mmHg measured with the fiber-optic technique and 7.1 (SD = 2.5) mmHg with the needle-injection technique (p < 0.001). It increased to 48.5 (SD = 6.9) mmHg and 47.6 (SD = 6.6) mmHg respectively, during simulated compartment syndrome. IMP increased significantly following injection of 0.1 ml of saline, measured by both techniques. It remained increased 1 min after injection. The fiber-optic technique was able to record pulse-synchronous IMP oscillations. The fiber-optic technique may be used for IMP measurements in a muscle with both normal and abnormally elevated IMP. It has good dynamic properties allowing for measurement of IMP oscillations. Saline injection used with needle-injection systems to ensure catheter patency compromises IMP readings at least one minute after injection.

  16. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [data aquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information regarding the safety limits of hydrocarbons in liquid and gaseous oxygen, the steps taken for hydrocarbon removal from liquified gases, and the analysis of the contaminants was searched and the results are presented. The safety of hydrocarbons in gaseous systems was studied, and the latest hydrocarbon test equipment and methodology is reviewed. A detailed sampling and analysis plan is proposed to evaluate high pressure GN2 and LOX systems.

  17. Digitized pressure-time records, selected nuclear events. Technical report, 1 September 1982-1 April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    McMullan, F.W.; Bryant, E.J.

    1986-04-30

    Pressure-time records are presented for selected atmospheric nuclear events. The records were extracted from published test reports, digitized, and given uniform pressure-time scales for a given event and a given range to permit easier comparison. Data include p-t, q-t, p(tot)-t, Mach No-t, and Impulse-t as appropriate. Selected data were scaled to 1 kT.

  18. The influence of magma degassing on entrapment pressures recorded in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide estimates for the pressures at which they were entrapped, and represent an important source of information on the depths at which basaltic magmas crystallize [1]. Results from recent dehydration experiments demonstrate that diffusive loss of H2O from melt inclusions, driven by degassing of the external magma, leads to significant decreases to pressure within the inclusion [2, 3]. This, in turn, lowers the solubility of CO2 in the included melt causing a vapor to exsolve and form a bubble. This process has the potential to significantly modify estimates of entrapment pressures derived from volatile concentrations in olivine hosted melt inclusions. I have developed a quantitative model that describes this process, allowing the influence of degassing on entrapment pressures to be rigorously evaluated. Diffusive loss of H2O from the inclusions was determined using the model of [3]. An equation of state (EOS) for the silicate melt was taken from the results of [4] and [5], while the EOS for H2O-CO2 vapor was taken from [6]. The solubilities of H2O and CO2 in the silicate melt were derived from VolatileCalc [7]. Modeling results demonstrate that degassing of H2O-rich magma produces significant pressure drops, so that entrapment pressures never exceed crustal values and always represent a minimum. Conversely, degassing of H2O-poor magma does not significantly perturb the H2O content of olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Therefore, these inclusions preserve reliable records of the pressures at which they were entrapped. These results are consistent with a global compilation of olivine-hosted melt inclusion entrapment pressures presented by [3]. References: [1] Wanless, VD, and Shaw, AM, Nature Geosci, 5, 651-655 (2012); [2] Gaetani, GA, et al., Geology, 40, 915-918 (2012); [3] Bucholz, CE, et al., Earth Planet Sci Lett, 374, 145-155 (2013); [4] Lange, R. A., and Carmichael, ISE, Geochim Cosmochim Acta

  19. Digital recordings of gas-vesicle collapse used to measure turgor pressure and cell-water relations of cyanobacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Daryl P; Walsby, Anthony E

    2009-05-01

    The gas vesicles of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. collapse under pressures ranging from 0.65-1.10 MPa, determined from turbidity changes in a pressure nephelometer. In turgid cells, collapse occurs at a lower range of pressures; the difference is equal to the cell turgor pressure. The turgor pressure decreases, however, as gas vesicles collapse; this decrease is minimised by calculating the turgor pressure in samples with few of their gas vesicles collapsed. Previously, pressure and turbidity were measured in discrete steps, using analogue meters, or continuously, using chart recorders: turgor pressure was calculated from the mean or median collapse pressures. We describe modifications allowing continuous digital recording; the output was modelled with polynomial or sigmoid functions, the latter providing the best fit over the full collapse-pressure curve; turgor pressure could then be calculated for any point on the collapse-pressure curve. The shape of the collapse-pressure curve was affected by the rate of pressure rise; curves were similar to those from step-wise methods when the pressure was raised at approximately 4 kPa s(-1). Under a rapid, almost instantaneous, rise in pressure there was a larger initial decrease in turgor and from the subsequent recovery the hydraulic conductivity of the cell surface could be calculated; the new method gave improved measurements of the cell volumetric elastic modulus. Following collapse of half the gas vesicles, cells recovered their full turgor pressure after 3 h. This suggests turgor homeostasis. These methods are applicable to other bacteria with gas vesicles, including Escherichia coli, if it could be genetically modified to express transgenic gas vesicles.

  20. Analytical analysis of slow and fast pressure waves in a two-dimensional cellular solid with fluid-filled cells.

    PubMed

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir; Van Damme, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Wave propagation in cellular and porous media is widely studied due to its abundance in nature and industrial applications. Biot's theory for open-cell media predicts the existence of two simultaneous pressure waves, distinguished by its velocity. A fast wave travels through the solid matrix, whereas a much slower wave is carried by fluid channels. In closed-cell materials, the slow wave disappears due to a lack of a continuous fluid path. However, recent finite element (FE) simulations done by the authors of this paper also predict the presence of slow pressure waves in saturated closed-cell materials. The nature of the slow wave is not clear. In this paper, an equivalent unit cell of a medium with square cells is proposed to permit an analytical description of the dynamics of such a material. A simplified FE model suggests that the fluid-structure interaction can be fully captured using a wavenumber-dependent spring support of the vibrating cell walls. Using this approach, the pressure wave behavior can be calculated with high accuracy, but with less numerical effort. Finally, Rayleigh's energy method is used to investigate the coexistence of two waves with different velocities. PMID:27369159

  1. A graphene-based resistive pressure sensor with record-high sensitivity in a wide pressure range.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-02-27

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10-100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa(-1) in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas.

  2. A compact and autoclavable system for acute extracellular neural recording and brain pressure monitoring for humans.

    PubMed

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Baranauskas, Gytis; Vato, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Andrea; Zambra, Guido; Maggiolini, Emma; Semprini, Marianna; Ricci, Davide; Ansaldo, Alberto; Castagnola, Elisa; Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Fadiga, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult tasks for the surgeon during the removal of low-grade gliomas is to identify as precisely as possible the borders between functional and non-functional brain tissue with the aim of obtaining the maximal possible resection which allows to the patient the longer survival. For this purpose, systems for acute extracellular recordings of single neuron and multi-unit activity are considered promising. Here we describe a system to be used with 16 microelectrodes arrays that consists of an autoclavable headstage, a built-in inserter for precise electrode positioning and a system that measures and controls the pressure exerted by the headstage on the brain with a twofold purpose: to increase recording stability and to avoid disturbance of local perfusion which would cause a degradation of the quality of the recording and, eventually, local ischemia. With respect to devices where only electrodes are autoclavable, our design permits the reduction of noise arising from long cable connections preserving at the same time the flexibility and avoiding long-lasting gas sterilization procedures. Finally, size is much smaller and set up time much shorter compared to commercial systems currently in use in surgery rooms, making it easy to consider our system very useful for intra-operatory mapping operations. PMID:25486648

  3. A multicenter evaluation of the A&D TM-2420 ambulatory blood pressure recorder.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Pickering, T G; Morganroth, J; James, G D; McCabe, E J; Moucha, O; Hunter, H

    1991-11-01

    The A&D TM-2420 (A&D Engineering, Milpitas, CA) is an automatic, portable, noninvasive blood pressure (BP) recorder which uses a dual microphone system for the detection of Korotkoff sounds. Its accuracy and clinical performance were assessed in a multicenter study that also addressed issues such as observer agreement and the effects of age, arm circumference, heart rate, posture, and blood pressure level on the observer-device differences. We compared 906 simultaneous, same-arm BP measurements in 151 subjects using the TM-2420 versus two skilled clinicians per site using a teaching stethoscope. The agreement between the TM-2420 and mercury column determinations were within 10 mm Hg for 86 to 91% of systolic readings and 91 to 94% of diastolic readings, depending on the posture; a level of agreement which would receive a 'B+' grade from the recent British Hypertension Society guidelines. The limits of agreement (2 standard deviations about the mean difference) for systolic BP between observers and the TM-2420 tended to be greater for the standing position (-20 to 15 mm Hg) compared to supine (-14 to 12 mm Hg) and seated (-13 to 8 mm Hg) positions. Limits of agreement between the observers and device were not dependent upon age, heart rate, arm size, or blood pressure level. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure monitoring in two of the four centers demonstrated an error code rate of 3.4%, excluding 'retries' that are one of the device's features. These data demonstrate an acceptable level of accuracy and performance of the sixth generation of the TM-2420 for use in clinical practice and research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry: a new analytical chemical characterization method for dissolved organic matter in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Seitzinger, Sybil P; Styles, Renée M; Lauck, Ron; Mazurek, Monica A

    2003-01-01

    The complex mixture of organic compounds in the atmosphere influences climate, air quality, and ecosystem processes. Atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (APESI-MS) was evaluated as a potential tool for direct measurement of the total suite of individual dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds in rainwater. The APESI-MS response was linear to all DOM compounds of atmospheric significance examined as standard solutions. Urban precipitation samples from New Brunswick, NJ (USA) were analyzed by APESI-MS over the mass-to-charge (m/z) range 50-3,000. Over 95% of the m/z ions detected were in the low m/z range (50-500). Over 300 unique m/z ions were detected across the 11 rainwater samples indicating the complexity of the mixture of DOM in rainwater. Forty percent of the organic bases (positive mode detection) and 22% of the organic acids (negative mode) occurred in at least 6 of the 11 rainwater samples. Ions corresponding to the m/z of carboxylic acids standards (nonanedioic acid; 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid; pentanedioic acid; hydroxybutanedioic acid; and butanedioic acid) and to reduced N standards (allylurea; caffeine; imidazole; and N-2-propenylurea) occurred in at least one of the 11 rainwater samples. Total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) estimated from the APESI-MS analysis and measured by standard DOC methods were not statistically different.

  5. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  6. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  7. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  8. Homogenization of atmospheric pressure time series recorded at VLBI stations using a segmentation LASSO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Lu, Cuixian; Soja, Benedikt; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Time series of meteorological parameters recorded at VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observatories allow us to realistically model and consequently to eliminate the atmosphere-induced effects in the VLBI products to a large extent. Nevertheless, this advantage of VLBI is not fully exploited since such information is contaminated with inconsistencies, such as uncertainties regarding the calibration and location of the meteorological sensors, outliers, missing data points, and breaks. It has been shown that such inconsistencies in meteorological data used for VLBI data analysis impose problems in the geodetic products (e.g vertical site position) and result in mistakes in geophysical interpretation. The aim of the procedure followed here is to optimally model the tropospheric delay and bending effects that are still the main sources of error in VLBI data analysis. In this study, the meteorological data recorded with sensors mounted in the vicinity of VLBI stations have been homogenized spanning the period from 1979 until today. In order to meet this objective, inhomogeneities were detected and adjusted using test results and metadata. Some of the approaches employed include Alexandersson's Standard Normal Homogeneity Test and an iterative procedure, of which the segmentation part is based on a dynamic programming algorithm and the functional part on a LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) estimator procedure. For the provision of reference time series that are necessary to apply the aforementioned methods, ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis surface data were employed. Special care was taken regarding the datum definition of this model. Due to the significant height difference between the VLBI antenna's reference point and the elevation included in geopotential fields of the specific numerical weather models, a hypsometric adjustment is applied using the absolute pressure level from the WMO

  9. Evaluation between ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for characterizing natural dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; van Bommel, Maarten; Hallett, Jessica

    2013-11-29

    An evaluation was undertaken of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for characterizing natural dyes in cultural heritage objects. A new UHPLC method was optimized by testing several analytical parameters adapted from prior UHPLC studies developed in diverse fields of research. Different gradient elution programs were tested on seven UHPLC columns with different dimensions and stationary phase compositions by applying several mobile phases, flow rates, temperatures, and runtimes. The UHPLC method successfully provided more improved data than that achieved by the HPLC method. Indeed, even though carminic acid has shown circa 146% higher resolution with HPLC, UHPLC resulted in an increase of 41-61% resolution and a decrease of 91-422% limit of detection, depending on the dye compound. The optimized method was subsequently assigned to analyse 59 natural reference materials, in which 85 different components were ascribed with different physicochemical properties, in order to create a spectral database for future characterization of dyes in cultural heritage objects. The majority of these reference samples could be successfully distinguished with one single method through the examination of these compounds' retention times and their spectra acquired with a photodiode array detector. These results demonstrate that UHPLC analyses are extremely valuable for the acquisition of more precise chromatographic information concerning natural dyes with complex mixtures of different and/or closely related physicochemical properties, essential for distinguishing similar species of plants and animals used to colour cultural heritage objects. PMID:24139502

  10. Evaluation between ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for characterizing natural dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; van Bommel, Maarten; Hallett, Jessica

    2013-11-29

    An evaluation was undertaken of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for characterizing natural dyes in cultural heritage objects. A new UHPLC method was optimized by testing several analytical parameters adapted from prior UHPLC studies developed in diverse fields of research. Different gradient elution programs were tested on seven UHPLC columns with different dimensions and stationary phase compositions by applying several mobile phases, flow rates, temperatures, and runtimes. The UHPLC method successfully provided more improved data than that achieved by the HPLC method. Indeed, even though carminic acid has shown circa 146% higher resolution with HPLC, UHPLC resulted in an increase of 41-61% resolution and a decrease of 91-422% limit of detection, depending on the dye compound. The optimized method was subsequently assigned to analyse 59 natural reference materials, in which 85 different components were ascribed with different physicochemical properties, in order to create a spectral database for future characterization of dyes in cultural heritage objects. The majority of these reference samples could be successfully distinguished with one single method through the examination of these compounds' retention times and their spectra acquired with a photodiode array detector. These results demonstrate that UHPLC analyses are extremely valuable for the acquisition of more precise chromatographic information concerning natural dyes with complex mixtures of different and/or closely related physicochemical properties, essential for distinguishing similar species of plants and animals used to colour cultural heritage objects.

  11. Coupling of Pore Pressure and Ground Motion: Further Studies using Data Recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, S. H.; Lavallee, D.; Archuleta, R. J.; Steidl, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure built up during an earthquake and the hazard associated with soil liquefaction present a major challenge for our society, as has been dramatically illustrated by recent large events (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake). There is consensus among scientists that a better assessment of the liquefaction risk requires a better understanding of the coupling between pore pressure and ground motion time histories. There is a basic need to investigate coupling as a function of the frequency content of the ground motion. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah event has provided a remarkable opportunity to investigate and model the coupling. The event was well recorded at the NEES@UCSB Wildlife station located 110 km from the hypocenter. The station is equipped with three-component strong-motion accelerometers at the surface and in boreholes at various depths and with pore pressure transducers located in a saturated, liquefiable layer. The recorded pore pressure and ground motion time histories both have frequency content that is a function of time. We have applied a wavelet decomposition technique to the El Mayor ground motion and pore pressure data, looking for a linear relationship between the signals. The analysis shows that the early P-wave accelerations (vertical component) initiate pore pressure response. However, the pore pressure records contain a low-frequency component that dominates the signal with no corresponding low-frequency component in the ground motion signals recorded near-by. Although uncommon, a similar behavior has been also reported in the literature for pore pressure signals recoded during the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake. We have extended this work to the analysis of 4 other seismic events that have induced an increase in pore pressure at WLA. As the response of pore pressure is potentially a local phenomenon, we have restricted our analysis to recordings from the same site. These events include the M5.8 Ocotillo

  12. Analytic equation of state and thermodynamic properties for He-H 2 fluid mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinying; Sun, Jiuxun

    2007-08-01

    The analytical expressions for the equation of state and thermo-physical quantities of Exp-6 fluid are derived based on the Ross variational perturbation theory and with the quantum effect taken into account. The formalism developed is applied to the He-H 2 mixtures. The agreement of numerical results of pressure and internal energy with MC simulations is shown far better than the analytic equation of state developed by [I. Ali, S.M. Osman, N. Sulaiman, R.N. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 0561045]. The isotherms for pressure, internal energy and packing factor for five concentrations and four temperatures versus volume are calculated and analyzed. The numerical results for excess Gibbs free energy and entropy of mixing are presented. The variation of the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the variation of the excess entropy of mixing versus temperature and pressure are different from and similar to that of Ali et al., respectively.

  13. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  14. Experimental and analytical investigation of the variation of spray characteristics along a radial distance downstream of a pressure-swirl atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, J. S.; Li, W. M.; Wang, X. F.

    1986-01-01

    The variation of spray characteristics along a radial distance downstream of a pressure-swirl atomizer was measured by laser light-scattering technology. An analytical model was developed to predict the variation of spray characteristics along the radial distance. A comparison of the predicted and experimental data showed excellent agreement. Therefore, the spray model proposed, although relatively simple, is correct and can be used, with some expansion and modification of the prepared model, to predict more complicated spray systems.

  15. Grain-scale pressure variations recorded in orthopyroxene from the diamond grade ultra-high pressure Svartberget peridotite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.

    2014-05-01

    The ultra-high pressure (UHP) area in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) in Norway is recognized as a giant UHP domain that resulted from the collision of Baltica and Laurentia during the Caledonian Orogeny. Recent geochronological data suggest the WGR resided at UHP for several tens of millions of years and slowly exhumed near- isothermally to amphibolite facies conditions. The Svartberget peridotite body is located in the north-westernmost part of the UHP area of the WGR. The rocks record diamond grade peak metamorphism at ~800 ° C in crosscutting pyroxenite veins as evidenced by micro-diamond inclusions in Caledonian metamorphic garnet. The peridotite body preserves primary spinel-garnet-peridotite assemblages stable at much lower pressure (~2.0 GPa at ~800 ° C). Orthopyroxene typically shows bowl-shaped aluminium (Al) zoning and conventional geothermobarometry using core compositions of garnet-opx mineral pairs yields P-T estimates of 5.5 GPa at ~800 ° C. Besides Al increasing toward the rims of orthopyroxene grains, concentrations also increase in cracks and veins crosscutting the mineral. Here, recently developed unconventional geobarometry and Gibbs minimization methods are used to derive the grain-scale pressure variations corresponding to the observed Al-zoning. The methods independently result in pressure variations from core to rim on the order of 2.0 GPa. Interestingly, low-Al cores correspond to low pressures whereas high-Al rims correspond to high pressures, opposite to conventional geothermobarometry results. However, the new estimates are in agreement with the consideration that at high pressure the high density phases become more stable. In a binary orthopyroxene in the MAS-system, the Mg-Tschermak endmember thought to be the dominant Al-species in the mineral has a higher density then the Al-free enstatite endmember. Therefore at higher pressure the Mg-Tschermak endmember in orthopyroxene is favoured over the enstatite endmember. This is similar

  16. Fast gradient separation by very high pressure liquid chromatography: reproducibility of analytical data and influence of delay between successive runs.

    PubMed

    Stankovicha, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Beaver, Lois Ann; Stevensona, Paul G; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-11-29

    Five methods were used to implement fast gradient separations: constant flow rate, constant column-wall temperature, constant inlet pressure at moderate and high pressures (controlled by a pressure controller),and programmed flow constant pressure. For programmed flow constant pressure, the flow rates and gradient compositions are controlled using input into the method instead of the pressure controller. Minor fluctuations in the inlet pressure do not affect the mobile phase flow rate in programmed flow. There producibilities of the retention times, the response factors, and the eluted band width of six successive separations of the same sample (9 components) were measured with different equilibration times between 0 and 15 min. The influence of the length of the equilibration time on these reproducibilities is discussed. The results show that the average column temperature may increase from one separation to the next and that this contributes to fluctuation of the results.

  17. Influence of the radiation pressure on the planetary exospheres : analytical modeling of density profiles and escape flux, implication for the Three Body problem and the Roche lobe location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I.; Mazelle, C.

    2014-04-01

    The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, the exosphere, is not well-known in its global structure since the densities are very low compared to instrument detection capabilities. Because of rare collisions and high Knudsen numbers, the motion of light species (H, H2, ...) in the corona is essentially determined by the external forces : the gravitation from the planet, the radiation pressure, as well the stellar gravity. In this work, we calculate rigorously and analytically, based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and Liouville theorem, the impact of the radiation pressure and gravitation from the planet on the structure of the exosphere. This approach was partially used by [1] but only in the 2D case : we extend it to the 3D case. Assuming a collisionless exosphere and a constant radiation pressure near the planet, we determine the density profiles for ballistic particles (the main contribution for densities in the lower exosphere) for light species as a function of the angle with respect to the Sun direction. We also obtain an analytical formula for the escape flux at the subsolar point, which can be compared with the Jeans' escape flux. Finally, we study the effect of the radiation pressure on the zero velocity curves, position of the Roche lobe and Hill's region for the well-known Three-Body problem especially for Hot Jupiters and discuss about the validity of our model. The goal is to bring some constraints on modelling of exoplanet atmospheres.

  18. 10+ years of ACORK: Continuous pore pressure record from the decollement zone at Nankai Trough off Muroto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; Miyazaki, J.; Hulme, S.; Mendrum, R.; Toki, T.; Wheat, C. G.; Kasaya, T.

    2012-12-01

    Pore pressure and hydrological properties play key roles in governing coupling and slip behavior along the subducting plate interface. During the KR22-12 cruise, three dives were completed using ROV KAIKO onboard R/V KAIREI during Dec. 20-25, 2011, to retrieve pore pressure data and interstitial fluid samples from ACORKs at ODP Holes 808I and 1173B situated landward and seaward of the deformation front in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto. With 3-year-long and a 4-year-long new data records from Holes 808I and 1173B, respectively, we now have over 10-year-long continuous pressure records since June 2001 at both sites. Data from most monitoring depths show systematic variations in average pressure, and in formation pressure response to seafloor tidal loading. In 2005 and 2009, we observed significant decrease in the amplitudes of pressure response to semi-diurnal tidal loading at Hole 808I. Transient changes were observed at the time of several nearby earthquakes, including the 2011 Mar. 11 Tohoku earthquake, followed by long-lasting pressure changes in both holes starting on Mar. 23, 2011. Gas-tight fluid sampling operations were successfully carried out from the hydraulic port attached to the swellable packer inserted within the ACORK head at Hole 808I. The swellable packer was set in order to isolate the décollement zone that lies roughly 20 m below the bottom of casing at 922 m below the seafloor. We observed shimmering water venting through the port, and the flow rate was measured using a ball-type flowmeter. Fluid samples looked muddy, probably as a result of staining from the casing steel. We believe that the packer seal at the ACORK head is set properly, although the pore pressure at 922 m does not seem to have increased up to 2011. Still, the observed fluid seepage suggests a significant amount of fluid evacuated from the décollement zone since ACORK installation, which may have changed its hydrogeological condition.

  19. Comparing (semi-) analytic solutions used to model the impact of deep carbon injection on the displacement and pressurization of the resident brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Kraemer, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main failure mechanisms. The focus of this study is on the displacement of resident brine and the resulting changes in pressure due to the injection of large volumes of super-critical phase carbon dioxide into the subsurface. The movement of brine becomes important if it travels vertically and reaches an existing or potential underground source of drinking water where an increase in salt content may threaten the viability of the drinking water source. Vertical displacement of brine may occur slowly through confining layers, or more rapidly through faults and abandoned wells. This presentation compares several (semi-) analytic solutions to determine their applicability to the problem of brine pressurization and displacement. The goal is to find ranges of formation parameters (e.g., formation seal conductivity, distance to lateral boundary, … ) for which simplifying assumption are justifiable Each simplification in the conceptual model (e.g., neglecting the lateral boundary turns a bounded domain into an infinite one) leads to a simpler (semi-) analytic solution. The process involves a solution hierarchy from the most complex solution down to the basic Theis solution. A software tool-kit implementing several (semi-) analytic solutions was developed for this study to facilitate the comparison of the solutions.

  20. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  1. A New 15-year Multisite AWS Temperature and Pressure Record for West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, D. B.; Alley, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    Improved interpretation of the ever growing body of ice-core-based paleoclimate records from Antarctica requires a deeper understanding of Antarctic meteorology. New field campaigns and improved numerical forecasting models will ultimately provide long-term benefits but neither addresses the existing observational archive. In contrast, our work with automatic weather station (AWS) data addresses this issue directly. AWS currently provide the only year-round, continuous direct measurements of weather on the ice sheet. As the spatial coverage of the network has expanded year to year (thanks to C. Stearns and his University of Wisconsin AWS group), so has our meteorological database. Unfortunately, many of the records are relatively short and/or incomplete due to the vagaries of the harsh environment and station relocations. This reduces their usefulness for climatological studies. Building on climate downscaling results in temperate latitudes we have used GCM-scale meteorological data sets (e.g., ECMWF reanalysis products) to both fill the gaps in AWS records and extend them back in time to create a uniform and complete database of West Antarctic surface meteorology at selected AWS. Such records are highly relevant to the improved interpretation of the expanding library of snow-pit and ice-core data sets. Our solution uses artificial neural network (ANN) techniques to predict the near-surface meteorology recorded by AWS instruments (e.g., temperature) using large-scale features of the atmosphere (e.g., 500 mb geopotential height) from a region around the AWS. ANNs are trained to predict observed AWS data from the corresponding GCM-scale data. Intrayear prediction (of observations in the training year) has been very successful (e.g., RMS errors < 2 mbar). Interyear prediction (of observations not in the training year) are acceptable but open to improvement from further refinements in methodology. Our methodology has thus far been applied to five AWS on a transect

  2. Yeast and mammalian metabolism continuous monitoring by using pressure recording as an assessment technique for xenobiotic agent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Ballerini, Monica; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Marelli, E.; Mazza, Francesca; Zabeo, Matteo

    2002-06-01

    Our work is devoted to the study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human lymphocytes cellular metabolism in order to develop a reference model to assess biological systems responses to chemical or physical agents exposure. CO2 variations inside test-tubes are measured by differential pressure sensors; pressure values are subsequently converted in voltage. The system allows to test up to 16 samples at the same time. Sampling manages up to 100 acquisitions per second. Values are recorded by a data acquisition card connected to a computer. This procedure leads to a standard curve (pressure variation versus time), typical of the cellular line, that describe cellular metabolism. The longest time lapse used is of 170 h. Different phases appear in this curve: an initial growth up to a maximum, followed by a decrement that leads to a typical depression (pressure value inside the test-tubes is lower than the initial one) after about 35 h from the beginning of yeast cells. The curve is reproducible within an experimental error of 4%. The analysis of many samples and the low cost of the devices allow a good statistical significance of the data. In particular as a test we will compare two sterilizing agents effects: UV radiation and amuchina.

  3. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-07-15

    A number of (semi-)analytical solutions are available to drawdown analysis and leakage estimation of shallow aquifer-aquitard systems. These solutions assume that the systems are laterally infinite. When a large-scale pumping from (or injection into) an aquifer-aquitard system of lower specific storativity occurs, induced pressure perturbation (or hydraulic head drawdown/rise) may reach the lateral boundary of the aquifer. We developed semi-analytical solutions to address the induced pressure perturbation and vertical leakage in a 'laterally bounded' system consisting of an aquifer and an overlying/underlying aquitard. A one-dimensional radial flow equation for the aquifer was coupled with a one-dimensional vertical flow equation for the aquitard, with a no-flow condition imposed on the outer radial boundary. Analytical solutions were obtained for (1) the Laplace-transform hydraulic head drawdown/rise in the aquifer and in the aquitard, (2) the Laplace-transform rate and volume of leakage through the aquifer-aquitard interface integrated up to an arbitrary radial distance, (3) the transformed total leakage rate and volume for the entire interface, and (4) the transformed horizontal flux at any radius. The total leakage rate and volume depend only on the hydrogeologic properties and thicknesses of the aquifer and aquitard, as well as the duration of pumping or injection. It was proven that the total leakage rate and volume are independent of the aquifer's radial extent and wellbore radius. The derived analytical solutions for bounded systems are the generalized solutions of infinite systems. Laplace-transform solutions were numerically inverted to obtain the hydraulic head drawdown/rise, leakage rate, leakage volume, and horizontal flux for given hydrogeologic and geometric conditions of the aquifer-aquitard system, as well as injection/pumping scenarios. Application to a large-scale injection-and-storage problem in a bounded system was demonstrated.

  4. A varved lake sediment record from Finland: between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Siberian High Pressure Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarni, Saija; Saarinen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Varved lake sediments are widely used for paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental studies. The advantages of such records are precise time control, which enables high resolution studies of even seasonal scale, and the length of the records extending potentially beyond thousands of years. The clastic organic varved sediments from a small boreal Lake Kalliojärvi (area 0.15 km2, maximum depth 12 m) in Central Finland, record environmental change and snow accumulation history for more than two thousand years. The high quality sediments of the Lake Kalliojärvi are laminated until the present day and reflect the annual circulation of boreal zone. A single varve year consists of two laminae that are composed of i) minerogenic clasts and ii) amorphous organic matter and microfossils. Total varve thickness was measured, and the accumulation of minerogenic and organic matter were analyzed using digital image analysis. The major element composition of the lake sediments was also determined using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF). The clastic laminae are interpreted as a proxy for catchment erosion, reflecting spring floods triggered by snow melt. Qualitative comparison of minerogenic matter accumulation and reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases reveal correspondence between the two records. Positive NAO conditions occur simultaneously with increased minerogenic lamina thicknesses which suggest that the changes in snow accumulation are induced by NAO. However, there are indications that the strong Siberian High Pressure Cell (SHPC) prevailing on eastern Scandinavia may be important for Scandinavian climate via blocking the westerly winds. Strong SHCP potentially leads to colder winter temperatures in Finland and increased ice formation. Stronger and prolonged ice cover in lake environments cause prolonged water column stratification and increased oxygen deficiency which is related to an increased Fe/Mn ratio. This study discusses the importance of NAO and

  5. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  6. Atomic hydrogen emission induced by TEA CO(2) laser bombardment on solid samples at low pressure and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nasrullah; Terai, Sumito; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Hendrik; Kobayashi, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen emission has been studied in laser plasmas by focusing a TEA CO(2) laser (10.6 microm, 500 mJ, 200 ns) on various types of samples, such as glass, quartz, black plastic sheet, and oil on copper plate sub-target. It was found that H(alpha) emission with a narrow spectral width occurs with high efficiency when the laser plasma is produced in the low-pressure region. On the contrary, the conventional well-known laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which is usually carried out at atmospheric air pressure, cannot be applied to the analysis of hydrogen as an impurity. By combining low-pressure laser-induced plasma spectroscopy with laser surface cleaning, a preliminary quantitative analysis was made on zircaloy pipe samples intentionally doped with hydrogen. As a result, a good linear relationship was obtained between H(alpha) emission intensity and its concentration.

  7. Numerical and analytical assessment of the influence of blood flow through arterial perforators on the pulse pressure shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Piechna, Adam; Cieślicki, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Most of the existing models of cardiovascular system do not take into account the leakage of blood through a number of small vessels branching the main arterial trunks and called perforators. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate their influence on the pulse pressure waveform. Linearized, 1D computer model of a minute part of the cardiovascular system has been designed and series of simulations with and without leakage have been conducted. Blood flow in a single segment of the arterial system and pressure in vascular nodes were described by the two first order partial differential equations. A set of boundary conditions on both ends of a single vascular segment and at nodal point have been formulated. To solve the linear set of above equations, a numerical method of characteristic has been used. It was shown that the leakage reduces reflection from the peripheral resistance. The simulations have also shown a decrease of the average pressure value with increase of leakage and modification of the pulse pressure waveform. All these effects depended strongly on the assumed leakage value and practically died out when its value was reduced to about 10% of the main flow.

  8. Analytical Modeling of Pressure Wall Hole Size and Maximum Tip-to-Tip Crack Length for Perforating Normal and Oblique Orbital Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Mohamed, Essam

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study whose objective was to develop first-principles-based models of hole size and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for a spacecraft module pressure wall that has been perforated in an orbital debris particle impact. The hole size and crack length models are developed by sequentially characterizing the phenomena comprising the orbital debris impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the pressure wall, the deformation of the pressure wall due to debris cloud impact loading prior to crack formation, pressure wall crack initiation, propagation, and arrest, and finally pressure wall deformation following crack initiation and growth. The model development has been accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory, as well as the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The predictions of the model developed herein are compared against the predictions of empirically-based equations for hole diameters and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for three International Space Station wall configurations. The ISS wall systems considered are the baseline U.S. Lab Cylinder, the enhanced U.S. Lab Cylinder, and the U.S. Lab Endcone. The empirical predictor equations were derived from experimentally obtained hole diameters and crack length data. The original model predictions did not compare favorably with the experimental data, especially for cases in which pressure wall petalling did not occur. Several modifications were made to the original model to bring its predictions closer in line with the experimental results. Following the adjustment of several empirical constants, the predictions of the modified analytical model were in much closer agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Chart-Recorded Capillary Pulse Pressure Measurement as an Unobtrusive Means of Detecting Unspecified Frame-Specific Flaws in Programmed Instruction Sequences: An Experimental Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, Lawrence E., Jr.

    Capillary pulse pressure measurement may have potential as a covert but direct means of determining a subject's level of affect as he encounters the frame-by-frame content of programed instruction. An experiment was designed which called for recording the capillary pulse pressure of subjects as they worked through some programed instruction…

  10. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  11. Manual or automated sphygmomanometer? A historical cohort to quantify measurement bias in blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Nargesi, Arash A; Ghazizadeh, Zaniar; Larry, Mehrdad; Morteza, Afsaneh; Heidari, Firuzeh; Asgarani, Firuzeh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Mohammad, Kazem; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2014-10-01

    The authors aimed to quantify end-digit and threshold biases in blood pressure (BP) measurement with manual and digital sphygmomanometers. In a 3-year follow-up, end-digit and threshold biases were investigated and a new index, called the deviation index, was used to quantify measurement bias. The distribution of systolic and diastolic BPs became close to normal after implementation of digital sphygmomanometers. The appearance of zero end digits decreased from 97% to 30% (P<.0001). The deviation index decreased from 97% to 20% (P<.0001). Mean systolic and diastolic BPs increased immediately after implementation of automated sphygmomanometers (124.22±0.83 vs 132.90±0.78 and 74.38±0.50 vs 80.43±0.51, respectively; P<.0001 for both) but showed a linear decreasing trend during follow-up (systolic -3.59 mm Hg per year; 95% confidence interval, -5.57 to -1.61 [P<.0001]; diastolic: -2.52 mm Hg per year; 95% confidence interval, -3.78 to -1.26 [P<.0001]). Threshold bias decreased from 12.94% to 6.68% (P<.0001). Replacing manual sphygmomanometers with digital devices decreased end-digit and threshold biases in BP measurement. The deviation index can be used to quantify the magnitude of measurement bias.

  12. Nitrogen recycling in subducted oceanic lithosphere: The record in high- and ultrahigh-pressure metabasaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, Ralf; Bebout, Gray E.; John, Timm; Schenk, Volker

    2010-03-01

    This paper provides the first measurements of the nitrogen (N) concentrations and isotopic compositions of high- and ultrahigh-pressure mafic eclogites, aimed at characterizing the subduction input flux of N in deeply subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC). The samples that were studied are from the Raspas Complex (Ecuador), Lago di Cignana (Italy), the Zambezi Belt (Zambia) and Cabo Ortegal (Spain), together representing subduction to 50-90 km depths. The eclogites contain 2-20 ppm N with δ 15N air values ranging from -1 to +8‰. These values overlap those of altered oceanic crust, but are distinct from values for fresh MORB (for the latter, ˜1.1 ppm N and δ 15N air ˜ -4‰). Based on N data in combination with other trace element data, the eclogite suites can be subdivided into those that are indistinguishable from their likely protolith, AOC, with or without superimposed effects of devolatilization (Lago di Cignana, Cabo Ortegal), and those that have experienced metasomatic additions during subduction-zone metamorphism (Zambezi Belt, Raspas). For the former group, the lack of a detectable loss of N in the eclogites, compared to various altered MORB compositions, suggests the retention of N in deeply subducted oceanic crust. The metasomatic effects affecting the latter group can be best explained by mixing with a (meta)sedimentary component, resulting in correlated enrichments of N and other trace elements (in particular, Ba and Pb) thought to be mobilized during HP/UHP metamorphism. Serpentinized and high-pressure metamorphosed peridotites, associated with the eclogites at Raspas and Cabo Ortegal, contain 3-15 ppm N with δ 15N air values ranging from +3 to +6‰, significantly higher than the generally accepted values for the MORB mantle (δ 15N air ˜ -5‰). Based on their relatively high N contents and their homogeneous and positive δ 15N values, admixing of sedimentary N is also indicated for the serpentinized peridotites. One possible pathway for the

  13. Decoding carotid pressure waveforms recorded by laser Doppler vibrometry: Effects of rebreathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaccia, Sara; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Richter, Edward; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rohrbaugh, John W.

    2014-05-01

    The principal goal of this study was to assess the capability of the laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) method for assessing cardiovascular activity. A rebreathing task was used to provoke changes within individuals in cardiac and vascular performance. The rebreathing task is known to produce multiple effects, associated with changes in autonomic drive as well as alterations in blood gases. The rise in CO2 (hypercapnia), in particular, produces changes in the cerebral and systemic circulation. The results from a rebreathing task (involving rebreathing the same air in a rubber bag) are presented for 35 individuals. The LDV pulse was measured from a site overlying the carotid artery. For comparison and validation purposes, several conventional measures of cardiovascular function were also obtained, with an emphasis on the electrocardiogram (ECG), continuous blood pressure (BP) from the radial artery, and measures of myocardial performance using impedance cardiography (ICG). During periods of active rebreathing, ventilation increased. The conventional cardiovascular effects included increased mean arterial BP and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac stroke volume (SV) and pulse transit time (PTT). These effects were consistent with a pattern of α-adrenergic stimulation. During the immediate post-rebreathing segments, in contrast, mean BP was largely unaffected but pulse BP increased, as did PTT and SV, whereas systemic vascular resistance decreased-a pattern consistent with β-adrenergic effects in combination with the direct effects of hypercapnia on the vascular system. Measures of cardiovascular activity derived from the LDV pulse velocity and displacement waveforms revealed patterns of changes that mirrored the results obtained using conventional measures. In particular, the ratio of the maximum early peak in the LDV velocity pulse to the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse (in an early systolic interval) closely mirrored the conventional

  14. Equipment Errors: A Prevalent Cause for Fallacy in Blood Pressure Recording - A Point Prevalence Estimate from an Indian Health University

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha, Nidhi Dinesh; Gidwani, Hitesh; Shukla, Sushil Kumar; Kawatra, Abhishek; Mehta, SC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) recording is the most commonly measured clinical parameter. Standing mercury sphygmomanometer is the most widely used equipment to record this. However, recording by sphygmomanometer is subject to observer and instrumental error. The different sources of equipment error are faulty manometer tube calibration, baseline deviations and improper arm bladder cuff dimensions. This is further compounded by a high prevalence of arm bladder miss-cuffing in the target population. Objectives: The study was designed to assess the presence of equipment malcalibrations, cuff miss-matching and their effect on BP recording. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional check of all operational sphygmomanometers in a health university was carried out for the length of the manometer tube, deviation of resting mercury column from “0” level, the width and length of arm bladder cuff and extent of bladder cuff-mismatch with respect to outpatient attending population. Results: From the total of 50 apparatus selected, 39 (78%) were from hospital setups and 11 (22%) from pre-clinical departments. A manometer height deficit of 13 mm was recorded in 36 (92.23%) of the equipment in hospital and 11 (100%) from pre-clinical departments. Instruments from both settings showed significant deviation from recommended dimensions in cuff bladder length, width and length to width ratio (P < 0.001). Significant number of apparatus from hospital setups showed presence of mercury manometer baseline deviation either below or above 0 mmHg at the resting state (χ2 = 5.61, D. F. = 1, P = 0.02). Positive corelationship was observed between manometer height deficit, baseline deviation and width of arm cuff bladder (Pearson correlation, P < 0.05). Bladder cuff mismatching in response to the target population was found at 48.52% for males and 36.76% for females. The cumulative effect of these factors can lead to an error in the range of 10-12 mmHg. Conclusion: Faulty equipments and

  15. Knocking Combustion Observed in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Simultaneous Direct and Schlieren High-Speed Motion Pictures and Pressure Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterstrom, Gordon E

    1948-01-01

    Simultaneous direct and Schlieren photographs at 40,000 frames per second and correlated pressure records were taken of knocking combustion in a special spark-ignition engine to ascertain the intensity of certain end-zone reactions previously noted from Schlieren photography alone. A violent propagated homogeneous autoignition, or a similar phenomenon, previously observed, was again observed. The pressure records show autoignition of varying violence before the passage of a probable detonation wave. Extensive autoignition without occurrence of gas vibrations was seen in one explosion.

  16. Tracking Ocean Gravity Waves in Real-time: Highlights of Bottom Pressure Data Recorded on Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, Martin; Mihaly, Steve; Gemmrich, Johannes; Davis, Earl; Thomson, Richard; Dewey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two cabled ocean observatories off Vancouver Island on Canada's west coast. The regional NEPTUNE observatory spans the entire Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from the coast across the subduction zone to the hydrothermally active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Segment while the VENUS observatory focuses on coastal processes. Both observatories collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex earth processes. High-precision bottom pressure recorders (BPR) deployed on the NEPTUNE observatory are capable of detecting a wide range of phenomena related to sea level variations. The observatory BPRs provide observations of nano-resolution (with respect to full scale of the instrument) pressure variations which correspond to sub-millimeter scale surface water displacements in several kilometers of water. Detected signals include tides, tsunamis, infragravity waves, swell, wave-induced microseisms, storm surge, and seismic signals. Spectral analysis reveals many of these phenomena with periods ranging from a few seconds to many hours. Dispersion patterns from distant swells are prominent in the swell and microseism bands. By comparing the difference of arrival times between longer period waves, which arrive first, and shorter period waves we can estimate the distance the swells travelled since they were generated. Using this information, swell can be tracked back to specific storms across the Pacific. The presentation will high-light some examples of the mentioned phenomena in the continuous time-series that in some instances are more than seven years long.

  17. Automated office and home phone-transmitted blood pressure recordings in uncontrolled hypertension treated with valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Girerd, Xavier; Denolle, Thierry; Yau, Caroline; Fiquet, Béatrice; Brunel, Patrick; Moulin, Bruno; Herpin, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate, by means of automated office and phone-transmitted home blood pressure (OBP and HBP) recordings, the effects of a fixed combination of valsartan 160 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg in hypertensive patients previously uncontrolled with the combination of an angiotensin receptor antagonist and HCTZ. From 241 selected patients, 171 (71%) had uncontrolled hypertension OBP and HBP [mean baseline OBP and HBP systolic and diastolic (SBP/DBP): 157/91 and 152/87 mmHg]. In this open-design study, patients were directly switched from other angiotensin receptor blocker combination products to valsartan/HCTZ for 6 weeks. The same validated automated device was used for OBP and HBP recordings. At baseline, mean HBP was 152 +/- 15/87 +/- 10 mmHg and mean OBP was 157 +/- 12/91 +/- 9 mmHg. After 6 weeks of treatment with valsartan 160 mg and HCTZ 25 mg, a significant decrease in BP was observed both at home (146 +/- 17/83 +/- 12 mmHg) and at the office (151 +/- 18/87 +/- 11 mmHg), with a difference from baseline of -4 mmHg, p < 0.001 for DBP and of -6 mmHg for SBP, p < 0.001. The percentage of patients with office and home control was 24% and 23% respectively, with a kappa index at 0.459. Elevated OBP only (office hypertension) was observed in 3.6% and elevated HBP only (masked hypertension) in 10% of patients. In conclusion, treatment with valsartan and HCTZ 25 mg in patients with confirmed uncontrolled hypertension induced a clinically relevant decrease in BP with approximately 23% of additional patients strictly controlled with a single tablet. The use of an automated oscillometric device at the office and at home allowed the detection of controlled subjects with good agreement.

  18. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  19. Characterization of Zebrafish Green Cone Photoresponse Recorded with Pressure-Polished Patch Pipettes, Yielding Efficient Intracellular Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Marco; Benedusi, Mascia; Fasoli, Anna; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The phototransduction enzymatic cascade in cones is less understood than in rods, and the zebrafish is an ideal model with which to investigate vertebrate and human vision. Therefore, here, for the first time, the zebrafish green cone photoresponse is characterized also to obtain a firm basis for evaluating how it is modulated by exogenous molecules. To this aim, a powerful method was developed to obtain long-lasting recordings with low access resistance, employing pressure-polished patch pipettes. This method also enabled fast, efficient delivery of molecules via a perfusion system coupled with pulled quartz or plastic perfusion tubes, inserted very close to the enlarged pipette tip. Sub-saturating flashes elicited responses in different cells with similar rising phase kinetics but with very different recovery kinetics, suggesting the existence of physiologically distinct cones having different Ca2+ dynamics. Theoretical considerations demonstrate that the different recovery kinetics can be modelled by simulating changes in the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the outer segment. Importantly, the Ca2+-buffer action preserves the fast response rising phase, when the Ca2+-dependent negative feedback is activated by the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26513584

  20. Characterization of Zebrafish Green Cone Photoresponse Recorded with Pressure-Polished Patch Pipettes, Yielding Efficient Intracellular Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, Marco; Benedusi, Mascia; Fasoli, Anna; Rispoli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The phototransduction enzymatic cascade in cones is less understood than in rods, and the zebrafish is an ideal model with which to investigate vertebrate and human vision. Therefore, here, for the first time, the zebrafish green cone photoresponse is characterized also to obtain a firm basis for evaluating how it is modulated by exogenous molecules. To this aim, a powerful method was developed to obtain long-lasting recordings with low access resistance, employing pressure-polished patch pipettes. This method also enabled fast, efficient delivery of molecules via a perfusion system coupled with pulled quartz or plastic perfusion tubes, inserted very close to the enlarged pipette tip. Sub-saturating flashes elicited responses in different cells with similar rising phase kinetics but with very different recovery kinetics, suggesting the existence of physiologically distinct cones having different Ca2+ dynamics. Theoretical considerations demonstrate that the different recovery kinetics can be modelled by simulating changes in the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the outer segment. Importantly, the Ca2+-buffer action preserves the fast response rising phase, when the Ca2+-dependent negative feedback is activated by the light-induced decline in intracellular Ca2+. PMID:26513584

  1. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  2. Ambulatory 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recordings v provocation tests in the diagnosis of chest pain of oesophageal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Ghillebert, G; Janssens, J; Vantrappen, G; Nevens, F; Piessens, J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty patients with non-cardiac chest pain underwent 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recording and provocation tests to determine the relative value of both techniques in establishing the oesophageal origin of the chest pain. Twenty six patients (52%) had at least one positive provocation test: the acid perfusion test was positive related in 18 patients (36%), the edrophonium test in 16 patients (32%), the vasopressin test in five patients (10%), and the balloon distension test (performed in only 20 patients) in one (5%). The 24 hour pH and pressure recording correlated spontaneous chest pain attacks with abnormal motility or gastro-oesophageal reflux in 19 patients (38%). Fourteen of these patients also had at least one positive provocation test. Therefore, 24 hour pH and pressure recordings are only slightly better than a set of provocation tests in identifying the oesophagus as the cause of chest pain (10% diagnostic gain). In the case of oesophageal chest pain, however, 24 hour recording appeared to be the only way to identify the nature of the underlying oesophageal abnormality that caused the spontaneous pain attacks--for example, gastro-oesophageal reflux, motility disorders, or irritability of the oesophagus. PMID:2370009

  3. Ambulatory 23 hour recording of intraoesophageal pressures in normal volunteers: a propagation analysis from one proximal and two distal recording sites.

    PubMed

    Kruse-Andersen, S; Wallin, L; Madsen, T

    1991-11-01

    pH data were obtained from one level and pressure data from three levels in the oesophagus over 23 hours in 24 healthy volunteers, followed by automatic propagation analysis of motility data and analysis of time with pH less than 4. Apart from periods of meal ingestion, isolated pressure complexes were found more frequently in the distal than in the proximal oesophagus. This was especially common in the recumbent position at night. Most contractions of the proximal oesophagus were propagating. In the distal oesophagus were propagating. In the distal oesophagus propagating pressure waves were more frequent during the day than during the night and most frequent during meals. The state of consciousness rather than body position per se is important in determining the frequency of simultaneous contractions in the distal oesophagus.

  4. Effects of varying CoCrV seed layer deposition pressure on Ru crystallinity in perpendicular magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Joost, W.; Das, A.; Alford, T. L.

    2009-10-01

    The effects of varying deposition parameters of a CoCrV seed layer under Ru on the structural and interfacial properties of both layers were studied. While sputtering power showed little effect on film structure, sputtering pressure during deposition of the seed layer had a significant effect on the structural properties of the seed layer. In particular, the grain morphology and crystallinity of the seed layer varied considerably with deposition pressure. Deposition of Ru using a constant recipe for all samples demonstrated the effect of varying seed layer deposition pressure on the Ru layer. The strain energy of the Ru film, a measurement of contraction due to the registry with the seed layer, was greatest at moderate seed layer sputtering pressures, while the Ru(0002) peak area was greatest at low sputtering pressures. The competing contributions of interfacial energy and strain energy describe this effect, with interfacial energy dominating at low sputtering pressures.

  5. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  6. Redox processes in subducting oceanic crust recorded by sulfide-bearing high-pressure rocks and veins (SW Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; John, Timm; Wang, Xin-Shui

    2016-09-01

    The oxidized nature of the sub-arc mantle and hence arc magmas is generally interpreted as a result of the migration of subduction-related oxidizing fluids or melts from the descending slab into the mantle wedge. This is of particular importance seeing that the oxidization state of sub-arc magmas seems to play a key role in the formations of arc-related ore deposits. However, direct constraints on the redox state of subducted oceanic crust are sparse. Here, we provide a detailed petrological investigation on sulfide- and oxide-bearing eclogites, blueschists, micaschists, eclogite-facies and retrograde veins from the Akeyazi high-pressure (HP) terrane (NW China) in order to gain insight into the redox processes recorded in a subducting oceanic slab. Sulfides in these rocks are mainly pyrite and minor pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, sphalerite and chalcocite, including exsolution textures of bornite-chalcopyrite intergrowth. Magnetite, ilmenite and pyrite occur as inclusions in garnet, whereas sulfides are dominant in the matrix. Large pyrite grains in the matrix contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and other HP index minerals. However, magnetite replacing pyrite textures are commonly observed in the retrograded samples. The eclogite-facies and retrograde veins display two fluid events, which are characterized by an early sulfide-bearing and a later magnetite-bearing mineral assemblage, respectively. Textural and petrological evidences show that the sulfides were mainly formed during HP metamorphism. Mineral assemblage transitions reveal that the relative oxygen fugacity of subducted oceanic crust decreases slightly with increasing depths. However, according to oxygen mass balance calculations, based on the oxygen molar quantities ( nO2), the redox conditions remain constant during HP metamorphism. At shallow levels (<60 km) in the subduction channel, interaction with oxidized fluid seems to have caused an increase of the oxygen fugacity and the

  7. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koïtka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications.

  8. Examining Evidence-Based Content Related to Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Paper and Electronic Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Camilla M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advancements in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), there is a dearth of rigorous research that examines the relationship between the use of electronic documentation to capture nursing process components and the impact of consistent documentation on patient outcomes (Daly, Buckwalter & Maas, 2002; Gugerty, 2006;…

  9. NASA LaRC FIB Multi-Channel Anemometry Recording System-User's Manual. [conducted at the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sherylene (Compiler); Bertelrud, Arild (Compiler); Anders, J. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report is part of a series of reports describing a flow physics high-lift experiment conducted in NASA Langley Research Center's Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) in 1996. The anemometry system used in the experiment was originally designed for and used in flight tests with NASA's Boeing 737 airplane. Information that may be useful in the evaluation or use of the experimental data has been compiled. The report also contains details regarding record structure, how to read the embedded time code, as well as the output file formats used in the code reading the binary data.

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Selma Pressure Treating Company, California (first remedial action), September 88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-24

    The Selma Pressure Treating Company is located in Selma, California, 15 miles south of the City of Fresno. The site encompasses approximately 18 acres, including a 3- to 4-acre wood-treatment facility and 14 acres of adjacent vineyards that were used for site drainage. Wood-preserving activities using pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted at the site from 1942 until 1965 under a series of owners. In 1965, a new facility was constructed converting operations to a pressure treating process using chemical preservatives. Prior to 1982, wastes generated from spent retort fluids and sludges were discharged to drainage and percolation ditches, dry wells, and an unlined pond and sludge pit, as well as onto open ground and the adjacent vineyards. An inspection conducted by EPA in 1981 raised concerns about the potential for ground-water contamination, and as a result the company was required to modify its operations to minimize the potential for contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water and soil are organics including dioxin and phenols, and metals including arsenic and chromium. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  11. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  12. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-08-12

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell(-1). Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  13. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  14. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell−1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea. PMID:27515484

  15. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-08-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell‑1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  16. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell(-1). Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea. PMID:27515484

  17. Experimental and analytical study of cryogenic propellant boiloff to develop and verify alternate pressurization concepts for Space Shuttle external tank using a scaled down tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, K. M.; Jones, S.; Meredith, T.

    1993-01-01

    Self pressurization by propellant boiloff is experimentally studied as an alternate pressurization concept for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET). The experimental setup used in the study is an open flow system which is composed of a variable area test tank and a recovery tank. The vacuum jacketed test tank is geometrically similar to the external LOx tank for the Space Shuttle. It is equipped with instrumentation to measure the temperature and pressure histories within the liquid and vapor, and viewports to accommodate visual observations and Laser-Doppler Anemometry measurements of fluid velocities. A set of experiments were conducted using liquid Nitrogen to determine the temperature stratification in the liquid and vapor, and pressure histories of the vapor during sudden and continuous depressurization for various different boundary and initial conditions. The study also includes the development and calibration of a computer model to simulate the experiments. This model is a one-dimensional, multi-node type which assumes the liquid and the vapor to be under non-equilibrium conditions during the depressurization. It has been tested for a limited number of cases. The preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the simulations is determined by the accuracy of the heat transfer coefficients for the vapor and the liquid at the interface which are taken to be the calibration parameters in the present model.

  18. Analytical capabilities of high performance liquid chromatography - Atmospheric pressure photoionization - Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS) for the trace determination of novel and emerging flame retardants in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2015-10-22

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including so called "emerging" and "novel" BFRs (EBFRs and NBFRs) in fish samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the identification/quantitation of contaminants. HPLC-Orbitrap-MS analysis provided a fast separation of selected analytes within 14 min, thus demonstrating a high throughput processing of samples. The developed methodology was tested by intralaboratory validation in terms of recovery, repeatability, linear calibration ranges, instrumental and method limits of quantitation (i-LOQ and m-LOQ), and where possible, trueness was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Recoveries of analytes were between 80 and 119%, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 1.2 to 15.5%. The measured values for both analyzed CRMs agreed with the provided consensus values, revealing the recovery of reference concentrations in 72-119% range. The elaborated method met the sensitivity criterion according to Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on monitoring of BFRs in food products for majority of the compounds. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in real samples determined by HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS method and validated gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method were found to be in a good agreement. PMID:26526911

  19. Analytical capabilities of high performance liquid chromatography - Atmospheric pressure photoionization - Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS) for the trace determination of novel and emerging flame retardants in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2015-10-22

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including so called "emerging" and "novel" BFRs (EBFRs and NBFRs) in fish samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the identification/quantitation of contaminants. HPLC-Orbitrap-MS analysis provided a fast separation of selected analytes within 14 min, thus demonstrating a high throughput processing of samples. The developed methodology was tested by intralaboratory validation in terms of recovery, repeatability, linear calibration ranges, instrumental and method limits of quantitation (i-LOQ and m-LOQ), and where possible, trueness was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Recoveries of analytes were between 80 and 119%, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 1.2 to 15.5%. The measured values for both analyzed CRMs agreed with the provided consensus values, revealing the recovery of reference concentrations in 72-119% range. The elaborated method met the sensitivity criterion according to Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on monitoring of BFRs in food products for majority of the compounds. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in real samples determined by HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS method and validated gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method were found to be in a good agreement.

  20. [Calculation of the peak systolic wall stress at the equator of the left ventricle by coupled M mode echo and pressure recordings].

    PubMed

    Drobinski, G; Fechner, J; Eugène, M; Evans, J I; Béjean-Lebuisson, A; Leighton, R F; Grosgogeat, Y

    1983-11-01

    The peak systolic wall stress at the equator of the left ventricle (sigma max) is the maximum load that the myocardial fibres bear during contraction. It is an index of the adaptation of the left ventricle to cardiac disease, and, when elevated, it indicates cardiac decompensation. sigma max was calculated by coupled M mode echo-LV pressure recordings in 51 cases: 11 patients without LV disease, 14 patients with aortic stenosis (AS), 14 patients with aortic incompetence (AI), 7 patients with severe mitral incompetence (MI) and 5 patients with cardiomyopathy with dilatation (CMP). sigma max was calculated from Mirsky's formula, the length of the long axis being deduced from the short axis and the diastolic:systolic ratio of these two axes from ventriculography. The normal value of sigma max by this method is 220 dynes 10(3)/cm2 +/- 30 with an upper limit of normal of 280 dynes 10(3)/cm2. sigma max was normal in patients with AS and AI, and increased in the cases of MI and CMP, in positive correlation with LV volume (r = 0,47) and the shape of the LV (long:short axis ratio). No correlations were found between sigma max and maximum LV pressure. The relatively low values of sigma max compared to the results obtained from coupled echo-angio recordings are partly due to the thick walled LV model and, to a large extent, to the lower values of short axis when measured by echo compared to angiography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Development of brain damage as measured by brain impedance recordings, and changes in heart rate, and blood pressure induced by different stunning and killing methods.

    PubMed

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Gerritzen, M A; Korf, J

    2002-04-01

    Poultry are electrically stunned before slaughter to induce unconsciousness and to immobilize the chickens for easier killing. From a welfare point of view, electrical stunning should induce immediate and lasting unconsciousness in the chicken. As an alternative to electroencephalography, which measures brain electrical activity, this study used brain impedance recordings, which measure brain metabolic activity, to determine the onset and development of brain damage. Fifty-six chickens were surgically equipped with brain electrodes and a canula in the wing artery and were subjected to one of seven stunning and killing methods: whole body electrical stunning; head-only electrical stunning at 50, 100 or 150 V; or an i.v. injection with MgCl2. After 30 s, the chickens were exsanguinated. Brain impedance and blood pressure were measured. Extracellular volume was determined from the brain impedance data and heart rate from the blood pressure data. An immediate and progressive reduction in extracellular volume in all chickens was found only with whole body stunning at 150 V. This treatment also caused cardiac fibrillation or arrest in all chickens. With all other electrical stunning treatments, extracellular volume was immediately reduced in some but not all birds, and cardiac fibrillation or arrest was not often found. Ischemic conditions, caused by cessation of the circulation, stimulated this epileptic effect. A stunner setting of 150 V is therefore recommended to ensure immediate and lasting unconsciousness, which is a requirement for humane slaughter. PMID:11989758

  2. Comparison of sea level pressure reconstructions from western North American tree rings with a proxy record of winter severity in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.A. ); Lough, J.M.; Fritts, H.C. ); Kelley, P.M. )

    1985-11-01

    Reconstructions of winter (December-February) sea level pressure (SLP) from western North American tree-ring chronologies are compared with a proxy record of winter severity in Japan derived from the historically documented freeze dates of Lake Suwa. The SLP reconstructions extend from 1602 to 1961 and freeze dates from 1443 to 1954. The instrumental and reconstructed SLP for the 20th century reveal two distinct circulation regimes (teleconnection patterns) over the North Pacific that appear to be associated with severe and mild winters and, consequently, with early and late freezing of the lake. The reconstructed SLPO anomaly map for severe winters prior to 1683 shows a pattern similar to those in the instrumental and reconstructed records of the 20th century. The analysis reveals that the reliability of the reconstruction may vary with the configuration of the actual SLP pattern as the mild winter pattern is not as well reconstructed as the severe winter pattern. That result illustrates the importance of testing the reliability of a reconstruction within the context of the intended interpretation. This analysis demonstrates how different types of proxy climate data can be compared and verified.

  3. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  4. Quantification of furanic derivatives in fortified wines by a highly sensitive and ultrafast analytical strategy based on digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2015-02-13

    An improved, reliable and powerful analytical strategy based on digitally controlled microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of major furanic derivatives, namely 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5HMF), 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (5MF), 2-furaldehyde (2F) and 2-furyl methyl ketone (2FMK), in fortified wines. To enhance the extraction efficiency of the target furanic derivates, several influencing extraction parameters, such as number of loading cycles, nature of elution solvent and elution volume, were evaluated and optimized. In addition the ability of different MEPS sorbent materials, namely C2, C8, C18, SIL, M1, R-AX, R-CX and PGC, were also tested. The optimal analytical conditions involved loading 3×200 μL of wine samples through a C8 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVolH syringe followed by elution using 200 μL MeOH:H2O (95:5, v/v). The furanic derivates separation was achieved using a CORTECS UPLC(®) C18 analytical column in an ultrafast chromatographic run (within 4 min). The method performance was assessed for dry/medium dry (D/MD) and sweet/medium sweet (S/MS) model wines in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, precision and matrix effect, using model wine matrix-matched calibration. Good linearity was obtained with a regression coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.992. A good precision was attained (RSD<5%) and low LODs were achieved for D/MD (4.5-129.3 ng L(-1)) and S/MS (6.9-285.2 ng L(-1)) model wines. The quantification limits (LOQ) for D/MD model wines ranged from 14.9 to 431.0 ng L(-1), whereas for S/MS model wines range from 23.1 to 950.5 ng L(-1). The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, ranging from 74 to 97% for D/MD wines and between 84 and 99% for S/MS wines. The MEPS(C8)/UHPLC-PDA analytical strategy was

  5. SNC Oxygen Fugacity Recorded in Pyroxenes and its Implications for the Oxidation State of the Martian Interior: An Experimental and Analytical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCanta, M. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation state of a magma is critical as it is one of the parameters which controls the nature and composition of the resulting crystals. In terrestrial magmatic systems, oxygen fugacity (fo2) is known to vary by over nine orders of magnitude. With variations of this magnitude, understanding the compositional differences, phase changes, and crystallization sequence variations, caused by the magma fo2, is essential in deciphering the origin of all igneous rocks. Magmatic oxidation state is of great importance in that it reflects the degree of oxidation of the source region and can provide insight into magmatic processes, such as metasomatism, degassing, and assimilation, which may have changed them. Carmichael [1991] argues that most magmas are unlikely to have their redox states altered from those of their source region. This assumption allows for estimation of the oxidation state of planetary interiors. Conversely, it is known that the fo2 of the magma can be affected by other processes, which occur outside of the source region and therefore, the oxidation state may record those too. Processes which could overprint source region fugacities include melt dehydrogenation or other volatile loss, water or melt infiltration, or assimilation of oxidized or reduced wallrock. Understanding which of these processes is responsible for the redox state of a magma can provide crucial information regarding igneous processes and other forces active in the region. The composition of the SNC basalts and their widely varying proposed oxidation states raise some interesting questions. Do the SNC meteorites have an oxidized or reduced signature? What was the oxygen fugacity of the SNC source region at the time of melt generation? Is the fugacity calculated for the various SNC samples the fugacity of the magma source region or was it overprinted by later events? Are there different oxidation states in the Martian interior or a single one? This proposal seeks to

  6. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Sérouènout Terrane, Central Hoggar, Algeria) comprises mainly a high-pressure Neoproterozoic metamorphic formation consisting of talc-kyanite-quartz whiteschists, chlorite schists, marbles, sulphide ores, partially serpentinized peridotites and partially amphibolitized eclogites, and reminiscent of an ophiolitic mélange that was metamorphosed and strongly deformed under eclogite-facies conditions. Major and trace elements indicate that the whiteschists underwent intense hydrothermal alteration, with Mg enrichment and leaching of alkalis and Ca, prior to high-pressure metamorphism. The main talc-kyanite-quartz paragenesis is stable within a large multivariant P-T field extending from high-P amphibolite to eclogite facies; the Tschermak substitution in talc marginally constrains peak pressure conditions to P > 11 kbar and 600 < T < ~ 800 °C. The subsequent development of cordierite ± sapphirine ± corundum symplectites and coronae at the contact between talc and kyanite was due to isochemical and almost univariant reactions (Tlc + Ky + Qtz → Crd; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Crn; Tlc + Ky → Crd + Spr) which combined together to produce hybrid microstructures. These metamorphic reactions indicate a thermal overprint under granulite-facies conditions (T = 650-860 °C; P < 12 kbar). The peraluminous Mg-rich sapphirine observed in the symplectites reaches one of the highest degrees of Tschermak substitution ever reported for this mineral (with n = 3.6), intermediate between the 13:19:5 (n = 3) and 3:5:1 (n = 4) theoretical compositions. The neighbouring eclogites record a similar P-T evolution: after the eclogite-facies metamorphic peak, they underwent partial amphibolitization and a subsequent high-temperature overprint under granulite-facies conditions that led to partial dehydration. The Ti-N-Eggoleh series is interpreted as the product of the thermal alteration of oceanic rocks that were subducted prior to the continental collision that formed

  7. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  8. Analytical Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.

    2001-07-01

    Characterizing environmental samples has been exhaustively addressed in the literature for most analytes of environmental concern. One of the weak areas of environmental analytical chemistry is that of radionuclides and samples contaminated with radionuclides. The analysis of samples containing high levels of radionuclides can be far more complex than that of non-radioactive samples. This chapter addresses the analysis of samples with a wide range of radioactivity. The other areas of characterization examined in this chapter are the hazardous components of mixed waste, and special analytes often associated with radioactive materials. Characterizing mixed waste is often similar to characterizing waste components in non-radioactive materials. The largest differences are in associated safety precautions to minimize exposure to dangerous levels of radioactivity. One must attempt to keep radiological dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This chapter outlines recommended procedures to safely and accurately characterize regulated components of radioactive samples.

  9. Source depth dependence of micro-tsunamis recorded with ocean-bottom pressure gauges: The January 28, 2000 Mw 6.8 earthquake off Nemuro Peninsula, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirata, K.; Takahashi, H.; Geist, E.; Satake, K.; Tanioka, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Mikada, H.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-tsunami waves with a maximum amplitude of 4-6 mm were detected with the ocean-bottom pressure gauges on a cabled deep seafloor observatory south of Hokkaido, Japan, following the January 28, 2000 earthquake (Mw 6.8) in the southern Kuril subduction zone. We model the observed micro-tsunami and estimate the focal depth and other source parameters such as fault length and amount of slip using grid searching with the least-squares method. The source depth and stress drop for the January 2000 earthquake are estimated to be 50 km and 7 MPa, respectively, with possible ranges of 45-55 km and 4-13 MPa. Focal depth of typical inter-plate earthquakes in this region ranges from 10 to 20 km and stress drop of inter-plate earthquakes generally is around 3 MPa. The source depth and stress drop estimates suggest that the earthquake was an intra-slab event in the subducting Pacific plate, rather than an inter-plate event. In addition, for a prescribed fault width of 30 km, the fault length is estimated to be 15 km, with possible ranges of 10-20 km, which is the same as the previously determined aftershock distribution. The corresponding estimate for seismic moment is 2.7??1019 Nm with possible ranges of 2.3??1019-3.2??1019Nm. Standard tide gauges along the nearby coast did not record any tsunami signal. High-precision ocean-bottom pressure measurements offshore thus make it possible to determine fault parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in subduction zones using open-ocean tsunami waveforms. Published by Elsevier Science B. V.

  10. First application of tsunami back-projection and source inversion for the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake using tsunami data recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Sheehan, A. F.; Mulia, I. E.; Heidarzadeh, M.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Adaption of absolute or differential pressure gauges (APG or DPG) to Ocean Bottom Seismometers has provided the opportunity to study tsunamis. Recently we extracted tsunami waveforms of the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake recoded by the APG and DPG of Cascadia Initiative program (Sheehan et al., 2015, SRL). We applied such dense tsunami observations (48 stations) together with other records from DARTs (9 stations) to characterize the tsunami source. This study is the first study that used such a large number of offshore tsunami records for earthquake source study. Conventionally the curves of tsunami travel times are drawn backward from station locations to estimate the tsunami source region. Here we propose a more advanced technique called tsunami back-projection to estimate the source region. Our image produced by tsunami back-projection has the largest value or tsunami centroid that is very close to the epicenter and above the Queen Charlotte transform fault (QCF), whereas the negative values are mostly located east of Haida Gwaii in the Hecate Strait. By using tsunami back-projection we avoid picking initial tsunami phase which is a necessary step in the conventional method that is rather subjective. The slip distribution of the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake estimated by tsunami waveform inversion shows large slip near the trench (4-5 m) and also on a plate interface southeast the epicenter (3-4 m) below QCF. From the slip distribution, the calculated seismic moment is 5.4 × 1020 N m (Mw 7.8). The steep bathymetry offshore Haida Gwaii and the horizontal movement caused by the earthquake possibly affects the sea surface deformation. The potential tsunami energy calculated from the sea-surface deformation of pure faulting is 2.20 × 1013 J, while that from the bathymetry effect is 0.12 × 1013 J or about 5% of the total potential energy. The significant deformation above the steep slope is confirmed by another tsunami inversion that disregards fault

  11. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of different classes of ultraviolet filters in cosmetics by pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marlene; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2015-07-31

    A methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of UV filters including methoxycinnamates, benzophenones, salicylates, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, and others in cosmetic products. The extractions were carried out in 1mL extraction cells and the amount of sample extracted was only 100mg. The experimental conditions, including the acetylation of the PLE extracts to improve GC performance, were optimized by means of experimental design tools. The two main factors affecting the PLE procedure such as solvent type and extraction temperature were assessed. The use of a matrix matched approach consisting of the addition of 10μL of diluted commercial cosmetic oil avoided matrix effects. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9970), quantitative recoveries (>80% for most of compounds, excluding three banned benzophenones) and satisfactory precision (RSD<10% in most cases) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including sunscreens, hair products, nail polish, and lipsticks, amongst others. PMID:26091782

  12. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of different classes of ultraviolet filters in cosmetics by pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marlene; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2015-07-31

    A methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of UV filters including methoxycinnamates, benzophenones, salicylates, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, and others in cosmetic products. The extractions were carried out in 1mL extraction cells and the amount of sample extracted was only 100mg. The experimental conditions, including the acetylation of the PLE extracts to improve GC performance, were optimized by means of experimental design tools. The two main factors affecting the PLE procedure such as solvent type and extraction temperature were assessed. The use of a matrix matched approach consisting of the addition of 10μL of diluted commercial cosmetic oil avoided matrix effects. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9970), quantitative recoveries (>80% for most of compounds, excluding three banned benzophenones) and satisfactory precision (RSD<10% in most cases) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including sunscreens, hair products, nail polish, and lipsticks, amongst others.

  13. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  14. Analytical sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.W. . Dept. of Geology); McConchie, D.M. . Centre for Coastal Management)

    1994-01-01

    Both a self instruction manual and a cookbook'' guide to field and laboratory analytical procedures, this book provides an essential reference for non-specialists. With a minimum of mathematics and virtually no theory, it introduces practitioners to easy, inexpensive options for sample collection and preparation, data acquisition, analytic protocols, result interpretation and verification techniques. This step-by-step guide considers the advantages and limitations of different procedures, discusses safety and troubleshooting, and explains support skills like mapping, photography and report writing. It also offers managers, off-site engineers and others using sediments data a quick course in commissioning studies and making the most of the reports. This manual will answer the growing needs of practitioners in the field, either alone or accompanied by Practical Sedimentology, which surveys the science of sedimentology and provides a basic overview of the principles behind the applications.

  15. Blood pressure outcomes in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers in primary care: a comparative effectiveness analysis from electronic medical record data.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S; Ramaswamy, Krishnan; Qian, Chunlin; Biskupiak, Joe; Ryan, Amy; Quah, Ruth; Russo, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    The authors examined the comparative effectiveness of 4 angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with hypertension using a large electronic medical record database. Analysis of covariance and logistic multivariate regression models were used to estimate the blood pressure (BP) outcomes of 73,012 patients during 13 months of treatment with olmesartan, losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan. Results were adjusted by baseline BP, starting dose, year, age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbid conditions, and concomitant medications of patients. All ARBs led to sustained reductions in BP, but with significant differences in the magnitude of BP reduction. Raw mean systolic BP/diastolic BP reductions with losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and olmesartan were 9.3/4.9 mm Hg, 10.4/5.6 mm Hg, 10.1/5.3 mm Hg, and 12.4/6.8 mm Hg, respectively. Adjusting for all covariates, the overall BP reductions with olmesartan were 1.88/0.86 mm Hg, 1.21/0.52 mm Hg, and 0.89/0.51 mm Hg greater than for losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan, respectively, and mean differences were higher for monotherapy: 2.43/1.16 mm Hg; 2.18/0.93 mm Hg; 1.44/0.91 mm Hg, respectively (all P values <.0001). Adjusted odds ratios of the JNC 7 goal attainment for losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan compared with olmesartan were 0.76, 0.86, and 0.91 (P<.05). Differences were also found in subpopulations: African Americans, diabetics, and obese/overweight patients but not all of these reached statistical significance. A broad choice of ARBs may be required to get patients to treatment goals. PMID:22051424

  16. Analytical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J; Widdop, B; Ramsey, J D; Loveland, M

    1988-09-01

    1. Major advances in analytical toxicology followed the introduction of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques in the 1940s and early 1950s and thin layer chromatography remains important together with some spectrophotometric and other tests. However, gas- and high performance-liquid chromatography together with a variety of immunoassay techniques are now widely used. 2. The scope and complexity of forensic and clinical toxicology continues to increase, although the compounds for which emergency analyses are needed to guide therapy are few. Exclusion of the presence of hypnotic drugs can be important in suspected 'brain death' cases. 3. Screening for drugs of abuse has assumed greater importance not only for the management of the habituated patient, but also in 'pre-employment' and 'employment' screening. The detection of illicit drug administration in sport is also an area of increasing importance. 4. In industrial toxicology, the range of compounds for which blood or urine measurements (so called 'biological monitoring') can indicate the degree of exposure is increasing. The monitoring of environmental contaminants (lead, chlorinated pesticides) in biological samples has also proved valuable. 5. In the near future a consensus as to the units of measurement to be used is urgently required and more emphasis will be placed on interpretation, especially as regards possible behavioural effects of drugs or other poisons. Despite many advances in analytical techniques there remains a need for reliable, simple tests to detect poisons for use in smaller hospital and other laboratories.

  17. Pressure-Induced Site-Selective Disordering of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}: A New Insight into Phase-Change Optical Recording

    SciTech Connect

    Kolobov, A. V.; Haines, J.; Pradel, A.; Ribes, M.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.; Katayama, Y.; Hammouda, T.; Uruga, T.

    2006-07-21

    We demonstrate that Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, the material of choice in phase-change optical recording (such as DVD-RAM), can be rendered amorphous by the application of hydrostatic pressure. It is argued that this structural change is due to a very strong second-nearest-neighbor Te-Te interaction that determines the long-range order in the metastable cubic phase of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and also to the presence of vacancies. This newly discovered phenomenon suggests that pressure is an important factor for the formation of the amorphous phase which opens new insight into the mechanism of phase-change optical recording.

  18. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  19. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89.312....312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure gases....

  20. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  1. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  2. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  3. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  4. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  5. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91.312... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by...

  6. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  7. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  8. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  9. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  10. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...

  11. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the...

  12. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90.312... § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...

  13. 78 FR 46615 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... process is available on request. Schedules Pending 1. Department of Defense, Defense Contract Management... items). Routine audiovisual, cartographic, architectural, and engineering records, as well as documents... countermeasures development records, acquisition records, facilities and engineering records, analytical...

  14. Biomedical recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    System collects medical data directly from patients and permanently records and displays several parameters - electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, auscultatory blood pressure, leg circumference changes, body temperature, and time. Components and operation of the system are described.

  15. The response to the first dose of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in uncomplicated hypertension--a placebo controlled study utilising ambulatory blood pressure recording.

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, R J; Bainbridge, A D; Lees, K R; Reid, J L

    1991-01-01

    1. The importance of total dose to the initial hypotensive response with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (quinapril) was assessed using a suggested 'maintenance' dose (20 mg) or matched placebo in a randomised double-blind study in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. 2. Thirty-two patients were recruited who were not on therapy or had not received diuretic therapy in their existing drug treatment in the preceding 4 weeks. Secondary causes of hypertension had previously been excluded and sustained clinic blood pressures of SBP greater than 160 mmHg and/or DBP greater than 90 mmHg were taken as indications for a trial of adjuvant or monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor. 3. After uneventful supervised therapy with quinapril in an open pilot study (n = 5) 27 patients entered a double-blind, randomised, crossover study of quinapril or placebo using ambulatory monitoring to assess BP response. 4. All patients remained asymptomatic and both therapy and monitoring were well tolerated. A smooth onset of antihypertensive effect was noted with an overall 24 h placebo corrected fall in systolic BP of 9.9 mmHg (7.2-12.6 95% CI) and diastolic BP of 6.4 mmHg (4.2-8.8) with no significant effect on heart rate. Individual placebo corrected maximal responses during the first 8 h following quinapril showed a wide range for both systolic (+1.56 to 44.0 mmHg) and diastolic (+2.3 to -35.6 mmHg) pressure. Larger falls tended to be associated with higher baseline pretreatment pressures but in no case did absolute systolic pressure fall below 100 mmHg during the first 8 h following administration of placebo or quinapril.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1777377

  16. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of appropriate assessment...

  17. Oxygen isotope record of oceanic and high-pressure metasomatism: a P-T-time-fluid path for the Monviso eclogites (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Angiboust, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. The Monviso ophiolitic sequence is composed of mafic, ultramafic and minor sediments that have been subducted to ~80 km depth. In this sequence, both localized fluid flow and channelized fluids along major shear zones have been documented. We investigate the timing and source of the fluids that affected the dominant mafic rocks using microscale U-Pb dating of zircon and oxygen isotope analysis of mineral zones (garnet, zircon and antigorite) in high-pressure rocks with variable degree of metasomatic modification. In mafic eclogites, Jurassic zircon cores are the only mineralogical relicts of the protolith gabbros and retain δ18O values of 4.5-6 ‰, typical of mantle melts. Garnet and metamorphic zircon that grew during prograde to peak metamorphism display low δ18O values between 0.2 and 3.8 ‰, which are likely inherited from high-temperature alteration of the protolith on the sea floor. This is corroborated by δ18O values of 3.0 and 3.6 ‰ in antigorite from surrounding serpentinites. In metasomatized eclogites within the lower shear zone, garnet rim formed at the metamorphic peak shows a shift to higher δ18O up to 6 ‰. The age of zircons in high-pressure veins and metasomatized eclogites constrains the timing of fluid flow at high pressure at around 45-46 Ma. Although the oxygen data do not contradict previous reports of interaction with serpentinite-derived fluids, the shift to isotopically heavier oxygen compositions requires contribution from sediment-derived fluids. The scarcity of metasediments in the Monviso sequence suggests that such fluids were concentrated and fluxed along the lower shear zone in a sufficient amount to modify the oxygen composition of the eclogitic minerals.

  18. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  19. Let's Talk... Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  1. An autocalibrating algorithm for non-invasive cardiac output determination based on the analysis of an arterial pressure waveform recorded with radial artery applanation tonometry: a proof of concept pilot analysis.

    PubMed

    Saugel, Bernd; Meidert, Agnes S; Langwieser, Nicolas; Wagner, Julia Y; Fassio, Florian; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prechtl, Luisa M; Huber, Wolfgang; Schmid, Roland M; Gödje, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to describe and evaluate an autocalibrating algorithm for determination of cardiac output (CO) based on the analysis of an arterial pressure (AP) waveform recorded using radial artery applanation tonometry (AT) in a continuous non-invasive manner. To exemplarily describe and evaluate the CO algorithm, we deliberately selected 22 intensive care unit patients with impeccable AP waveforms from a database including AP data obtained with AT (T-Line system; Tensys Medical Inc.). When recording AP data for this prospectively maintained database, we had simultaneously noted CO measurements obtained from just calibrated pulse contour analysis (PiCCO system; Pulsion Medical Systems) every minute. We applied the autocalibrating CO algorithm to the AT-derived AP waveforms and noted the computed CO values every minute during a total of 15 min of data recording per patient (3 × 5-min intervals). These 330 AT-derived CO (AT-CO) values were then statistically compared to the corresponding pulse contour CO (PC-CO) values. Mean ± standard deviation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 7.0 ± 2.0 and 6.9 ± 2.1 L/min, respectively. The coefficient of variation for PC-CO and AT-CO was 0.280 and 0.299, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias of +0.1 L/min (standard deviation 0.8 L/min; 95% limits of agreement -1.5 to 1.7 L/min, percentage error 23%). CO can be computed based on the analysis of the AP waveform recorded with AT. In the selected patients included in this pilot analysis, a percentage error of 23% indicates clinically acceptable agreement between AT-CO and PC-CO.

  2. Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

  3. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  4. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  5. Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Blood Pressure Recorded From 2004 to 2014 During World Hypertension Day in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tocci, Giuliano; Muiesan, Maria L; Parati, Gianfranco; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Ferri, Claudio; Virdis, Agostino; Pontremoli, Roberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Estimates of blood pressure (BP) control in real life are not systematically collected in Italy. We evaluated trends in systolic/diastolic BP levels, as well as prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension among adult individuals visiting open checkpoints during the 2004 to 2014 annual editions of World Hypertension Day. Hypertension was defined as BP level ≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication, whereas BP control was defined as BP level <140/90 mm Hg. We included 10,051 individuals (53.2% female, age 56.2±16.8 years, body mass index 25.7±7.6 kg/m(2) , systolic/diastolic BP 131.9±18.6/79.1±10.5 mm Hg). Hypertension prevalence and treatment were substantially unchanged, whereas awareness appears to increase over time. Controlled hypertension in diagnosed treated patients increased from 50.0% in 2004-2010 to 55.5% in 2011-2012 towards 57.6% in 2013-2014. This analysis provides real-life snapshots of hypertension over the years in the occasion of World Hypertension Day, showing increased awareness and improved control rates among treated hypertensive patients attending open checkpoints during 2004 to 2014 in Italy.

  6. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  7. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  8. Analyticity without Differentiability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  9. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  10. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  11. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers. PMID:26594957

  12. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  13. Reply to comments by Veling on"A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced Pressure Perturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-Aquitard System"

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-05-01

    Veling (2010) pointed to 'a serious mistake' and 'mathematical inconsistency' in Zhou et al. (2009) because the dimensionless flow equations in Equation 4 (in terms of dimensionless hydraulic head rise in the aquifer and the aquitard) would give rise to additional terms when back converting to the groundwater flow equations, in the case that initial conditions for hydraulic head were spatially variable. He added, however, that the conclusions of the paper remain valid when uniform initial conditions are assumed. We accept this comment because we have indeed assumed uniform initial conditions in the system but failed to state this explicitly in the publication, partially because this assumption is very common in groundwater hydrology when deriving analytical and semi-analytical solutions. The same assumption was employed, for example, by Veling in Veling and Maas (2009), as stated 'For the ease of presentation we assume from here on that {phi}{sub i0} (r, z) ... are all equal to zero. An arbitrary initial function ... will complicate the solution, but not essentially'. We shall emphasize that with this assumption, our semi-analytical solutions and their derivations are correct.

  14. Analytical model for ramp compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Quanxi; Jiang, Shaoen; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Feng; Hu, Yun; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    An analytical ramp compression model for condensed matter, which can provide explicit solutions for isentropic compression flow fields, is reported. A ramp compression experiment can be easily designed according to the capability of the loading source using this model. Specifically, important parameters, such as the maximum isentropic region width, material properties, profile of the pressure pulse, and the pressure pulse duration can be reasonably allocated or chosen. To demonstrate and study this model, laser-direct-driven ramp compression experiments and code simulation are performed successively, and the factors influencing the accuracy of the model are studied. The application and simulation show that this model can be used as guidance in the design of a ramp compression experiment. However, it is verified that further optimization work is required for a precise experimental design.

  15. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  16. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  17. 49 CFR 180.215 - Reporting and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., pressure test, and ultrasonic examination if permitted under a special permit, as applicable, must be... or reheat treatment records. (1) Records covering welding or brazing repairs, rebuilding or...

  18. 49 CFR 180.215 - Reporting and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., pressure test, and ultrasonic examination if permitted under a special permit, as applicable, must be... or reheat treatment records. (1) Records covering welding or brazing repairs, rebuilding or...

  19. 49 CFR 180.215 - Reporting and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., pressure test, and ultrasonic examination if permitted under a special permit, as applicable, must be... or reheat treatment records. (1) Records covering welding or brazing repairs, rebuilding or...

  20. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-08-02

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  1. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2004-11-15

    A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

  2. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  3. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  4. Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Dechang; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-07-05

    A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

  5. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  6. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  7. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  8. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  9. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  10. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  11. Teaching the Analytical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  12. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  13. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  14. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27126470

  16. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M+. decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques.

  17. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2008-03-11

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  18. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2015-07-07

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  19. Ultrasonic analyte concentration and application in flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Goddard, Greg; Salzman, Gary; Sinha, Dipen; Martin, John C.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher; Graves, Steven

    2014-07-22

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for concentrating analytes within a fluid flowing through a tube using acoustic radiation pressure. The apparatus includes a function generator that outputs a radio frequency electrical signal to a transducer that transforms the radio frequency electric signal to an acoustic signal and couples the acoustic signal to the tube. The acoustic signal is converted within the tube to acoustic pressure that concentrates the analytes within the fluid.

  20. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  1. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  2. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima

    2016-06-24

    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw). PMID:27234845

  3. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  4. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of bioactive lipids in mouse brain with a Synapt G2-S mass spectrometer operated at elevated pressure: improving the analytical sensitivity and the lateral resolution to ten micrometers.

    PubMed

    Kettling, Hans; Vens-Cappell, Simeon; Soltwisch, Jens; Pirkl, Alexander; Haier, Jörg; Müthing, Johannes; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    Mass spectrometers from the Synapt-G1/G2 family (Waters) are widely employed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). A lateral resolution of about 50 μm is typically achieved with these instruments, that is, however, below the often desired cellular resolution. Here, we show the first MALDI-MSI examples demonstrating a lateral resolution of about ten micrometers obtained with a Synapt G2-S HDMS mass spectrometer without oversampling. This improvement became possible by laser beam shaping using a 4:1 beam expander and a circular aperture for spatial mode filtering and by replacement of the default focusing lens. We used dithranol as an effective matrix for imaging of acidic lipids such as sulfatides, gangliosides, and phosphatidylinositols in the negative ion mode. At the same time, the matrix enables MS imaging of more basic lipids in the positive ion mode. Uniform matrix coatings with crystals having average dimensions between 0.5 and 3 μm were obtained upon spraying a chloroform/methanol matrix solution. Increasing the cooling gas pressure in the MALDI ion source after adding an additional gas line was furthermore found to increase the ion abundances of labile lipids such as gangliosides. The combined characteristics are demonstrated with the MALDI-MSI analysis of fine structures in coronal mouse brain slices.

  5. Barometric pressure variations

    SciTech Connect

    Crippen, M.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents Hanford Site barometric data that can be used to determine the breathing rate of Hanford Site tanks and details the derivation of the data. The barometric pressure data recorded at the Hanford Weather Station were used for this analysis. Data for 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 were used.

  6. Post-operative cranial pressure monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fager, C. A., Jr.; Long, L. E.; Trent, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System for monitoring of fluidic pressures in cranial cavity uses a miniaturized pressure sensing transducer, combined with suitable amplification means, a meter with scale calibrated in terms of pressures between minus 100 and plus 900 millimeters of water, and a miniaturized chart recorder covering similar range of pressures.

  7. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  8. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  9. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  10. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  11. The Measurement of Pressure Through Tubes in Pressure Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemke, Paul E

    1928-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made to determine the error caused by using small tubes to connect orifices on the surface of aircraft to central pressure capsules in making pressure distribution tests. Aluminum tubes of 3/16-inch inside diameter were used to determine this error. Lengths from 20 feet to 226 feet and pressures whose maxima varied from 2 inches to 140 inches of water were used. Single-pressure impulses for which the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum varied from 0.25 second to 3 seconds were investigated. The results show that the pressure recorded at the capsule on the far end of the tube lags behind the pressure at the orifice end and experiences also a change in magnitude. For the values used in these tests the time lag and pressure change vary principally with the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum and the tube length. Curves are constructed showing the time lag and pressure change. Empirical formulas are also given for computing the time lag. Analysis of pressure distribution tests made on airplanes in flight shows that the recorded pressures are slightly higher than the pressures at the orifice and that the time lag is negligible. The apparent increase in pressure is usually within the experimental error, but in the case of the modern pursuit type of airplane the pressure increase may be 5 per cent. For pressure-distribution tests on airships the analysis shows that the time lag and pressure change may be neglected.

  12. Comparative Validity of the GRE-Analytical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowsesian, Richard; Hays, William L.

    The predictive validity of the revised Graduate Record Examination Analytical Test (GRE-A) was compared with the experimental form of the GRE-A, in terms of graduate school admissions as well as advancement to Ph.D. candidacy decisions. Prior to 1974 the Graduate Record Examination included just a verbal and a quantitative test; in 1974 it was…

  13. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  14. Transient pressure changes in the vertebral canal during whiplash motion--A hydrodynamic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation.

  15. Transient pressure changes in the vertebral canal during whiplash motion--A hydrodynamic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation. PMID:26827171

  16. Recent advances in analytical satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work on analytical satellite perturbation theory has involved the completion of a revision to 4th order for zonal harmonics, the addition of a treatment for ocean tides, an extension of the treatment for the noninertial reference system, and the completion of a theory for direct solar-radiation pressure and earth-albedo pressure. Combined with a theory for tesseral-harmonics, lunisolar, and body-tide perturbations, these formulations provide a comprehensive orbit-computation program. Detailed comparisons with numerical integration and observations are presented to assess the accuracy of each theoretical development.

  17. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  18. Competing on talent analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  19. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  20. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  1. Monitoring the analytic surface.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Mayes, L C; Dahl, H

    1994-01-01

    How do we listen during an analytic hour? Systematic analysis of the speech patterns of one patient (Mrs. C.) strongly suggests that the clustering of shared pronouns (e.g., you/me) represents an important aspect of the analytic surface, preconsciously sensed by the analyst and used by him to determine when to intervene. Sensitivity to these patterns increases over the course of treatment, and in a final block of 10 hours shows a striking degree of contingent responsivity: specific utterances by the patient are consistently echoed by the analyst's interventions. PMID:8182248

  2. Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  3. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; DeNap, Frank A; Potok, Thomas E; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  4. Guided text analysis using adaptive visual analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad A.; Symons, Christopher T.; DeNap, Frank A.; Potok, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system-called Gryffin-that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Security's Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  5. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; Senter, James K; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  6. Barometric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of alterations in barometric pressure on human beings are described. Human tolerances for gaseous environments and low and high barometric pressure are discussed, including effects on specific areas, such as the ear, lungs, teeth, and sinuses. Problems due to trapped gas within the body, high dynamic pressures on the body, and blasts are also considered.

  7. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  8. Analytical Services Management System

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standardmore » chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.« less

  9. Challenges for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Kielman, Joseph

    2009-09-23

    Visual analytics has seen unprecedented growth in its first five years of mainstream existence. Great progress has been made in a short time, yet great challenges must be met in the next decade to provide new technologies that will be widely accepted by societies throughout the world. This paper sets the stage for some of those challenges in an effort to provide the stimulus for the research, both basic and applied, to address and exceed the envisioned potential for visual analytics technologies. We start with a brief summary of the initial challenges, followed by a discussion of the initial driving domains and applications, as well as additional applications and domains that have been a part of recent rapid expansion of visual analytics usage. We look at the common characteristics of several tools illustrating emerging visual analytics technologies, and conclude with the top ten challenges for the field of study. We encourage feedback and collaborative participation by members of the research community, the wide array of user communities, and private industry.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  11. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  12. PSP Measurement of Stator Vane Surface Pressures in a High Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of static pressures on the stator vane suction side of a high-speed single stage fan using the technique of pressure sensitive paint (PSP). The paper illustrates development in application of the relatively new experimental technique to the complex environment of internal flows in turbomachines. First, there is a short explanation of the physics of the PSP technique and a discussion of calibration methods for pressure sensitive paint in the turbomachinery environment. A description of the image conversion process follows. The recorded image of the stator vane pressure field is skewed due to the limited optical access and must be converted to the meridional plane projection for comparison with analytical predictions. The experimental results for seven operating conditions along an off-design rotational speed line are shown in a concise form, including performance map points, mindspan static tap pressure distributions, and vane suction side pressure fields. Then, a comparison between static tap and pressure sensitive paint data is discussed. Finally, the paper lists shortcomings of the pressure sensitive paint technology and lessons learned in this high-speed fan application.

  13. Analytical caustic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  14. Requirements for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-03-01

    It is important to have a clear understanding of how traditional Business Intelligence (BI) and analytics are different and how they fit together in optimizing organizational decision making. With tradition BI, activities are focused primarily on providing context to enhance a known set of information through aggregation, data cleansing and delivery mechanisms. As these organizations mature their BI ecosystems, they achieve a clearer picture of the key performance indicators signaling the relative health of their operations. Organizations that embark on activities surrounding predictive analytics and data mining go beyond simply presenting the data in a manner that will allow decisions makers to have a complete context around the information. These organizations generate models based on known information and then apply other organizational data against these models to reveal unknown information.

  15. Analytic ICF Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M D; Hammer, J

    2003-08-27

    We apply recent analytic solutions to the radiation diffusion equation to problems of interest for ICF hohlraums. The solutions provide quantitative values for absorbed energy which are of use for generating a desired radiation temperature vs. time within the hohlraum. Comparison of supersonic and subsonic solutions (heat front velocity faster or slower, respectively, than the speed of sound in the x-ray heated material) suggests that there may be some advantage in using high Z metallic foams as hohlraum wall material to reduce hydrodynamic losses, and hence, net absorbed energy by the walls. Analytic and numerical calculations suggest that the loss per unit area might be reduced {approx} 20% through use of foam hohlraum walls. Reduced hydrodynamic motion of the wall material may also reduce symmetry swings, as found for heavy ion targets.

  16. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  17. Analytical applications of aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  18. Analytic holographic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate a holographic superconductor that admits an analytic treatment near the phase transition. In the dual 3+1-dimensional field theory, the phase transition occurs when a scalar operator of scaling dimension two gets a vacuum expectation value. We calculate current-current correlation functions along with the speed of second sound near the critical temperature. We also make some remarks about critical exponents. An analytic treatment is possible because an underlying Heun equation describing the zero mode of the phase transition has a polynomial solution. Amusingly, the treatment here may generalize for an order parameter with any integer spin, and we propose a Lagrangian for a spin-two holographic superconductor.

  19. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  20. Main tank injection pressurization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program predicts performance of fluorine-hydrogen main tank injection pressurization system for full range of liquid-hydrogen-fueled space vehicles. Analytical model includes provisions for heat transfer, injectant jet penetration, and ullage gas mixing. Analysis predicts GF2 usage, ullage gas and tank wall temperatures, and LH2 evaporation.

  1. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  2. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  3. High pressure pulsed capillary viscometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Walowitt, J. A.; Pan, C. H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted in order to establish the feasibility of a multichamber pulsed-capillary viscometer. The initial design incorporated a piston, ram, and seals which produced measured pulses up to 30,000 psi in the closed chamber system. Pressure pulses from one to ten milliseconds were investigated in a system volume of 1 cuin. Four test fluids: a MIL-L-7808, a 5P4E polyphenyl ether, a MIL-L-23699A, and a synthetic hydrocarbon were examined in the test pressure assembly. The pressure-viscosity coefficient and viscosity delay time were determined for the MIL-L-7808 lubricant tested.

  4. Visual Analytics: How Much Visualization and How Much Analytics?

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Daniel; Mansmann, Florian; Thomas, James J.

    2009-12-16

    The term Visual Analytics has been around for almost five years by now, but still there are on-going discussions about what it actually is and in particular what is new about it. The core of our view on Visual Analytics is the new enabling and accessible analytic reasoning interactions supported by the combination of automated and visual analytics. In this paper, we outline the scope of Visual Analytics using two problem and three methodological classes in order to work out the need for and purpose of Visual Analytics. Thereby, the respective methods are explained plus examples of analytic reasoning interaction leading to a glimpse into the future of how Visual Analytics methods will enable us to go beyond what is possible when separately using the two methods.

  5. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morshavitz, Helen

    1974-01-01

    Pupil files are accumulating increasing amounts of sensitive data. Yet parents have been barred from seeing their children's files while law enforcement officials and other public agencies have been given virtually free access. However, a national law in regard to student records is a real possibility. (Author/WM)

  6. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  7. Analytical considerations in the code qualification of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1995-02-01

    The paper addresses several analytical topics in the design and qualification of piping systems which have a direct bearing on the prediction of stresses in the pipe and hence on the application of the equations of NB, NC and ND-3600 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. For each of the analytical topics, the paper summarizes the current code requirements, if any, and the industry practice.

  8. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  9. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  11. 21 CFR 882.1620 - Intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intracranial pressure monitoring device. 882.1620... pressure monitoring device. (a) Identification. An intracranial pressure monitoring device is a device used for short-term monitoring and recording of intracranial pressures and pressure trends. The...

  12. MERRA Analytic Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  13. Proficiency analytical testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Groff, J.H.; Schlecht, P.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program is a collaborative effort of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The PAT Program provides quality control reference samples to over 1400 occupational health and environmental laboratories in over 15 countries. Although one objective of the PAT Program is to evaluate the analytical ability of participating laboratories, the primary objective is to assist these laboratories in improving their laboratory performance. Each calendar quarter (designated a round), samples are mailed to participating laboratories and the data are analyzed to evaluate laboratory performance on a series of analyses. Each mailing and subsequent data analysis are completed in time for participants to obtain repeat samples and to correct analytical problems before the next calendar quarter starts. The PAT Program currently includes four sets of samples. A mixture of 3 of the 4 possible metals, and 3 of the 15 possible organic solvents are rotated for each round. Laboratories are evaluated for each analysis by comparing their reported results against an acceptable performance limit for each PAT Program sample the laboratory analyses. Reference laboratories are preselected to provide the performance limits for each sample. These reference laboratories must meet the following criteria: (1) the laboratory was rated proficient in the last PAT evaluation of all the contaminants in the Program; and (2) the laboratory, if located in the United States, is AIHA accredited. Data are acceptable if they fall within the performance limits. Laboratories are rated based upon performance in the PAT Program over the last year (i.e., four calendar quarters), as well as on individual contaminant performance and overall performance. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  14. Proficiency analytical testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Schlecht, P.C.; Groff, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    The Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program is a collaborative effort of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) and researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The PAT Program provides quality control reference samples to over 1400 occupational health and environmental laboratories in over 15 countries. Although one objective of the PAT Program is to evaluate the analytical ability of participating laboratories, the primary objective is to assist these laboratories in improving their laboratory performance. Each calendar quarter (designated a round), samples are mailed to participating laboratories and the data are analyzed to evaluate laboratory performance on a series of analyses. Each mailing and subsequent data analysis is completed in time for participants to obtain repeat samples and to correct analytical problems before the next calendar quarter starts. The PAT Program currently includes four sets of samples. A mixture of 3 of the 4 possible metals, and 3 of the 15 possible organic solvents are rotated for each round. Laboratories are evaluated for each analysis by comparing their reported results against an acceptable performance limit for each PAT Program sample the laboratory analyses. Reference laboratories are preselected to provide the performance limits for each sample. These reference laboratories must meet the following criteria: (1) the laboratory was rated proficient in the last PAT evaluation of all the contaminants in the Program; and (2) the laboratory, if located in the United States, is AIHA accredited. Data are acceptable if they fall within the performance limits. Laboratories are rated based upon performance in the PAT Program over the last year (i.e., four calendar quarters), as well as on individual contaminant performance and overall performance. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  15. Analytical chemistry of nickel.

    PubMed

    Stoeppler, M

    1984-01-01

    Analytical chemists are faced with nickel contents in environmental and biological materials ranging from the mg/kg down to the ng/kg level. Sampling and sample treatment have to be performed with great care at lower levels, and this also applies to enrichment and separation procedures. The classical determination methods formerly used have been replaced almost entirely by different forms of atomic absorption spectrometry. Electroanalytical methods are also of increasing importance and at present provide the most sensitive approach. Despite the powerful methods available, achieving reliable results is still a challenge for the analyst requiring proper quality control measures.

  16. Automation of analytical isotachophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of automation of analytical isotachophoresis (ITP) are reviewed. Experimental setups consisting of narrow bore tubes which are self-stabilized against thermal convection are considered. Sample detection in free solution is discussed, listing the detector systems presently used or expected to be of potential use in the near future. The combination of a universal detector measuring the evolution of ITP zone structures with detector systems specific to desired components is proposed as a concept of an automated chemical analyzer based on ITP. Possible miniaturization of such an instrument by means of microlithographic techniques is discussed.

  17. VisualDecisionLinc: a visual analytics approach for comparative effectiveness-based clinical decision support in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Mane, Ketan K; Bizon, Chris; Schmitt, Charles; Owen, Phillips; Burchett, Bruce; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Gersing, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is designed to provide research evidence on the effectiveness and risks of different therapeutic options on the basis of data compiled from subpopulations of patients with similar medical conditions. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system contain large volumes of patient data that could be used for CER, but the data contained in EHR system are typically accessible only in formats that are not conducive to rapid synthesis and interpretation of therapeutic outcomes. In the time-pressured clinical setting, clinicians faced with large amounts of patient data in formats that are not readily interpretable often feel 'information overload'. Decision support tools that enable rapid access at the point of care to aggregate data on the most effective therapeutic outcomes derived from CER would greatly aid the clinical decision-making process and individualize patient care. In this manuscript, we highlight the role that visual analytics can play in CER-based clinical decision support. We developed a 'VisualDecisionLinc' (VDL) tool prototype that uses visual analytics to provide summarized CER-derived data views to facilitate rapid interpretation of large amounts of data. We highlight the flexibility that visual analytics offers to gain an overview of therapeutic options and outcomes and if needed, to instantly customize the evidence to the needs of the patient or clinician. The VDL tool uses visual analytics to help the clinician evaluate and understand the effectiveness and risk of different therapeutic options for different subpopulations of patients.

  18. Cascaded radiation pressure acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Zhikun; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Lingang; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-07-15

    A cascaded radiation-pressure acceleration scheme is proposed. When an energetic proton beam is injected into an electrostatic field moving at light speed in a foil accelerated by light pressure, protons can be re-accelerated to much higher energy. An initial 3-GeV proton beam can be re-accelerated to 7 GeV while its energy spread is narrowed significantly, indicating a 4-GeV energy gain for one acceleration stage, as shown in one-dimensional simulations and analytical results. The validity of the method is further confirmed by two-dimensional simulations. This scheme provides a way to scale proton energy at the GeV level linearly with laser energy and is promising to obtain proton bunches at tens of gigaelectron-volts.

  19. Tectonic stress and pressure fields in and out of elliptical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Podladchikov, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Shear zones and competent layers and boudins represent viscosity heterogeneities in the rock mass. Differences in viscosity impel differences in strain rates between such heterogeneities and their surroundings. Under mechanical equilibrium, normal and shear forces must be equal across any interface. The Kolosov-Muskhelishvili equations solve this equilibrium for viscous inclusions in a viscous medium. Mohr-circle diagrams further illustrate the state-of-stress of viscous heterogeneities. Systematic investigation of the stress equilibrium at such interfaces shows that the mean stress, equivalent to pressure, is not continuous across viscosity boundaries. The results predict that pressure and stress perturbations depend strongly on the orientation of the long axis of the elliptical heterogeneity with respect to the far-field stresses. A viscosity ratio of 10 between the inclusion and the surrounding material is sufficient to produce pressure discontinuities virtually equal to the magnitude of the strength of the strongest rock under the considered physical conditions. Comparison of the analytical solutions with thermo-mechanical models confirms pressure incongruity and suggests that dynamic parameters such as pressure and temperature vary spatially and temporally within deforming, two-viscosity rock systems. As a corollary, the dependence of metamorphic phase equilibria on thermodynamic pressure and temperature implies that shear zones, taken as weak inclusions, and boudins taken as hard inclusions may not record lithostatic pressure during deformation.

  20. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  1. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences.

  2. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  3. An Analytical Method of Estimating Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochendorfer, Fred D; Nettles, J Cary

    1948-01-01

    A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and turning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of the blading-loss parameter. A variation of blading-loss parameter from 0.3 to 0.5 includes most of the experimental data from the turbine investigated.

  4. An analytical method of estimating turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochendorfer, Fred D; Nettles, J Cary

    1949-01-01

    A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and the friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and the tuning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of a blading-loss parameter.

  5. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-11-15

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. It is necessary to have analytical tools to help analysts identify anomalies that span seconds, days, and weeks. Unfortunately, providing analytical tools effective access to the volumes of underlying data requires novel architectures, which is often overlooked in operational deployments. Our work is focused on a summary record of communication, called a flow. Flow records are intended to summarize a communication session between a source and a destination, providing a level of aggregation from the base data. Despite this aggregation, many enterprise network perimeter sensors store millions of network flow records per day. The volume of data makes analytics difficult, requiring the development of new techniques to efficiently identify temporal patterns and potential threats. The massive volume makes analytics difficult, but there are other characteristics in the data which compound the problem. Within the billions of records of communication that transact, there are millions of distinct IP addresses involved. Characterizing patterns of entity behavior is very difficult with the vast number of entities that exist in the data. Research has struggled to validate a model for typical network behavior with hopes it will enable the identification of atypical behavior. Complicating matters more, typically analysts are only able to visualize and interact with fractions of data and have the potential to miss long term trends and behaviors. Our analysis approach focuses on aggregate views and visualization techniques to enable flexible and efficient data exploration as well as the capability to view trends over long periods of time. Realizing that interactively exploring summary data allowed analysts to effectively identify

  6. Managing School Social Work Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents results of a survey of 73 school social workers regarding their record-keeping practices. These social workers indicated that time pressures are a major challenge to documentation; they struggle to know what to include, and they worry about privacy. More than half fail to consistently include assessment information, progress…

  7. Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartsilver, E L; Vanner, R G

    2000-03-01

    Cricoid pressure may cause airway obstruction. We investigated whether this is related to the force applied and to the technique of application. We recorded expired tidal volumes and inflation pressures during ventilation via a face-mask and oral airway in 52 female patients who were anaesthetised and about to undergo elective surgery. An inspired tidal volume of 900 ml was delivered using a ventilator. Ventilation was assessed under five different conditions: no cricoid pressure, backwards cricoid pressure applied with a force of 30 N, cricoid pressure applied in an upward and backward direction with a force of 30 N, backwards cricoid pressure with a force of 44 N and through a tracheal tube. An expired tidal volume of < 200 ml was taken to indicate airway obstruction. Airway obstruction did not occur without cricoid pressure, but did occur in one patient (2%) with cricoid pressure at 30 N, in 29 patients (56%) with 30 N applied in an upward and backward direction and in 18 (35%) patients with cricoid pressure at 44 N. Cricoid pressure applied with a force of 44 N can cause airway obstruction but if cricoid pressure is applied with a force of 30 N, airway obstruction occurs less frequently (p = 0.0001) unless the force is applied in an upward and backward direction.

  8. Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartsilver, E L; Vanner, R G

    2000-03-01

    Cricoid pressure may cause airway obstruction. We investigated whether this is related to the force applied and to the technique of application. We recorded expired tidal volumes and inflation pressures during ventilation via a face-mask and oral airway in 52 female patients who were anaesthetised and about to undergo elective surgery. An inspired tidal volume of 900 ml was delivered using a ventilator. Ventilation was assessed under five different conditions: no cricoid pressure, backwards cricoid pressure applied with a force of 30 N, cricoid pressure applied in an upward and backward direction with a force of 30 N, backwards cricoid pressure with a force of 44 N and through a tracheal tube. An expired tidal volume of < 200 ml was taken to indicate airway obstruction. Airway obstruction did not occur without cricoid pressure, but did occur in one patient (2%) with cricoid pressure at 30 N, in 29 patients (56%) with 30 N applied in an upward and backward direction and in 18 (35%) patients with cricoid pressure at 44 N. Cricoid pressure applied with a force of 44 N can cause airway obstruction but if cricoid pressure is applied with a force of 30 N, airway obstruction occurs less frequently (p = 0.0001) unless the force is applied in an upward and backward direction. PMID:10671836

  9. [Palynological evidence of anthropogenic pressure: effect on pollination dynamics in the Evian area since the middle Neolithic: the pollen record of La Beunaz (971 m a.s.l., northern Alps, France)].

    PubMed

    Guiter, Frédéric; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Ponel, Philippe; Nicoud, Gérard; Blavoux, Bernard

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a pollen diagram from La Beunaz peat-bog (southeast of Evian, Haute-Savoie, France), which provides the first detailed record of human impact on vegetation of the southern bank of Lake Geneva since the Middle Neolithic. The radiocarbon-dated pollen profile is correlated with micro-charcoal record and archaeological data. The results suggest that several phases of deforestations since 4615+75/-70 years BP occurred, in relation to human activities (agriculture, pastoralism). Tombs and vestiges of lacustrine villages indicate that the region was intensively and recurrently occupied by man during at that time. PMID:15992749

  10. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  11. 49 CFR 195.310 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appear on the pressure recording charts; (9) Where elevation differences in the section under test exceed 100 feet (30 meters), a profile of the pipeline that shows the elevation and test sites over...

  12. Some analytical models of anisotropic strange stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Over the years of the concept of local isotropy has become a too stringent condition in modeling relativistic self-gravitating objects. Taking local anisotropy into consideration, in this work, some analytical models of relativistic anisotropic charged strange stars have been developed. The Einstein-Maxwell gravitational field equations have been solved with a particular form of one of the metric potentials. The radial pressure and the energy density have been assumed to follow the usual linear equation of state of strange quark matter, the MIT bag model.

  13. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  14. Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... and behaviors. This is often positive — it's human nature to listen to and learn from other people ... Responding to peer pressure is part of human nature — but some people are more likely to give ...

  15. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  16. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  17. Analytic pion form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomon, Earle L.; Pacetti, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor and two-pion production in electron-positron collisions are simultaneously fitted by a vector dominance model evolving to perturbative QCD at large momentum transfer. This model was previously successful in simultaneously fitting the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (spacelike region) and the electromagnetic production of nucleon-antinucleon pairs (timelike region). For this pion case dispersion relations are used to produce the analytic connection of the spacelike and timelike regions. The fit to all the data is good, especially for the newer sets of timelike data. The description of high-q2 data, in the timelike region, requires one more meson with ρ quantum numbers than listed in the 2014 Particle Data Group review.

  18. ANALYTIC MODELING OF STARSHADES

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, Webster

    2011-09-01

    External occulters, otherwise known as starshades, have been proposed as a solution to one of the highest priority yet technically vexing problems facing astrophysics-the direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars. New apodization functions, developed over the past few years, now enable starshades of just a few tens of meters diameter to occult central stars so efficiently that the orbiting exoplanets can be revealed and other high-contrast imaging challenges addressed. In this paper, an analytic approach to the analysis of these apodization functions is presented. It is used to develop a tolerance analysis suitable for use in designing practical starshades. The results provide a mathematical basis for understanding starshades and a quantitative approach to setting tolerances.

  19. VERDE Analytic Modules

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  20. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  1. VERDE Analytic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates served within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  3. Analytical Investigation of Mass Outflow Rate in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    Centrifugal force of rapidly infalling matter onto a quasar brakes the flow and forms a centrifugal pressure dominated boundary layer (CENBOL) around the central engine. The thermal and magnetic pressure pushes matter along the axis to form observed radio jets. We present analytical work showing how the inflow influences the nature of CENBOL and dictates the outflow rate from the accretion disks. We show that the outflow rate directly depends on the temperature of CENBOL.

  4. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory...; (2) pressure testing; (3) the highest actual operating pressure in the five years prior to...

  5. 75 FR 81247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    .... Deletions: DCIFA 01 System name: CIFA Operational and Analytical Records (February 25, 2005, 70 FR 9281.../Counterintelligence/Operation Record System (June 15, 2010, 75 FR 33791). BILLING CODE 5001-06-P ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency,...

  6. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  7. Pressure regulator

    DOEpatents

    Ebeling, Jr., Robert W.; Weaver, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure within a pressurized flow reactor operated under harsh environmental conditions is controlled by establishing and maintaining a fluidized bed of uniformly sized granular material of selected density by passing the gas from the reactor upwardly therethrough at a rate sufficient to fluidize the bed and varying the height of the bed by adding granular material thereto or removing granular material therefrom to adjust the backpressure on the flow reactor.

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  10. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail. PMID:26212805

  11. Instrumentation for analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2015-11-20

    Analytical scale supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is largely a sub-discipline of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in that most of the hardware and software can be used for either technique. The aspects that separate the 2 techniques stem from the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the main component of the mobile phase in SFC. The high compressibility and low viscosity of CO2 mean that pumps, and autosamplers designed for HPLC either need to be modified or an alternate means of dealing with compressibility needs to be found. The inclusion of a back pressure regulator and a high pressure flow cell for any UV-Vis detector are also necessary. Details of the various approaches, problems and solutions are described. Characteristics, such as adiabatic vs. isothermal compressibility, thermal gradients, and refractive index issues are dealt with in detail.

  12. Analytic integrable systems: Analytic normalization and embedding flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    In this paper we mainly study the existence of analytic normalization and the normal form of finite dimensional complete analytic integrable dynamical systems. More details, we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism F(x)=Bx+f(x) in (Cn,0) with B having eigenvalues not modulus 1 and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Meanwhile, we also prove that any complete analytic integrable differential system x˙=Ax+f(x) in (Cn,0) with A having nonzero eigenvalues and f(x)=O(|) is locally analytically conjugate to its normal form. Furthermore we will prove that any complete analytic integrable diffeomorphism defined on an analytic manifold can be embedded in a complete analytic integrable flow. We note that parts of our results are the improvement of Moser's one in J. Moser, The analytic invariants of an area-preserving mapping near a hyperbolic fixed point, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 9 (1956) 673-692 and of Poincaré's one in H. Poincaré, Sur l'intégration des équations différentielles du premier order et du premier degré, II, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo 11 (1897) 193-239. These results also improve the ones in Xiang Zhang, Analytic normalization of analytic integrable systems and the embedding flows, J. Differential Equations 244 (2008) 1080-1092 in the sense that the linear part of the systems can be nonhyperbolic, and the one in N.T. Zung, Convergence versus integrability in Poincaré-Dulac normal form, Math. Res. Lett. 9 (2002) 217-228 in the way that our paper presents the concrete expression of the normal form in a restricted case.

  13. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an {open_quotes}Analytes of Concern Test List{close_quotes} for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes!

  14. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

  15. Magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    Self-consistent magnetospheric equilibrium with anisotropic pressure is obtained by employing an iterative metric method for solving the inverse equilibrium equation in an optimal flux coordinate system. A method of determining plasma parallel and perpendicular pressures from either analytic particle distribution or particle distribution measured along the satellite's path is presented. The numerical results of axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibrium including the effects of finite beta, pressure anisotropy, and boundary conditions are presented for a bi-Maxwellian particle distribution. For the isotropic pressure cases, the finite beta effect produces an outward expansion of the constant magnetic flux surfaces in relation to the dipole field lines, and along the magnetic field the toroidal ring current is maximum at the magnetic equator. The effect of pressure anisotropy is found to further expand the flux surfaces outward. Along the magnetic field lines the westward ring current can be peak away from the equator due to an eastward current contribution resulting from pressure anisotropy. As pressure anisotropy increases, the peak westward current can become more singular. The outer boundary flux surface has significant effect on the magnetospheric equilibrium. For the outer flux boundary resembling dayside compressed flux surface due to solar wind pressure, the deformation of the magnetic field can be quite different from that for the outer flux boundary resembling the tail-like surface. 23 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Academic Analytics: A New Tool for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John P.; DeBlois, Peter B.; Oblinger, Diana G.

    2007-01-01

    In responding to internal and external pressures for accountability in higher education, especially in the areas of improved learning outcomes and student success, IT leaders may soon become critical partners with academic and student affairs. IT can help answer this call for accountability through "academic analytics," which is emerging as a new…

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure recorders have two potential advantages over standard casual blood pressure measurements; they are able to take multiple recordings automatically throughout the day and night and also during the activities of normal daily living. At present, the general recommendations for validation of blood pressure recorders do not include assessment during motion. In order to obtain accurate information on an ambulatory blood pressure recorder's capabilities during exercise or physical activity, the blood pressure standard must use direct (intra-arterial) measurements. Data from some of the existing ambulatory blood pressure recorders suggest that many are accurate during resting measurements but lose their precision when the subjects are walking or during exercise. If ambulatory recorders are to be used in ambulant conditions with a moving arm, the device should be validated for accuracy and reliability during motion, using simultaneous direct measurements for comparison. PMID:1795196

  18. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-02-24

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections.

  19. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  20. 40 CFR 63.1517 - Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The owner or operator may retain records on microfilm, computer disks, magnetic tape, or microfiche... monitors, pressure drop sensors or load cells are used to verify that lime is present in the hopper and flowing, records of all monitor or sensor output including any event where blockage was found, with...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1517 - Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The owner or operator may retain records on microfilm, computer disks, magnetic tape, or microfiche... monitors, pressure drop sensors or load cells are used to verify that lime is present in the hopper and flowing, records of all monitor or sensor output including any event where blockage was found, with...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1517 - Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The owner or operator may retain records on microfilm, computer disks, magnetic tape, or microfiche... monitors, pressure drop sensors or load cells are used to verify that lime is present in the hopper and flowing, records of all monitor or sensor output including any event where blockage was found, with...

  3. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  4. Radiation-pressure-induced nonlinearity in microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jung, Sunghwan; Lee, Aram; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    High quality (Q) factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs) can induce nonlinear effects in liquid droplets through mechanisms such as radiation pressure, Kerr nonlinearity, and thermal effects. However, such nonlinear effects, especially those due to radiation pressure, have yet to be thoroughly investigated and compared in the literature. In this study, we present an analytical approach that can exactly calculate the droplet deformation induced by the radiation pressure. The accuracy of the analytical approach is confirmed through numerical analyses based on the boundary element method. We show that the nonlinear optofluidic effect induced by the radiation pressure is stronger than the Kerr effect and the thermal effect under a large variety of realistic conditions. Using liquids with ultralow and experimentally attainable interfacial tension, we further confirm the prediction that it may only take a few photons to produce measurable WGM resonance shift through radiation-pressure-induced droplet deformation. PMID:26764829

  5. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  6. AUTOMATIC CALIBRATING SYSTEM FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, E.L.; Rodgers, G.W.

    1958-01-01

    An automatic system for calibrating a number of pressure transducers is described. The disclosed embodiment of the invention uses a mercurial manometer to measure the air pressure applied to the transducer. A servo system follows the top of the mercury column as the pressure is changed and operates an analog- to-digital converter This converter furnishes electrical pulses, each representing an increment of pressure change, to a reversible counterThe transducer furnishes a signal at each calibration point, causing an electric typewriter and a card-punch machine to record the pressure at the instant as indicated by the counter. Another counter keeps track of the calibration points so that a number identifying each point is recorded with the corresponding pressure. A special relay control system controls the pressure trend and programs the sequential calibration of several transducers.

  7. Line broadening of confined CO gas: from molecule-wall to molecule-molecule collisions with pressure.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, J-M; Boulet, C; Auwera, J Vander; El Hamzaoui, H; Capoen, B; Bouazaoui, M

    2014-02-14

    The infrared absorption in the fundamental band of CO gas confined in porous silica xerogel has been recorded at room temperature for pressures between about 5 and 920 hPa using a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. The widths of individual lines are determined from fits of measured spectra and compared with ab initio predictions obtained from requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. Good agreement is obtained from the low pressure regime where the line shapes are governed by molecule-wall collisions to high pressures where the influence of molecule-molecule interactions dominates. These results, together with those obtained with a simple analytical model, indicate that both mechanisms contribute in a practically additive way to the observed linewidths. They also confirm that a single collision of a molecule with a wall changes its rotational state. These results are of interest for the determination of some characteristics of the opened porosity of porous materials through optical soundings.

  8. Analytical solution for soil water redistribution during evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jidong; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Shiyu

    2013-01-01

    Simulating the dynamics of soil water content and modeling soil water evaporation are critical for many environmental and agricultural strategies. The present study aims to develop an analytical solution to simulate soil water redistribution during the evaporation process. This analytical solution was derived utilizing an exponential function to describe the relation of hydraulic conductivity and water content on pressure head. The solution was obtained based on the initial condition of saturation and an exponential function to model the change of surface water content. Also, the evaporation experiments were conducted under a climate control apparatus to validate the theoretical development. Comparisons between the proposed analytical solution and experimental result are presented from the aspects of soil water redistribution, evaporative rate and cumulative evaporation. Their good agreement indicates that this analytical solution provides a reliable way to investigate the interaction of evaporation and soil water profile. PMID:24355839

  9. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched.

  10. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched. PMID:27271998

  11. Thermodynamic Pressure/Temperature Transducer Health Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher D. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Deyoe, Richard T. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device and procedure for checking the health of a pressure transducer in situ is provided. The procedure includes measuring a fixed change in pressure above ambient pressure and a fixed change in pressure below ambient pressure. This is done by first sealing an enclosed volume around the transducer with a valve. A piston inside the sealed volume is increasing the pressure. A fixed pressure below ambient pressure is obtained by opening the valve, driving the piston The output of the pressure transducer is recorded for both the overpressuring and the underpressuring. By comparing this data with data taken during a preoperative calibration, the health of the transducer is determined from the linearity, the hysteresis, and the repeatability of its output. The further addition of a thermometer allows constant offset error in the transducer output to be determined.

  12. Big data and visual analytics in anaesthesia and health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, A F; Ahumada, L M; Rehman, M A

    2015-09-01

    Advances in computer technology, patient monitoring systems, and electronic health record systems have enabled rapid accumulation of patient data in electronic form (i.e. big data). Organizations such as the Anesthesia Quality Institute and Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group have spearheaded large-scale efforts to collect anaesthesia big data for outcomes research and quality improvement. Analytics--the systematic use of data combined with quantitative and qualitative analysis to make decisions--can be applied to big data for quality and performance improvements, such as predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, and resource management. Visual analytics is the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces, and it can facilitate performance of cognitive activities involving big data. Ongoing integration of big data and analytics within anaesthesia and health care will increase demand for anaesthesia professionals who are well versed in both the medical and the information sciences.

  13. Current practices in clinical analytics: a hospital survey report.

    PubMed

    Womack, Dana M; Kennedy, Rosemary; Bria, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Clinical analytics must become a pervasive activity in healthcare settings to achieve the global vision for timely, effective, equitable, and excellent care. Global adoption of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) has increased the volume of data available for performance measurement and healthcare organizational capacity for continuous quality improvement. However, EHR adoption does not automatically result in optimal use of clinical data for performance improvement. In order to understand organizational factors related to use of data for clinical analytics, a survey was conducted of hospitals and hospital-based clinics. The survey revealed sub-optimal use of data captured as a byproduct of care delivery, the need for tools and methodologies to assist with data analytics, and the need for disciplined organizational structure and strategies. Informatics nurse professionals are well-positioned to lead analytical efforts and serve as a catalyst in their facility's transformations into a data-driven organization.

  14. Big data and visual analytics in anaesthesia and health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, A F; Ahumada, L M; Rehman, M A

    2015-09-01

    Advances in computer technology, patient monitoring systems, and electronic health record systems have enabled rapid accumulation of patient data in electronic form (i.e. big data). Organizations such as the Anesthesia Quality Institute and Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group have spearheaded large-scale efforts to collect anaesthesia big data for outcomes research and quality improvement. Analytics--the systematic use of data combined with quantitative and qualitative analysis to make decisions--can be applied to big data for quality and performance improvements, such as predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, and resource management. Visual analytics is the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces, and it can facilitate performance of cognitive activities involving big data. Ongoing integration of big data and analytics within anaesthesia and health care will increase demand for anaesthesia professionals who are well versed in both the medical and the information sciences. PMID:25627395

  15. The Case for Assessment Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a relatively new field of inquiry and its precise meaning is both contested and fluid (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011; LAK, n.d.). Ferguson (2012) suggests that the best working definition is that offered by the first Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference: "the measurement, collection,…

  16. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  17. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  18. Information Theory in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckschlager, Karel; Stepanek, Vladimir

    1982-01-01

    Discusses information theory in analytical practice. Topics include information quantities; ways of obtaining formulas for the amount of information in structural, qualitative, and trace analyses; and information measures in comparing and optimizing analytical methods and procedures. Includes tables outlining applications of information theory to…

  19. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors. A maximum operating pressure of 150 psig has been shown to be possible for C. ljungdahlli with the medium of Phillips et al. This medium was developed for atmospheric pressure operation in the CSTR to yield maximum ethanol concentrations and thus is not best for operation at elevated pressures. It is recommended that a medium development study be performed for C. ljungdahlii at increased pressure. Cell concentration, gas conversion and product concentration profiles were presented for C. ljungdahlii as a function of gas flow rate, the variable which affects bacterium performance the most. This pressure was chosen as a representative pressure over the 0--150 psig operating pressure range for the bacterium. Increased pressure negatively affected ethanol productivity probably due to the fact that medium composition was designed for atmospheric pressure operation. Medium development at increased pressure is necessary for high pressure development of the system.

  20. Pressurized hopper

    SciTech Connect

    Densley, P.J.; Goldmann, L.H. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    A Secure Automated Fuel Fabrication Line is being developed to reduce personnel exposure and to improve safeguards. Fertile and fissile fuel powders are blended in the line for making fuel pellets. A pressurized hopper was developed for use not only as a blender, but also as a storage and feeding device. It works with or without injection tubes to produce a well-blended powder with reduced agglomerate population. Results of blending experiments using dry Kaolin clay and Tempra pigment are given. (DLC)

  1. Pressure transducer

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Gunchin, E.R.

    1987-02-13

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output. 7 figs.

  2. Pressure transducer

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Gunchin, Elmer R.

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  3. Pressure driven flow in porous tubular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard

    2011-11-01

    We consider the steady laminar flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a porous tubular membrane with pressure-driven transmembrane flow. Due to its fundamental importance to membrane filtration systems, this flow has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically, yet a robust analytic solution has not been found. The problem is challenging due to the coupling between the transmembrane pressure and velocity with the simultaneous coupling between the axial pressure gradient and the axial velocity. We present a robust analytical solution which incorporates Darcy's law on the membrane surface. The solution is in the form of an asymptotic expansion about a small parameter related to the membrane permeability. We verify the analytical solution with comparison to 2-D spectral direct numerical simulations of ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems with typical operating conditions, as well as extreme cases of cross-flow reversal and axial flow exhaustion. In all cases, the agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent. Finally, we use the analytical and numerical results to provide guidelines about when common simplifying assumptions about the permeate flow may be made. Specifically, the assumptions of a parabolic axial velocity profile and uniform transmembrane velocity are valid only for small permeabilities.

  4. A Visual Analytics Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James J.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were a wakeup call to the United States. The Hurricane Katrina disaster in August 2005 provided yet another reminder that unprecedented disasters can and do occur. And when they do, we must be able to analyze large amounts of disparate data in order to make sense of exceedingly complex situations and save lives. Responding to an Urgent Need This need to support penetrating analysis of massive data collections is not limited to security, though. From systems biology to human health, from evaluations of product effectiveness to strategizing for competitive positioning, to assessing the results of marketing campaigns, there is a critical need to analyze very large amounts of complex information. Simply put, our ability to collect data far outstrips our ability to analyze the data we have collected. Following the September 11 attacks, the government initiated efforts to evaluate the technologies that are available today or are on the near horizon. Two National Academy of Sciences reports identified serious gaps in the technologies. Making the Nation Safer [Alberts & Wulf, 2002] describes how science and technology can be advanced to protect the nation against terrorism. Information Technology for Counterterrorism [Hennessy et al., 2003] expands upon the work of Making the Nation Safer, focusing specifically on the opportunities for information technology to help counter and respond to terrorist attacks. Significant research progress has been made in disciplines such as scientific and information visualization, statistically-based exploratory and confirmatory analysis, data and knowledge representations, and perceptual and cognitive sciences, However, the research community has not adequately addressed the integration of these subspecialties to advance the ability for analysts to apply their expert human judgment to complex data in pressure-filled situations. Although some research is being done

  5. Varied line spacing plane holographic grating recorded by using uniform line spacing plane gratings.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ling; Gang, Wu; Bin, Liu; Qiuping, Wang

    2006-07-20

    Uniform line spacing plane gratings are introduced into a recording system to generate aspherical wavefronts for recording varied line spacing plane holographic gratings. Analytical expressions of groove parameters are derived to the fourth order. A ray-tracing validation algorithm is provided based on Fermat's principle and a local search method. The recording parameters are optimized to record a varied line spacing plane holographic grating with the aid of derived analytical expressions. A design example demonstrates the exactness of the analytical expressions and the superiority of recording optics with auxiliary gratings. PMID:16826244

  6. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de

    2016-06-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner-Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1207-96 - Sampling and analytical systems; evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... well as vehicle fuel tank temperature during the running loss test. The recording system shall record... enclosure gage pressure for any testing in an enclosure, as well as the vehicle's fuel tank pressure during... testing. The inlets and outlets of the air circulation blower(s) shall be configured to provide a...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1207-96 - Sampling and analytical systems; evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... well as vehicle fuel tank temperature during the running loss test. The recording system shall record... enclosure gage pressure for any testing in an enclosure, as well as the vehicle's fuel tank pressure during... testing. The inlets and outlets of the air circulation blower(s) shall be configured to provide a...

  9. Research on pressure sensors for biomedical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a piezo-resistive pressure transducer is discussed suitable for recording pressures typically encountered in biomedical applications. The pressure transducer consists of a thin silicon diaphragm containing four strain-sensitive resistors, and is fabricated using silicon monolithic integrated-circuit technology. The pressure transducers can be as small as 0.7 mm outer diameter, and are, as a result, suitable for mounting at the tip of a catheter. Pressure-induced stress in the diaphragm is sensed by the resistors, which are interconnected to form a Wheatstone bridge.

  10. Using Big Data Technologies and Analytics to Predict Sensor Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mital, R.; Coughlin, J.; Canaday, M.

    A goal of big data analytics is to help leaders make informed and rapid decisions by analyzing large volumes of complex data, as well as other forms of data that may be untapped by conventional analyses, and presenting it in a form that facilitates decision making. Big data analytics is the process of examining large data sets containing a variety of data types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. Sensors typically record significant amounts of data but it is often not exploited except in special cases and after historically large amounts of analysis time. Big data analytics provides a mechanism to routinely monitor these data sets while also providing insight into anomalous events, such as are encountered in large sensor systems such as those in the space surveillance network. In this study, we simulate recorded data from a notional radar or optical sensor and use big data technologies and the analytics to process the data to analyze and predict sensor performance. This study focuses on data products that would commonly be analyzed at a site and how big data technologies can be used to detect anomalies. This study shows how the ability to rapidly drill down into the data enables an analyst or decision maker to assess potential system anomalies. This study shows how current technologies and predictive analytical techniques can be used to view the data, detect and explain anomalies, and predict preventative maintenance actions in a timely manner.

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  13. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  14. Analytical model for screening potential CO2 repositories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okwen, R.T.; Stewart, M.T.; Cunningham, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing potential repositories for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide using numerical models can be complicated, costly, and time-consuming, especially when faced with the challenge of selecting a repository from a multitude of potential repositories. This paper presents a set of simple analytical equations (model), based on the work of previous researchers, that could be used to evaluate the suitability of candidate repositories for subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide. We considered the injection of carbon dioxide at a constant rate into a confined saline aquifer via a fully perforated vertical injection well. The validity of the analytical model was assessed via comparison with the TOUGH2 numerical model. The metrics used in comparing the two models include (1) spatial variations in formation pressure and (2) vertically integrated brine saturation profile. The analytical model and TOUGH2 show excellent agreement in their results when similar input conditions and assumptions are applied in both. The analytical model neglects capillary pressure and the pressure dependence of fluid properties. However, simulations in TOUGH2 indicate that little error is introduced by these simplifications. Sensitivity studies indicate that the agreement between the analytical model and TOUGH2 depends strongly on (1) the residual brine saturation, (2) the difference in density between carbon dioxide and resident brine (buoyancy), and (3) the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation. The results achieved suggest that the analytical model is valid when the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation is linear or quasi-linear and when the irreducible saturation of brine is zero or very small. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a pressure-controlled electrothermal atomizer.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, R F; Yuzefovsky, A I; Irwin, R L; Michel, R G

    1996-02-01

    A theoretical model was developed to describe the loss of analyte atoms in graphite furnaces during atomization. The model was based on two functions, one that described the supply of analyte by vaporization, and another that described the removal of the analyte by diffusion. Variation in working pressure was shown to affect the competition between these two processes. Optimal atomization efficiency was predicted to occur at a pressure where the supply of the analyte was maximized, and gas phase interactions between the analyte and matrix were minimized. Experiments to test the model included the direct determination of phosphorus and tellurium in nickel alloys and of cobalt in glass. In all cases, reduction in working pressure from atmospheric pressure to 7 Pa decreased sensitivity by 2 orders of magnitude, but improved temporal peak shape. For the atomization of tellurium directly from a solid nickel alloy, and the atomization of cobalt from an aqueous solution, no change in sensitivity was observed as the working pressure was reduced from atmospheric pressure to approximately 70 kPa. If a reduction in working pressure affected only the diffusion of the analyte, poorer sensitivity should have been obtained. Only a commensurate increase in analyte vaporization could account for maintained sensitivity at lower working pressures. Overall, analyte vaporization was not dramatically improved at reduced working pressures, and maximum atomization efficiency was found to occur near atmospheric pressure. PMID:8712359

  16. Analytical model of plasma-chemical etching in planar reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, D. S.; Bakun, A. D.; Voronov, Yu A.; Kireev, V. Yu; Vasileva, O. V.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses an analytical model of plasma-chemical etching in planar diode- type reactor. Analytical expressions of etch rate and etch anisotropy were obtained. It is shown that etch anisotropy increases with increasing the ion current and ion energy. At the same time, etch selectivity of processed material decreases as compared with the mask. Etch rate decreases with the distance from the centre axis of the reactor. To decrease the loading effect, it is necessary to reduce the wafer temperature and pressure in the reactor, as well as increase the gas flow rate through the reactor.

  17. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  18. Numerical integration of analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, Gradimir V.; Tošić, Dobrilo ð.; Albijanić, Miloljub

    2012-09-01

    A weighted generalized N-point Birkhoff-Young quadrature of interpolatory type for numerical integration of analytic functions is considered. Special cases of such quadratures with respect to the generalized Gegenbauer weight function are derived.

  19. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  20. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  1. Laboratory Workhorse: The Analytical Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas W.

    1979-01-01

    This report explains the importance of various analytical balances in the water or wastewater laboratory. Stressed is the proper procedure for utilizing the equipment as well as the mechanics involved in its operation. (CS)

  2. Liposomes: Technologies and Analytical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2008-07-01

    Liposomes are structurally and functionally some of the most versatile supramolecular assemblies in existence. Since the beginning of active research on lipid vesicles in 1965, the field has progressed enormously and applications are well established in several areas, such as drug and gene delivery. In the analytical sciences, liposomes serve a dual purpose: Either they are analytes, typically in quality-assessment procedures of liposome preparations, or they are functional components in a variety of new analytical systems. Liposome immunoassays, for example, benefit greatly from the amplification provided by encapsulated markers, and nanotube-interconnected liposome networks have emerged as ultrasmall-scale analytical devices. This review provides information about new developments in some of the most actively researched liposome-related topics.

  3. Analytical multikinks in smooth potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, G. P.; Correa, R. A. C.; de Souza Dutra, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present an approach that can be systematically used to construct nonlinear systems possessing analytical multikink profile configurations. In contrast with previous approaches to the problem, we are able to do it by using field potentials that are considerably smoother than the ones of the doubly quadratic family of potentials. This is done without losing the capacity of writing exact analytical solutions. The resulting field configurations can be applied to the study of problems from condensed matter to braneworld scenarios.

  4. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  5. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  6. Microemulsification: an approach for analytical determinations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Shiroma, Leandro Y; Teixeira, Alvaro V N C; de Toledo, José R; do Couto, Bruno C; de Carvalho, Rogério M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Kubota, Lauro T; Gobbi, Angelo L

    2014-09-16

    water, in turn, the linear range was observed throughout the volume fraction of analyte. The best limits of detection were 0.32% v/v water to ethanol and 0.30% v/v monoethylene glycol to water. Furthermore, the accuracy was highly satisfactory. The natural gas samples provided by the Petrobras exhibited color, particulate material, high ionic strength, and diverse compounds as metals, carboxylic acids, and anions. These samples had a conductivity of up to 2630 μS cm(-1); the conductivity of pure monoethylene glycol was only 0.30 μS cm(-1). Despite such downsides, the method allowed accurate measures bypassing steps such as extraction, preconcentration, and dilution of the sample. In addition, the levels of robustness were promising. This parameter was evaluated by investigating the effect of (i) deviations in volumetric preparation of the dispersions and (ii) changes in temperature over the analyte contents recorded by the method.

  7. Microemulsification: an approach for analytical determinations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Shiroma, Leandro Y; Teixeira, Alvaro V N C; de Toledo, José R; do Couto, Bruno C; de Carvalho, Rogério M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Kubota, Lauro T; Gobbi, Angelo L

    2014-09-16

    water, in turn, the linear range was observed throughout the volume fraction of analyte. The best limits of detection were 0.32% v/v water to ethanol and 0.30% v/v monoethylene glycol to water. Furthermore, the accuracy was highly satisfactory. The natural gas samples provided by the Petrobras exhibited color, particulate material, high ionic strength, and diverse compounds as metals, carboxylic acids, and anions. These samples had a conductivity of up to 2630 μS cm(-1); the conductivity of pure monoethylene glycol was only 0.30 μS cm(-1). Despite such downsides, the method allowed accurate measures bypassing steps such as extraction, preconcentration, and dilution of the sample. In addition, the levels of robustness were promising. This parameter was evaluated by investigating the effect of (i) deviations in volumetric preparation of the dispersions and (ii) changes in temperature over the analyte contents recorded by the method. PMID:25148857

  8. A socio-technical analytical framework on the EHR-organizational innovation interplay: Insights from a public hospital in Greece.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector globally is confronted with increasing internal and external pressures that urge for a radical reform of health systems' status quo. The role of technological innovations such as Electronic Health Records (EHR) is recognized as instrumental in this transition process as it is expected to accelerate organizational innovations. This is why the widespread uptake of EHR systems is a top priority in the global healthcare agenda. The successful co-deployment though of EHR systems and organizational innovations within the context of secondary healthcare institutions is a complex and multifaceted issue. Existing research in the field has made little progress thus emphasizing the need for further research contribution that will incorporate a holistic perspective. This paper presents insights about the EHR-organizational innovation interplay from a public hospital in Greece into a socio-technical analytical framework providing a multilevel set of action points for the eHealth roadmap with worldwide relevance. PMID:25991259

  9. A socio-technical analytical framework on the EHR-organizational innovation interplay: Insights from a public hospital in Greece.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector globally is confronted with increasing internal and external pressures that urge for a radical reform of health systems' status quo. The role of technological innovations such as Electronic Health Records (EHR) is recognized as instrumental in this transition process as it is expected to accelerate organizational innovations. This is why the widespread uptake of EHR systems is a top priority in the global healthcare agenda. The successful co-deployment though of EHR systems and organizational innovations within the context of secondary healthcare institutions is a complex and multifaceted issue. Existing research in the field has made little progress thus emphasizing the need for further research contribution that will incorporate a holistic perspective. This paper presents insights about the EHR-organizational innovation interplay from a public hospital in Greece into a socio-technical analytical framework providing a multilevel set of action points for the eHealth roadmap with worldwide relevance.

  10. Modern differential pressure gas counter (WIGZ) measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, O.

    1985-07-01

    The differential pressure gas counter facility developed to measure gas flow rate on orifice plates in the pipe system transporting Soviet gas to West Germany and France was equipped with small computers which record all the parameters of a measuring system and calculate the standard volume and the quantity of heat. These parameters are used to calibrate the facility. The differential pressure indicators and operating densitometers, the standard densitometers, pressure and temperature sensors, and calorific value indicators are described. The operation of and processing by the 16-bit microprocessor computers of all parameters are summarized. The central computer and the performance recording facility are presented.

  11. 40 CFR 86.142-90 - Records required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... each particulate sample and back-up filter. (6) Continuous temperature and humidity recording of the ambient air in which the particulate filters were stabilized. (p) Additional required records for methanol... this measurement. (o) Additional records required for diesel vehicles. (1) Pressure and temperature...

  12. 40 CFR 86.142-90 - Records required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... each particulate sample and back-up filter. (6) Continuous temperature and humidity recording of the ambient air in which the particulate filters were stabilized. (p) Additional required records for methanol... this measurement. (o) Additional records required for diesel vehicles. (1) Pressure and temperature...

  13. 40 CFR 86.142-90 - Records required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each particulate sample and back-up filter. (6) Continuous temperature and humidity recording of the ambient air in which the particulate filters were stabilized. (p) Additional required records for methanol... this measurement. (o) Additional records required for diesel vehicles. (1) Pressure and temperature...

  14. 40 CFR 86.142-90 - Records required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each particulate sample and back-up filter. (6) Continuous temperature and humidity recording of the ambient air in which the particulate filters were stabilized. (p) Additional required records for methanol... this measurement. (o) Additional records required for diesel vehicles. (1) Pressure and temperature...

  15. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-07-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

  16. Subglottal pressure oscillations accompanying phonation.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Scherer, Ronald; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Granqvist, Svante

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic properties of the voice source and vocal tract have been extensively analyzed during the last half century. Corresponding investigations of the subglottal system are rare but can be assumed to be relevant to voice production. In the present exploratory study, subglottal pressure was recorded in a male adult subject by means of tracheal puncture. Also recorded were the oral airflow and audio signals. Effects of vowel, phonation type, and vocal register shifts on the subglottal pressure waveform were examined. The moment of maximum flow declination rate was synchronous with the main positive peak of the subglottal pressure waveform. The three lowest subglottal resonance frequencies, determined by inverse filtering and long-term average spectra of the subglottal pressure during speech, were found to be about 500, 1220, and 2000Hz, irrespective of supraglottal variations and phonation type. However, the subglottal pressure waveform was affected by the supraglottal formants, whereas the radiated vowel spectra did not show clear influence by the subglottal resonances. The fundamental frequency immediately preceding and immediately following a register break in pitch glides did not show systematic relationships with formants or with the lowest subglottal resonance. PMID:23809566

  17. Earth's partial pressure of CO2 over the past 100-500 Ma; evidence from Ce anomalies in mostly shallow seas (less than 200 m) as recorded in carbonate sediments, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.-G.; Reinhardt, J. W.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    We reported the direct relationship of Ce anomalies recorded in 0.2-119 Ma CaCO3 sediments (Ce(sup A*)) to the Ce anomalies in the parental Pacific deep seawater (Ce(sup A)) and their relationship to atmospheric P(CO2) relative to present P(CO2). We have analyzed continental CaCO3 samples that were deposited in ancient oceans and shallow sea platforms less than 200 m over central USA, central Europe, China, and Saudi-Arabia/Oman. We have plotted Ce(sup A*) over the 75-470 Ma interval. For P(CO2) calculations, we assumed as a reference standard the less than 200 m mixed Pacific Ocean with a Ce(sup A) geometric mean of 0.22 and a range of 0.10-0.43. Because P(CO2) values obtained from reliable deep Pacific Ocean carbonates in the 67-119 Ma interval were similar to the present P(CO2) values, we have drawn a 1.0 ratio for that interval. Although there is considerable scatter among the approximately 150 Ma carbonates, the average Ce(sup A*) value suggests that P(CO2) increased during the early Cretaceous, from 1.0X at approximately 120 Ma to about 1.4X at approximately 150 Ma. At approximately 250 Ma, the average Ce(sup A*) in 13 shallow sea China carbonates agrees well with the single and more reliable approximately 250 Ma China carbonate deposited in deeper open platform. We suggest that P(CO2) ranged from 1.4-1.7X over the Jurassic and Triassic periods. At approximately 280 Ma, three China carbonates deposited in deeper open platforms and therefore considered more reliable are consistent with a European carbonate, which indicate Ce(sup A) and P(CO2) values similar to the present. The minimum at this time corresponds to the great Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. From 280 Ma to 470 Ma, the trend favors increasing Ce(sup A*) and corresponding P(CO2) values between 1.9-2.7X, with a more reliable value closer to 2.7X at 430 Ma because of the unknown higher temperature in the less than 100 m seawater over continental USA which was located just south of the equator at

  18. Analytic models of ducted turbomachinery tone noise sources. Volume 2: Subprogram documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. L.; Ganz, U. W.; Graf, G. A.; Westall, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical models were developed for computing the periodic sound pressures of subsonic fans in an infinite hardwall annular duct with uniform flow. The computer programs are described which are used for numerical computations of sound pressure mode amplitudes. The data are applied to the acoustic properties of turbomachinery.

  19. Analytical Derivation and Experimental Evaluation of Short-Bearing Approximation for Full Journal Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, George B; Ocvirk, Fred W

    1953-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution including the effect of end leakage from the oil film of short plain bearings is presented because of the importance of endwise flow in sleeve bearings of the short lengths commonly used. The analytical approximation is supported by experimental data, resulting in charts which facilitate analysis of short plain bearings. The analytical approximation includes the endwise flow and that part of the circumferential flow which is related to surface velocity and film thickness but neglects the effect of film pressure on the circumferential flow. In practical use, this approximation applies best to bearings having a length-diameter ratio up to 1, and the effects of elastic deflection, inlet oil pressure, and changes of clearance with temperature minimize the relative importance of the neglected term. The analytical approximation was found to be an extension of a little-known pressure-distribution function originally proposed by Michell and Cardullo.

  20. Negative tracheal pressure during neonatal endotracheal suction.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Nicholas J; Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Copnell, Beverley

    2008-07-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) suction is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in ventilated newborn infants and is associated with adverse effects related to negative tracheal pressure. We aimed to measure suction catheter gas flow and intratracheal pressure during ETT suction of a test lung and develop a mathematical model to predict tracheal pressure from catheter and ETT dimensions and applied pressure. Tracheal pressure and catheter flow were recorded during suction of ETT sizes 2.5-4.0 mm connected to a test lung with catheters 5-8 French Gauge and applied pressures of 80-200 mm Hg. The fraction of applied pressure transmitted to the trachea was calculated for each combination, and data fitted to three nonlinear models for analysis. Tracheal pressure was directly proportional to applied pressure (r = 0.82-0.99), and catheter flow fitted a turbulent flow model (R = 0.85-0.96). With each ETT, increasing catheter size resulted in greater catheter flow (p < 0.0001) and thus lower intratracheal pressure (p < 0.0001). The fraction of applied pressure transmitted to the trachea was accurately modeled using ETT and catheter dimensions (R = 0.98-0.99). Negative tracheal pressure during in vitro ETT suction is directly proportional to applied pressure. This relationship is determined by ETT and catheter dimensions.

  1. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  2. Climate Analytics as a Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  3. Complete equation of state for shocked liquid nitrogen: Analytical developments.

    PubMed

    Winey, J M; Gupta, Y M

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic response of liquid nitrogen has been studied extensively, in part, due to the long-standing interest in the high pressure and high temperature dissociation of shocked molecular nitrogen. Previous equation of state (EOS) developments regarding shocked liquid nitrogen have focused mainly on the use of intermolecular pair potentials in atomistic calculations. Here, we present EOS developments for liquid nitrogen, incorporating analytical models, for use in continuum calculations of the shock compression response. The analytical models, together with available Hugoniot data, were used to extrapolate a low pressure reference EOS for molecular nitrogen [R. Span et al., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 29, 1361 (2000)] to high pressures and high temperatures. Using the EOS presented here, the calculated pressures and temperatures for single shock, double shock, and multiple shock compression of liquid nitrogen provide a good match to the measured results over a broad range of P-T space. These calculations provide the first comparison of EOS developments with recently measured P-T states under multiple shock compression. The present EOS developments are general and are expected to be useful for other liquids that have low pressure reference EOS information available. PMID:27497562

  4. Complete equation of state for shocked liquid nitrogen: Analytical developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic response of liquid nitrogen has been studied extensively, in part, due to the long-standing interest in the high pressure and high temperature dissociation of shocked molecular nitrogen. Previous equation of state (EOS) developments regarding shocked liquid nitrogen have focused mainly on the use of intermolecular pair potentials in atomistic calculations. Here, we present EOS developments for liquid nitrogen, incorporating analytical models, for use in continuum calculations of the shock compression response. The analytical models, together with available Hugoniot data, were used to extrapolate a low pressure reference EOS for molecular nitrogen [R. Span et al., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 29, 1361 (2000)] to high pressures and high temperatures. Using the EOS presented here, the calculated pressures and temperatures for single shock, double shock, and multiple shock compression of liquid nitrogen provide a good match to the measured results over a broad range of P-T space. These calculations provide the first comparison of EOS developments with recently measured P-T states under multiple shock compression. The present EOS developments are general and are expected to be useful for other liquids that have low pressure reference EOS information available.

  5. An underwater blood pressure measuring device.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Arne; Kuch, Benjamin; L'abbate, Antonio; Wagner, Matthias; Dario, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of arterial blood pressure is an important vital sign for monitoring the circulation. However, up to now no instrument has been available that enables the measurement of blood pressure underwater. The present paper details a novel, oscillometric, automatic digital blood pressure (BP) measurement device especially designed for this purpose. It consists mainly of analogue and digital electronics in a lexan housing that is rated to a depth of up to 200 metres' sea water, a cuff and a solenoid for inflation of the cuff with air supplied from a scuba tank. An integrated differential pressure sensor, exposed to the same ambient pressure as the cuff, allows accurate BP measurement. Calculation of systolic and diastolic pressures is based on the analysis of pressure oscillations recorded during the deflation. In hyperbaric chamber tests to pressures up to 405 kPa, BP measurements taken with the prototype were comparable to those obtained with established manual and automated methods. Swimming pool tests confirmed the correct functioning of the system underwater. The quality of the recorded pressure oscillations was very good even at 10 metres' fresh water, and allowed determination of diastolic and systolic pressure values. Based on these results we envisage that this device will lead to a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology in underwater and hyperbaric environments.

  6. Medical records and record-keeping standards.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Iain; Ram, Mala Bridgelal; Croft, Giles P; Williams, John G

    2007-08-01

    The structure of medical records becomes ever more critical with the advent of electronic records. The Health Informatics Unit (HIU) of the Royal College of Physicians has two work streams in this area. The Records Standards programme is developing generic standards for all entries into medical notes and standards for the content of admission, handover and discharge records. The Information Laboratory (iLab) focuses on hospital episode statistics and their use for monitoring clinician performance. Clinician endorsement of the work is achieved through extensive consultations. Generic medical record-keeping standards are now available. PMID:17882846

  7. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  8. Authenticity and the analytic process.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Paolo; Gaddini, Andrea; Riefolo, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we first make a differentiation between phenomena that can be defined as spontaneous and others that can be defined as authentic. We then attempt to present authenticity as a process rather than an outcome. Finally, we try to understand the location of authentic phenomena in the sensorial and pre-symbolic communicative register. We situate authentic phenomena in the register of sensorial and pre-symbolic communication. The authentic process becomes manifest, step by step in the analytic process (Borgogno, 1999), through the vivid iconic and sensorial elements that happen to cross the analytic field. Through two brief clinical vignettes, we seek to document the progression of the analytic process, in one case through the analyst's capacity for rêverie (Bion, 1962; Ogden, 1994, 1997; Ferro, 2002, 2007), and in the other through the sensorial elements with which analyst and patient are able to tune in to each other.

  9. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  10. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  11. Breakdown and dc discharge in low-pressure water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivoš, J.; Škoro, N.; Marić, D.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report studies of basic properties of breakdown, low-current Townsend discharge and high-current discharge regimes in water vapour. Paschen curves and the corresponding distributions of emission intensities at low current were recorded in the range of pd (pressure x electrode gap) from 0.1 to 10 Torrcm covering the region of Paschen minimum. From the experimental profiles we obtained effective ionization coefficient of water vapour for the E/N range 650 Td-7 kTd and fitted the results by using the extended Townsend analytical formula. Using the obtained ionization coefficient, we calculated the effective yield of secondary electrons from the copper cathode. Results of the measurements of Volt-Ampere characteristics in water vapour were presented together with the images of the axial structure of the discharge in a wide range of discharge currents for two pd values. Recorded profiles showed development of the spatial structure of the discharge in different operating regimes. We were able to identify conditions where processes induced by heavy particles, probably fast hydrogen atoms, are dominant in inducing emission from the discharge. Finally, standard scaling laws were tested for low current and glow discharges in water vapour.

  12. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

    2009-02-27

    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  13. Analytical Applications of NMR: Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a symposium on analytical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), discussing pulse Fourier transformation technique, two-dimensional NMR, solid state NMR, and multinuclear NMR. Includes description of ORACLE, an NMR data processing system at Syracuse University using real-time color graphics, and algorithms for…

  14. Faculty Forum: The GRE Analytical Writing Test-- Description and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briihl, Deborah S.; Wasieleski, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors surveyed graduate programs to see how they use the Graduate Record Examination Analytic Writing (GRE-AW) Test. Only 35% of the graduate programs that responded use the GRE-AW test in their admission policy; of the programs not using it, most do not plan to do so. The programs using the GRE-AW rated it as medium or low in importance in…

  15. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  16. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  17. Keeping the Records Straight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  18. A health analytics semantic ETL service for obesity surveillance.

    PubMed

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Papakonstantinou, D; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly large amount of data produced in healthcare (e.g. collected through health information systems such as electronic medical records - EMRs or collected through novel data sources such as personal health records - PHRs, social media, web resources) enable the creation of detailed records about people's health, sentiments and activities (e.g. physical activity, diet, sleep quality) that can be used in the public health area among others. However, despite the transformative potential of big data in public health surveillance there are several challenges in integrating big data. In this paper, the interoperability challenge is tackled and a semantic Extract Transform Load (ETL) service is proposed that seeks to semantically annotate big data to result into valuable data for analysis. This service is considered as part of a health analytics engine on the cloud that interacts with existing healthcare information exchange networks, like the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PHRs, sensors, mobile applications, and other web resources to retrieve patient health, behavioral and daily activity data. The semantic ETL service aims at semantically integrating big data for use by analytic mechanisms. An illustrative implementation of the service on big data which is potentially relevant to human obesity, enables using appropriate analytic techniques (e.g. machine learning, text mining) that are expected to assist in identifying patterns and contributing factors (e.g. genetic background, social, environmental) for this social phenomenon and, hence, drive health policy changes and promote healthy behaviors where residents live, work, learn, shop and play.

  19. Reflections of pressure waves at tunnel portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M. B.; Vardy, A. E.

    1994-05-01

    Reflections of plane waves from the open ends (portals) of axisymmetric pipes and plane two-dimensional (2-D) channels are investigated analytically, numerically, and experimentally. An analytical approach developed by Rudinger for pressure decay at an axisymmetric, flanged portal is extended to longer times, and equivalent analyses are developed for reflections from unflanged portals - both axisymmetric and plane 2-D. Predictions for the latter case are compared with numerical results from a computer program based on a 2-D method of bicharacteristics. The theoretical results are compared with measurements from a low pressure shock tube, which was used to investigate alternative end configurations including scarfed portals with and without flange plates. These confirm that the rate of pressure decay is much slower in the plane 2-D case and that flange plates further reduce the rate of decay, albeit slightly. Scarfed portals are shown to cause more uniform decay rates than 90 deg portals.

  20. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  1. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics, the analysis and representation of data about learners in order to improve learning, is a new lens through which teachers can understand education. It is rooted in the dramatic increase in the quantity of data about learners and linked to management approaches that focus on quantitative metrics, which are sometimes antithetical…

  2. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  3. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  4. Visual analytics of brain networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2012-05-15

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging.

  5. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  6. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  7. Analytical Methods for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical methods for facilitating comparison of multiple sets during online searching are illustrated by description of specific searching methods that eliminate duplicate citations and a factoring procedure based on syntactic relationships that establishes ranked sets. Searches executed in National Center for Mental Health database on…

  8. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  9. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-01-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve…

  10. Visual Analytics of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging. PMID:22414991

  11. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  15. A new tocograph with cassette recording system and separate servo graphic recorder.

    PubMed

    Zahn, V; Seitz, P

    1979-01-01

    In order to register contractional activity, especially in the case of high-risk pregnancies, a tocograph was develop by means of which the contractions are registered by a small cassette recorder, which the patient can carry by about with her. A separate graphic recorder is responsible for the playback and this recorder remains at the doctor's practice. The patient is able to register her contractions herself as the unit is so simple to use. The recording section weighs only 500 grams, including the specially developed pressure transducer with optical distance-meter. The tocograph is produced in series.

  16. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  17. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  18. Reduction of hydraulic line oscillating pressures induced by pump cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhak, G.; Marino, P.; Bernstein, M.

    1982-05-01

    A Helmholtz resonator cavitation attenuator to reduce oscillating pressure and resulting vibration induced stresses was developed. Its development, the magnitude of reduction it effected in hydraulic line and bracket stresses, and the analytic procedure to calculate the standing pressure wave induced stresses in hydraulic lines are described.

  19. Validation and Verification of Composite Pressure Vessel Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Ortyl, Nicholas; Grant, Joseph; Taylor, F. Tad

    2006-01-01

    Ten composite pressure vessels were instrumented with fiber Bragg grating sensors and pressure tested Through burst. This paper and presentation will discuss the testing methodology, the test results, compare the testing results to the analytical model, and also compare the fiber Bragg grating sensor data with data obtained against that obtained from foil strain gages.

  20. Impulsive Pressurization of Neuronal Cells for Traumatic Brain Injury Study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruqiang; Lim, Jung Yul

    2011-01-01

    A novel impulsive cell pressurization experiment has been developed using a Kolsky bar device to investigate blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). We demonstrate in this video article how blast TBI-relevant impulsive pressurization is applied to the neuronal cells in vitro. This is achieved by using well-controlled pressure pulse created by a specialized Kolsky bar device, with complete pressure history within the cell pressurization chamber recorded. Pressurized neuronal cells are inspected immediately after pressurization, or further incubated to examine the long-term effects of impulsive pressurization on neurite/axonal outgrowth, neuronal gene expression, apoptosis, etc. We observed that impulsive pressurization at about 2 MPa induces distinct neurite loss relative to unpressurized cells. Our technique provides a novel method to investigate the molecular/cellular mechanisms of blast TBI, via impulsive pressurization of brain cells at well-controlled pressure magnitude and duration. PMID:22005926

  1. Electronic health records: current and future use.

    PubMed

    Peters, Steve G; Khan, Munawwar A

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of the electronic medical record, including benefits and shortcomings, and presents key factors likely to drive development in the next decade and beyond. The current electronic medical record to a large extent represents a digital version of the traditional paper legal record, owned and maintained by the practitioner. The future electronic health record is expected to be a shared tool, engaging patients in decision making, wellness and disease management and providing data for individual decision support, population management and analytics. Many drivers will determine this path, including payment model reform, proliferation of mobile platforms, telemedicine, genomics and individualized medicine and advances in 'big data' technologies.

  2. Fundamentals of orifice meter chart recorders

    SciTech Connect

    Whigham, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    The differential pressure chart recorder used to measure fluid flow through an orifice plate has gone through several design changes since it`s inception some sixty years ago. The present unit on the market uses two fluid filled bellows units connected together. One bellows senses the upstream pressure before the orifice plate, and the other bellows senses the downstream pressure after the orifice plate. This pressure differential created by fluid flow through the orifice plate moves the connected bellows on the back of the chart recorder, which are mechanically linked, by a rotating torque tube through the rear of the case, to the internal case linkage that is connected to an inking pen scribing a line on a circular chart. The ink line on a linear calibrated chart is proportional to the square of the now rate. While the significant information on proper recorder installation will be covered in the classroom. Due to space limitations, this paper will concentrate on a recommended method to precisely calibrate the chart recorder for maximum accuracy of measurement. The basic calibration procedure for the different pressure chart recorder (i.e. set zero, full scale and mid scale) has been taught for years. This paper does not intend to rehash old procedures that are fairly universally known. What this paper does present is a method to achieve a more accurate, more precise calibration than is prescribed in any manufacturer`s literature - and, at the same time, explain why this procedure is more accurate. In addition to being more accurate, this procedure has been proven to be faster than the compromise methods most recorder manufacturers advocate.

  3. Pressure moderation and effective pressure in Navier-Stokes flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chuong V.; Yu, Xinwei

    2016-10-01

    We study the Cauchy problem of the Navier-Stokes equations by both semi-analytic and classical energy methods. The former approach provides a physical picture of how viscous effects may or may not be able to suppress singularity development. In the latter approach, we examine the pressure term that drives the dynamics of the velocity norms \\parallel u{{\\parallel}{{Lq}}} , for q≥slant 3 . A key idea behind this investigation is due to the fact that the pressure p in this term is determined up to a function of both space and |u| , say P(x,|u|) , which may assume relatively broad forms. This allows us to use P as a pressure moderator in the evolution equation for \\parallel u{{\\parallel}{{Lq}}} , whereby optimal regularity criteria can be sought by varying P within its admissible classes. New regularity criteria are derived with and without making use of the moderator. The results obtained in the absence of the moderator feature some improvement over existing criteria in the literature. Several criteria are derived in terms of the moderated (effective) pressure p+P . A simple moderation scheme and the plausibility of the present approach to the problem of Navier-Stokes regularity are discussed.

  4. Geometry attained by pressurized membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palisoc, Arthur; Veal, Gordon; Cassapakis, Constantine; Greschik, Gyula; Mikulas, Martin

    1998-08-01

    An intensive investigation has been carried out to study the surface profiles obtained as a result of the large deformations of pressurized membranes. The study shows that the inflated membrane shapes may have the requisite surface accuracy for use in future large space apertures. Both analytical and experimental work have been carried out. On the analytical side, the classical work of Hencky on flat circular membranes was extended to eliminate the limitations it imposed; namely a lateral non-follower pressure with no pre-stress. The result is a computer program for the solution of the pressurized circular membrane problem. The reliability of the computer program is demonstrated via verification against FAIM, a nonlinear finite element solver developed primarily for the analysis of inflated membrane shapes. The experimental work includes observations made by Veal on the (W-shaped) deviations between the membrane deflected shape and the predicted profile. More recent measurements have been made of the deformations of pressurized flat circular and parabolic membranes using photogrammetric techniques. The surface error quantification analyses include the effect of material properties, geometric properties, loading uncertainties, and boundary conditions. These effects are very easily handled by the special FEM code FAIM which had recently been enhanced to predict the on-orbit dynamics, RF, and solar concentration characteristics of inflatable parabolic antennas/reflectors such as the IAE that flew off the space shuttle Endeavour in May 1996. The results of measurements have been compared with analyses and their ramifications on precision-shape, large-aperture parabolic space reflectors are discussed. Results show that very large space apertures with surface slope error accuracies on the order to space reflectors are discussed. Results show that very large space apertures with surface slope error accuracies on the order of 1 milliradian or less are feasible. Surface

  5. The early eukaryotic fossil record.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J

    2007-01-01

    The Precambrian era records the evolution of the domain Eucarya. Although the taxonomy of fossils is often impossible to resolve beyond the level of domain, their morphology and chemistry indicate the evolution of major biological innovations. The late Archean record for eukaryotes is limited to trace amounts of biomarkers. Morphological evidence appears in late Paleoproterozoic and early Mesoproterozoic (1800-1300 Ma) rocks. The moderate diversity of preservable eukaryotic organisms includes cell walls without surface ornament (but with complex ultrastructure), with regularly distributed surface ornamentation, and with irregularly or regularly arranged processes. Collectively, these fossils suggest that eukaryotes with flexible membranes and cytoskeletons existed in mid-Proterozoic oceans. The late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic (1300-750 Ma) is a time of diversification and evolution when direct evidence for important biological innovations occurs in the fossil record such as multicellularity, sex, photosynthesis, biomineralization, predation, and heterotrophy. Members of extant clades can be recognized and include bangiophyte red algae, xanthophyte algae, cladophorale green algae, euglyphid, lobose, and filose amoebae and possible fungi. In the late Neoproterozoic, besides more diversification of ornamented fossils, florideophyte red algae and brown algae diversify, and animals take the stage. The record of biological innovations documented by the fossils shows that eukaryotes had evolved most cytological and molecular complexities very early in the Proterozoic but environmental conditions delayed their diversification within clades until oxygen level and predation pressure increased significantly. PMID:17977455

  6. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  7. Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L.

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles.

  8. Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles. PMID:27415318

  9. Cryogenic Autogenous Pressurization Testing for Robotic Refueling Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Francis, J.; Mustafi, S.; Li, X.; Barfknecht, P.; DeLee, C. H.; McGuire, J.

    2015-01-01

    A wick-heater system has been selected for use to pressurize the Source Dewar of the Robotic Refueling Mission Phase 3 on-orbit cryogen transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. Experimental results of autogenous pressurization of liquid argon and liquid nitrogen using a prototype wick-heater system are presented. The wick-heater generates gas to increase the pressure in the tank while maintaining a low bulk fluid temperature. Pressurization experiments were performed in 2013 to characterize the performance of the wick heater. This paper describes the experimental setup, pressurization results, and analytical model correlations.

  10. Analyte species and concentration identification using differentially functionalized microcantilever arrays and artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Datskos, Panos G; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we have performed analyte species and concentration identification using an array of ten differentially functionalized microcantilevers coupled with a back-propagation artificial neural network pattern recognition algorithm. The array consists of ten nanostructured silicon microcantilevers functionalized by polymeric and gas chromatography phases and macrocyclic receptors as spatially dense, differentially responding sensing layers for identification and quantitation of individual analyte(s) and their binary mixtures. The array response (i.e. cantilever bending) to analyte vapor was measured by an optical readout scheme and the responses were recorded for a selection of individual analytes as well as several binary mixtures. An artificial neural network (ANN) was designed and trained to recognize not only the individual analytes and binary mixtures, but also to determine the concentration of individual components in a mixture. To the best of our knowledge, ANNs have not been applied to microcantilever array responses previously to determine concentrations of individual analytes. The trained ANN correctly identified the eleven test analyte(s) as individual components, most with probabilities greater than 97%, whereas it did not misidentify an unknown (untrained) analyte. Demonstrated unique aspects of this work include an ability to measure binary mixtures and provide both qualitative (identification) and quantitative (concentration) information with array-ANN-based sensor methodologies.

  11. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  12. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-01

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology. PMID:23614661

  13. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)

  14. [Free thyroxine immunoassay: analytical review].

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; Ingrand, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones assays (T4 and T3) are limited to the free forms with hormonal activity, the only ones useful for the assessment of thyroid function. Free thyroxine assays are part of prescribed parameters by the physician once known plasma TSH concentration. A reference method exists, but immunoassays are the most commonly technics used in current practice. After a reminder of the iodothyronine biochemistry and physiology, the authors discuss preanalytical and analytical steps in detail, focusing on the possible pitfalls.

  15. Proteomics: analytical tools and techniques.

    PubMed

    MacCoss, M J; Yates, J R

    2001-09-01

    Scientists have long been interested in measuring the effects of different stimuli on protein expression and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed for the automated separation, identification, and quantitation of all of the proteins within the cell. Soon, investigators will be able to observe the effects of an experiment on every protein (as opposed to a selected few). This review presents a discussion of recent technological advances in proteomics in addition to exploring current methodological limitations.

  16. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Prisant, L M; Bottini, P B; Carr, A A

    1996-01-01

    Blood pressure, like heart rate, is a changing physiologic variable. Like ambulatory electrocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure can be recorded intermittently throughout the day. Ambulatory blood pressure is a dynamic variable influenced by multiple factors, and it correlates more strongly with target organ damage than do static office blood pressure measurements. Office (but not ambulatory) measurements are subject to the placebo and physician pressor effect. There is a great patient variability of blood pressure measurements in the office compared with ambulatory methods. Ambulatory blood pressure devices are portable rather than 'ambulatory'. The auscultatory (listens for Korotkoff sounds) and oscillometric (detects maximal arterial vibrations and calculates diastolic blood pressure) methods are used to detect blood pressure. Equipment is generally safe, although mild sleep derangements have been reported. The 24-h blood pressure and diurnal change are usually assessed. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure mean of 140/90 mm Hg or above is clearly abnormal, though recent data suggest that the 95th centile is 134/84 mm Hg. Correlation of individual blood pressure readings with diary entries may be instructive. New American and British validation criteria have been published to assess the performance of each new device that becomes available. It should not be assumed that newer ambulatory devices have been tested (particularly by a third party) or are better. Test/retest 24-h ambulatory blood pressure shows less variability than office measurements; however, the percentage of patients with a mean difference greater than +/- 5 mm Hg on repeat 24-h blood pressure measurement after 1 week is still surprisingly high (49.3%, systolic; 52.1%, diastolic). European trials are in progress to assess the prognosis of hypertension assessed by ambulatory compared with office blood pressure. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been restricted for use in several clinical

  17. Analytical optical scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical optical model for scattering of light due to lightning by clouds of different geometry is being developed. The self-consistent approach and the equivalent medium concept of Twersky was used to treat the case corresponding to outside illumination. Thus, the resulting multiple scattering problem is transformed with the knowledge of the bulk parameters, into scattering by a single obstacle in isolation. Based on the size parameter of a typical water droplet as compared to the incident wave length, the problem for the single scatterer equivalent to the distribution of cloud particles can be solved either by Mie or Rayleigh scattering theory. The super computing code of Wiscombe can be used immediately to produce results that can be compared to the Monte Carlo computer simulation for outside incidence. A fairly reasonable inverse approach using the solution of the outside illumination case was proposed to model analytically the situation for point sources located inside the thick optical cloud. Its mathematical details are still being investigated. When finished, it will provide scientists an enhanced capability to study more realistic clouds. For testing purposes, the direct approach to the inside illumination of clouds by lightning is under consideration. Presently, an analytical solution for the cubic cloud will soon be obtained. For cylindrical or spherical clouds, preliminary results are needed for scattering by bounded obstacles above or below a penetrable surface interface.

  18. Networked analytical sample management system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, W.J.; Spencer, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has operated a computer-controlled analytical sample management system. The system, pogrammed in COBOL, runs on the site IBM 3081 mainframe computer. The system provides for the following subtasks: sample logging, analytical method assignment, worklist generation, cost accounting, and results reporting. Within these subtasks the system functions in a time-sharing mode. Communications between subtasks are done overnight in a batch mode. The system currently supports management of up to 3000 samples a month. Each sample requires, on average, three independent methods. Approximately 100 different analytical techniques are available for customized input of data. The laboratory has implemented extensive computer networking using Ethernet. Electronic mail, RS/1, and online literature searches are in place. Based on our experience with the existing sample management system, we have begun a project to develop a second generation system. The new system will utilize the panel designs developed for the present LIMS, incorporate more realtime features, and take advantage of the many commercial LIMS systems.

  19. Bed posture classification for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, R; Ostadabbas, S; Faezipour, M; Farshbaf, M; Nourani, M; Tamil, L; Pompeo, M

    2011-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is an age-old problem imposing a huge cost to our health care system. Detecting and keeping record of the patient's posture on bed, help care givers reposition patient more efficiently and reduce the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a commercial pressure mapping system is used to create a time-stamped, whole-body pressure map of the patient. An image-based processing algorithm is developed to keep an unobtrusive and informative record of patient's bed posture over time. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm can predict patient's bed posture with up to 97.7% average accuracy. This algorithm could ultimately be used with current support surface technologies to reduce the risk of ulcer development. PMID:22255993

  20. Increasing Impact of Coursework Through Deep Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Schonstein, D.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past few years, ASU has developed the online astrobiology lab course Habitable Worlds, which has been offered to over 1,500 students over seven semesters. The course is offered through Smart Sparrow's intelligent tutoring system, which records student answers, time on question, simulation setups, and additional data that we refer to as "analytics". As the development of the course has stabilized, we have been able to devote more time to analyzing these data, extracting patterns of student behavior and how they have changed as the course has developed. During the most recent two semesters, pre- and post-tests of content knowledge related to the greenhouse effect were administered to assess changes in students' knowledge. The results of the Fall 2013 content assessment and an analysis of each step of every activity using the course platform analytics were used to identify problematic concepts and lesson elements, which were redesigned for the following semester. We observed a statistically significant improvement from pre to post instruction in Spring 2014. Preliminary results seem to indicate that several interactive activities, which replaced written/spoken content, contributed to this positive outcome. Our study demonstrates the benefit of deep analytics for thorough analysis of student results and quick iteration, allowing for significantly improved exercises to be redeployed quickly. The misconceptions that students have and retain depend on the individual student, although certain patterns do emerge in the class as a whole. These patterns can be seen in student discussion board behavior, the types of answers they submit, and the patterns of mistakes they make. By interrogating this wealth of data, we seek to identify the patterns that outstanding, struggling, and failing students display and how early in the class these patterns can be detected. If these patterns can be identified and detected early in the semester, instructors can intervene earlier

  1. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  2. An analytical approach of CO2 injection induced caprock deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Barès, Paul; Laloui, Lyesse

    2014-05-01

    CO2 storage in geological formation, especially in deep aquifers, is becoming a compromising method to reduce the impact of CO2 on the greenhouse effect. Practically, large-volume (>1Mt/year) of CO2 could be injected into a deep aquifer. However, the response of such system is complex because of coupling between the flow and mechanical responses. High rate injection could result in an abrupt fluid pressures build-up, deforming the aquifer and result in surface uplifting, which highly affect public acceptation to the CO2 storage projects. The study focuses on a specific problem related to the surface uplift induced by the injection of CO2 at depth. The methodology in this study includes the development of a mathematical model that incorporates elastic behaviour of storage mediums and two immiscible fluids (CO2 and water) flow within the aquifers while surface rock layer is modelled as a thin plate. Governing equations are solved for the axisymmetric flexure deflection due to a constant rate injection of CO2. Coupling between porosity and permeability is included via an iterative schema. Numerical integration stability has been improved as well. Results show that this semi-analytical solution is capable to capture the pressure build-up during the very early stage of injection, resulting in a high rate surface uplift. With hydromechanical effects, pressure tends to stabilize and surface deformation rate decreases. Compared to FEM simulation, the calculation time carried out by the semi-analytical solution is very short. It can be employed as a preliminary design tool for risk assessment such as injection rate, porosity, rock properties and geological structures. This semi-analytical solution provides a convenient way to estimate the influence of high rate injection of CO2 on the surface uplift. The methodology in this development can easily incorporate other pressure distributions. Thus one can benefit from the advances in hydrology researches as well.

  3. Analytical and Semi-Analytical Tools for the Design of Oscillatory Pumping Tests.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Michael; Barrash, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Oscillatory pumping tests-in which flow is varied in a periodic fashion-provide a method for understanding aquifer heterogeneity that is complementary to strategies such as slug testing and constant-rate pumping tests. During oscillatory testing, pressure data collected at non-pumping wells can be processed to extract metrics, such as signal amplitude and phase lag, from a time series. These metrics are robust against common sensor problems (including drift and noise) and have been shown to provide information about aquifer heterogeneity. Field implementations of oscillatory pumping tests for characterization, however, are not common and thus there are few guidelines for their design and implementation. Here, we use available analytical solutions from the literature to develop design guidelines for oscillatory pumping tests, while considering practical field constraints. We present two key analytical results for design and analysis of oscillatory pumping tests. First, we provide methods for choosing testing frequencies and flow rates which maximize the signal amplitude that can be expected at a distance from an oscillating pumping well, given design constraints such as maximum/minimum oscillator frequency and maximum volume cycled. Preliminary data from field testing helps to validate the methodology. Second, we develop a semi-analytical method for computing the sensitivity of oscillatory signals to spatially distributed aquifer flow parameters. This method can be quickly applied to understand the "sensed" extent of an aquifer at a given testing frequency. Both results can be applied given only bulk aquifer parameter estimates, and can help to optimize design of oscillatory pumping test campaigns. PMID:25535805

  4. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  5. Analytical investigation of squeeze film dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicak, Mehmet Murat Altug

    Squeeze film damping effects naturally occur if structures are subjected to loading situations such that a very thin film of fluid is trapped within structural joints, interfaces, etc. An accurate estimate of squeeze film effects is important to predict the performance of dynamic structures. Starting from linear Reynolds equation which governs the fluid behavior coupled with structure domain which is modeled by Kirchhoff plate equation, the effects of nondimensional parameters on the damped natural frequencies are presented using boundary characteristic orthogonal functions. For this purpose, the nondimensional coupled partial differential equations are obtained using Rayleigh-Ritz method and the weak formulation, are solved using polynomial and sinusoidal boundary characteristic orthogonal functions for structure and fluid domain respectively. In order to implement present approach to the complex geometries, a two dimensional isoparametric coupled finite element is developed based on Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and linearized Reynolds equation. The coupling between fluid and structure is handled by considering the pressure forces and structural surface velocities on the boundaries. The effects of the driving parameters on the frequency response functions are investigated. As the next logical step, an analytical method for solution of squeeze film damping based upon Green's function to the nonlinear Reynolds equation considering elastic plate is studied. This allows calculating modal damping and stiffness force rapidly for various boundary conditions. The nonlinear Reynolds equation is divided into multiple linear non-homogeneous Helmholtz equations, which then can be solvable using the presented approach. Approximate mode shapes of a rectangular elastic plate are used, enabling calculation of damping ratio and frequency shift as well as complex resistant pressure. Moreover, the theoretical results are correlated and compared with experimental results both in the

  6. Two Analyte Calibration From The Transient Response Of Potentiometric Sensors Employed With The SIA Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    Calibration models for multi-analyte electronic tongues have been commonly built using a set of sensors, at least one per analyte under study. Complex signals recorded with these systems are formed by the sensors' responses to the analytes of interest plus interferents, from which a multivariate response model is then developed. This work describes a data treatment method for the simultaneous quantification of two species in solution employing the signal from a single sensor. The approach used here takes advantage of the complex information recorded with one electrode's transient after insertion of sample for building the calibration models for both analytes. The departure information from the electrode was firstly processed by discrete wavelet for transforming the signals to extract useful information and reduce its length, and then by artificial neural networks for fitting a model. Two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case for simultaneously corroborating the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, L. D.; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-07-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  8. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-02-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  9. Description of a Pressure Measurement Technique for Obtaining Surface Static Pressures of a Radial Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  10. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. D.; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  11. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ICP monitoring; CSF pressure monitoring ... There are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is the most accurate monitoring method. To insert an intraventricular catheter, a ...

  12. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure ... Let's talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you ...

  13. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  14. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  15. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  16. Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.

  17. Recent progress of interpretation of bottom pressure during tsunamigenic earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Offshore observations make it possible to detect tsunamis in advance prior to their arrival at the shoreline. For this purpose, pressure sensors deployed in the deep sea have been used for a long time. After the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the offshore tsunami observations have been used for tsunami warning upgrade in Japan. In the meantime, the information of actual observed wave height would be issued since 2013. In the near- or the far-fields, however, bottom pressure records usually exhibit a complicated interface of signals related not only to tsunamis but also to hydroacoustic and seismic waves. This is why we need to interpret the bottom pressure recorded by the pressure sensors. Network of offshore observatories recently deployed in the Nankai Trough, SW Japan (i.e., DONET) provides high sampling records of bottom pressure and seismic records. Additionally, the seismic sensors (both broad-band seismometer and accelerometer) are deployed at the same location of the pressure sensor. In the present study, we review the recent offshore observations of bottom pressure from the tsunamigenic earthquakes. An outer-rise earthquake (Mw7.1) on 25 October 2013 taken place near the Japan Trench, NE Japan, for example, generated a few tens of centimeters tsunami at the nearest shoreline, and it also could be recorded by the DONET pressure sensors as a few millimeters of tsunami. Full seismic waveforms have been recorded by two types of seismic sensors as well. We present some features of the obtained pressure signals during the earthquake, in which it is worthwhile noting that the bottom pressure corresponds to the bottom acceleration in the inter-mediate frequency band. In the high frequency band, on the other hand, the bottom pressure follows the bottom velocity. This characteristic would be used for retrieving tsunami signals from the bottom pressure. Thus, quantitative interpretation and data processing of offshore tsunami observations can contribute to the effective

  18. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT PRESSURE RESPONSE FROM A CONSTANT FLOW RATE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporating a flow pump into a conventional triaxial laboratory system allows fluid to be supplied to or withdrawn from the base of a sediment sample at small and constant rates. An initial transient record of hydraulic head versus time is observed which eventually stabilizes to a constant steady state gradient across the sample; values of hydraulic conductivity can subsequently be determined from Darcy's law. In this paper, analytical methods are presented for determining values of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity from the initial transient phase of such a constant flow rate test. These methods are based on a diffusion equation involving pore pressure and are analogous to those used to describe the soil consolidation process and also to interpret aquifer properties from pumping tests.

  19. VA²: A Visual Analytics Approach for // Evaluating Visual Analytics Applications.

    PubMed

    Blascheck, Tanja; John, Markus; Kurzhals, Kuno; Koch, Steffen; Ertl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation has become a fundamental part of visualization research and researchers have employed many approaches from the field of human-computer interaction like measures of task performance, thinking aloud protocols, and analysis of interaction logs. Recently, eye tracking has also become popular to analyze visual strategies of users in this context. This has added another modality and more data, which requires special visualization techniques to analyze this data. However, only few approaches exist that aim at an integrated analysis of multiple concurrent evaluation procedures. The variety, complexity, and sheer amount of such coupled multi-source data streams require a visual analytics approach. Our approach provides a highly interactive visualization environment to display and analyze thinking aloud, interaction, and eye movement data in close relation. Automatic pattern finding algorithms allow an efficient exploratory search and support the reasoning process to derive common eye-interaction-thinking patterns between participants. In addition, our tool equips researchers with mechanisms for searching and verifying expected usage patterns. We apply our approach to a user study involving a visual analytics application and we discuss insights gained from this joint analysis. We anticipate our approach to be applicable to other combinations of evaluation techniques and a broad class of visualization applications.

  20. Electronic health record and electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    This article considers the government plans for the development of electronic health and patient records as set out in the NHS Plan and the progress and problems which have been encountered in their realization. PMID:16116372

  1. An inexpensive pressure telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Barber, B J; Quillen, E W; Cowley, A W

    1980-10-01

    An inexpensive telemetry system using transducers and recorders commonly available, i.e., Statham and Grass, is described. The direct-current signal of a Statham transducer is applied to a voltage-controlled oscillator, thereby frequency encoding the pressure sensed by the transducer. This encoded signal frequency modulates a Colpitts oscillator, which acts as a radio-frequency oscillator-transmitter in the 88- to 108-MHz band. This transmitter and transducer, along with a rechargeable NiCd battery pack (total wt 0.5 kg), are mounted in a canvas jacket and worn by a dog previously prepared with a chronic indwelling arterial catheter. With a fully charged battery pack, a signal can be transmitted up to 250 ft for 50 h. A frequency-modulation automotive receiver, powered by and interfaced with a Grass 7B recorder, receives the signal and drives a tachometer circuit that reconverts the audio-frequency signal to a voltage proportional to pressure. This voltage is then applied to the driver amplifier of the Grass to produce a charted record. This system introduces no distortion as seen by comparison of direct and telemetered signals and is drift free for intervals exceeding 24 h. PMID:7425148

  2. Semi-analytical estimation of wellbore leakage risk during CO2 sequestration in Ottawa County, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Matteo, E. N.; Elliot, T. R.; Nogues, J. P.; Deng, H.; Fitts, J. P.; Pollak, M.; Bielicki, J.; Wilson, E.; Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Using the semi-analytical ELSA model, wellbore leakage risk is estimated for CO2 injection into either the Mt. Simon or St. Peter formations, which are part of the Michigan Sedimentary Basin that lies beneath Ottawa County, MI. ELSA is a vertically integrated subsurface modeling tool that can be used to simulate both supercritical CO2 plume distribution/migration and pressure- induced brine displacement during CO2 injection. A composite 3D subsurface domain was constructed for the ELSA simulations based on estimated permeabilities for formation layers, as well as GIS databases containing subsurface stratigraphy, active and inactive and inactive wells, and potential interactions with subsurface activities. These activities include potable aquifers, oil and gas reservoirs, and waste injection sites, which represent potential liabilities if encountered by brine or supercritical CO2 displaced from the injection formation. Overall, the 3D subsurface domain encompasses an area of 1500 km2 to a depth of 2 km and contains over 3,000 wells. The permeabilities for abandoned wells are derived from a ranking system based on available well data including historical records and well logs. This distribution is then randomly sampled in Monte Carlo simulations that are used to generate a probability map for subsurface interferences or atmospheric release resulting from leakage of CO2 and /or brine from the injection formation. This method serves as the basis for comparative testing between various scenarios for injection, as well as for comparing the relative risk of leakage between injection formations or storage sites.

  3. Record-Breaking in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, W. I.; Turcotte, D. L.; Nicewicz, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The probabilistic theory of record-breaking was developed by Tata (1969), Nezvorov (1986) and others to describe the frequency of occurrence of record-breaking events in random trials. These results have been applied by Redner and Peterson (2006) in exploring the possible role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures and by Newman and Turcotte (2008) to the rate of occurrence of record- breaking earthquakes. In addition, van Aalsburg et al. (2008) have derived the expected values of record- breaking earthquake magnitudes globally and compared this with cataloged observations. We review some of the underlying theory relevant to the distribution of events in time which we then extend to the spatial distribution of record-breaking events. In particular, we derive the distribution function associated with an otherwise random background of events and the emergence of spatial clustering in such situations. Moreover, we employ large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations to extend our analytic results to 2 and 3 dimensions. These results yield some remarkable scaling features including hierarchical behavior, resulting in power-law and fractal features, in situations where one would not intuitively expect to observe such pattern. Furthermore, they provide a "null-hypothesis" that can be used in testing the distribution and spatial scaling of real seismic events such as those studied by Davidsen and Paczuski (2005) and Davidsen, Grassberger, and Paczuski (2006, 2088). Tata, M.N., Z. Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie verw. Geb. 12, 9- 20 (1969). Nezvorov, V.B., Theory, Prob. Appl., 32(2), 201-228, translated from Russian (2006). Redner, S. and Peterson, M.V., Phys. Rev. E 74, 061114 )2006). Newman, W.I. and Turcotte, D.L., 2008 Association of Pacific Rim Universities Symposium "Multi-Hazards around the Pacific Rim," University of California, Davis, August 21-22, 2008. Van Aalsburg, J., Newman, W.I., Turcotte, D.L., and Rundle, J.B., Fall AGU Meeting (this session

  4. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  5. Estimation of central systolic blood pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Lung-Ching; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Ding, Philip Yu-An; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2010-06-01

    Current noninvasive techniques for assessing central aortic pressure require the recording of an arterial pressure wave using a high-fidelity applanation tonometer. We therefore developed and validated a novel method to estimate the central aortic systolic pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor alone. Invasive high-fidelity right brachial and central aortic pressure waves, and left-brachial pulse volume plethysmography from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor, were obtained at baseline and 3 min after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin in 100 patients during cardiac catheterization. In the initial 50 patients (Generation Group), Central systolic blood pressure was predicted by a multi-variate prediction model generated from the comprehensive analysis of the invasive brachial pressure wave, including brachial late-systolic shoulder pressure value and parameters related to wave reflection and arterial compliance. Another prediction model was similarly constructed from the noninvasively calibrated pulse volume plethysmography. Both models were validated in the subsequent 50 patients (Validation Group) with results: r=0.98 (P<0.001) and mean difference=0.5+/-4.5 (95% confidence interval -8.3 to 9.3) mm Hg for the invasive model, and r=0.93 (P<0.001) and mean difference=-0.1+/-7.6 (95% confidence interval -15.0 to 14.8) mm Hg for the noninvasive model. Thus, our results indicate that central aortic systolic blood pressure could be estimated by analysis of the noninvasive brachial pressure wave alone from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

  6. Analytic three-loop static potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined, and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  7. Spectrofluorometric analytical applications of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Dsugi, Nuha Fathi Ali; Mohmed, Tamador Omer Mohamoud; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides composed of α-(1,4)-linked glucopyranose subunits. The most important feature of CDs is their ability to form inclusion complexes (host-guest complexes) with a very wide range of solid, liquid and gaseous compounds by a molecular complexation. During the last decade, a considerable number of research papers has been focused on the use of CDs to enhance fluorescence intensity of different analytes and to develop CD-induced spectrofluorimetric method. In this review, the various spectrofluorimetric methods based on host-inclusion complex are presented.

  8. Technical, analytical and computer support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a rigorous mathematical model for the design and performance analysis of cylindrical silicon-germanium thermoelectric generators is reported that consists of two parts, a steady-state (static) and a transient (dynamic) part. The material study task involves the definition and implementation of a material study that aims to experimentally characterize the long term behavior of the thermoelectric properties of silicon-germanium alloys as a function of temperature. Analytical and experimental efforts are aimed at the determination of the sublimation characteristics of silicon germanium alloys and the study of sublimation effects on RTG performance. Studies are also performed on a variety of specific topics on thermoelectric energy conversion.

  9. Analytic signals and harmonic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Tao

    2006-02-01

    We prove that a sufficient and necessary condition for Hei[Theta](s)=-iei[Theta](s), where H is Hilbert transformation, [Theta] is a continuous and strictly increasing function with [Theta](R)=2[pi], is that d[Theta](s) is a harmonic measure on the line. The counterpart result for the periodic case is also established. The study is motivated by, and has significant impact to time-frequency analysis, especially to aspects of analytic signals inducing instantaneous amplitude and frequency. As a by-product we introduce the theory of Hardy-space-preserving weighted trigonometric series and Fourier transformations induced by harmonic measures in the respective contexts.

  10. Public Records 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  11. Dental records: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Charangowda, B K

    2010-01-01

    Dental records consist of documents related to the history of present illness, clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment done, and the prognosis. A thorough knowledge of dental records is essential for the practicing dentist, as it not only has a forensic application, but also a legal implication with respect to insurance and consumerism. This article reviews the importance of dental records in forensics. PMID:21189983

  12. Records Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. State Archives and Records Management.

    This manual, prepared primarily for state government agencies, describes the organization and management of Alaska government records. Information is presented in nine topic areas: (1) Alaska's Archives and Records Management Program, which describes the program, its mission, services available, and employee responsibilities; (2) Records in…

  13. General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao

    2016-04-01

    The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.

  14. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework.

  15. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.

  16. Analytical and experimental investigation of flow fields of annular jets with and without swirling flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, M. R.; Smith, E. G.; Uhl, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to define the flowfield of annular jets, with and, without swirling flow. The analytical model treated configurations with variations of flow angularities, radius ratio, and swirl distributions. Swirl distributions characteristic of stator vanes and rotor blade rows, where the total pressure and swirl distributions are related were incorporated in the mathematical model. The experimental studies included tests of eleven nozzle models, both with and, without swirling exhaust flow. Flowfield surveys were obtained and used for comparison with the analytical model. This comparison of experimental and analytical studies served as the basis for evaluation of several empirical constants as required for application of the analysis to the general flow configuration. The analytical model developed during these studies is applicable to the evaluation of the flowfield and overall performance of the exhaust of statorless lift fan systems that contain various levels of exhaust swirl.

  17. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical methods... latest edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North...

  18. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for...

  19. Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-08-31

    We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.

  20. Analytics: What We're Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few months, EDUCAUSE has been focusing on analytics. As people hear from experts, meet with association members, and watch the marketplace evolve, a number of common themes are emerging. Conversations have shifted from "What is analytics?" to "How do we get started, and how do we use analytics well?" What people are hearing from…