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Sample records for pressure support ventilation

  1. Oscillations and noise: inherent instability of pressure support ventilation?

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, John R; Adams, Alexander B; Stone, Mary K; Dries, David J; Marini, John J; Crooke, Philip S

    2002-01-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is almost universally employed in the management of actively breathing ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. In this partial support mode of ventilation, a fixed pressure is applied to the airway opening, and flow delivery is monitored by the ventilator. Inspiration is terminated when measured inspiratory flow falls below a set fraction of the peak flow rate (flow cutoff); the ventilator then cycles to a lower pressure and expiration commences. We used linear and nonlinear mathematical models to investigate the dynamic behavior of pressure support ventilation and confirmed the predicted behavior using a test lung. Our mathematical and laboratory analyses indicate that pressure support ventilation in the setting of airflow obstruction can be accompanied by marked variations in tidal volume and end-expiratory alveolar pressure, even when subject effort is unvarying. Unstable behavior was observed in the simplest plausible linear mathematical model and is an inherent consequence of the underlying dynamics of this mode of ventilation. The mechanism underlying the observed instability is "feed forward" behavior mediated by oscillatory elevation in end-expiratory pressure. In both mathematical and mechanical models, unstable behavior occurred at impedance values and ventilator settings that are clinically realistic.

  2. [Pressure support ventilation and proportional assist ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Bermeo, H; Bottiroli, M; Italiano, S; Roche-Campo, F; Santos, J A; Alonso, M; Mancebo, J

    2014-01-01

    To compare tolerance, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and clinical outcomes during weaning from MV in patients subjected to either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or proportional assist ventilation (PAV). A prospective, observational study was carried out. Intensive Care Unit. A total of 40 consecutive subjects were allocated to either the PSV or the PAV group until each group contained 20 patients. Patients were included in the study when they met the criteria to begin weaning and the attending physician decided to initiate the weaning process. The physician selected the modality and set the ventilatory parameters. None. Demographic data, respiratory mechanics, ventilatory parameters, duration of MV, and clinical outcomes (reintubation, tracheostomy, mortality). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the PSV and PAV groups in terms of the total duration of MV (10 [5-18] vs. 9 [7-19] days; P=.85), reintubation (5 [31%] vs. 3 [19%]; P=.69), or mortality (4 [20%] vs. 5 [25%] deaths; P=1). Eight patients (40%) in the PSV group and 6 patients (30%) in the PAV group (P=.74) required a return to volume assist-control ventilation due to clinical deterioration. Tolerance, duration of MV and clinical outcomes during weaning from mechanical ventilation were similar in PSV and PAV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Inspiratory work and response times of a modified pediatric volume ventilator during synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Martin, L D; Rafferty, J F; Wetzel, R C; Gioia, F R

    1989-12-01

    Volume ventilation by demand flow ventilators significantly increases work of breathing during inspiration. Although various ventilator modifications and different modes of ventilation have been developed, there have been few studies regarding imposed work of breathing in infants and children. This study was designed to evaluate several modifications of a commercially available demand flow ventilator designed to shorten response time (tr) and decrease the imposed work (Wi) involved in opening the demand valve. Minimum withdrawal volume (Vmin), maximum negative pressure (P mneg), and tr were measured. Wi was defined as the product of Vmin and P mneg. Seven Siemens Servo 900C ventilators were tested under 16 different trial conditions with four variables: 1) mode of ventilation (synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation [SIMV] vs. pressure support ventilation [PSV]); 2) caliber of circuit tubing (adult vs. pediatric); 3) location of airway pressure monitor (distal vs. proximal); and 4) ventilator trigger sensitivity (0 cm H2O--high vs. -2 cm H2O--low). Vmin, Pmneg, and Wi were all decreased (P less than .05) while tr was unaffected by changing ventilator trigger sensitivity from low to high. Wi was decreased by pediatric tubing and proximal airway pressure monitoring only when low trigger sensitivity was used. PSV and proximal airway monitoring shortened tr. The authors conclude that the use of pediatric circuit tubing and proximal airway pressure monitoring with a Siemens Servo 900C ventilator significantly improved ventilator performance.

  4. Pressure-supported ventilation for posterior fossa operation.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Takahashi, H; Yanase, T; Suzuki, M

    1990-03-01

    To maintain enough gas exchange while using spontaneous respiration as a monitor of the normal brainstem function, we tried pressure-supported ventilation (PSV) with a Servo 900C ventilator (Siemens Elema AB, Sweden) on 12 otherwise healthy patients during posterior fossa operation. Ventilation mode was switched from controlled to PSV after the dura was open uneventfully in all cases but one. With a trigger level of -1 to -2 cm H2O, spontaneous respiration was triggered to start the inspiration. With supporting inspiratory pressure of 4-20 cm H2O, PaCO2 was kept at 31.7-45.9 mm Hg. The ventilatory level could be monitored breath by breath by ventilatory frequency, tidal volume, minute volume, and end-tidal CO2 concentration shown on the ventilator system. Apnea was observed in two cases during surgical manipulation around the brainstem. It was indicated immediately by the ventilator's alarm for decreased expiratory minute volume, and no sign of brainstem dysfunction was observed postoperatively. PSV was useful in maintaining adequate ventilation whereas spontaneous respiration was used as an indicator of normal brainstem function. The alarm system of the ventilator was sensitive enough to detect the surgical invasion of the brainstem at a very early stage.

  5. Patient-ventilator interaction and inspiratory effort during pressure support ventilation in patients with different pathologies.

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Bruschi, C; Fracchia, C; Braschi, A; Rubini, F

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pressure support ventilation (PSV) requires different diaphragmatic efforts and patient-ventilator matching, according to the underlying disease. Four groups of patients requiring PSV were studied: Group A, recovering from an episode of acute respiratory failure due to adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); Group B, with postsurgical complications; and two subsets of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, with "normal" static compliance of the respiratory system (Cst,rs) (Group C) or elevated Cst,rs (Group D). Ventilatory pattern, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), the pressure-time product of the diaphragm (PTPdi), static (PEEPi,stat) and dynamic intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi,dyn), Cst,rs and resistance of the total respiratory system (Rrs) were recorded. The matching between patient and ventilator was analysed, recording the number of "ineffective efforts" (inspiratory efforts not efficient enough to trigger a new ventilator cycle, despite a positive deflection in Pdi). A satisfactory blood gas equilibrium arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2 > 93%, with a pH > 7.32) was obtained in the various groups with different levels of PSV. Minute ventilation was found to be significantly higher in Groups A and B, due to the longer expiratory time (tE) in the COPD groups. Group A (2 out of 7), Group B (3 out of 7), Group C (3 out of 5) patients showed sporadic "ineffective efforts". All Group D patients manifested continuous mismatching with the ventilator, so that the pressure-time product of the diaphragm per minute (PTPdi/min), reflecting the metabolic work of the diaphragm, was not different in the four groups. Tidal volume and the spontaneous inspiratory efforts were similar in the four groups, but the number of breaths delivered by the ventilator was significantly higher in Groups A and B. The application of different levels of pressure support ventilation in patients with acute

  6. Pressure support ventilation decreases inspiratory work of breathing during general anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation.

    PubMed

    Christie, J M; Smith, R A

    1992-08-01

    Spontaneous ventilation may offer advantages over controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), but increase in work of breathing may diminish its usefulness. During general anesthesia, respiratory depression and increased work of breathing often preclude spontaneous ventilation, and patients then receive CMV. We compared the inspiratory work of breathing of anesthetized patients who breathed with pressure support ventilation (PSV) with that associated with a demand gas flow and a standard anesthesia circle system. We studied nine consenting patients who underwent general inhaled anesthesia with or without regional supplementation. An anesthesia/ventilator system (Siemens 900D, Solna, Sweden) provided PSV (5 cm H2O) or demand gas flow during spontaneous inspiration. Gas flow during demand breathing and PSV was initiated when inspiration produced a 2-cm H2O reduction in airway pressure. An anesthesia machine (Dräger Narkomed 3, Telford, Pa.) provided a gas flow rate of 6 L/min through a standard semiclosed circle system. Airway pressure, airway gas flow rate, and esophageal pressure were continuously transduced, and data or signals were conveyed to a computer. Tidal volume and respiratory rate were computed from the flow curve. The inspiratory work of breathing was calculated as the integral of the area subserved by a plot of esophageal pressure and tidal volume during inspiration. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded, and arterial blood was sampled for gas tension and pH analysis. No differences were found in pHa, Paco2, Pao2, tidal volume, respiratory rate, heart rate, or mean arterial blood pressure among the three modes of ventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Pressure support-ventilation versus spontaneous breathing with "T-Tube" for interrupting the ventilation after cardiac operations

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Isabela Scali; Franco, Aline Marques; Bassetto, Solange; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare pressure-support ventilation with spontaneous breathing through a T-tube for interrupting invasive mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Adults of both genders were randomly allocated to 30 minutes of either pressure-support ventilation or spontaneous ventilation with "T-tube" before extubation. Manovacuometry, ventilometry and clinical evaluation were performed before the operation, immediately before and after extubation, 1h and 12h after extubation. Results Twenty-eight patients were studied. There were no deaths or pulmonary complications. The mean aortic clamping time in the pressure support ventilation group was 62 ± 35 minutes and 68 ± 36 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.651). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass duration in the pressure-support ventilation group was 89 ± 44 minutes and 82 ± 42 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.75). The mean Tobin index in the pressure support ventilation group was 51 ± 25 and 64.5 ± 23 in the T-tube group (P=0.153). The duration of intensive care unit stay for the pressure support ventilation group was 2.1 ± 0.36 days and 2.3 ± 0.61 days in the T-tube group (P=0.581). The atelectasis score in the T-tube group was 0.6 ± 0.8 and 0.5 ± 0.6 (P=0.979) in the pressure support ventilation group. The study groups did not differ significantly in manovacuometric and ventilometric parameters and hospital evolution. Conclusion The two trial methods evaluated for interruption of mechanical ventilation did not affect the postoperative course of patients who underwent cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:24598949

  8. Influences of Duration of Inspiratory Effort, Respiratory Mechanics, and Ventilator Type on Asynchrony With Pressure Support and Proportional Assist Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Renata S; Sales, Raquel P; Melo, Luíz H de P; Marinho, Liégina S; Bastos, Vasco Pd; Nogueira, Andréa da Nc; Ferreira, Juliana C; Holanda, Marcelo A

    2017-05-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is often associated with patient-ventilator asynchrony. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) offers inspiratory assistance proportional to patient effort, minimizing patient-ventilator asynchrony. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of respiratory mechanics and patient effort on patient-ventilator asynchrony during PSV and PAV plus (PAV+). We used a mechanical lung simulator and studied 3 respiratory mechanics profiles (normal, obstructive, and restrictive), with variations in the duration of inspiratory effort: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s. The Auto-Trak system was studied in ventilators when available. Outcome measures included inspiratory trigger delay, expiratory trigger asynchrony, and tidal volume (VT). Inspiratory trigger delay was greater in the obstructive respiratory mechanics profile and greatest with a effort of 2.0 s (160 ms); cycling asynchrony, particularly delayed cycling, was common in the obstructive profile, whereas the restrictive profile was associated with premature cycling. In comparison with PSV, PAV+ improved patient-ventilator synchrony, with a shorter triggering delay (28 ms vs 116 ms) and no cycling asynchrony in the restrictive profile. VT was lower with PAV+ than with PSV (630 mL vs 837 mL), as it was with the single-limb circuit ventilator (570 mL vs 837 mL). PAV+ mode was associated with longer cycling delays than were the other ventilation modes, especially for the obstructive profile and higher effort values. Auto-Trak eliminated automatic triggering. Mechanical ventilation asynchrony was influenced by effort, respiratory mechanics, ventilator type, and ventilation mode. In PSV mode, delayed cycling was associated with shorter effort in obstructive respiratory mechanics profiles, whereas premature cycling was more common with longer effort and a restrictive profile. PAV+ prevented premature cycling but not delayed cycling, especially in obstructive respiratory mechanics profiles

  9. Automatic control of pressure support for ventilator weaning in surgical intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Dirk; Engel, Christoph; Elke, Gunnar; Pulletz, Sven; Haake, Nils; Frerichs, Inéz; Zick, Günther; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

    2012-03-15

    Despite its ability to reduce overall ventilation time, protocol-guided weaning from mechanical ventilation is not routinely used in daily clinical practice. Clinical implementation of weaning protocols could be facilitated by integration of knowledge-based, closed-loop controlled protocols into respirators. To determine whether automated weaning decreases overall ventilation time compared with weaning based on a standardized written protocol in an unselected surgical patient population. In this prospective controlled trial patients ventilated for longer than 9 hours were randomly allocated to receive either weaning with automatic control of pressure support ventilation (automated-weaning group) or weaning based on a standardized written protocol (control group) using the same ventilation mode. The primary end point of the study was overall ventilation time. Overall ventilation time (median [25th and 75th percentile]) did not significantly differ between the automated-weaning (31 [19-101] h; n = 150) and control groups (39 [20-118] h; n = 150; P = 0.178). Patients who underwent cardiac surgery (n = 132) exhibited significantly shorter overall ventilation times in the automated-weaning (24 [18-57] h) than in the control group (35 [20-93] h; P = 0.035). The automated-weaning group exhibited shorter ventilation times until the first spontaneous breathing trial (1 [0-15] vs. 9 [1-51] h; P = 0.001) and a trend toward fewer tracheostomies (17 vs. 28; P = 0.075). Overall ventilation times did not significantly differ between weaning using automatic control of pressure support ventilation and weaning based on a standardized written protocol. Patients after cardiac surgery may benefit from automated weaning. Implementation of additional control variables besides the level of pressure support may further improve automated-weaning systems. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00445289).

  10. The impact of spontaneous ventilation on distribution of lung aeration in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: airway pressure release ventilation versus pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Rinka, Hiroshi; Kaji, Arito; Yoshimoto, Akira; Arimoto, Hideki; Miyaichi, Toshinori; Kan, Masanori

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we sought to determine which mode, airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) or pressure support ventilation (PSV), decreases atelectasis more in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This was a retrospective study in the intensive care unit. Between 2006 and 2007, we identified 18 patients with acute lung injury/ARDS who received either APRV or PSV and had a helical computed tomography scan twice in 3 days. Computed tomography data from the APRV and PSV groups (n = 9 each) were analyzed for 3-dimensional reconstruction and volumetry. Aerated lung regions (normally aerated, poorly aerated, nonaerated, and hyperinflated) were identified by their densities in Hounsfield units. The Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio and alveolar-arteriolar oxygen gradient after ventilation were improved in both groups (P = 0.008); however, the improvements in the APRV group exceeded those in the PSV group when delivered with equal mean airway pressure (P = 0.018 and 0.015, respectively). Atelectasis decreased significantly from 41% (range, 17%-68%) to 19% (range, 6%-40%) (P = 0.008) and normally aerated volume increased significantly from 29% (range, 13%-41%) to 43% (range, 25%-56%) (P = 0.008) in the APRV group, whereas lung volume did not change in the PSV group. Spontaneous ventilation during APRV improves lung aeration by decreasing atelectasis. PSV for gas exchange is effective but not sufficient to improve lung aeration. These results indicate that APRV is more efficient than PSV as a mode of primary ventilatory support to decrease atelectasis in patients with ARDS.

  11. Online estimation of respiratory mechanics in non-invasive pressure support ventilation: a bench model study.

    PubMed

    Mulqueeny, Qestra; Tassaux, Didier; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Schindhelm, Klaus; Redmond, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-01-01

    An online algorithm for determining respiratory mechanics in patients using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pressure support mode was developed and embedded in a ventilator system. Based on multiple linear regression (MLR) of respiratory data, the algorithm was tested on a patient bench model under conditions with and without leak and simulating a variety of mechanics. Bland-Altman analysis indicates reliable measures of compliance across the clinical range of interest (± 11-18% limits of agreement). Resistance measures showed large quantitative errors (30-50%), however, it was still possible to qualitatively distinguish between normal and obstructive resistances. This outcome provides clinically significant information for ventilator titration and patient management.

  12. Contrasting pressure-support ventilation and helium-oxygen during exercise in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Omar; Collins, Eileen G; Adiguzel, Nalan; Langbein, W Edwin; Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Helium-oxygen mixtures and pressure-support ventilation have been used to unload the respiratory muscles and increase exercise tolerance in COPD. Considering the different characteristics of these techniques, we hypothesized that helium-oxygen would be more effective in reducing exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation than pressure-support. We also hypothesized that patients would experience greater increases in respiratory rate and minute ventilation with helium-oxygen than with pressure-support. The hypotheses were tested in ten patients with severe COPD (FEV(1) = 28 ± 3% predicted [mean ± SE]) during constant-load cycling (80% maximal workrate) while breathing 30% oxygen-alone, helium-oxygen, and pressure-support in randomized order. As hypothesized, helium-oxygen had greater impact on dynamic hyperinflation than did pressure-support (end-exercise; p = 0.03). For the most part of exercise, respiratory rate and minute ventilation were greater with helium-oxygen than with pressure-support (p ≤ 0.008). During the initial phases of exercise, helium-oxygen caused less rib-cage muscle recruitment than did pressure-support (p < 0.03), and after the start of exercise it caused greater reduction in inspiratory reserve volume (p ≤ 0.02). Despite these different responses, helium-oxygen and pressure-support caused similar increases in exercise duration (oxygen-alone: 6.9 ± 0.8 min; helium-oxygen: 10.7 ± 1.4 min; pressure-support: 11.2 ± 1.6 min; p = 0.003) and similar decreases in inspiratory effort (esophageal pressure-time product), respiratory drive, pulmonary resistance, dyspnea and leg effort (p < 0.03). In conclusion, helium-oxygen reduced exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation by improving the relationship between hyperinflation and minute ventilation. In contrast, pressure-support reduced hyperinflation solely as a result of lowering ventilation. Helium-oxygen was more effective in reducing exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation in severe COPD, and was

  13. A randomized controlled trial comparing the ventilation duration between adaptive support ventilation and pressure assist/control ventilation in medical patients in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Kirakli, Cenk; Naz, Ilknur; Ediboglu, Ozlem; Tatar, Dursun; Budak, Ahmet; Tellioglu, Emel

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a closed loop mode of mechanical ventilation (MV) that provides a target minute ventilation by automatically adapting inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate with the minimum work of breathing on the part of the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ASV on total MV duration when compared with pressure assist/control ventilation. Adult medical patients intubated and mechanically ventilated for > 24 h in a medical ICU were randomized to either ASV or pressure assist/control ventilation. Sedation and medical treatment were standardized for each group. Primary outcome was the total MV duration. Secondary outcomes were the weaning duration, number of manual settings of the ventilator, and weaning success rates. Two hundred twenty-nine patients were included. Median MV duration until weaning, weaning duration, and total MV duration were significantly shorter in the ASV group (67 [43-94] h vs 92 [61-165] h, P = .003; 2 [2-2] h vs 2 [2-80] h, P = .001; and 4 [2-6] days vs 4 [3-9] days, P = .016, respectively). Patients in the ASV group required fewer total number of manual settings on the ventilator to reach the desired pH and Paco2 levels (2 [1-2] vs 3 [2-5], P < .001). The number of patients extubated successfully on the first attempt was significantly higher in the ASV group (P = .001). Weaning success and mortality at day 28 were comparable between the two groups. In medical patients in the ICU, ASV may shorten the duration of weaning and total MV duration with a fewer number of manual ventilator settings. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01472302; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  14. Comparison of patient-ventilator asynchrony during pressure support ventilation and proportional assist ventilation modes in surgical Intensive Care Unit: A randomized crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Kaur, Gaganjot; Katyal, Sunil; Gupta, Ruchi; Sandhu, Preetveen; Gautam, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The patient-ventilator asynchrony is almost observed in all modes of ventilation, and this asynchrony affects lung mechanics adversely resulting in deleterious outcome. Innovations and advances in ventilator technology have been trying to overcome this problem by designing newer modes of ventilation. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a commonly used flow-cycled mode where a constant pressure is delivered by ventilator. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) is a new dynamic inspiratory pressure assistance and is supposed to be better than PSV for synchrony and tolerance, but reports are still controversial. Moreover, most of these studies are conducted in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with respiratory failure; the results of these studies may not be applicable to surgical patients. Thus, we proposed to do compare these two modes in surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients as a randomized crossover study. Aims: Comparison of patient-ventilator asynchrony between PSV and PAV plus (PAV+) in surgical patients while weaning. Subjects and Methods: After approval by the Hospital Ethics Committee, we enrolled twenty patients from surgical ICU of tertiary care institute. The patients were ventilated with pressure support mode (PSV) and PAV+ for 12 h as a crossover from one mode to another after 6 h while weaning. Results: Average age and weight of patients were 41.80 ± 15.20 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) and 66.50 ± 12.47 (mean ± SD) kg, respectively. Comparing the asynchronies between the two modes, the mean number of total asynchronous recorded breaths in PSV was 7.05 ± 0.83 and 4.35 ± 5.62, respectively, during sleep and awake state, while the same were 6.75 ± 112.24 and 10.85 ± 11.33 in PAV+. Conclusion: Both PSV and PAV+ modes of ventilation performed similarly for patient-ventilator synchrony in surgical patients. In surgical patients with acute respiratory failure, dynamic inspiratory pressure assistance modalities

  15. Performance characteristics of five new anesthesia ventilators and four intensive care ventilators in pressure-support mode: a comparative bench study.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Samir; Tassaux, Didier; Sebbane, Mustapha; Pouzeratte, Yvan; Battisti, Anne; Capdevila, Xavier; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques; Jolliet, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    During the past few years, many manufacturers have introduced new modes of ventilation in anesthesia ventilators, especially partial-pressure modalities. The current bench test study was designed to compare triggering and pressurization of five new anesthesia ventilators with four intensive care unit ventilators. Ventilators were connected to a two-compartment lung model. One compartment was driven by an intensive care unit ventilator to mimic "patient" inspiratory effort, whereas the other was connected to the tested ventilator. The settings of ventilators were positive end-expiratory pressures of 0 and 5 cm H2O, and pressure-support ventilation levels of 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O with normal and high "patient" inspiratory effort. For the anesthesia ventilators, all the measurements were obtained for a low (1 l/min) and a high (10 l/min) fresh gas flow. Triggering delay, triggering workload, and pressurization at 300 and 500 ms were analyzed. For the five tested anesthesia ventilators, the pressure-support ventilation modality functioned correctly. For inspiratory triggering, the three most recent anesthesia machines (Fabius, Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck, Germany; Primus, Drägerwerk AG; and Avance, GE-Datex-Ohemda, Munchen, Germany) had a triggering delay of less than 100 ms, which is considered clinically satisfactory and is comparable to intensive care unit machines. The use of positive end-expiratory pressure modified the quality of delivered pressure support for two anesthesia ventilators (Kion, Siemens AG, Munich, Germany; and Felix, Taema, Antony, France). Three of the five anesthesia ventilators exhibited pressure-support ventilation performance characteristics comparable to those of the intensive care unit machines. Increasing fresh gas flow (1 to 10 l/min) in the internal circuit did not influence the pressure-support ventilation performance of the anesthesia ventilators. Regarding trigger sensitivity and the system's ability to meet inspiratory flow during

  16. Effect of an automatic triggering and cycling system on comfort and patient-ventilator synchrony during pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Renata dos S; Melo, Luíz Henrique de P; Sales, Raquel P; Marinho, Liégina S; Deulefeu, Flávio C; Reis, Ricardo C; Alves-de-Almeida, Mirizana; Holanda, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    The digital Auto-Trak™ system is a technology capable of automatically adjusting the triggering and cycling mechanisms during pressure support ventilation (PSV). To compare Auto-Trak with conventional settings in terms of patient-ventilator synchrony and discomfort. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent PSV via the mouth by breathing through an endotracheal tube. In the conventional setting, a pressure support of 8 cm H2O with flow cycling (25% peak inspiratory flow) and a sensitivity of 1 cm H2O was adjusted. In Auto-Trak the triggering and cycling were automatically set. Discomfort, effort of breathing, and the asynchrony index (AI) were assessed. In a complementary bench study, the inspiratory and expiratory time delays were quantified for both settings in three mechanical models: 'normal', obstructive (COPD), and restrictive (ARDS), using the ASL 5000 simulator. In the volunteer study the AI and the discomfort scores did not differ statistically between the two settings. In the bench investigation the use of Auto-Trak was associated with a greater triggering delay in the COPD model and earlier expiratory cycling in the ARDS model but with no asynchronic events. Use of the Auto-Trak system during PSV showed similar results in comparison to the conventional adjustments with respect to patient-ventilator synchrony and discomfort in simulated conditions of invasive mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Comparison of Proportional Assist Ventilation Plus, T-Tube Ventilation, and Pressure Support Ventilation as Spontaneous Breathing Trials for Extubation: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sandy Nogueira; Osaku, Erica Fernanda; Costa, Claudia Rejane Lima de Macedo; Toccolini, Beatriz Fernandes; Costa, Nicolle Lamberti; Cândia, Maria Fernanda; Leite, Marcela Aparecida; Jorge, Amaury Cezar; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino

    2015-11-01

    Failure to wean can prolong ICU stay, increase complications associated with mechanical ventilation, and increase morbidity and mortality. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) is one method used to assess weaning. The aim of this study was to assess proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) as an SBT by comparing its applicability, safety, and efficacy with T-tube and pressure support ventilation (PSV). A randomized study was performed involving 160 adult subjects who remained on mechanical ventilation for > 24 h. Subjects were randomly assigned to the PAV+, PSV, or T-tube group. When subjects were ready to perform the SBT, subjects in the PAV+ group were ventilated in PAV+ mode (receiving support of up to 40%), the pressure support was reduced to 7 cm H2O in the PSV group, and subjects in the T-tube group were connected to one T-piece with supplemental oxygen. Subjects were observed for signs of intolerance, whereupon the trial was interrupted. When the trial succeeded, the subjects were extubated and assessed until discharge. The subjects were predominantly male (66.5%), and the leading cause of admission was traumatic brain injury. The groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics, and no significant difference was observed among the groups regarding extubation success or failure. Analysis of the specificity and sensitivity revealed good sensitivity for all groups; however, the PAV+ group had higher specificity (66.6%) and higher sensitivity (97.6%), with prediction of ∼ 92.1% of the success and failure events. No significant differences in the groups was observed regarding the rate of extubation failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital stay, indicating that PAV+ is an alternative for use as an SBT. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Effectiveness of Inspiratory Termination Synchrony with Automatic Cycling During Noninvasive Pressure Support Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuqing; Cheng, Kewen; Zhou, Xin

    2016-05-20

    BACKGROUND Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a standard method for non-invasive home ventilation. A bench study was designed to compare the effectiveness of patient-ventilator inspiratory termination synchronization with automated and conventional triggering in various respiratory mechanics models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two ventilators, the Respironics V60 and Curative Flexo ST 30, connected to a Hans Rudolph Series 1101 lung simulator, were evaluated using settings that simulate lung mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or normal lungs. Ventilators were operated with automated (Auto-Trak) or conventional high-, moderate-, and low-sensitivity flow-cycling software algorithms, 5 cmH2O or 15 cmH2O pressure support, 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and an air leak of 25-28 L/min. RESULTS Both ventilators adapted to the system leak without requiring adjustment of triggering settings. In all simulated lung conditions, automated cycling resulted in shorter triggering delay times (<100 ms) and lower triggering pressure-time product (PTPt) values. Tidal volumes (VT) increased with lower conventional cycling sensitivity level. In the COPD model, automated cycling had higher leak volumes and shorter cycling delay times than in conventional cycling. Asynchronous events were rare. Inspiratory time (Tinsp), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and cycling off delay time (Cdelay) increased as a result of reduction in conventional cycling sensitivity level. In the ARDS and normal adult lung models, premature cycling was frequent at the high-sensitive cycling level. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the Auto-Trak protocol showed better patient-machine cycling synchronization than conventional triggering. This was evident by shorter triggering time delays and lower PTPt.

  19. Haemodynamic effects of pressure support and PEEP ventilation by nasal route in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, N; Nava, S; Torbicki, A; Riccardi, G; Fracchia, C; Opasich, C; Rampulla, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Intermittent positive pressure ventilation applied through a nasal mask has been shown to be useful in the treatment of chronic respiratory insufficiency. Pressure support ventilation is an assisted mode of ventilation which is being increasingly used. Invasive ventilation with intermittent positive pressure, with or without positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), has been found to affect venous return and cardiac output. This study evaluated the acute haemodynamic support ventilation by nasal mask, with and without the application of PEEP, in patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnia. METHODS--Nine patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease performed sessions lasting 10 minutes each of pressure support ventilation by nasal mask while undergoing right heart catheterisation for clinical evaluation. In random order, four sessions of nasal pressure support ventilation were applied consisting of: (1) peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) 10 cm H2O, PEEP 0 cm H2O; (2) PIP 10 cm H2O, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) PIP 20 cm H2O, PEEP 0 cm H2O; (4) PIP 20 cm H2O, PEEP 5 cm H2O. RESULTS--Significant increases in arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) and saturation (Sao2) and significant reductions in arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and changes in pH were observed with a PIP of 20 cm H2O. Statistical analysis showed that the addition of 5 cm H2O PEEP did not further improve arterial blood gas tensions. Comparison of baseline values with measurements performed after 10 minutes of each session of ventilation showed that all modes of ventilation except PIP 10 cm H2O without PEEP induced a small but significant increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In comparison with baseline values, a significant decrease in cardiac output and oxygen delivery was induced only by the addition of PEEP to both levels of PIP. CONCLUSIONS--In patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnia

  20. Prediction of extubation outcome: a randomised, controlled trial with automatic tube compensation vs. pressure support ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan; Shapiro, Maury; Grozovski, Elad; Fox, Ben; Lev, Shaul; Singer, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tolerance of a spontaneous breathing trial is an evidence-based strategy to predict successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Some patients may not tolerate the trial because of the respiratory load imposed by the endotracheal tube, so varying levels of respiratory support are widely used during the trial. Automatic tube compensation (ATC), specifically developed to overcome the imposed work of breathing because of artificial airways, appears ideally suited for the weaning process. We further evaluated the use of ATC in this setting. Methods In a prospective study, patients who had received mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours and met defined criteria for a weaning trial, underwent a one-hour spontaneous breathing trial with either ATC (n = 87) or pressure support ventilation (PSV; n = 93). Those tolerating the trial were immediately extubated. The primary outcome measure was the ability to maintain spontaneous, unassisted breathing for more than 48 hours after extubation. In addition, we measured the frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) both with (ATC-assisted) and without ATC (unassisted-f/VT) at the start of the breathing trial as a pretrial predictor of extubation outcome. Results There were no significant differences in any of the baseline characteristics between the two groups apart from a significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the ATC group (p = 0.009). In the PSV group, 13 of 93 (14%) patients failed the breathing trial compared with only 6 of 87 (6%) in the ATC group; this observed 8% difference, however, did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.12). The rate of reintubation was not different between the groups (total group = 17.3%; ATC = 18.4% vs. PSV = 12.9%, p = 0.43). The percentage of patients who remained extubated for more than 48 hours was similar in both groups (ATC = 74.7% vs. PSV = 73.1%; p = 0.81). This represented a positive predictive value for PSV of 0.85 and

  1. Response of Preterm Infants to 2 Noninvasive Ventilatory Support Systems: Nasal CPAP and Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age < 37 weeks, birthweight < 2,500 g). The infants were randomized into 2 groups: 40 infants were treated with nasal CPAP and 40 infants with nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The occurrence of apnea, progression of respiratory distress, nose bleeding, and agitation was defined as ventilation failure. The need for intubation and re-intubation after failure was also observed. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P < .05). Apnea (32.5%) was the main reason for nasal CPAP failure. After failure, 25% (OR 0.33) of the newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. [Facial or nasal mask pressure support ventilation in managing acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Chen, R C

    1992-10-01

    11 COPD patients (age: 65 +/- 9 Yrs) with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure (PaCO2 11.3 +/- 1.1kPa) were treated with mask pressure support ventilation, another 10 similar patients (age: 68 +/- 12 Yrs) served as control. BiPAP ventilator was used with the following modifications: (1) Non-rebreathing valve set-in proximal to mask; (2) 5 LPM oxygen flow delivered into mask to reduce the dead space effect. Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours every time and 1-2 time daily for 7 days. Synchrony and airway patency were specially monitored. The results suggested that mask ventilation could reduce PaCO2, improve PaO2, relieve dyspnea and decrease the possibility of intubation.

  3. Airway pressure release ventilation: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Frawley, P M; Habashi, N M

    2001-05-01

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a relatively new mode of ventilation, that only became commercially available in the United States in the mid-1990s. Airway pressure release ventilation produces tidal ventilation using a method that differs from any other mode. It uses a release of airway pressure from an elevated baseline to simulate expiration. The elevated baseline facilitates oxygenation, and the timed releases aid in carbon dioxide removal. Advantages of APRV include lower airway pressures, lower minute ventilation, minimal adverse effects on cardio-circulatory function, ability to spontaneously breathe throughout the entire ventilatory cycle, decreased sedation use, and near elimination of neuromuscular blockade. Airway pressure release ventilation is consistent with lung protection strategies that strive to limit lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. Future research will probably support the use of APRV as the primary mode of choice for patients with acute lung injury.

  4. Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Naue, Wagner da Silva; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group) or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group). We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004), a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16 ± 69 mL vs. 56 ± 69 mL; p = 0.018), and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1 ± 4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8 ± 4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005). In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]).

  5. Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    Naue, Wagner da Silva; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group) or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group). We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. RESULTS: We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004), a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16 ± 69 mL vs. 56 ± 69 mL; p = 0.018), and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1 ± 4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8 ± 4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]) PMID:24626270

  6. [Variation in inspiratory gas flow in pressure support ventilation. The effect on respiratory mechanics and respiratory work].

    PubMed

    Sydow, M; Thies, K; Engel, J; Golisch, W; Buscher, H; Zinserling, J; Burchardi, H

    1996-11-01

    During pressure support ventilation (PSV), the timing of the breathing cycle is mainly controlled by the patient. Therefore, the delivered flow pattern during PSV might be better synchronised with the patient's demands than during volume-assisted ventilation. In several modern ventilators, inspiration is terminated when the inspiratory flow decreases to 25% of the initial peak value. However, this timing algorithm might cause premature inspiration termination if the initial peak flow is high. This could result not only in an increased risk of dyssynchronization between the patient and the ventilator, but also in reduced ventilatory support. On the other hand, a decreased peak flow might inappropriately increase the patient's inspiratory effort. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of the variation of the initial peak-flow rate during PSV on respiratory pattern and mechanical work of breathing. Six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and six patients with no or minor nonobstructive lung pathology (control) were studied during PSV with different inspiratory flow rates by variations of the pressurisation time (Evita I, Drägerwerke, Lübeck, Germany). During the study period all patients were in stable circulatory conditions and in the weaning phase. Patients were studied in a 45 degrees semirecumbent position. Using the medium pressurization time (l s) during PSV the inspiratory pressure was individually adjusted to obtain a tidal volume of about 8 ml/kg body weight. Thereafter, measurements were performed during five pressurization times (< 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 s defined as T 0.1, T 0.5, T 1, T 1.5 and T 2) in random order, while maintaining the pressure support setting at the ventilator. Between each measurement steady-state was attained. Positive end-exspiratory pressure (PEEP) and FIO2 were maintained at prestudy levels and remained constant during the study period. Informed consent was obtained from each patient or his next of

  7. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, Georg; Katamadze, Nato; Domanski, Ulrike; Schroeder, Maik; Franke, Karl-Josef

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. Objectives This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST]) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. Methods This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2) measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0–45; lower scores indicate better acceptability). Results Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years). The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7) and IVAPS (8.3±10.2) conditions (P=0.064). There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg). Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH2O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]). Overall patient assessment scores were similar, although there was a trend toward less discomfort during IVAPS. Conclusion Our results show that IVAPS NIV allows application of higher nocturnal ventilation pressures versus ST without affecting sleep

  8. Chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis: improved tolerance with nasal pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Fauroux, B; Boulé, M; Lofaso, F; Zérah, F; Clément, A; Harf, A; Isabey, D

    1999-03-01

    Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is an integral part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). CPT imposes additional respiratory work that may carry a risk of respiratory muscle fatigue. Inspiratory pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a new mode of ventilatory assistance designed to maintain a constant preset positive airway pressure during spontaneous inspiration with the goal of decreasing the patient's inspiratory work. The aim of our study was 1) to evaluate respiratory muscle fatigue and oxygen desaturation during CPT and 2) to determine whether noninvasive PSV can relieve these potential adverse effects of CPT. Sixteen CF patients in stable condition with a mean age of 13 +/- 4 years participated to the study. For CPT, we used the forced expiratory technique (FET), which consisted of one or more slow active expirations starting near the total lung capacity (TLC) and ending near the residual volume. After each expiration, the child was asked to perform a slow, nonmaximal, diaphragmatic inspiration. After one to four forced breathing cycles, the child was asked to cough and to expectorate. A typical 20-minute CPT session consisted of 10 to 15 FET maneuvers separated by rest periods of 10 to 20 breathing cycles each. During the study, each patient received two CPT sessions in random order on two different days, at the same time of day, with the same physiotherapist. During one of these two sessions, PSV was provided throughout the session (PSV session) via a nasal mask using the pressure support generator ARM25 designed for acute patients (TAEMA, Antony, France). The control session was performed with no nasal mask or PSV. Both CPT sessions were performed without supplemental oxygen. Lung function and maximal inspiratory pressures (PImax) and expiratory pressures (PEmax) were recorded before and after each CPT session. Mean lung function parameters were comparable before the PSV and the control sessions. Baseline pulse oximetry (SpO2) was significantly

  9. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist and Pressure Support Ventilation in Small Species and the Impact of Instrumental Dead Space

    PubMed Central

    Campoccia Jalde, Francesca; Almadhoob, Abdul Raoof; Beck, Jennifer; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Dunn, Michael S.; Sinderby, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a pneumatically-independent mode of mechanical ventilation controlled by diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), and has not yet been implemented in very small species. Objectives The aims of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of applying NAVA in very small species and to compare this to pressure support ventilation (PSV) in terms of ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern, and evaluate the impact of instrumental dead space on breathing pattern during both modes. Methods Nine healthy rats (mean weight 385 ± 4 g) were studied while breathing on PSV or NAVA, at baseline or with added dead space. Results A clear difference in breathing pattern between NAVA and PSV was observed during both baseline and dead space, where PSV – despite similar EAdi and tidal volume as during NAVA – caused shortened inspiratory time (p < 0.05) and increased the respiratory rate (p < 0.05). A higher minute ventilation (p < 0.05) in order to reach the same arterial CO2 was observed. Ineffective inspiratory efforts occurred only during PSV and decreased with the dead space. Conclusion This study demonstrates, in a small group of animals, that NAVA can deliver assist in very small species with a higher efficiency than PSV in terms of eliminating CO2 for a given minute ventilation. PMID:19887857

  10. Chiari malformation and central sleep apnoea: successful therapy with adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation following surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Ahmed; Johnson, Anthony O C

    2012-10-24

    Sleep apnoea is a common disorder with significant morbidity. It is categorised into obstructive and central sleep apnoea. There are a variety of conditions associated with central sleep apnoea ranging from cardiac failure to structural brain anomalies. We herein report a case of 57-year-old woman with Chiari malformation associated with significant sleep-disordered breathing. There was a family history of Chiari malformation. Although neurosurgical intervention had a significant impact on apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with a reduction from 81/h preoperatively to 22.1/h after the surgical treatment, it failed to cure the sleep disorder breathing completely and adaptive non-invasive servo-ventilation had a dramatic effect on symptoms and normalised the AHI. Although, central sleep apnoea is associated with a number of common disorders, this case illustrates that there may be an unusual cause. Moreover, adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation may provide a promising treatment option following surgical correction of Chiari malformation.

  11. Brief report: pressure support ventilation during an ascent and on the summit of Mt. Everest? A theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, Axel; Loeckinger, Alex

    2002-01-01

    At extreme altitude, air has an almost identical composition compared to air at sea level, while its pressure is altitude-dependently lower. When supplementary oxygen is used to achieve an acceptable inspiratory pressure of oxygen (PI(O2)) during climbing, the barometric pressure difference to lower altitudes is not compensated for. In this report, we tried theoretically to apply pressure support ventilation (PSV) to partially compensate for low barometric pressures. PSV is widely used for respiratory home care and is applicable via a nasal mask. Since there are light-weight units with long battery lives on the market, we speculated that these units may to some extent replace bottled oxygen. PSV was in theory applied at barometric pressures of 400 torr (Everest Base Camp), 284 torr (South Col), and 253 torr (summit of Mt. Everest). We found that during PSV at a mean airway pressure of 16.5 torr on the summit of Mt. Everest, a fraction of inspired oxygen (FI(O2)) of 0.34 sufficed to achieve an alveolar partial pressure (PA(O2)) of 67 torr. PSV increases PI(O2) by 3.5 torr, which in theory elevates the maximum oxygen consumption (V(O2max)) by 218 mL.min(-1) in an acclimatized climber in this setting. An additional benefit of PSV at extreme altitude may come from the unloading of the respiratory muscles.

  12. Intraoperative Autotriggered Pressure Support Ventilation Resistant to Increased Flow Trigger Threshold.

    PubMed

    Benitez Lopez, Julio; Rao, Sripad P; McNeer, Richard R; Dudaryk, Roman

    2016-07-01

    Oscillations from cardiac pulsations are normally transmitted to mediastinal structures without any consequence. Autotriggering (AT) of mechanical ventilation occurs when an inspiratory trigger, typically negative inspiratory flow in anesthesia ventilators, is met in the absence of patient effort. AT can lead to respiratory alkalosis, opioid overdose, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and lung hyperinflation. This entity has been reported in both critical care and operating room environments. Increasing the flow trigger usually resolves AT in all cases. We report a case of AT that failed to respond to increasing the flow trigger threshold to its maximal value on the GE Datex-Ohmeda Avance S5® anesthesia station.

  13. Source of human ventilatory chaos: lessons from switching controlled mechanical ventilation to inspiratory pressure support in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Mangin, Laurence; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Straus, Christian; Derenne, Jean-Philippe; Zelter, Marc; Clerici, Christine; Similowski, Thomas

    2008-04-30

    Ventilatory flow measured at the airway opening in humans exhibits a complex dynamics that has the features of chaos. Currently available data point to a neural origin of this feature, but the role of respiratory mechanics has not been specifically assessed. In this aim, we studied 17 critically ill mechanically ventilated patients during a switch form an entirely machine-controlled assistance mode (assist-controlled ventilation ACV) to a patient-driven mode (inspiratory pressure support IPS). Breath-by-breath respiratory variability was assessed with the coefficient of variation of tidal volume, total cycle time, inspiratory time, expiratory time, mean inspiratory flow, duty cycle. The detection of chaos was performed with the noise titration technique. When present, chaos was characterized with numerical indexes (correlation dimension, irregularity; largest Lyapunov exponent, sensitivity to initial conditions). Expectedly, the coefficients of variations of the respiratory variables were higher during IPS than during ACV. During ACV, noise titration failed to detect nonlinearities in 12 patients who did not exhibit signs of spontaneous respiratory activity. This indicates that the mechanical properties of the respiratory system were not sufficient to produce ventilatory chaos in the presence of a nonlinear command (ventilator clock). A positive noise limit was found in the remaining 5 cases, but these patients exhibited signs of active expiratory control (highly variable expiratory time, respiratory frequency higher than the set frequency). A positive noise limit was also observed in 16/17 patients during IPS (p<0.001). These observations suggest that ventilatory chaos predominantly has a neural origin (intrinsic to the respiratory central pattern generators, resulting from their perturbation by respiratory afferents, or both), with little contribution of respiratory mechanics, if any.

  14. Rationale and study design of ViPS – variable pressure support for weaning from mechanical ventilation: study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled open trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pressure support ventilation (PSV), a non-variable level of pressure support is delivered by the ventilator when triggered by the patient. In contrast, variable PSV delivers a level of pressure support that varies in a random fashion, introducing more physiological variability to the respiratory pattern. Experimental studies show that variable PSV improves gas exchange, reduces lung inflammation and the mean pressure support, compared to non-variable PSV. Thus, it can theoretically shorten weaning from the mechanical ventilator. Methods/design The ViPS (variable pressure support) trial is an international investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled open trial comparing variable vs. non-variable PSV. Adult patients on controlled mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours who are ready to be weaned are eligible for the study. The randomization sequence is blocked per center and performed using a web-based platform. Patients are randomly assigned to one of the two groups: variable PSV or non-variable PSV. In non-variable PSV, breath-by-breath pressure support is kept constant and targeted to achieve a tidal volume of 6 to 8 ml/kg. In variable PSV, the mean pressure support level over a specific time period is targeted at the same mean tidal volume as non-variable PSV, but individual levels vary randomly breath-by-breath. The primary endpoint of the trial is the time to successful weaning, defined as the time from randomization to successful extubation. Discussion ViPS is the first randomized controlled trial investigating whether variable, compared to non-variable PSV, shortens the duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation in a mixed population of critically ill patients. This trial aims to determine the role of variable PSV in the intensive care unit. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01769053 PMID:24176188

  15. Assessment of respiratory system compliance with electrical impedance tomography using a positive end-expiratory pressure wave maneuver during pressure support ventilation: a pilot clinical study.

    PubMed

    Becher, Tobias H; Bui, Simon; Zick, Günther; Bläser, Daniel; Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2014-12-10

    Assessment of respiratory system compliance (Crs) can be used for individual optimization of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, in patients with spontaneous breathing activity, the conventional methods for Crs measurement are inaccurate because of the variable muscular pressure of the patient. We hypothesized that a PEEP wave maneuver, analyzed with electrical impedance tomography (EIT), might be suitable for global and regional assessment of Crs during assisted spontaneous breathing. After approval of the local ethics committee, we performed a pilot clinical study in 18 mechanically ventilated patients (61 ± 16 years (mean ± standard deviation)) who were suitable for weaning with pressure support ventilation (PSV). For the PEEP wave, PEEP was elevated by 1 cmH2O after every fifth breath during PSV. This was repeated five times, until a total PEEP increase of 5 cmH2O was reached. Subsequently, PEEP was reduced in steps of 1 cmH2O in the same manner until the original PEEP level was reached. Crs was calculated using EIT from the global, ventral and dorsal lung regions of interest. For reference measurements, all patients were also examined during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with a low-flow pressure-volume maneuver. Global and regional Crs(low-flow) was calculated as the slope of the pressure-volume loop between the pressure that corresponded to the selected PEEP and PEEP +5 cmH2O. For additional reference, Crs during CMV (Crs(CMV)) was calculated as expired tidal volume divided by the difference between airway plateau pressure and PEEP. Respiratory system compliance calculated from the PEEP wave (Crs(PEEP wave)) correlated closely with both reference measurements (r = 0.79 for Crs(low-flow) and r = 0.71 for Crs(CMV)). No significant difference was observed between the mean Crs(PEEP wave) and the mean Crs(low-flow). However, a significant bias of +17.1 ml/cmH2O was observed between Crs(PEEP wave) and Crs(CMV). Analyzing a PEEP wave

  16. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure has been traditionally determined based on clinical assessment and changes in blood gases, with NIV support pressures manually adjusted by an operator. Bilevel positive airway pressure-spontaneous/timed (BiPAP S/T) with average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) uses a fixed tidal volume that automatically adjusts to a patient’s needs. Our study assessed the use of BiPAP S/T with AVAPS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapnic encephalopathy as compared to BiPAP S/T alone, upon immediate arrival in the Emergency-ICU. Methods We carried out a prospective interventional match-controlled study in Guayaquil, Ecuador. A total of 22 patients were analyzed. Eleven with COPD exacerbations and hypercapnic encephalopathy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <10 and a pH of 7.25-7.35 were assigned to receive NIV via BiPAP S/T with AVAPS. Eleven patients were selected as paired controls for the initial group by physicians who were unfamiliar with our study, and these patients were administered BiPAP S/T. Arterial blood gases, GCS, vital signs, and ventilatory parameters were then measured and compared between the two groups. Results We observed statistically significant differences in favor of the BiPAP S/T + AVAPS group in GCS (P = .00001), pCO2 (P = .03) and maximum inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) (P = .005), among others. However, no significant differences in terms of length of stay or days on NIV were observed. Conclusions BiPAP S/T with AVAPS facilitates rapid recovery of consciousness when compared to traditional BiPAP S/T in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials application ref is ISRCTN05135218 PMID:23497021

  17. Dynamic behavior during noninvasive ventilation: chaotic support?

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, J R; Adams, A B; Dries, D J; Marini, J J; Crooke, P S

    2001-02-01

    Acute noninvasive ventilation is generally applied via face mask, with modified pressure support used as the initial mode to assist ventilation. Although an adequate seal can usually be obtained, leaks frequently develop between the mask and the patient's face. This leakage presents a theoretical problem, since the inspiratory phase of pressure support terminates when flow falls to a predetermined fraction of peak inspiratory flow. To explore the issue of mask leakage and machine performance, we used a mathematical model to investigate the dynamic behavior of pressure-supported noninvasive ventilation, and confirmed the predicted behavior through use of a test lung. Our mathematical and laboratory analyses indicate that even when subject effort is unvarying, pressure-support ventilation applied in the presence of an inspiratory leak proximal to the airway opening can be accompanied by marked variations in duration of the inspiratory phase and in autoPEEP. The unstable behavior was observed in the simplest plausible mathematical models, and occurred at impedance values and ventilator settings that are clinically realistic.

  18. Ventilatory changes during the use of heat and moisture exchangers in patients submitted to mechanical ventilation with support pressure and adjustments in ventilation parameters to compensate for these possible changes: a self-controlled intervention study in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; da Cunha, Thiago Marraccini Nogueira; dos Reis, Aline Mela; Picanço, Patricia Salerno de Almeida; Barbosa, Renata Cléia Claudino; Liberali, Joyce; Righetti, Renato Fraga

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible changes in tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory rate caused by the use of a heat and moisture exchanger in patients receiving pressure support mechanical ventilation and to quantify the variation in pressure support required to compensate for the effect caused by the heat and moisture exchanger. Methods Patients under invasive mechanical ventilation in pressure support mode were evaluated using heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchangers. If the volume found using the heat and moisture exchangers was lower than that found with the heated humidifier, an increase in pressure support was initiated during the use of the heat and moisture exchanger until a pressure support value was obtained that enabled the patient to generate a value close to the initial tidal volume obtained with the heated humidifier. The analysis was performed by means of the paired t test, and incremental values were expressed as percentages of increase required. Results A total of 26 patients were evaluated. The use of heat and moisture exchangers increased the respiratory rate and reduced the tidal and minute volumes compared with the use of the heated humidifier. Patients required a 38.13% increase in pressure support to maintain previous volumes when using the heat and moisture exchanger. Conclusion The heat and moisture exchanger changed the tidal and minute volumes and respiratory rate parameters. Pressure support was increased to compensate for these changes.

  19. Chronic opioid use: a risk factor for central sleep apnoea and successful therapy with adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation.

    PubMed

    Fahim, A; Johnson, A O

    2012-01-01

    Sleep apnoea is a global health problem with significant morbidity. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for this condition, however chronic intake of opioids as a risk factor for central sleep apnoea is under-recognised. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who developed significant sleep-disordered breathing secondary to opioid use for chronic pain. A sleep study demonstrated a picture of complex sleep apnoea with a prominent central sleep apnoea component. He had no significant improvement with conventional continuous positive airway pressure therapy. However, adaptive servo-ventilation had a dramatic effect on his symptoms and compliance. This case highlights the significant risk of central sleep apnoea with opioid use and illustrates the importance of adaptive servo-ventilation in the management of sleep-disordered breathing secondary to impaired central respiratory drive.

  20. Acidemia in severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema treated with noninvasive pressure support ventilation: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian F; Picariello, Claudio; Attanà, Paola; Mattesini, Alessio; Chiostri, Marco; Valente, Serafina

    2015-09-01

    In clinical practice, acidotic patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) are commonly considered more severe in comparison with nonacidotic patients, and data on the outcome of these patients treated with noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIV) are lacking.The present investigation was aimed at assessing whether acidosis on admission (pH < 7.35) was associated with adverse outcome in 65 consecutive patients with ACPE treated with NIV and admitted to our Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU).In our population, 28 patients were acidotic (28 of 65, 43.1%), whereas 41 patients were not (37 of 65, 56.9%). According to the Repeated Measures General Linear Model, pCO2 values significantly changed throughout the 2-h NIV treatment (P = 0.019) in both groups (P = 0001). In acidotic patients, pCO2 significantly decreased (51.9 ± 15.3 → 47.0 ± 12.8 → 44.8 ± 12.7), whereas they increased in the nonacidotic subgroup (36.8 ± 6.5 → 36.9 ± 7.2 → 37.6 ± 6.4). No difference was observed in intubation rate between acidotic (eight patients, 28.6%) and nonacidotic patients (12 patients, 32.4%) (P = 0.738). In-ICCU mortality rate did not differ between (13 patients, 35.1%) and nonacidotic patients (nine patients, 32.1%) (P = 0.801).Our data strongly suggest that in patients with severe ACPE treated with NIV, the presence of acidosis is not associated with adverse outcomes (early mortality and intubation rates) in these patients.

  1. Ventilatory failure, ventilator support, and ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco; Jubran, Amal

    2012-10-01

    The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system.

  2. [Evaluation of patient-ventilator synchrony of three new types of ventilators with pressure sunnort ventilation mode].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Wu, Hao; Cao, Desen

    2014-08-01

    Pressure-support ventilation (PSV) is a form of important ventilation mode. Patient-ventilator synchrony of pressure support ventilation can be divided into inspiration-triggered and expiration-triggered ones. Whether the ventilator can track the patient's inspiration and expiration very well or not is an important evaluating item of the performance of the ventilator. The ventilator should response to the patient's inspiration effort on time and deliver the air flow to the patient under various conditions, such as different patient's lung types and inspiration effort, etc. Similarly, the ventilator should be able to response to the patient's expiration action, and to decrease the patient lung's internal pressure rapidly. Using the Active Servo Lung (ASL5000) respiratory simulation system, we evaluated the spontaneous breathing of PSV mode on E5, Servo i and Evital XL. The following parameters, the delay time before flow to the patient starts once the trigger variable signaling the start of inspiration, the lowest inspiratory airway pressure generated prior to the initiation of PSV, etc. were measured.

  3. Validation of indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in healthy volunteers undergoing pressure controlled non-invasive ventilation support.

    PubMed

    Siirala, Waltteri; Noponen, Tommi; Olkkola, Klaus T; Vuori, Arno; Koivisto, Mari; Hurme, Saija; Aantaa, Riku

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this validation study was to assess the reliability of gas exchange measurement with indirect calorimetry among subjects who undergo non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured in twelve healthy volunteers. Respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were then calculated from the measured VO2 and VCO2 values. During the measurement period the subjects were breathing spontaneously and ventilated using NIV. Two different sampling air flow values 40 and 80 l/min were used. The gas leakage from the measurement setup was assessed with a separate capnograph. The mean weight of the subjects was 93 kg. Their mean body mass index was 29 (range 22-40) kg/m2. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured values for VO2, VCO2, RQ and REE during NIV-supported breathing and spontaneous breathing. The change of sampling air flow had no statistically significant effect on any of the above parameters. We found that REE can be accurately measured with an indirect calorimeter also during NIV-supported breathing and the change of sampling air flow does not distort the gas exchange measurement. A higher sampling air flow in indirect calorimetry decreases the possibility for air leakages in the measurement system and increases the reliability of REE measurement.

  4. Human versus Computer Controlled Selection of Ventilator Settings: An Evaluation of Adaptive Support Ventilation and Mid-Frequency Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Chatburn, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are modes of mechanical ventilation that can select ventilator settings with computer controlled algorithms (targeting schemes). Two examples are adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and mid-frequency ventilation (MFV). We studied how different clinician-chosen ventilator settings are from these computer algorithms under different scenarios. Methods. A survey of critical care clinicians provided reference ventilator settings for a 70 kg paralyzed patient in five clinical/physiological scenarios. The survey-derived values for minute ventilation and minute alveolar ventilation were used as goals for ASV and MFV, respectively. A lung simulator programmed with each scenario's respiratory system characteristics was ventilated using the clinician, ASV, and MFV settings. Results. Tidal volumes ranged from 6.1 to 8.3 mL/kg for the clinician, 6.7 to 11.9 mL/kg for ASV, and 3.5 to 9.9 mL/kg for MFV. Inspiratory pressures were lower for ASV and MFV. Clinician-selected tidal volumes were similar to the ASV settings for all scenarios except for asthma, in which the tidal volumes were larger for ASV and MFV. MFV delivered the same alveolar minute ventilation with higher end expiratory and lower end inspiratory volumes. Conclusions. There are differences and similarities among initial ventilator settings selected by humans and computers for various clinical scenarios. The ventilation outcomes are the result of the lung physiological characteristics and their interaction with the targeting scheme.

  5. Elective nasal continuous positive airway pressure to support respiration after prolonged ventilation in infants after congenital cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Hemang; Mishra, Amit; Thosani, Rajesh; Acharya, Himanshu; Shah, Ritesh; Surti, Jigar; Sarvaia, Alpesh

    2017-01-01

    Background: We sought to compare the effectiveness of oxygen (O2) treatment administered by an O2 mask and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in infants after congenital cardiac surgery. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 54 infants undergoing corrective cardiac surgery were enrolled. According to the anesthesiologist's preference, the patients ventilated for more than 48 h were either put on NCPAP or O2 mask immediately after extubation. From pre-extubation to 24 h after treatment, arterial blood gas and hemodynamic data were measured. Results: After 24 h of NCPAP institution, the patients showed a significant improvement in oxygenation compared to O2 mask group. Respiratory rate (per minute) decreased from 31.67 ± 4.55 to 24.31 ± 3.69 (P < 0.0001), PO2 (mmHg) increased from 112.12 ± 22.83 to 185.74 ± 14.81 (P < 0.0001), and PCO2 (mmHg) decreased from 42.88 ± 5.01 to 37.00 ± 7.22 (P < 0.0076) in patients on NCPAP. In this group, mean pediatric cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (PCSICU) stay was 4.72 ± 1.60 days, with only 2 (11.11%) patients requiring re-intubation. Conclusion: NCPAP can be used safely and effectively in infants undergoing congenital cardiac surgery to improve oxygenation/ventilation. It also reduces the work of breathing, PCSICU stay, and may reduce the likelihood of re-intubation. PMID:28163425

  6. Patient-controlled positive end-expiratory pressure with neuromuscular disease: effect on speech in patients with tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation support.

    PubMed

    Garguilo, Marine; Leroux, Karl; Lejaille, Michèle; Pascal, Sophie; Orlikowski, David; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Communication is a major issue for patients with tracheostomy who are supported by mechanical ventilation. The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may restore speech during expiration; however, the optimal PEEP level for speech may vary individually. We aimed to improve speech quality with an individually adjusted PEEP level delivered under the patient's control to ensure optimal respiratory comfort. Optimal PEEP level (PEEPeff), defined as the PEEP level that allows complete expiration through the upper airways, was determined for 12 patients with neuromuscular disease who are supported by mechanical ventilation. Speech and respiratory parameters were studied without PEEP, with PEEPeff, and for an intermediate PEEP level. Flow and airway pressure were measured. Microphone speech recordings were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative assessments of speech, including an intelligibility score, a perceptual score, and an evaluation of prosody determined by two speech therapists blinded to PEEP condition. Text reading time, phonation flow, use of the respiratory cycle for phonation, and speech comfort significantly improved with increasing PEEP, whereas qualitative parameters remained unchanged. This resulted mostly from the increase of the expiratory volume through the upper airways available for speech for all patients combined, with a rise in respiratory rate for nine patients. Respiratory comfort remained stable despite high levels of PEEPeff (median, 10.0 cm H2O; interquartile range, 9.5-12.0 cm H₂O). Patient-controlled PEEP allowed for the use of high levels of PEEP with good respiratory tolerance and significant improvement in speech (enabling phonation during the entire respiratory cycle in most patients). The device studied could be implemented in home ventilators to improve speech and, therefore, autonomy of patients with tracheostomy. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01479959; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.

  7. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  8. Treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema by helmet-delivered non-invasive pressure support ventilation in children with scorpion sting envenomation.

    PubMed

    Yildizdas, Dincer; Yilmaz, H Levent; Erdem, Sevcan

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation through a new interface helmet in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to scorpion sting envenomation in children. Three patients presented with fever, and respiratory distress following scorpion sting. Their cardiac enzymes were abnormal. Electrocardiogram (ECG) of 3 patients showed features of myocardial strain with ST elevation. Bedside chest X-ray taken in emergency showed marked bilateral infiltrates suggestive of pulmonary oedema. M-mode, two-dimensional colour-flow Doppler echocardiogram showed left ventricular dysfunction. At paediatric intensive care unit admission, they were treated with antivenom, prazosin (0.03 mg/kg/dose), dopamine (15 mcg/kg/ min), dobutamine (10 mcg/kg/min) and nitroprussid (1 mcg/kg/min). Epinephrine (0.1 mcg/kg/ min) were added later. They were hypoxic and dyspnoeic. A slight sedation was induced with ketamine and/or midazolam. Non-invasive pressure support ventilation (NPSV) was delivered via the helmet by means of an intensive care unit ventilator. We evaluated the effect of NPSV delivered by helmet on oxygenation, respiratory rate, haemodynamics, complications and outcome. An improvement of oxygenation was observed within 2 hours of treatment.The helmet was well tolerated by all the children. No complications occurred in the 3 patients. This new approach of delivering NPSV through a helmet allows the successful treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in children with scorpion sting envenomation, assuring a good tolerance without complications. Future studies are needed before recommending the extensive application of this technique in all cases of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to scorpion sting envenomation.

  9. Retrograde Lacrimal Duct Airflow During Nasal Positive Pressure Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Stephanie; Katz, Eliot S.

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is widely used for chronic respiratory failure in children with neuromuscular disorders, thus avoiding the need for tracheostomy. However, the pressures required to support ventilation in these children may be considerably higher than those necessary to treat obstructive sleep apnea. The complications of nasal positive airway pressure are numerous, including skin breakdown, conjunctivitis, nasal congestion, airway dryness, pneumothorax, and bowel obstruction. Ophthalmologic complaints are particularly common, largely attributed to an air leak in the mask. In the present case, we demonstrate, through two modalities—video and CT scan—retrograde airflow through the nasolacrimal duct causing sleep disruption and eye irritation in a profoundly hypotonic 14-month-old boy with chronic respiratory failure on bilevel ventilation during sleep. Citation: Zandieh S; Katz ES. Retrograde lacrimal duct airflow during nasal positive pressure ventilation. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):603-604. PMID:21206550

  10. [Clinical application of the forced oscillation technique for titration of pressure support levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Rong-Chang; He, Sheng; Luo, Qun

    2009-01-01

    To study the use of oscillatory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) to guide the settings of pressure level of ventilators in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). Five Hz oscillatory inspiratory Rrs (R(re, in)) at different NPPV pressure levels in 8 patients were calculated and compared to inspiratory pulmonary resistance (R(L, in)) measured by means of oesophageal manometry. The difference between inspiratory and expiratory Xrs (deltaXrs) at different CPAP levels were also measured for each breathing cycle, which were subsequently analyzed and classified as flow-limited (EFL) or non-EFL by means of Mead-Whittenberger method. Then, the relationship among CPAP levels, the percentage of EFL breathing cycles at different CPAP levels and deltaXrs were analyzed and the threshold value of deltaXrs with maximum sensitivity and specificity to detect EFL were calculated. The mean values of R(rs, in) and R(L, in) were (6.5 +/- 1.6) and (9 +/- 5) cm H2O x s(-1) x L(-1) (1 cm H2O = 0.098 kPa), respectively,r = 0.64, P < 0.01, but the agreement between these two resistances were poor and with a median of -2. 7 (-5.7 - 0.7)cm H2O x s(-1) x L(-1), and the limits of agreement ranged from -10.6 cm H2O x s(-1) x L(-1) to 4.9 cm H2O x s(-1) x L(-1). The linear regression equation of R(rs, in) to R(L, in) was R(L, in) = -1.62 + 1.69 R(rs, i), F = 109.6, P < 0.01. Increase in CPAP level resulted in decrease in deltaXrs and in numbers of EFL breathing cycles. The mean value of deltaXrs in EFL breathing cycles was significantly higher than that in NFL, and the threshold value of deltaXrs for detecting EFL was 1.83 cm H2O x s(-1) x L(-1), with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 97% respectively. Although slightly underestimated, R(rs, in) is helpful to guide the settings of inspiratory positive airway pressure level, which will appropriately overcome the elevated pulmonary resistance, and the

  11. Pressure dynamic characteristics of pressure controlled ventilation system of a lung simulator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing; Deng, Qiyou

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important life support treatment of critically ill patients, and air pressure dynamics of human lung affect ventilation treatment effects. In this paper, in order to obtain the influences of seven key parameters of mechanical ventilation system on the pressure dynamics of human lung, firstly, mechanical ventilation system was considered as a pure pneumatic system, and then its mathematical model was set up. Furthermore, to verify the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator was proposed for experimental study. Last, simulation and experimental studies on the air flow dynamic of the mechanical ventilation system were done, and then the pressure dynamic characteristics of the mechanical system were obtained. The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems.

  12. Pressure Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Controlled Ventilation System of a Lung Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing; Deng, Qiyou

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important life support treatment of critically ill patients, and air pressure dynamics of human lung affect ventilation treatment effects. In this paper, in order to obtain the influences of seven key parameters of mechanical ventilation system on the pressure dynamics of human lung, firstly, mechanical ventilation system was considered as a pure pneumatic system, and then its mathematical model was set up. Furthermore, to verify the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator was proposed for experimental study. Last, simulation and experimental studies on the air flow dynamic of the mechanical ventilation system were done, and then the pressure dynamic characteristics of the mechanical system were obtained. The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems. PMID:25197318

  13. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Rossor, Thomas E; Sundaresan, Adesh; Murthy, Vadivelam; Milner, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ventilation and employment of patient-triggered ventilation. To compare the efficacy of:(i) synchronised mechanical ventilation, delivered as high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) or patient-triggered ventilation (assist control ventilation (ACV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)), with conventional ventilation or high-frequency oscillation (HFO);(ii) different types of triggered ventilation (ACV, SIMV, pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV), SIMV with pressure support (PS) and pressure support ventilation (PSV)). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to June 5 2016), EMBASE (1980 to June 5 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to June 5 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing synchronised ventilation delivered as HFPPV to CMV, or ACV/SIMV to CMV or HFO in neonates. Randomised trials comparing different triggered ventilation modes (ACV, SIMV, SIMV plus PS, PRVCV and PSV) in neonates. Data were collected regarding clinical outcomes including mortality, air leaks (pneumothorax or pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grades 3 and 4), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (oxygen dependency beyond 28 days), moderate/severe BPD (oxygen

  14. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Murthy, Vadivelam; Milner, Anthony D; Rossor, Thomas E; Sundaresan, Adesh

    2016-08-19

    During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ventilation and employment of patient-triggered ventilation. To compare the efficacy of:(i) synchronised mechanical ventilation, delivered as high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) or patient-triggered ventilation (assist control ventilation (ACV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)), with conventional ventilation or high-frequency oscillation (HFO);(ii) different types of triggered ventilation (ACV, SIMV, pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV), SIMV with pressure support (PS) and pressure support ventilation (PSV)). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to June 5 2016), EMBASE (1980 to June 5 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to June 5 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing synchronised ventilation delivered as HFPPV to CMV, or ACV/SIMV to CMV or HFO in neonates. Randomised trials comparing different triggered ventilation modes (ACV, SIMV, SIMV plus PS, PRVCV and PSV) in neonates. Data were collected regarding clinical outcomes including mortality, air leaks (pneumothorax or pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grades 3 and 4), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (oxygen dependency beyond 28 days), moderate/severe BPD (oxygen

  15. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung, cuirass) is...

  19. A decision support system to determine optimal ventilator settings.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Fatma Patlar; Akkur, Erkan; Akan, Aydin; Yarman, B Siddik

    2014-01-10

    Choosing the correct ventilator settings for the treatment of patients with respiratory tract disease is quite an important issue. Since the task of specifying the parameters of ventilation equipment is entirely carried out by a physician, physician's knowledge and experience in the selection of these settings has a direct effect on the accuracy of his/her decisions. Nowadays, decision support systems have been used for these kinds of operations to eliminate errors. Our goal is to minimize errors in ventilation therapy and prevent deaths caused by incorrect configuration of ventilation devices. The proposed system is designed to assist less experienced physicians working in the facilities without having lung mechanics like cottage hospitals. This article describes a decision support system proposing the ventilator settings required to be applied in the treatment according to the patients' physiological information. The proposed model has been designed to minimize the possibility of making a mistake and to encourage more efficient use of time in support of the decision making process while the physicians make critical decisions about the patient. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is implemented in order to calculate frequency, tidal volume, FiO2 outputs, and this classification model has been used for estimation of pressure support / volume support outputs. For the obtainment of the highest performance in both models, different configurations have been tried. Various tests have been realized for training methods, and a number of hidden layers mostly affect factors regarding the performance of ANNs. The physiological information of 158 respiratory patients over the age of 60 and were treated in three different hospitals between the years 2010 and 2012 has been used in the training and testing of the system. The diagnosed disease, core body temperature, pulse, arterial systolic pressure, diastolic blood pressure, PEEP, PSO2, pH, pCO2, bicarbonate data as well as the

  20. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation after extubation: features and outcomes in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Liria Yuri; Figueiroa, Maise; da Silveira, Leda Tomiko Yamada; Travaglia, Teresa Cristina Francischetto; Bernardes, Sidnei; Fu, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe postextubation noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use in intensive care unit clinical practice and to identify factors associated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure. Methods This prospective cohort study included patients aged ≥ 18 years consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit who required noninvasive positive pressure ventilation within 48 hours of extubation. The primary outcome was noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure. Results We included 174 patients in the study. The overall noninvasive positive pressure ventilation use rate was 15%. Among the patients who used noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, 44% used it after extubation. The failure rate of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was 34%. The overall mean ± SD age was 56 ± 18 years, and 55% of participants were male. Demographics; baseline pH, PaCO2 and HCO3; and type of equipment used were similar between groups. All of the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation final parameters were higher in the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure group [inspiratory positive airway pressure: 15.0 versus 13.7cmH2O (p = 0.015), expiratory positive airway pressure: 10.0 versus 8.9cmH2O (p = 0.027), and FiO2: 41 versus 33% (p = 0.014)]. The mean intensive care unit length of stay was longer (24 versus 13 days), p < 0.001, and the intensive care unit mortality rate was higher (55 versus 10%), p < 0.001 in the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure group. After fitting, the logistic regression model allowed us to state that patients with inspiratory positive airway pressure ≥ 13.5cmH2O on the last day of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation support are three times more likely to experience noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure compared with individuals with inspiratory positive airway pressure < 13.5 (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 1.01 - 10.52, p value = 0.040). Conclusion The noninvasive positive pressure

  1. A regulator for pressure-controlled total-liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Raymond; Micheau, Philippe; Avoine, Olivier; Beaudry, Benoit; Beaulieu, Alexandre; Walti, Hervé

    2010-09-01

    Total-liquid ventilation (TLV) is an innovative experimental method of mechanical-assisted ventilation in which lungs are totally filled and then ventilated with a tidal volume of perfluorochemical liquid by using a dedicated liquid ventilator. Such a novel medical device must resemble other conventional ventilators: it must be able to conduct controlled-pressure ventilation. The objective was to design a robust controller to perform pressure-regulated expiratory flow and to implement it on our latest liquid-ventilator prototype (Inolivent-4). Numerical simulations, in vitro experiments, and in vivo experiments in five healthy term newborn lambs have demonstrated that it was efficient to generate expiratory flows while avoiding collapses. Moreover, the in vivo results have demonstrated that our liquid ventilator can maintain adequate gas exchange, normal acid-base equilibrium, and achieve greater minute ventilation, better oxygenation and CO2 extraction, while nearing flow limits. Hence, it is our suggestion to perform pressure-controlled ventilation during expiration with minute ventilation equal or superior to 140 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) in order to ensure PaCO2 below 55 mmHg. From a clinician's point of view, pressure-controlled ventilation greatly simplifies the use of the liquid ventilator, which will certainly facilitate its introduction in intensive care units for clinical applications.

  2. Intelligent decision support systems for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Roum, James H

    2008-11-01

    An overview of different methodologies used in various intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs) for mechanical ventilation is provided. The applications of the techniques are compared in view of today's intensive care unit (ICU) requirements. Information available in the literature is utilized to provide a methodological review of different systems. Comparisons are made of different systems developed for specific ventilation modes as well as those intended for use in wider applications. The inputs and the optimized parameters of different systems are discussed and rule-based systems are compared to model-based techniques. The knowledge-based systems used for closed-loop control of weaning from mechanical ventilation are also described. Finally, in view of increasing trend towards automation of mechanical ventilation, the potential utility of intelligent advisory systems for this purpose is discussed. IDSSs for mechanical ventilation can be quite helpful to clinicians in today's ICU settings. To be useful, such systems should be designed to be effective, safe, and easy to use at patient's bedside. In particular, these systems must be capable of noise removal, artifact detection and effective validation of data. Systems that can also be adapted for closed-loop control/weaning of patients at the discretion of the clinician, may have a higher potential for use in the future.

  3. Negative pressure ventilation and positive pressure ventilation promote comparable levels of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Bruells, Christian S; Smuder, Ashley J; Reiss, Lucy K; Hudson, Matthew B; Nelson, William Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Sollanek, Kurt J; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Powers, Scott K

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients with respiratory failure. Unfortunately, a major complication associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation is ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction, termed ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Emerging evidence suggests that positive pressure ventilation (PPV) promotes lung damage (ventilator-induced lung injury [VILI]), resulting in the release of signaling molecules that foster atrophic signaling in the diaphragm and the resultant VIDD. Although a recent report suggests that negative pressure ventilation (NPV) results in less VILI than PPV, it is unknown whether NPV can protect against VIDD. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that compared with PPV, NPV will result in a lower level of VIDD. Adult rats were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) acutely anesthetized control (CON), (2) 12 h of PPV, and (3) 12 h of NPV. Dependent measures included indices of VILI, diaphragmatic muscle fiber cross-sectional area, diaphragm contractile properties, and the activity of key proteases in the diaphragm. Our results reveal that no differences existed in the degree of VILI between PPV and NPV animals as evidenced by VILI histological scores (CON = 0.082 ± 0.001; PPV = 0.22 ± 0.04; NPV = 0.25 ± 0.02; mean ± SEM). Both PPV and NPV resulted in VIDD. Importantly, no differences existed between PPV and NPV animals in diaphragmatic fiber cross-sectional area, contractile properties, and the activation of proteases. These results demonstrate that NPV and PPV result in similar levels of VILI and that NPV and PPV promote comparable levels of VIDD in rats.

  4. Physiological Effects of Positive Pressure Ventilation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    in the ventilated patient and increase proportionally with the length of time Ventilation 43 mechanical ventilation is employed. Major infection ... sources are contributed to repeated breaks in the ventilator circuit and aspiration of gastric contents. There appears to be a positive correlation with

  5. Transpulmonary pressure monitoring during mechanical ventilation: a bench-to-bedside review.

    PubMed

    Mietto, Cristina; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Chiumello, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Different ventilation strategies have been suggested in the past in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Airway pressure monitoring alone is inadequate to assure optimal ventilatory support in ARDS patients. The assessment of transpulmonary pressure (PTP) can help clinicians to tailor mechanical ventilation to the individual patient needs. Transpulmonary pressure monitoring, defined as airway pressure (Paw) minus intrathoracic pressure (ITP), provides essential information about chest wall mechanics and its effects on the respiratory system and lung mechanics. The positioning of an esophageal catheter is required to measure the esophageal pressure (Peso), which is clinically used as a surrogate for ITP or pleural pressure (Ppl), and calculates the transpulmonary pressure. The benefits of such a ventilation approach are avoiding excessive lung stress and individualizing the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) setting. The aim is to prevent over-distention of alveoli and the cyclic recruitment/derecruitment or shear stress of lung parenchyma, mechanisms associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Knowledge of the real lung distending pressure, i.e. the transpulmonary pressure, has shown to be useful in both controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation. In the latter ventilator modes, Peso measurement allows one to assess a patient's respiratory effort, patient-ventilator asynchrony, intrinsic PEEP and the calculation of work of breathing. Conditions that have an impact on Peso, such as abdominal hypertension, will also be discussed briefly.

  6. [Comparison of volume preset and pressure preset ventilators during daytime nasal ventilation in chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Wolter, P; Berthier, F; Tamisier, R; Jullien, V; Lemoigne, F; Blaive, B

    2001-02-01

    Both volume preset and pressure preset ventilators are available for domiciliary nasal ventilation. Owing to their technical characteristics, it has been suggested that impaired ventilatory mechanics might cause a drop in the tidal volume (Vt) delivered by pressure preset devices, thereby placing mechanical ventilation at risk of inefficacy. We have assessed two ventilator systems (one pressure preset and one volume preset) with regard to the tidal volume and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PetCO(2)) changes that may be achieved in a group of awake patients with stable chronic respiratory failure (CRF). Eleven patients with stable CRF were ventilated in the assist/control mode for two consecutive one-hour periods. One ventilator was tested each hour, in random order. The VIGIL'AIR(R) system was used to record Vt, Respiratory Rate (RR), and Inspiratory/Expiratory ratio (I/E). The deviation E (E=preset value - measured value) was calculated for each measurement. Changes in PetCO(2) and arterial oxygen saturation were determined respectively by a capnometer and a pulse oximeter. Comparison of the mean deviation of Vt calculated for the two ventilators revealed a difference in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The deviation was greatest with the pressure preset ventilator (PPV), which gave mean measured values higher than the mean preset values. The same comparison failed to reveal any difference in restrictive CRF. Comparison of the volume preset and pressure preset ventilators for RR, I/E and PetCO(2) did not reveal any difference. Compared to the volume preset ventilator, the efficacy of PPV to ventilate is not affected by the restrictive or obstructive nature of CRF. Our results show that pressure-preset ventilator is an adequate alternative to the volume-preset device for daytime non invasive ventilation in chronic respiratory insufficiency.

  7. Pressure versus volume controlled modes in invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Garnero, A J; Abbona, H; Gordo-Vidal, F; Hermosa-Gelbard, C

    2013-05-01

    The first generation of mechanical ventilators were controlled and cycled by pressure. Unfortunately, they did not allow control of the delivered tidal volume under changes in the dynamics of the respiratory system. This led to a second generation of ventilators that allowed volume control, hence favoring the ventilatory strategy based on normalization of the arterial gases. Studies conducted in the 1980s which related lung injury to the high ventilator pressures utilized while treating acute respiratory distress syndrome patients renewed interest in pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation. In addition, new evidence became available, leading to the development of pulmonary protective strategies aiming at preventing the progression of ventilator-induced lung injury. This review provides a detailed description of the control of pressure or volume using certain ventilatory modes, and offers a general view of their advantages and disadvantages, based on the latest available evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear.

  9. Nutritional support of the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Shikora, S A; Benotti, P N

    1997-03-01

    As with all critically ill patients, those requiring mechanical ventilation are susceptible to the wasting of illness and cannot survive without prompt nutritional support. It may be fair to say that the proper provision of nutrients, and in particular the avoidance of overfeeding, are even more crucial for this subset of critically ill patients. To maximize the overall benefits of feeding, it is crucial to provide the nutritional support early and enterally whenever possible. Therefore, the best strategy for early removal of the mechanical ventilatory support must include the timely and careful administration of nutrients, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and fluid, in conjunction with standard intensive care therapeutics and the appropriate respiratory muscle-strengthening program.

  10. Clinical review: Biphasic positive airway pressure and airway pressure release ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Putensen, Christian; Wrigge, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on mechanical ventilation strategies that allow unsupported spontaneous breathing activity in any phase of the ventilatory cycle. By allowing patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome to breathe spontaneously, one can expect improvements in gas exchange and systemic blood flow, based on findings from both experimental and clinical trials. In addition, by increasing end-expiratory lung volume, as occurs when using biphasic positive airway pressure or airway pressure release ventilation, recruitment of collapsed or consolidated lung is likely to occur, especially in juxtadiaphragmatic lung legions. Traditional approaches to mechanical ventilatory support of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome require adaptation of the patient to the mechanical ventilator using heavy sedation and even muscle relaxation. Recent investigations have questioned the utility of sedation, muscle paralysis and mechanical control of ventilation. Furthermore, evidence exists that lowering sedation levels will decrease the duration of mechanical ventilatory support, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and overall costs of hospitalization. Based on currently available data, we suggest considering the use of techniques of mechanical ventilatory support that maintain, rather than suppress, spontaneous ventilatory effort, especially in patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:15566621

  11. Anaesthesia ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  12. Ventilation of Nonparalyzed Patients Under Anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway, Comparison of Three Modes of Ventilation: Volume Controlled Ventilation, Pressure Controlled Ventilation, and Pressure Controlled Ventilation-volume Guarantee.

    PubMed

    Ghabach, Maroun Badwi; El Hajj, Elie M; El Dib, Rouba D; Rkaiby, Jeanette M; Matta, May S; Helou, May R

    2017-01-01

    Pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) is the preferable mode of ventilation of nonparalyzed patients undergoing anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as compared to volume controlled ventilation (VCV) and spontaneously breathing patient. In this study, we compared the PC-volume guarantee (PC-VG) mode of ventilation with VCV and PCV modes. A total of 30 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Classes I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with a classic LMA were ventilated, subsequently, with the three modes of ventilation: VCV, PCV, and PC-VG for 10 min each mode. Tidal volume set for all patients was 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight. Parameters measured with modes of ventilation include peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), compliance, measured tidal volume, O2 saturation, end-tidal CO2, and presence of an oropharyngeal leak. The PIP was significantly higher with the application of VCV mode of ventilation than PCV and PC-VG modes. The compliance was significantly lower when using the mode of ventilation VCV than PCV and PC-VG. The PIP and the compliance were not statistically different between the PCV and PC-VG modes of ventilation. Ventilation of nonparalyzed patients with LMA under anesthesia with PC-VG is advantageous over VCV in reducing PIP and increasing lung compliance. No difference was noted between PCV and PC-VG in ASA Classes I or II under the adequate depth of anesthesia in patients with normal pulmonary function.

  13. Influence of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R S; De Rosie, J A; Avendano, M A; Dolmage, T E

    1991-02-01

    Intermittent positive pressure ventilation reduces inspiratory muscle electromyographic activity among patients with restrictive ventilatory failure. It has therefore been suggested that the reduction of energy expenditure at night could result in improved inspiratory muscle function during the day. Reported successes with nocturnal ventilation have not included measurements of inspiratory muscle endurance. We therefore electively ventilated six (five female, one male) patients (mean +/- SD) aged 36 +/- 13 years in whom respiratory failure (room air PaCO2, 60 +/- 13 mm Hg; PaO2, 44 +/- 11 mm Hg; SaO2, 75 +/- 12 percent) was consequent on restrictive ventilatory disease (vital capacity, 25 +/- 7 percent predicted; FEV1/FVC, 81 +/- 12 percent; total lung capacity, 40 +/- 5 percent predicted; MIPRV -42 +/- 10 cm H2O; MEP, 81 +/- 28 cm H2O). Positive pressure ventilation was administered with a customized closely fitting nasal mask attached to a volume-cycled pressure-limited ventilator. Full respiratory polysomnographic measurements as well as arterial blood gases, pulmonary function, distance walked in six minutes, and inspiratory muscle endurance were measured at baseline and after 3 and 14 months of ventilation. Ventilation improved saturation (baseline on O2; SWS 87 +/- 10, REM 79 +/- 14, ventilator on R/A; SWS 90 +/- 6, REM 89 +/- 5 percent) and transcutaneous Pco2 (baseline on O2; SWS 85 +/- 26, REM 94 +/- 39, ventilator on R/A; SWS 53 +/- 9, REM 58 +/- 9 mm Hg). During ventilation, the quantity and distribution of sleep was similar to that observed prior to ventilation. Daytime gas exchange improved as did the six-minute walking test (initial test = 429 +/- 120 m, three months after ventilation = 567 +/- 121 m), both of these improvements being sustained at 14 months. Inspiratory muscle endurance measured using a pressure threshold load (mean mouth pressure = 45 percent MIPRV) improved from 7.1 +/- 3.4 minutes at baseline to 14.8 +/- 7.6 minutes at 3 months, an

  14. Modeling systolic pressure variation due to positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Messerges, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Although many clinical techniques have been proposed to assess blood volume none have been established as an undisputed standard practice, Volume studies suggest systolic pressure variation (SPV) as a promising volume indicator but underlying influences on SPV are not well understood. Successful modeling of SPV will reveal the major SPV influencers, guide algorithm development to accommodate these influencers, and potentially lead to a more clinically relevant interpretation of SPV values, thus improving upon current clinical methods for assessing blood volume. This study takes a first step towards identifying SPV influencers by investigating three variations of an existing pressure-flow cardiovascular model. Each successive version introduces an additional modification in attempt to model SPV under normovolemic and hypovolemic conditions, where the last model accounts for positive pressure ventilation, venous compression, and a rightward septum shift. Under normovolemic conditions, each model yields SPV values of 5.8, 6.4, and 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Under hypovolemic conditions the results do not agree with clinical findings, suggesting these three mechanisms alone do not dictate the clinical SPV response to a decrease in volume. Model results are used to suggest improvements for future work.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS DURING A VENTILATION SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    B.S. Prosser, PE; I.M. Loomis, PE, PhD

    2003-11-03

    During the course of a ventilation survey, both airflow quantity and frictional pressure losses are measured and quantified. The measurement of airflow has been extensively studied as the vast majority of ventilation standards/regulations are tied to airflow quantity or velocity. However, during the conduct of a ventilation survey, measurement of airflow only represents half of the necessary parameters required to directly calculate the airway resistance. The measurement of frictional pressure loss is an often misunderstood and misapplied part of the ventilation survey. This paper compares the two basic methods of frictional pressure drop measurements; the barometer and the gauge and tube. Personal experiences with each method will be detailed along with the authors' opinions regarding the applicability and conditions favoring each method.

  16. Are there benefits or harm from pressure targeting during lung-protective ventilation?

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Neil R; Sessler, Curtis N

    2010-02-01

    Mechanically, breath design is usually either flow/volume-targeted or pressure-targeted. Both approaches can effectively provide lung-protective ventilation, but they prioritize different ventilation parameters, so their responses to changing respiratory-system mechanics and patient effort are different. These different response behaviors have advantages and disadvantages that can be important in specific circumstances. Flow/volume targeting guarantees a set minute ventilation but sometimes may be difficult to synchronize with patient effort, and it will not limit inspiratory pressure. In contrast, pressure targeting, with its variable flow, may be easier to synchronize and will limit inspiratory pressure, but it provides no control over delivered volume. Skilled clinicians can maximize benefits and minimize problems with either flow/volume targeting or pressure targeting. Indeed, as is often the case in managing complex life-support devices, it is operator expertise rather than the device design features that most impacts patient outcomes.

  17. Aerosol therapy in patients receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Rajiv

    2012-04-01

    In selected patients, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with a facemask is now commonly employed as the first choice for providing mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). Aerosol therapy for treatment of acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in this setting may be delivered by pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with a chamber spacer and facemask or nebulizer and facemask. This article reviews the host of factors influencing aerosol delivery with these devices during NIPPV. These factors include (1) the type of ventilator, (2) mode of ventilation, (3) circuit conditions, (4) type of interface, (5) type of aerosol generator, (6) drug-related factors, (7) breathing parameters, and (8) patient-related factors. Despite the impediments to efficient aerosol delivery because of continuous gas flow, high inspiratory flow rates, air leaks, circuit humidity, and patient-ventilator asynchrony, significant therapeutic effects are achieved after inhaled bronchodilator administration to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Similarly to invasive mechanical ventilation, careful attention to the technique of drug administration is required to optimize therapeutic effects of inhaled therapies during NIPPV. Assessment of the patient's ability to tolerate a facemask, the level of respiratory distress, hemodynamic status, and synchronization of aerosol generation with inspiratory airflow are important factors contributing to the success of aerosol delivery during NIPPV. Further research into novel delivery methods, such as the use of NIPPV with nasal cannulae, could enhance the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of inhalation therapy during noninvasive ventilation.

  18. Relative effects of negative versus positive pressure ventilation depend on applied conditions.

    PubMed

    Engelberts, Doreen; Malhotra, Atul; Butler, James P; Topulos, George P; Loring, Stephen H; Kavanagh, Brian P

    2012-05-01

    Comparisons of negative versus positive pressure ventilation have imperfectly matched the pressure-time profile or the lung volume history, or have incompletely applied in vivo negative pressure to include the complete thoracic wall and abdomen. Negative pressure exerts the same pattern of lung distension as positive pressure when the pressure-time and volume history profiles are identical and the application of negative pressure is over the whole lung. (1) In isolated (ex vivo) and (2) intact (in vivo) mouse lungs (n = 4/group) (sealed chamber enclosing either the whole lung or whole mouse except for external airway opening), identical and inverse-tidal, square-wave pressure-time profiles were obtained with positive and negative pressure ventilation. (3) Following an identical volume history, surfactant-depleted rabbits (n = 7) were randomly assigned to sustained, static equivalent positive versus negative pressures. (4) Surfactant-depleted anesthetized rabbits (n = 10) with identical volume histories were randomized to positive versus negative ventilation with identical pressure-time characteristics. Matched positive and negative pressure time profiles in ex vivo and in vivo mice resulted in identical tidal volumes. Identical (negative vs. positive) sustained static pressures resulted in similar PaO(2) and end expiratory lung volumes. Positive and negative ventilation with identical volume histories and pressure time characteristics showed no difference in oxygenation or lung volumes. Historical comparisons suggested better oxygenation with negative pressure when the volume history was not identical. These data do not support major biological differences between negative and positive pressure ventilation when waveforms and lung volume history are matched.

  19. [Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in postoperative period of tracheal surgery].

    PubMed

    De La Torre, C A; Hernández, F; Sanabria, P; Vázquez, J; Miguel, M; Luis, A L; Barrena, S; Aguilar, R; Ramírez, M; Hernández, S; Borches, D; Lassaletta, L; Tovar, J A

    2011-04-01

    Reconstructive surgery of the airway often means prolonged periods of intubation during the post-operatory period, increasing the needs for drugs and favoring the appearance of infectious complications. We present an original system of ventilatory support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) using in patients subjected to reconstructive surgery of the airway. A retrospective study in patients undergoing reconstructive procedures of the airway in the year 2009 was carried out. We exclude those treated endoscopically and those who had vascular rings. The positive pressure mechanism used in the Surgery Critical Care Unit was a design made by the unit based on the circuit devised by Mapleson that provides optimum levels of ventilation without need for connection to a respiratory. We analyze the results, postoperatory intubation time, time dependent on NIPPV and medical treatment received. A total of 7 patients (1 Female and 6 Males) with median age of 1.6 (0.1-7.5) years were included. The diagnoses were: 4 subglottic stenosis, 2 had tracheal stenosis and 1 subcarinal stenosis with involvement of both principal bronchioles. The techniques used were: laryngotracheoplasty with costal cartilage graft (4), tracheoplasty with costal cartilage (1) and sliding tracheoplasty (2) with bilateral bronchoplasty in one of them. The mean time of nasotracheal intubation was 3 days, and mean time of NIPPV was 2.3. No patient required reintubation and none had infectious complications. Ventilatory support by VPPNI allows effective extubation in these patients, it being possible to maintain a safe airway. Infectious complications, frequent in prolonged intubations, were not observed in any of the cases.

  20. Ventilation of Nonparalyzed Patients Under Anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway, Comparison of Three Modes of Ventilation: Volume Controlled Ventilation, Pressure Controlled Ventilation, and Pressure Controlled Ventilation-volume Guarantee

    PubMed Central

    Ghabach, Maroun Badwi; El Hajj, Elie M.; El Dib, Rouba D.; Rkaiby, Jeanette M.; Matta, May S.; Helou, May R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) is the preferable mode of ventilation of nonparalyzed patients undergoing anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as compared to volume controlled ventilation (VCV) and spontaneously breathing patient. In this study, we compared the PC–volume guarantee (PC-VG) mode of ventilation with VCV and PCV modes. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Classes I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with a classic LMA were ventilated, subsequently, with the three modes of ventilation: VCV, PCV, and PC-VG for 10 min each mode. Tidal volume set for all patients was 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight. Parameters measured with modes of ventilation include peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), compliance, measured tidal volume, O2 saturation, end-tidal CO2, and presence of an oropharyngeal leak. Results: The PIP was significantly higher with the application of VCV mode of ventilation than PCV and PC-VG modes. The compliance was significantly lower when using the mode of ventilation VCV than PCV and PC-VG. The PIP and the compliance were not statistically different between the PCV and PC-VG modes of ventilation. Conclusions: Ventilation of nonparalyzed patients with LMA under anesthesia with PC-VG is advantageous over VCV in reducing PIP and increasing lung compliance. No difference was noted between PCV and PC-VG in ASA Classes I or II under the adequate depth of anesthesia in patients with normal pulmonary function. PMID:28298784

  1. Intermittent negative pressure ventilation in patients with restrictive respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Fabiani, A

    1993-01-01

    Thirty one patients in stable respiratory failure (arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) 67 +/- 20 mmHg (8.9 +/- 2.7 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) 59 +/- 10 mmHg 7.9 +/- 1.3 kPa)), secondary to non-obstructive ventilatory impairment, were treated by intermittent negative pressure ventilation (INPV), using a pneumowrap or poncho during the night. Daytime arterial blood gas measurements, taken before and after the ventilation, revealed a substantial improvement in PaO2, PaCO2 and maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax). This improvement persisted during the six month follow-up of home nocturnal ventilation. The polysomnographic, recording during mechanical ventilation by poncho, in five patients, showed a general improvement in the quality and structure of sleep. All patients returned to normal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values (> 90%), except for one. In three patients, the appearance of obstructive events was noted but the desaturation that they caused was, remarkably, lower than that caused by central events in baseline recording. We conclude that non-invasive treatment by INPV, in patients with neuromuscular and chest wall disease, is the method of choice as an alternative to intermittent positive pressure ventilation and to tracheostomy.

  2. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    PubMed

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  3. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Tod H.; Ott, Howard L.

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  4. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  5. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers.

  6. Intradiscal pressure variation under spontaneous ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roriz, Paulo; Ferreira, J.; Potes, J. C.; Oliveira, M. T.; Santos, J. L.; Simões, J. A.; Frazão, O.

    2014-05-01

    The pressure measured in the intervertebral discs is a response to the loads acting on the spine. External loads, such as the reaction forces resulting from locomotion, manual handling and collisions are probably the most relevant in studying spine trauma. However, the physiological functions such as breathing and hearth rate also participate in subtle variations of intradiscal pressure that can be observed only in vivo at resting. Present work is an effort to measure the effect of breathing on intradiscal pressure of an anesthetized sheep.

  7. Pressure losses across multiple fittings in ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Ai, Z T; Mak, C M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability.

  8. Pressure Losses across Multiple Fittings in Ventilation Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability. PMID:24385871

  9. Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV): a primary ventilatory support mode.

    PubMed

    Downs, J B; Stock, M C; Tabeling, B

    1982-01-01

    Respiratory therapy should be directed at underlying pathophysiology, not symptomatology. Mechanical ventilation, oxygen, and CPAP should be administered to patients independently and in appropriate amounts. Removal of each of these therapeutic interventions should occur in a similar fashion. The method for determining optimal mechanical ventilation, oxygen concentration, and CPAP level is not unlike that recommended for many other therapeutic interventions. Each should be applied to achieve a predetermined goal, each should be continually reevaluated, and each should be withdrawn when indicated. Optimal CPAP should be applied to improve matching of ventilation and perfusion and to improve pulmonary mechanics so that the requirement for oxygen and mechanical ventilation is reduced. A reduction in inspired oxygen concentration may prevent absorption atelectasis and allow more rapid discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and CPAP. Minimal mechanical ventilatory support eliminates iatrogenic respiratory alkalosis and improves distribution of ventilation. This approach minimizes the detrimental effects of mechanical ventilatory support on acid-base balance and cardiovascular function and decreases the possibility of pulmonary barotrauma. Twelve years of prospective evaluation have demonstrated numerous advantages of IMV. This approach has simplified the management of patients with compromised respiratory function and has decreased morbidity and mortality (10).

  10. Dynamic Characteristics of Mechanical Ventilation System of Double Lungs with Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongkai; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the dynamic characteristics of ventilation system, it was considered that human had only one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs on the air flow can not be illustrated, which has been in regard to be vital to life support of patients. In this article, to illustrate coupling effect of double lungs on flow dynamics of mechanical ventilation system, a mathematical model of a mechanical ventilation system, which consists of double lungs and a bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) controlled ventilator, was proposed. To verify the mathematical model, a prototype of BIPAP system with a double-lung simulators and a BIPAP ventilator was set up for experimental study. Lastly, the study on the influences of key parameters of BIPAP system on dynamic characteristics was carried out. The study can be referred to in the development of research on BIPAP ventilation treatment and real respiratory diagnostics. PMID:27660646

  11. [Management of patients receiving home respiratory care with tracheostomy and positive-pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred and a massive tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan. In Miyagi prefecture in Tokoku district, 49 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were supported by home respiratory care with tracheostomy and positive-pressure ventilation at that time. Among them, two patients were died in the tsunami and 25 patients were forced to evacuate to hospitals. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology.

  12. Utility of Transcutaneous Capnography for Optimization of Non-Invasive Ventilation Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Gehrer, Simone; Pandey, Kamlesh V; Vaidya, Preyas J; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Tamm, Michael; Strobel, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous oxygen saturation measured with a pulse oximeter provides a surrogate measure of arterial oxygen saturation but does not completely reflect ventilation. Currently, Partial Pressure of Arterial (PaCO2) measured by arterial blood analysis is used for estimating the adequacy of ventilatory support and serves as the gold standard Aim To examine the safety, feasibility and utility of cutaneous capnography to re-titrate the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure prospectively underwent complete polysomnography and cutaneous capnography measurement on the ear lobe. Non-invasive ventilation pressures were adjusted with the aim of normalizing cutaneous carbon dioxide or at least reducing it by 10 to 15 mmHg. Sensor drift for cutaneous carbon dioxide of 0.7 mmHg per hour was integrated in the analysis. Results Mean baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide was 45.4 ± 6.5 mmHg and drift corrected awake value was 45.1 ± 8.3 mmHg. The correlation of baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide and the corrected awake cutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial blood gas values were 0.91 and 0.85 respectively. Inspiratory positive airway pressures were changed in nine patients (75%) and expiratory positive airway pressures in eight patients (66%). Epworth sleepiness score before and after the study showed no change in five patients, improvement in six patients and deterioration in one patient. Conclusion Cutaneous capnography is feasible and permits the optimization of non-invasive ventilation pressure settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous cutaneous capnography might serve as

  13. The role of an ambient pressure oxygen source during one-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, J

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is facilitated by prompt collapse of the non-ventilated ('operated') lung, and interrupted and impeded if there is a need for oxygen (O2) delivery by continuous positive airways pressure in order to manage hypoxaemia. It has been proposed that connecting an ambient pressure O2 source to the airway of the non-ventilated lung at the time one-lung ventilation is initiated and before the chest is opened will, by avoiding entrainment of ambient nitrogen, serve to facilitate lung collapse. It has also been proposed that leaving the O2 source connected will enable, not only ongoing apnoeic oxygenation before the chest is opened, but also the thoracoscopic procedure to commence with the operated lung fully pre-oxygenated (with an inspired oxygen fraction of 1), and apnoeic oxygenation to continue throughout the operative procedure in those patients who exhibit a degree of small airways patency at ambient pressure. In reality, several factors can influence the speed of collapse of the operated lung, and very many factors can influence the incidence of hypoxaemia during one-lung ventilation. It therefore appears unlikely that the necessary evidence to support these proposals will be forthcoming from randomised clinical studies on large numbers of patients. Rather, the necessary evidence may only be provided by specifically designed within-patient clinical measurement studies. Nevertheless, it is argued that, in the meantime, there is already sufficient rationale for an ambient pressure O2 source to be connected to the airway of the non-ventilated lung, and for it to remain connected for the duration of one-lung ventilation.

  14. Increasing inspiratory time exacerbates ventilator-induced lung injury during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Alfredo V; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2002-10-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury may be caused by overdistension of alveoli during high-pressure ventilation. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing inspiratory time on ventilator-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups with ten animals per group. Each group was then ventilated for 30 mins with one of four ventilator strategies. All groups were ventilated with an Fio2 of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm H2O. Group LoP was the negative control group and was ventilated with low pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 12 cm H2O, rate = 30, and inspiratory time = 0.5 secs). Groups iT = 0.5, iT = 1.0, and iT = 1.5 were the experimental groups and were ventilated with high pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 45 cm H2O, rate = 10, and inspiratory times = 0.5 secs, iT = 1.0 sec, and iT = 1.5 secs, respectively). Outcome measures included lung compliance, Pao /Fio ratio, wet/dry lung weight, and dry lung/body weight. Final static lung compliance (p =.0002) and Pao2/Fio2 (p =.001) decreased as inspiratory time increased. Wet/dry lung weights (p <.0001) and dry lung/body weights (p <.0001) increased as inspiratory time increased. Light microscopy revealed evidence of intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the iT = 1.0 and iT = 1.5 animals but not the LoP and iT = 0.5 animals. Increasing inspiratory time during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in variables of lung injury.

  15. Modalities of Mechanical Ventilation: Volume-Targeted Versus Pressure-Limited.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Shanny M; Newnam, Katherine M

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome remains the most common admission diagnosis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Healthcare providers have a clear appreciation for the potential harm to pulmonary structures that have been associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) in the preterm infant. Although life sustaining, the goal is to optimally ventilate while limiting trauma to the neonatal lung in order to preserve long-term cardiopulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes. To describe, compare, and contrast 2 primary methods of neonatal MV, pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) and volume-targeted ventilation (VTV), highlighting key considerations during therapy. A comprehensive search of the literature was completed using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Research articles that were published in English over the last 10 years were reviewed for key information to describe and support the topic. Expert content review was conducted prior to publication by respiratory care providers, neonatal nurse practitioners, staff nurses, and neonatologist. Technology is rapidly evolving, with the newest mechanical ventilators providing the clinician with real-time data not previously available. Advanced microprocessors and feedback mechanisms can better support various ventilatory strategies including PLV and VTV. Renewed interest in volume ventilation has led many clinicians to ask about current evidence to support ventilatory modalities with regard to timing, settings, and short- and long-term effects. The clinician understands that neonatal pulmonary status is frequently changing based on gestational age, current age, and physiologic influences. Evidence supporting recommendations for the described MV modalities of PLV and VTV is provided for both preterm and term neonates. Comparison between MV strategies, specifically PLV and VTV, including short- and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, is needed. Recommendations regarding physiologic tidal

  16. Airway pressure release ventilation and successful lung donation.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kenny; Seder, Christopher W; Weinberger, Jeffrey B; Sills, Patty A; Hagan, Michael; Janczyk, Randy J

    2011-03-01

    Donor management with airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) improves oxygenation and increases lung donation while maintaining equivalent graft survival. Retrospective case series. Private, tertiary care, level I trauma center. Forty-five consecutive organ donors. Management with assist/control ventilation (ACV) or APRV. Demographic characteristics, medical history, mode of brain death, and partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) ratios on admission and after 100% oxygen challenge, percentage of lungs transplanted, and graft survival. Twenty potential donors were managed with ACV and 25 were managed with APRV during the study period. The APRV patients were younger than the ACV patients (mean [SD] age, 34 [11] vs 41 [12] years, respectively; P = .05). Otherwise, there was no difference between the ACV and APRV groups with respect to demographic characteristics, medical history, or mode of brain death. Although the ACV and APRV groups had similar Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratios on admission and the mean time on the ventilator was the same, the APRV group had a higher Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio than the ACV group (mean [SD], 498 [43] vs 334 [104] mm Hg, respectively; P < .001) after 100% oxygen challenge. The ACV group ultimately donated 7 of 40 potential lungs (18%) compared with 42 of 50 potential lungs (84%) in the APRV group (P < .001). There was no difference in the number of other organs per donor procured from the 2 groups. Survival of grafts managed with both APRV and ACV compared favorably with national averages. The use of APRV prior to procurement may increase the rate of successful lung donation.

  17. Different characteristics of ventilator application between tracheostomy- and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghwi; Lee, Goo Joo; Kim, Ha Young; Ryu, Ju Seok

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the appropriate home ventilator settings for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).In total, 71 patients with ALS, who had received either a noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or tracheostomy positive pressure ventilation (TPPV), were included. Accordingly, patients were divided into 2 groups (the TPPV and NIPPV groups). We retrospectively evaluated the values used in home ventilators for patients with ALS, who had maintained a stable level of CO2 on both the arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) and transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. To measure the main outcome, we also investigated the actual body weight (ABW) and predicted body weight (PBW) of patients, and the following setting values of ventilators were also recorded: the inspired tidal volume (VTi), minute ventilation (MV), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), and inspiratory time (Tins).VTi and MV showed a significantly positive correlation with both PBW and ABW of patients in the TPPV group. However, both VTi and MV had greater significant correlation with PBW than ABW in the TPPV group. In addition, VTi and MV did not show a significantly positive correlation with either PBW or ABW in the NIPPV group.In patients with ALS, PBW was more useful for predicting VTi and MV than ABW. Moreover, it will be helpful to know the differences of setting values between TPPV and NIPPV, especially because ALS patients are usually treated with TPPV due to the initial difficulties associated with NIPPV.

  18. Different characteristics of ventilator application between tracheostomy- and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghwi; Lee, Goo Joo; Kim, Ha Young; Ryu, Ju Seok

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the appropriate home ventilator settings for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In total, 71 patients with ALS, who had received either a noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or tracheostomy positive pressure ventilation (TPPV), were included. Accordingly, patients were divided into 2 groups (the TPPV and NIPPV groups). We retrospectively evaluated the values used in home ventilators for patients with ALS, who had maintained a stable level of CO2 on both the arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) and transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. To measure the main outcome, we also investigated the actual body weight (ABW) and predicted body weight (PBW) of patients, and the following setting values of ventilators were also recorded: the inspired tidal volume (VTi), minute ventilation (MV), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), and inspiratory time (Tins). VTi and MV showed a significantly positive correlation with both PBW and ABW of patients in the TPPV group. However, both VTi and MV had greater significant correlation with PBW than ABW in the TPPV group. In addition, VTi and MV did not show a significantly positive correlation with either PBW or ABW in the NIPPV group. In patients with ALS, PBW was more useful for predicting VTi and MV than ABW. Moreover, it will be helpful to know the differences of setting values between TPPV and NIPPV, especially because ALS patients are usually treated with TPPV due to the initial difficulties associated with NIPPV. PMID:28272226

  19. A Turbine-Driven Ventilator Improves Adherence to Advanced Cardiac Life Support Guidelines During a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Simulation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott G; Brewer, Lara; Gillis, Erik S; Pace, Nathan L; Sakata, Derek J; Orr, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Research has shown that increased breathing frequency during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Rescuers often hyperventilate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support recommends a ventilation rate of 8-10 breaths/min. We hypothesized that a small, turbine-driven ventilator would allow rescuers to adhere more closely to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines. Twenty-four ACLS-certified health-care professionals were paired into groups of 2. Each team performed 4 randomized rounds of 2-min cycles of CPR on an intubated mannikin, with individuals altering between compressions and breaths. Two rounds of CPR were performed with a self-inflating bag, and 2 rounds were with the ventilator. The ventilator was set to deliver 8 breaths/min, pressure limit 22 cm H2O. Frequency, tidal volume (VT), peak inspiratory pressure, and compression interruptions (hands-off time) were recorded. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Welch 2-sample t test. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) frequency with the ventilator was 7.98 (7.98-7.99) breaths/min. Median (IQR) frequency with the self-inflating bag was 9.5 (8.2-10.7) breaths/min. Median (IQR) ventilator VT was 0.5 (0.5-0.5) L. Median (IQR) self-inflating bag VT was 0.6 (0.5-0.7) L. Median (IQR) ventilator peak inspiratory pressure was 22 (22-22) cm H2O. Median (IQR) self-inflating bag peak inspiratory pressure was 30 (27-35) cm H2O. Mean ± SD hands-off times for ventilator and self-inflating bag were 5.25 ± 2.11 and 6.41 ± 1.45 s, respectively. When compared with a ventilator, volunteers ventilated with a self-inflating bag within ACLS guidelines. However, volunteers ventilated with increased variation, at higher VT levels, and at higher peak pressures with the self-inflating bag. Hands-off time was also significantly lower with the ventilator. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02743299

  20. Average volume-assured pressure support in a 16-year-old girl with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vagiakis, Emmanouil; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Perraki, Eleni; Roussos, Charis; Mastora, Zafeiria; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2010-12-15

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by the absence of adequate autonomic control of respiration, which results in alveolar hypoventilation and decreased sensitivity to hypercarbia and hypoxemia, especially during sleep. Patients with CCHS need lifelong ventilatory support. The treatment options for CCHS include intermittent positive pressure ventilation administered via tracheostomy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, negative-pressure ventilation by body chamber or cuirass, and phrenic nerve pacing. However, it may be necessary to alter the mode of ventilation according to age, psychosocial reasons, complications of therapy, and emergence of new modes of ventilation. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with CCHS who was mechanically ventilated via tracheostomy for 16 years and was successfully transitioned to a new modality of noninvasive ventilation (average volume-assured pressure support [AVAPS]) that automatically adjusts the pressure support level in order to provide a consistent tidal volume.

  1. [Non invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with COPD exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Oscar J; Acquier, Mariano Fernandez; Grodnisky, Laura; Malamud, Patricia; Gramblika, Georgina; Giugno, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This is a prospective study on the implementation of the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients hospitalized in a Pneumological Unit. From January 2000 to January 2003, 39 patients were included during 54 different exacerbation events after being evaluated under international standards. They were classified as severe and very severe patients on the basis of their FEV1 values of 26%. Twenty nine patients presented co-morbidities. As a consequence of the NPPV treatment, the pH values increased between the first and last register as well as the pCO2 dropped in the same period. The initial mean pH values were 7.25 reaching mean values of 7.33 at 2 hours and 7.39 at the discharge; the corresponding pCO2 mean values were 83.8 mmHg, 67.8 mmHg and 54.2 mmHg. Thirty five patients out of 39 were discharged after a mean hospitalization length of 13.6 days. Four patients died. Apropriate training of health care staff in general facilities could allow the implementation of NPPV in addition to usual medical care to treat exacerbation of COPD. High morbidity situations could arise during hospitalization, so invasive ventilation must be necessary.

  2. Modeling modulation of intracranial pressure by variation of cerebral venous resistance induced by ventilation.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Richard L; Leffler, Charles W; Daley, Michael L

    2003-11-01

    To test, theoretically, the hypothesis that: (1) cyclic extravascular compressional modulation of the terminal venous bed occurs with positive pressure inhalation; and (2) the degree of modulation is diminished with increasing vascular dilation induced by increasing the level of the partial pressure of arterial blood carbon dioxide (PCO2), two modifications of Ursino's model of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics were made: (1) terminal venous bed resistance was synchronously modulated with the ventilation cycle; and (2) both the depth of modulation and cerebrovascular resistance were progressively reduced with increasing levels of PCO2. Recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure of piglets were obtained and correlated at different levels of hypercapnia. Simulated and experimental correlation values progressively increased monotonically as the level of PCO2 increased. Group (n = 4) mean values of correlation (+/- standard deviation) were 0.54 (+/- 0.17), 0.61 (+/- 0.08), 0.79 (+/- 0.06), 0.86 (+/- 0.04), 0.87 (+/- 0.05) for respective mean PCO2 levels (+/- standard deviation) of 32.9 (+/- 1.75), 41.4 (+/- 2.5), 55.9 (+/- 4.0), 72.5 (+/- 6.45), and 87.4 (+/- 7.25) mmHg. These results support the stated premise that dilation of the cerebrovasculature reduces the influence of positive pressure ventilation on the ICP recording by increasing the venous pressure and thus diminishing the likelihood of vascular compression.

  3. Airway Pressure Release Ventilation and High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation: Potential Strategies to Treat Severe Hypoxemia and Prevent Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Francesca; Fan, Eddy

    2015-10-01

    Although lifesaving, mechanical ventilation can itself be responsible for damage to lung parenchyma. This ventilator-induced lung injury is especially observed in already injured lungs of patients with ARDS. New ventilatory approaches are needed to safely treat patients with ARDS, and recent studies have suggested the potential utility of open-lung strategies. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are 2 different open-lung strategies that have been proposed to treat refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure while preventing ventilator-induced lung injury. APRV provides increased airway pressure as a potential recruitment mechanism and allows spontaneous breathing, with the potential benefits of decreased sedation, shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, and improvement in cardiac performance. HFOV delivers very small tidal volumes, to prevent volutrauma, at a constant (relatively high) mean airway pressure, thus avoiding atelectrauma. Despite their theoretical benefits, the utility of APRV and HFOV remains unproven and controversial for the routine treatment of ARDS in adult patients. This review is focused on the theoretical and practical aspects of APRV and HFOV, provides an overview of the current evidence, and addresses their possible use in the treatment of ARDS.

  4. Respiratory muscle activity and patient–ventilator asynchrony during different settings of noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: does high inspiratory pressure lead to respiratory muscle unloading?

    PubMed Central

    Duiverman, Marieke L; Huberts, Anouk S; van Eykern, Leo A; Bladder, Gerrie; Wijkstra, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to improve outcomes in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. However, there is insufficient knowledge about whether with this more controlled ventilatory mode optimal respiratory muscle unloading is provided without an increase in patient–ventilator asynchrony (PVA). Patients and methods Ten chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients on home mechanical ventilation were included. Four different ventilatory settings were investigated in each patient in random order, each for 15 min, varying the inspiratory positive airway pressure and backup breathing frequency. With surface electromyography (EMG), activities of the intercostal muscles, diaphragm, and scalene muscles were determined. Furthermore, pressure tracings were derived simultaneously in order to assess PVA. Results Compared to spontaneous breathing, the most pronounced decrease in EMG activity was achieved with the high-pressure settings. Adding a high breathing frequency did reduce EMG activity per breath, while the decrease in EMG activity over 1 min was comparable with the high-pressure, low-frequency setting. With high backup breathing frequencies less breaths were pressure supported (25% vs 97%). PVAs occurred more frequently with the low-frequency settings (P=0.017). Conclusion High-intensity NIV might provide optimal unloading of respiratory muscles, without undue increases in PVA. PMID:28138234

  5. The effects of an automatic, low pressure and constant flow ventilation device versus manual ventilation during cardiovascular resuscitation in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xudong; Ramadeen, Andrew; Laurent, Gabriel; So, Petsy Pui-Sze; Baig, Ehtesham; Hare, Gregory M T; Dorian, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is an important cause of mortality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival, however, delivery of effective CPR can be challenging and combining effective chest compressions with ventilation, while avoiding over-ventilation is difficult. We hypothesized that ventilation with a pneumatically powered, automatic ventilator (Oxylator(®)) can provide adequate ventilation in a model of cardiac arrest and improve the consistency of ventilations during CPR. Twelve pigs (∼40 kg, either sex) underwent 3 episodes each of cardiac arrest and resuscitation consisting of 30s of untreated ventricular fibrillation, followed by 5 min of CPR, defibrillation, and ∼30 min of recovery. During CPR in each episode, pigs were ventilated in 1 of 3 ways in random balanced order: manual ventilation using AMBU bag (12 breaths/min), low pressure Oxylator(®) (maximum airway pressure 15 cm H2O with 20 L/min constant flow in automatic mode [Ox15/20]), or high pressure Oxylator(®) (maximum airway pressure 20 cm H2O with 30 L/min constant flow in automatic mode [Ox20/30]). During CPR, both Ox15/20 and Ox20/30 resulted in higher levels of positive end expiratory pressure than manual ventilation. Ox15/20 ventilation also resulted in higher arterial pCO2 than manual ventilation. Ox20/30 ventilation yielded higher arterial pO2 and a lower arterial-alveolar gradient than manual ventilation. All pigs were successfully defibrillated, and no measured haemodynamic variables were different between the groups. Ventilation with an automatic ventilation device during CPR is feasible and provides adequate ventilation and comparable haemodynamics when compared to manual bag ventilation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of respiratory and hemodynamic stability in patients with traumatic brain injury ventilated by two ventilator modes: Pressure regulated volume control versus synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Aghadavoudi, Omid; Alikiaii, Babak; Sadeghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare pressure regulated volume control (PRVC) and synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation (SIMV) modes of ventilation according to respiratory and hemodynamic stability in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial study, 100 patients who hospitalized in ICU due to TBI were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first and second groups were ventilated by PRVC and SIMV modes, respectively. During mechanical ventilation, arterial blood gas and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were also recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: According to the t-test, the mean rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) after the first 8 h of mechanical ventilation was significantly higher in SIMV group compared with PRVC group (107.6 ± 2.75 vs. 102.2 ± 5.2, respectively, P < 0.0001). Further, according to ANOVA with repeated measures, the trend of RSBI changes had a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The trend of ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen was different between the two groups according to Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Using PRVC mode might be more desirable than using SIMV mode in patients with TBI due to better stability of ventilation and oxygenating. To ensure for more advantages of PRVC mode, further studies with longer follow-up and more detailed measurements are recommended. PMID:28028515

  7. Bench testing of a new hyperbaric chamber ventilator at different atmospheric pressures.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Jean-Claude; Lyazidi, Aissam; Parceiro, Miguel; Sferrazza Papa, Giuseppe F; Akoumianaki, Evangelia; Pugin, Deborah; Tassaux, Didier; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2012-08-01

    Providing mechanical ventilation is challenging at supra-atmospheric pressure. The higher gas density increases resistance, reducing the flow delivered by the ventilator. A new hyperbaric ventilator (Siaretron IPER 1000) is said to compensate for these effects automatically. The aim of this bench test study was to validate the compensation, define its limits and provide details on the ventilator's output at varied atmospheric pressures. Experiments were conducted inside a multiplace hyperbaric chamber at 1, 2.2, 2.8 and 4 atmospheres absolute (ATA), with the ventilator connected to a test lung. Transducers were recalibrated at each ATA level. Various ventilator settings were tested in volume and pressure control modes. Measured tidal volumes were compared with theoretical predictions based on gas laws. Results confirmed the ventilator's ability to provide compensation, but also identified its limits. The compensation range could be predicted and depended on the maximal flow attainable, decreasing linearly with increasing atmospheric pressure. With settings inside the range, tidal volumes approximated set values (mean error 10 ± 5 %). With settings outside the range, the volume was limited to the predicted maximal value calculated from maximal flow. A practical guide for clinicians is provided. The IPER 1000 ventilator attempted to deliver stable tidal volume by adjusting the opening of the inspiratory valve in proportion to atmospheric pressure. Adequate compensation was observed, albeit only within a predictable range, which can be reliably predicted for each setting and ATA level combination. Setting a tidal volume outside this range can result in an unwanted decrease in minute ventilation.

  8. A model-based decision support system for critiquing mechanical ventilation treatments.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Abbasi, Soraya

    2012-06-01

    A computerized system for critiquing mechanical ventilation treatments is presented that can be used as an aide to the intensivist. The presented system is based on the physiological model of the subject's respiratory system. It uses modified versions of previously developed models of adult and neonatal respiratory systems to simulate the effects of different ventilator treatments on the patient's blood gases. The physiological models that have been used for research and teaching purposes by many researchers in the field include lungs, body tissue, and the brain tissue. The lung volume is continuously time-varying and the effects of shunt in the lung, changes in cardiac output and cerebral blood flow, and the arterial transport delays are included in the system. Evaluation tests were done on adult and neonate patients with different diagnoses. In both groups combined, the differences between the arterial partial pressures of CO(2) predicted by the system and the experimental values were 1.86 ± 1.6 mmHg (mean ± SD), and the differences between the predicted arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation values, S(aO2), and the experimental values measured by using pulse oximetry, S(pO2), were 0.032 ± 0.02 (mean ± SD). The proposed system has the potential to be used alone or in combination with other decision support systems to set ventilation parameters and optimize treatment for patients on mechanical ventilation.

  9. [Clinical significance of dynamic pressure-volume curve in neonatal mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Peng; Ma, Li-Ya; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Guang-Jin; Han, Yu-Kun

    2009-07-01

    To study the characteristics and role of dynamic pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) in neonatal mechanical ventilation. A dynamic P-V curve was automatically drawn by the Stephanie ventilator. The slope rate of dynamic P-V curve was measured in 25 neonates who received mechanical ventilation 1, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after ventilation and before weaning from ventilation. Minute-ventilation (MV), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) were recorded. The patterns of dynamic P-V curve during abnormal ventilation (resistance to ventilator, part or complete airway obstruction, airway leaking and tracheal catheter exodus) were observed. With the improvement of pulmonary disease, the slope rate of P-V curve and MV increased, Pmean and FiO2 decreased, and the P-V curve shifted to the volume axle. The slope rate of curve 48 and 72 hrs after ventilation and before weaning from ventilation (1.05+/-0.48, 1.10+/-0.42 and 1.13+/-0.37 mL/cmH2O respectively) increased significantly compared with that 1 hr after ventilation (0.76+/-0.53 mL/cmH2O) (p<0.05 or 0.01). Abnormal ventilation led to abnormal appearance of dynamic P-V curve. The increasing slope rate of dynamic P-V curve and the curve shifting to volume axle in neonatal mechanical ventilation may be associated with the improvement of pulmonary disease. The appearance changes of the curve may be of value in the assessment of abnormal ventilation.

  10. High intensity positive pressure ventilation and long term pulmonary function responses in severe stable COPD. A delicate and difficult balance.

    PubMed

    Esquinas, Antonio M; Petroianni, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Method to improve minute ventilation (MV) during spontaneous breathing (SB) in stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a great clinical relevant in long term outcome. In this scenario, recommendations of early use of high-Intensity non-invasive Positive pressure Ventilation (HI-NPPV) or intelligent Volume Assured Pressure (iVAP) Support in Hypercapnic COPD have been proposed by safe therapeutics options. We analyze in this letter, Ekkernkamp et al. study that described the effect of HI-NPPV compared with SB on MV in patients receiving long-term treatment. We consider that interpretation of relationships between ABG, functional parameters, and respiratory mechanics reported need clarifications. Further prospective large clinical trials identifying the best mode of ventilation according to the characteristics in severe stable COPD are necessary to balance an effective approach and response on clinical symptoms and long-term effects.

  11. Postoperative bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, O; Chidekel, A; Lawless, S T; Cook, S P

    1999-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, characterized by hypoventilation secondary to upper airway obstruction, often results from tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy is the standard therapy in this patient population. The immediate postoperative period is complicated occasionally by respiratory difficulties that may require intubation and mechanical ventilation. Recently, physicians have provided temporary airway support using continuous and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) devices. Reported complications of positive airway pressure devices include local abrasions to the nose and mouth; dryness of the nose, eyes, and mouth; sneezing; nasal drip, bleeds, and congestion; sinusitis; increased intraocular pressure; non-compliance; and pneumocephalus. Subcutaneous emphysema following facial trauma, dental extractions, adenotonsillectomy, and sinus surgery has been reported. There is also a hypothetically increased risk of subcutaneous emphysema following the use of positive airway pressure ventilation in the tonsillectomy patient. Between January 1997 and July 1998, 1321 patients underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy at our institution. In reviewing the records of all pediatric intensive care unit admissions during that time period, we identified nine patients, of the 1321, who required BiPAP postoperatively. Of these, four children were obese, four had preexisting neurological disorders, and one underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and adenoidectomy. Three children were asthmatic, and three were less than 3 years of age. Two obese children were discharged with home BiPAP, one of whom had been on BiPAP prior to surgery. All patients tolerated BiPAP without complications. This preliminary report suggests that BiPAP is a safe and effective method of respiratory assistance in the adenotonsillectomy patient with preexisting conditions who is predisposed to postoperative airway obstruction. Furthermore, with BiPAP, the risks of intubation and

  12. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO{sub 2} (PaCO{sub 2}: 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5{degree}C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous {sup 133}Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of {sup 133}Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO{sub 2}, cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure.

  13. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Instruction and Objectives. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) alleviates sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and it may improve cardiac function in SDB patients. Because large randomized controlled trials directly evaluating the impact of NPPV on cardiac function are lacking, we conducted a meta-analysis of published data on effectiveness of NPPV in improving cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure regardless of SDB presence. Methods. Controlled trials were identified in PubMed, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Both fixed and randomized models were used in meta-analysis with primary outcomes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results. Nineteen studies were included with a total of 843 patients. Compared to standard medical treatment (SMT) plus sham-NPPV or SMT only, NPPV plus SMT was associated with improvement in LVEF (weighted mean difference 5.34, 95% CI, [3.85,6.82]; P < 0.00001) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level (weighted mean difference −117.37, 95% CI, [−227.22, −7.52]; P = 0.04) and no influence on overall mortality (RR 1.00, 95% CI, [0.96,1.04]; P = 0.95). Conclusions. In the present meta-analysis, use of NPPV plus SMT improved LVEF and reduced plasma BNP level but did not improve overall mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:27891061

  14. Use of airway pressure release ventilation is associated with a reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with pulmonary contusion.

    PubMed

    Walkey, Allan J; Nair, Sunil; Papadopoulos, Stella; Agarwal, Suresh; Reardon, Christine C

    2011-03-01

    Past studies suggest that airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is associated with reduced sedative requirements and increased recruitment of atelectatic lung, two factors that might reduce the risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether APRV might be associated with a decreased risk for VAP in patients with pulmonary contusion. Retrospective cohort study. Of 286, 64 (22%) patients requiring mechanical ventilation for >48 hours met criteria for pulmonary contusion and were the basis for this study. Subjects with pulmonary contusion had a significantly higher rate of VAP than other trauma patients, [VAP rate contusion patients: 18.3/1,000, non-contusion patients: 7.7/1,000, incidence rate ratio 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.97), p=0.025]. Univariate analysis showed that APRV (hazard ratio, 0.15 [0.03-0.72; p=0.018]) was associated with a decreased incidence of VAP. Cox proportional hazards regression, using propensity scores for APRV to control for confounding, supported a protective effect of APRV from VAP (hazard ratio, 0.10 [95% CI, 0.02-0.58]; p=0.01). Pao2/FiO2 ratios were higher during APRV compared with conventional ventilation (p<0.001). Subjects attained the goal Sedation Agitation Score for an increased percentage of time during APRV (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 72.7% [33-100] of the time) compared with conventional ventilation (47.2% [0-100], p=0.044), however, dose of sedatives was not different between these subjects. APRV was not associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.57 [95% CI, 0.06-5.5]; p=0.63) or ventilator-free days (No APRV 15.4 vs. APRV 13.7 days, p=0.49). Use of APRV in patients with pulmonary contusion is associated with a reduced risk for VAP. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  15. [The basics on mechanical ventilation support in acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomicic, V; Fuentealba, A; Martínez, E; Graf, J; Batista Borges, J

    2010-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is understood as an inflammation-induced disruption of the alveolar endothelial-epithelial barrier that results in increased permeability and surfactant dysfunction followed by alveolar flooding and collapse. ARDS management relies on mechanical ventilation. The current challenge is to determine the optimal ventilatory strategies that minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) while providing a reasonable gas exchange. The data support that a tidal volume between 6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight providing a plateau pressure < 30 cmH₂O should be used. High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) has not reduced mortality, nevertheless secondary endpoints are improved. The rationale used for high PEEP argues that it prevents cyclic opening and closing of airspaces, probably the major culprit of development of VILI. Chest computed tomography has contributed to our understanding of anatomic-functional distribution patterns in ARDS. Electric impedance tomography is a technique that is radiation-free, but still under development, that allows dynamic monitoring of ventilation distribution at bedside. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemodynamic Effects of Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Yang; Cheng, Kun-Shan; Lung, Hou-Ling; Li, Sung-Tse; Lin, Chien-Yu; Lee, Hung-Chang; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hung, Hsiao-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) have proven to be effective modes of noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants. Although they are increasingly used in neonatal intensive care, their hemodynamic consequences have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes between NIPPV and NCPAP in preterm infants. This prospective observational study enrolled clinically stable preterm infants requiring respiratory support received NCPAP and nonsynchronized NIPPV at 40/minute for 30 minutes each, in random order. Cardiac function and cerebral hemodynamics were assessed by ultrasonography after each study period. The patients continued the study ventilation during measurements. Twenty infants with a mean gestational age of 27 weeks (range, 25–32 weeks) and birth weight of 974 g were examined at a median postnatal age of 20 days (range, 9–28 days). There were no significant differences between the NCPAP and NIPPV groups in right (302 vs 292 mL/kg/min, respectively) and left ventricular output (310 vs 319 mL/kg/min, respectively), superior vena cava flow (103 vs 111 mL/kg/min, respectively), or anterior cerebral artery flow velocity. NIPPV did not have a significant effect on the hemodynamics of stable preterm infants. Future studies assessing the effect of NIPPV on circulation should focus on less stable and very preterm infants. PMID:26871833

  17. The Effect of Pressure-Controlled Ventilation and Volume-Controlled Ventilation in Prone Position on Pulmonary Mechanics and Inflammatory Markers.

    PubMed

    Şenay, Hasan; Sıvacı, Remziye; Kokulu, Serdar; Koca, Buğra; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Ela, Yüksel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this present study is to compare the effect of pressure-controlled ventilation and volume-controlled ventilation on pulmonary mechanics and inflammatory markers in prone position. The study included 41 patients undergoing to vertebrae surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received volume-controlled ventilation, while group 2 received pressure-controlled ventilation. The demographic data, pulmonary mechanics, the inflammatory marker levels just after the induction of anesthetics, at the 6th and 12th hours, and gas analysis from arterial blood samples taken at the beginning and the 30th minute were recorded. The inflammatory marker levels increased in both groups, without any significant difference among groups. Peak inspiratory pressure level was higher in the volume-controlled ventilation group. This study revealed that there is no difference regarding inflammatory marker levels between volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation.

  18. Effects of assisted ventilation on the work of breathing: volume-controlled versus pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Cinnella, G; Conti, G; Lofaso, F; Lorino, H; Harf, A; Lemaire, F; Brochard, L

    1996-03-01

    During assisted ventilation, the same tidal volume can be delivered in different ways, with the possibility for the physician to vary the ventilatory target (pressure or volume) and the peak flow setting. We compared the effects on the respiratory work rate of assisted ventilation, delivered either with a square wave flow pattern (assist control ventilation [ACV]) or with a decelerating flow pattern and a constant pressure (assisted pressure-control ventilation [APCV]). In the first part of the study where seven patients were studied, inspiratory time and tidal volume were similar in the two modes of ventilation. High and moderate levels of tidal volume (VT) were studied (12 ml/kg and 8 ml/kg, respectively). To obtain moderate VT, inspiratory time was kept constant and, therefore, mean inspiratory flow was reduced. At high VT, no difference between ACV and APCV was noted for breathing pattern, respiratory drive indexes, respiratory muscle work, or arterial blood gases. All patients exhibited respiratory alkalosis. At moderate VT, normal pH was achieved. In this situation significantly lower levels were observed during APCV than during ACV for the power of breathing (10 +/- 2 versus 19 +/- 5 J/min, p<0.05), transdiaphragmatic pressure swing (7 +/- 1 versus 11 +/- 2 cm H2O, p<0.05), and pressure-time index (252 +/- 43 versus 484 +/- 114 cm H2O.s, p<0.05), even though breathing pattern and gas exchange were similar. In the second part of the study where six additional patients were studied, tidal volume was kept constant at a moderate level (8 ml/kg), and we studied the effect of shortening inspiratory time and increasing mean inspiratory flow. At moderate VT and high inspiratory flow, no significant differences could be found between ACV and APCV, and although pressure-time index tended to be lower during APCV, absolute levels of effort were of small magnitude (56 +/- 55 versus 76 +/- 55 cm H2O.s). We conclude that at moderate VT and low flow rates only, inspiratory

  19. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  20. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium associated with positive-pressure ventilation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, D C; Holt, D

    1995-04-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium with hypotension and tachycardia were observed after endotracheal intubation and during positive-pressure ventilation in a previously healthy cat anesthetized for ovariohysterectomy. Potential causes included tracheal tearing during intubation, a closed pop-off valve while using high oxygen flows, and preexisting acquired or congenital abnormalities in the respiratory tract. The cat responded well to conservative management, including cessation of positive-pressure ventilation and use of increased inspired oxygen concentration.

  1. The pressure effects of facemasks during noninvasive ventilation: a volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Munckton, K; Ho, K M; Dobb, G J; Das-Gupta, M; Webb, S A

    2007-11-01

    Noninvasive ventilation by facemask is commonly used for patients with respiratory failure. We evaluated the pressure exerted by two types of facemask on the faces of 12 healthy volunteers while they were being given different levels of continuous or bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation. The mean (SD) pressure recorded on the bridge of the nose was much higher than that on the cheek (nose: 65.8 (21.2) vs cheek 15.4 (7.2) mmHg, p < 0.0001). Progressive tightening of the harness and increasing of the volume of air in the facemask cushions increased the pressure on the bridge of the nose, and the effect of these two factors was additive. Some commercially available facemasks can produce substantial pressure on the bridge of the nose and this explains why pressure complications on the bridge of the nose are common during noninvasive ventilation.

  2. Deviation of tracheal pressure from airway opening pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a porcine lung model.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Amélie; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Eujen, Ulrike; Kredel, Markus; Rauch, Stefan; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf M

    2013-04-01

    Oxygenation during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation is secured by a high level of mean airway pressure. Our objective was to identify a pressure difference between the airway opening of the respiratory circuit and the trachea during application of different oscillatory frequencies. Six female Pietrain pigs (57.1 ± 3.6 kg) were first ventilated in a conventional mechanical ventilation mode. Subsequently, the animals were switched to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation by setting mean airway opening pressure 5 cmH(2)O above the one measured during controlled mechanical ventilation. Measurements at the airway opening and at tracheal levels were performed in healthy lungs and after induction of acute lung injury by surfactant depletion. During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, the airway opening pressure was set at a constant level. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 90 cmH(2)O. Starting from an oscillatory frequency of 3 Hz, the frequency was increased in steps of 3 Hz to 15 Hz and then decreased accordingly. At each frequency, measurements were performed in the trachea through a side-lumen of the endotracheal tube and the airway opening pressure was recorded. The pressure difference was calculated. At every oscillatory frequency, a pressure loss towards the trachea could be shown. This pressure difference increased with higher oscillatory frequencies (3 Hz 2.2 ± 2.1 cmH(2)O vs. 15 Hz 7.5 ± 1.8 cmH(2)O). The results for healthy and injured lungs were similar. Tracheal pressures decreased with higher oscillatory frequencies. This may lead to pulmonary derecruitment. This has to be taken into consideration when increasing oscillatory frequencies and differentiated pressure settings are mandatory.

  3. Effect of high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation on halothane ablation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Hall, S M; Chapleau, M; Cairo, J; Levitzky, M G

    1985-08-01

    High-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) was compared to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) during unilateral atelectasis with and without halothane anesthesia. Dogs with electromagnetic flow probes chronically implanted on their main (Qt) and left (Ql) pulmonary arteries were ventilated via Carlen's dual-lumen endotracheal tubes. In eight closed-chest dogs, about 43% of the cardiac output perfused the left lung during bilateral ventilation by either a Harvard animal respirator (IPPV) or a Health-dyne model 300 high-frequency ventilator (HFPPV). Unilateral atelectasis decreased blood flow (Ql/Qt) to that lung. Ql/Qt was 19 +/- 1% with HFPPV during left-lung atelectasis and right-lung ventilation, compared to 32 +/- 1% with unilateral IPPV. This suggests that HFPPV permits stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Addition of 1% halothane increased blood flow to the atelectatic left lung during unilateral ventilation with IPPV but not with HFPPV. This suggests that halothane decreases the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during conventional ventilation but not during HFPPV.

  4. Volume-controlled versus biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation in leukopenic patients with severe respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, M; Schiele, C; Stenzinger, W; Kienast, J

    1996-05-01

    To study comparatively the effects of volume-controlled vs. biphasic positive airway pressure mechanical ventilation on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation in leukopenic patients with severe respiratory failure. Prospective, comparative study. Medical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Leukopenic (<1000 leukocytes/microliter) patients (n=20) after cytoreductive chemotherapy requiring mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory failure (Murray score of > 2.5). Patients were assigned in a consecutive, alternating manner to receive either volume-controlled or biphasic positive airway pressure mechanical ventilation, starting within 12 to 24 hrs after endotracheal intubation. Tidal volume, inspiratory flow, peak inspiratory and positive end-expiratory pressures, FIO2, and arterial blood gas analyses were recorded hourly for a study period of 48 hrs. Biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation was associated with a significant reduction in peak inspiratory pressure (mean differences at 24, 36, and 48 hrs: 4.4, 3.4, and 4.2 cm H2O; p = .024, .019, and .013, respectively) and positive end-expiratory pressures (mean differences at 24, 36, and 48 hrs: 1.6, 1.4, and 1.5 cm H20; p = .023, .024, and .023, respectively) at significantly lower FIO2 (mean differences at 12, 24, 36, and 48 hrs; p = .007, .015, .016, and .011, respectively). PaO2/FIO2 ratios and CO2 removal were similar under ventilatory conditions. Biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation offers the advantage of significantly reduced peak inspiratory and positive end-expiratory pressures at a lower FIO2 and with at least similar oxygenation and CO2 removal as achieved by volume-controlled mechanical ventilation. Our results are in line with previous reports on nonleukopenic patients and suggest that the positive effects of pressure-limited mechanical ventilation are independent of circulating white blood cells. Further studies are mandatory to demonstrate clinical benefit in this critically

  5. Experimental ventilator-induced lung injury: exacerbation by positive end-expiratory pressure.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jesús; Herrera-Abreu, Maria Teresa; Valladares, Francisco; Muros, Mercedes; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Flores, Carlos; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2009-06-01

    Previous experimental studies of ventilator-induced lung injury have shown that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is protective. The authors hypothesized that the application of PEEP during volume-controlled ventilation with a moderately high tidal volume (VT) in previously healthy in vivo rats does not attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury if the peak airway pressure markedly increases during the application of PEEP. Sixty healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and randomized to be mechanically ventilated for 4 h at (1) VT of 6 ml/kg, (2) VT of 20 ml/kg, or (3) VT of 20 ml/kg plus 10 cm H2O of PEEP. Peak airway pressures, gas exchange, histologic evaluation, mortality, total lung tissue cytokine gene expression, and serum cytokine concentrations were analyzed. Peak airway pressures exceeded 30 cm H2O with high VT plus PEEP. All lungs ventilated with high VT had perivascular edema and inflammatory infiltrates. In addition, those ventilated with PEEP had small hemorrhages foci. Five animals from the high VT plus PEEP group died (P = 0.020). Animals ventilated with high VT (with or without PEEP) had a substantial increase in serum interleukin-6 (P = 0.0002), and those ventilated with high VT plus PEEP had a 5.5-fold increase in systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P = 0.007). In contrast to previous reports, PEEP exacerbated lung damage and contributed to fatal outcome in an in vivo, mild overdistension model of ventilator-induced lung injury in previously healthy rats. That is, the addition of high PEEP to a constant large VT causes injury in previously healthy animals.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Gastroesophageal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Danny; Djeddi, Djamal; Carrière, Vincent; Samson, Nathalie; Nault, Stéphanie; Jia, Wan Lu; Beck, Jennifer; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation can lead to esophageal insufflations and in turn to gastric distension. The fact that the latter induces transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter implies that it may increase gastroesophageal refluxes. We previously reported that nasal Pressure Support Ventilation (nPSV), contrary to nasal Neurally-Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (nNAVA), triggers active inspiratory laryngeal closure. This suggests that esophageal insufflations are more frequent in nPSV than in nNAVA. The objectives of the present study were to test the hypotheses that: i) gastroesophageal refluxes are increased during nPSV compared to both control condition and nNAVA; ii) esophageal insufflations occur more frequently during nPSV than nNAVA. Polysomnographic recordings and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pHmetry were performed in nine chronically instrumented newborn lambs to study gastroesophageal refluxes, esophageal insufflations, states of alertness, laryngeal closure and respiration. Recordings were repeated without sedation in control condition, nPSV (15/4 cmH2O) and nNAVA (~ 15/4 cmH2O). The number of gastroesophageal refluxes recorded over six hours, expressed as median (interquartile range), decreased during both nPSV (1 (0, 3)) and nNAVA [1 (0, 3)] compared to control condition (5 (3, 10)), (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the esophageal insufflation index did not differ between nPSV (40 (11, 61) h-1) and nNAVA (10 (9, 56) h-1) (p = 0.8). In conclusion, nPSV and nNAVA similarly inhibit gastroesophageal refluxes in healthy newborn lambs at pressures that do not lead to gastric distension. In addition, the occurrence of esophageal insufflations is not significantly different between nPSV and nNAVA. The strong inhibitory effect of nIPPV on gastroesophageal refluxes appears identical to that reported with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26785264

  7. Use of positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 41 cases (1990-1992).

    PubMed

    King, L G; Hendricks, J C

    1994-04-01

    Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) is an invasive means of respiratory support that is indicated in animals with central and peripheral neuromuscular disease, as well as in those with primary disorders of the lung parenchyma. We reviewed the medical records of 34 dogs and 7 cats treated with PPV. The animals could be allotted to 2 groups; group 1 (21/41) had primary failure of ventilation attributable to neuromuscular disease or airway obstruction, and group 2 (20/41) had primary pulmonary parenchymal disease. Mean inspiratory time was 1.02 +/- 0.2 seconds (range, 0.6 to 1.5 seconds). Mean inspiratory flow was 26.9 +/- 18.5 L/min (range, 7 to 87 L/min), and was positively correlated with body weight (R = 0.57). Mean set respiratory rate was 19.6 +/- 10 breaths/min (range, 5 to 60 breaths/min), with mean tidal volume of 15.5 +/- 6.2 ml/kg of body weight. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was required in 14 of 20 dogs in group 2. Mean peak airway pressure in group 1 was 21.6 +/- 6.3 cm of H2O, whereas in group 2 it was 32.9 +/- 12.5 cm of H2O. The higher peak airway pressure in group-2 dogs reflected poor lung compliance and the use of PEEP in dogs with parenchymal lung disease. Mean duration of PPV was 28.2 +/- 29.4 hours (range, 2 to 137 hours). The overall survival rate was 39% (16/41).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures contribute to negative pressures in a mechanical lung model

    PubMed Central

    Nakstad, Espen Rostrup; Opdahl, Helge; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Borchsenius, Fredrik; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Removal of pulmonary secretions in mechanically ventilated patients usually requires suction with closed catheter systems or flexible bronchoscopes. Manual ventilation is occasionally performed during such procedures if clinicians suspect inadequate ventilation. Suctioning can also be performed with the ventilator entirely disconnected from the endotracheal tube (ETT). The aim of this study was to investigate if these two procedures generate negative airway pressures, which may contribute to atelectasis. Methods The effects of device insertion and suctioning in ETTs were examined in a mechanical lung model with a pressure transducer inserted distal to ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm internal diameter (ID). A 16 Fr bronchoscope and 12, 14 and 16 Fr suction catheters were used at two different vacuum levels during manual ventilation and with the ETTs disconnected. Results During manual ventilation with ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm ID, and bronchoscopic suctioning at moderate suction level, peak pressure (PPEAK) dropped from 23, 22 and 24.5 cm H2O to 16, 16 and 15 cm H2O, respectively. Maximum suction reduced PPEAK to 20, 17 and 11 cm H2O, respectively, and the end-expiratory pressure fell from 5, 5.5 and 4.5 cm H2O to –2, –6 and –17 cm H2O. Suctioning through disconnected ETTs (open suction procedure) gave negative model airway pressures throughout the duration of the procedures. Conclusions Manual ventilation and open suction procedures induce negative end-expiratory pressure during endotracheal suctioning, which may have clinical implications in patients who need high PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure). PMID:28725445

  9. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures contribute to negative pressures in a mechanical lung model.

    PubMed

    Nakstad, Espen Rostrup; Opdahl, Helge; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Borchsenius, Fredrik; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2017-01-01

    Removal of pulmonary secretions in mechanically ventilated patients usually requires suction with closed catheter systems or flexible bronchoscopes. Manual ventilation is occasionally performed during such procedures if clinicians suspect inadequate ventilation. Suctioning can also be performed with the ventilator entirely disconnected from the endotracheal tube (ETT). The aim of this study was to investigate if these two procedures generate negative airway pressures, which may contribute to atelectasis. The effects of device insertion and suctioning in ETTs were examined in a mechanical lung model with a pressure transducer inserted distal to ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm internal diameter (ID). A 16 Fr bronchoscope and 12, 14 and 16 Fr suction catheters were used at two different vacuum levels during manual ventilation and with the ETTs disconnected. During manual ventilation with ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm ID, and bronchoscopic suctioning at moderate suction level, peak pressure (PPEAK) dropped from 23, 22 and 24.5 cm H2O to 16, 16 and 15 cm H2O, respectively. Maximum suction reduced PPEAK to 20, 17 and 11 cm H2O, respectively, and the end-expiratory pressure fell from 5, 5.5 and 4.5 cm H2O to -2, -6 and -17 cm H2O. Suctioning through disconnected ETTs (open suction procedure) gave negative model airway pressures throughout the duration of the procedures. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures induce negative end-expiratory pressure during endotracheal suctioning, which may have clinical implications in patients who need high PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure).

  10. Optimization of ventilator setting by flow and pressure waveforms analysis during noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of COPD: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of flow and pressure waveforms generated by ventilators can be useful in the optimization of patient-ventilator interactions, notably in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. To date, however, a real clinical benefit of this approach has not been proven. Methods The aim of the present randomized, multi-centric, controlled study was to compare optimized ventilation, driven by the analysis of flow and pressure waveforms, to standard ventilation (same physician, same initial ventilator setting, same time spent at the bedside while the ventilator screen was obscured with numerical data always available). The primary aim was the rate of pH normalization at two hours, while secondary aims were changes in PaCO2, respiratory rate and the patient's tolerance to ventilation (all parameters evaluated at baseline, 30, 120, 360 minutes and 24 hours after the beginning of ventilation). Seventy patients (35 for each group) with acute exacerbation of COPD were enrolled. Results Optimized ventilation led to a more rapid normalization of pH at two hours (51 vs. 26% of patients), to a significant improvement of the patient's tolerance to ventilation at two hours, and to a higher decrease of PaCO2 at two and six hours. Optimized ventilation induced physicians to use higher levels of external positive end-expiratory pressure, more sensitive inspiratory triggers and a faster speed of pressurization. Conclusions The analysis of the waveforms generated by ventilators has a significant positive effect on physiological and patient-centered outcomes during acute exacerbation of COPD. The acquisition of specific skills in this field should be encouraged. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01291303. PMID:22115190

  11. [Long-term effects of home mechanical ventilation with positive pressure using a nasal mask].

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, J; Estopà, R; Robert, D; Casolivé, V; Manresa, F

    1991-10-05

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an efficient alternative in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive mechanical disorders (neuromuscular disease, such as Duchenne's disease, thorax deformities due to kyphoscoliosis or tuberculosis sequelae). The case of a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis in the phase of chronic respiratory failure (PaO2 34 mmHg and PaCO2 61 mmHg, breathing ambient air) is presented in which, following the failure of negative pressure mechanical ventilation ("poncho"), positive pressure ventilation was tested with a silicon made-to-measure nasal mask as the access via. Adaptation to HMV was good with the patient using the ventilation nightly. Following 12 months of treatment the patient is able to carry out everyday activities and arterial gasometry breathing ambient air is PaO2 77 mmHg and PaCO2 43 mmHg.

  12. Treatment of Tetanus Neonatorum with Muscle Relaxants and Intermittent Positive-pressure Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, P. M.; Bowie, M. D.; Voss, T. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation and muscle relaxants were first used in Cape Town in 1958 in an attempt to reduce the mortality from tetanus neonatorum, which was then over 90%. Problems of effective ventilation, of tracheostomy, and of infection in the neonate were gradually overcome so that between 1967 and 1972 the mortality in 186 cases was 21%. In a consecutive series of 97 cases the mortality was 10%. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4131848

  13. Treatment of tetanus neonatorum with muscle relaxants and intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Smythe, P M; Bowie, M D; Voss, T J

    1974-02-09

    Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation and muscle relaxants were first used in Cape Town in 1958 in an attempt to reduce the mortality from tetanus neonatorum, which was then over 90%. Problems of effective ventilation, of tracheostomy, and of infection in the neonate were gradually overcome so that between 1967 and 1972 the mortality in 186 cases was 21%. In a consecutive series of 97 cases the mortality was 10%.

  14. Use of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation to avoid intubation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Manzar, Shabih; Nair, Arun K; Pai, Mangalore G; Paul, Jose; Manikoth, Prakash; Georage, Mariam; Al-Khusaiby, Saleh M

    2004-10-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has widely been used in neonates to prevent extubation failure and apnea. This pilot study was carried out to look at the early use of NIPPV to avoid intubation. The study was carried out over a period of 3 months from August 2003 to October 2003 at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The neonates with clinical signs of moderate to severe respiratory distress were given a trial of early NIPPV based on the avoid-intubation protocol. Inclusion, exclusion and failure criteria with general procedure were made clear to all medical and nursing staff and the protocol was posted in the unit for further time to time referral. A total of 16 neonates met the inclusion criteria for early NIPPV trial. Out of these, 13 (81%) had a successful NIPPV. The mean age of entry was 0.95 hours; however, the mean duration of NIPPV was 23 hours. No NIPPV related complications were noted in the study group. We concluded that NIPPV is an appropriate mode of ventilation in neonates requiring respiratory support. The major advantage of NIPPV is the non-invasive mechanics. It is also less expensive and less labor intensive. Further randomized controlled trials with larger sample size are warranted to confirm our findings.

  15. Thyroplasty under total intravenous anaesthesia with intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, A; Wisely, N A; Wooldridge, W; Jones, P

    2007-12-01

    Medialization thyroplasty is a surgical technique for improving voice quality, cough effort and laryngeal competence in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Precision surgery is enabled by operating under total intravenous anaesthesia with controlled ventilation and by using a laryngoscopic video-assisted technique. The anaesthetic challenge is to manage the shared airway with the surgeon, provide a stable operative field and ensure patient safety throughout the procedure. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the use of a modified general anaesthetic technique using the laryngeal mask airway, total intravenous anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. In all, 29 patients underwent medialization thyroplasty using a disposable laryngeal mask airway, total intravenous anaesthesia and controlled ventilation. Standard anaesthetic monitoring including capnography was used intraoperatively. Total intravenous anaesthesia was achieved using effect site target-controlled infusions of propofol and remifentanil. The technique proved safe with stable haemodynamic observations and only two minor complications. It also provided the surgeon with stable view of the vocal folds in order to perform this precision surgery under an operating microscope.

  16. The incidence of pressure ulcer in patients on mechanical ventilation andeffects of selected risk factors on pressure ulcer development.

    PubMed

    Karayurt, Özgül; Akyol, Özay; Kılıçaslan, Necmiye; Akgün, Nuray; Sargın, Ümran; Kondakçı, Melike; Ekinci, Hanım; Sarı, Neslihan

    2016-11-17

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients on mechanical ventilation and selected risk factors likely to play a role in pressure ulcer development. The study included 110 patients recruited from an anesthesia critical care unit of a university hospital. Data were collected with a demographic and clinical characteristics form. The form was composed of questions about demographic characteristics and clinical features including diagnosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, general well-being, oxygenation, perfusion, and skin condition. The incidence of pressure ulcer was 15.5%. Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer and the body mass index was higher in patients developing pressure ulcers than in those without pressure ulcers. Additionally, 90.11% of patients with pressure ulcers had edema and 82.35% of patients with pressure ulcers received vasopressin. The patients with pressure ulcers had higher PH levels, lower PaO2 levels, higher PCO2 levels, lower SaO2 levels, and higher urine output. It can be recommended that nurses and other health professionals should be aware of factors playing a role in pressure ulcer development and should be able to conduct appropriate interventions to prevent pressure ulcers.

  17. Endotracheal tube resistance and inertance in a model of mechanical ventilation of newborns and small infants-the impact of ventilator settings on tracheal pressure swings.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Roland; Buntzel, Julia; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Resistive properties of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are particularly relevant in newborns and small infants who are generally ventilated through ETTs with a small inner diameter. The ventilation rate is also high and the inspiratory time (ti) is short. These conditions effectuate high airway flows with excessive flow acceleration, so airway resistance and inertance play an important role. We carried out a model study to investigate the impact of varying ETT size, lung compliance and ventilator settings, such as peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspiratory time (ti) on the pressure-flow characteristics with respect to the resistive and inertive properties of the ETT. Pressure at the Y piece was compared to direct measurement of intratracheal pressure (P(trach)) at the tip of the ETT, and pressure drop (ΔP(ETT)) was calculated. Applying published tube coefficients (Rohrer's constants and inertance), P(trach) was calculated from ventilator readings and compared to measured P(trach) using the root-mean-square error. The most relevant for ΔP(ETT) was the ETT size, followed by (in descending order) PIP, compliance, ti and PEEP, with gas flow velocity being the principle in common for all these parameters. Depending on the ventilator settings ΔP(ETT) exceeded 8 mbar in the smallest 2.0 mm ETT. Consideration of inertance as an additional effect in this setting yielded a better agreement of calculated versus measured P(trach) than Rohrer's constants alone. We speculate that exact tracheal pressure tracings calculated from ventilator readings by applying Rohrer's equation and the inertance determination to small size ETTs would be helpful. As an integral part of ventilator software this would (1) allow an estimate of work of breathing and implementation of an automatic tube compensation, and (2) be important for gentle ventilation in respiratory care, especially of small infants, since it enables the physician to estimate

  18. Helium:oxygen versus air:oxygen noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Rajaeinejad, Mohsen; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Alaeddini, Farshid; Aslani, Jafar

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) causes a variety of respiratory symptoms, such as chronic bronchitis and constrictive bronchiolitis. This study assessed the effectiveness of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, adjunct with 79:21 helium:oxygen instead of 79:21 air:oxygen, in 24 patients with a previous exposure to SM presenting with acute respiratory failure. Both air:oxygen and helium:oxygen significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, dyspnea, and increased oxygen saturation (P values: .007, .029, .002, <.001, <.001, <.001, and .002 for air:oxygen, respectively, and <.001, .020, .001, <.001, <.001, <.001, and .002, for helium:oxygen, respectively). Moreover, helium:oxygen more potently improved systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and dyspnea (P values: .012, .048, <.001, <.001, and .012, respectively). The results of our study support the benefit of using helium:oxygen adjunct with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients exposed to SM with acute respiratory decompensation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful management of occult pneumothorax without tube thoracostomy despite positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Cristobal; Tran, Tuan; Malinoski, Darren; Lekawa, Michael; Dolich, Matthew; Lush, Stephanie; Hoyt, David; Cinat, Marianne E

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether tube thoracostomy can be safely avoided in a subset of patients with blunt occult pneumothorax. A retrospective review was performed. Management without tube thoracostomy was attempted for 59 occult pneumothoraces and was successful in 51 (86%). Observation was successful in 16 of 20 occult pneumothoraces (80%) exposed to positive pressure ventilation within 72 hours of admission. Eight delayed tube thoracostomies were required an average of 19.7 hours post admission. Patients who failed observant management had more significant physiologic derangement on admission (revised trauma score 6.96 vs 7.66, P = 0.04), were more likely to have significant multisystem trauma (88% vs 37%, P = 0.007), but were not more likely to require positive pressure ventilation (PPV) (50% vs 31%, P = 0.31). This study demonstrates that a subset of patients with blunt occult pneumothorax requiring positive pressure ventilation may be safely managed without tube thoracostomy.

  20. Management of Ventilatory Insufficiency in Neuromuscular Patients Using Mechanical Ventilator Supported by the Korean Government

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, financial support has been provided for all patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) who require ventilatory support due to the paralysis of respiratory muscles in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify ventilator usage status and appropriateness in these patients. We included 992 subjects with rare and incurable NMD registered for ventilator rental fee support. From 21 February 2011 to 17 January 2013, ventilator usage information, regular follow-up observation, and symptoms of chronic hypoventilation were surveyed by phone. Home visits were conducted for patients judged by an expert medical team to require medical examination. Abnormal ventilatory status was assessed by respiratory evaluation. Chronic respiratory insufficiency symptoms were reported by 169 of 992 subjects (17%), while 565 subjects (57%) did not receive regular respiratory evaluation. Ventilatory status was abnormal in 102 of 343 home-visit subjects (29.7%). Although 556 subjects (56%) reported 24-hour ventilator use, only 458 (46%) had an oxygen saturation monitoring device, and 305 (31%) performed an airstacking exercise. A management system that integrates ventilator usage monitoring, counselling and advice, and home visits for patients who receive ventilator support could improve the efficiency of the ventilator support project. PMID:27247509

  1. Management of Ventilatory Insufficiency in Neuromuscular Patients Using Mechanical Ventilator Supported by the Korean Government.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Cho, Han Eol; Lee, Jang Woo; Park, Jung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Since 2001, financial support has been provided for all patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) who require ventilatory support due to the paralysis of respiratory muscles in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify ventilator usage status and appropriateness in these patients. We included 992 subjects with rare and incurable NMD registered for ventilator rental fee support. From 21 February 2011 to 17 January 2013, ventilator usage information, regular follow-up observation, and symptoms of chronic hypoventilation were surveyed by phone. Home visits were conducted for patients judged by an expert medical team to require medical examination. Abnormal ventilatory status was assessed by respiratory evaluation. Chronic respiratory insufficiency symptoms were reported by 169 of 992 subjects (17%), while 565 subjects (57%) did not receive regular respiratory evaluation. Ventilatory status was abnormal in 102 of 343 home-visit subjects (29.7%). Although 556 subjects (56%) reported 24-hour ventilator use, only 458 (46%) had an oxygen saturation monitoring device, and 305 (31%) performed an airstacking exercise. A management system that integrates ventilator usage monitoring, counselling and advice, and home visits for patients who receive ventilator support could improve the efficiency of the ventilator support project.

  2. Development of a lightweight portable ventilator for far-forward battlefield combat casualty support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex

    1999-07-01

    Immediate medical provision substantially reduces the number of fatalities sustained during military operations. However, the shift from large-scale regional conflicts to smaller peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has reduced the military medical support infrastructure. Civilian emergency medical services have long emphasized the 'golden hour' during which a patient must receive definitive medical attention. Without on-scene medical support, injured soldiers must be transported significant distances before receiving advanced medical care, and rapid transport to a medical facility is not always a viable option. Technological solutions enable military medics to deliver advanced medical care on the battlefield. We report here on the development of a small lightweight portable respirator for the treatment of far- forward battlefield casualties. The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) utilizes a combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components and custom designed systems to provide ventilatory support to injured combatants. It also incorporates a small IV fluid pump and IV fluids for resuscitation. A microcompressor control system monitors both system performance and patient parameters for system control. Telemetry to a pager-like device worn by the front line medic alerts of any anomalies in ventilator or patient parameters, which will add greatly to triage decisions and resource management. Novel elements of the FLSS design include oxygen generation, low-pressure air generation, available patient suction, and the absence of any high pressure air cylinders. A prototype developed for animal testing will be described in detail as well as further design requirements for the human rated prototype.

  3. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  4. Automatic control of tracheal tube cuff pressure in ventilated patients in semirecumbent position: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Mauricio; Ferrer, Miquel; Farre, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Badia, Joan Ramon; Nicolas, Josep Maria; Torres, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    The aspiration of subglottic secretions colonized by bacteria pooled around the tracheal tube cuff due to inadvertent deflation (<20 cm H2O) of the cuff plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We assessed the efficacy of an automatic, validated device for the continuous regulation of tracheal tube cuff pressure in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Respiratory intensive care unit and general medical intensive care unit. One hundred and forty-two mechanically ventilated patients (age, 64 +/- 17 yrs; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 18 +/- 6) without pneumonia or aspiration at admission. Within 24 hrs of intubation, patients were randomly allocated to undergo continuous regulation of the cuff pressure with the automatic device (n = 73) or routine care of the cuff pressure (control group, n = 69). Patients remained in a semirecumbent position in bed. The primary end point variable was the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Main causes for intubation were decreased consciousness (43, 30%) and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases (38, 27%). Cuff pressure <20 cm H2O was more frequently observed in the control than the automatic group (45.3 vs. 0.7% determinations, p < .001). However, the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia with clinical criteria (16, 22% vs. 20, 29%) and microbiological confirmation (11, 15% vs. 10, 15%), the distribution of early and late onset, the causative microorganisms, and intensive care unit (20, 27% vs. 16, 23%) and hospital mortality (30, 41% vs. 23, 33%) were similar for the automatic and control groups, respectively. Cuff pressure is better controlled with the automatic device. However, it did not result in additional benefits to the semirecumbent position in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  5. Complete respiratory support with AVCO2R and CPAP-mimic ventilation for total gas exchange in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiaojun; Lynch, James E; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Dongfang

    2012-01-01

    The altered respiratory mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present unique challenges with regard to treatment during an acute exacerbation that often leads to respiratory support with mechanical ventilation. Alternative therapies are badly needed to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with mechanical ventilator use. We hypothesized that arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal (AVCO(2)R) coupled with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would achieve total gas exchange eliminating the need for intubation/mechanical ventilation, thus reducing baro/volutrauma. This hypothesis was tested in six adult sedated apneic sheep with AVCO(2)R administered through a simple arteriovenous (AV) shunt for CO(2) removal. Because it is impractical to apply a CPAP mask to conscious sheep, the CPAP was mimicked in intubated/sedated sheep by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5-10 mmH(2)O with negligible ventilation. The AVCO(2)R and CPAP-mimic maintained Pa(o)(2) and Pa(co)(2) in the normal physiological ranges. The CO(2) removal was 120-150 ml/min through AVCO(2)R with AV blood flow of 1.1-1.5 L/min. A high fraction of inspired oxygen percentage (Fi(o)(2)) level (89 ± 3%) was required to achieve 40 ± 7% O(2) in the small bronchus. Thus, AVCO(2)R and CPAP-mimic achieved total gas exchange in anesthetized sheep and may be a potential option for acute COPD exacerbation in humans.

  6. [Face protective patches do not reduce facial pressure ulcers in a simulated model of non-invasive ventilation].

    PubMed

    Riquelme M, Hugo; Wood V, David; Martínez F, Santiago; Carmona M, Fernando; Peña V, Axel; Wegner A, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) frequently involves the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPU). Its prevention considers the empirical use of protective patches between skin and mask, in order to reduce the pressure exerted by it. To evaluate the effect of protective patches on the pressure exerted by the facial mask, and its impact on the programmed ventilatory parameters. Bilevel NIV simulated model using full face mask in phantom with a physiological airway (ALS PRO +) in supine position. Forehead, chin and cheekbones pressure were measured using 3 types of standard protective patches versus a control group using pressure sensors (Interlinks Electronics®). The values obtained with the protective patches-mask model were evaluated in the programmed variables maximum inspiratory flow (MIF)), expired tidal volume (Vte) and positive inspiratory pressure (IPAP), with Trilogy 100 ventilator, Respironics®. The programming and recording of the variables was carried out in 8 opportunities in each group by independent operators. There was no decrease in facial pressure with any of the protective patches compared to the control group. Moltopren increased facial pressure at all support points (p < 0.001), increased leakage, it decreased MIF, Vte and IPAP (p < 0.001). Hydrocolloid patches increased facial pressure only in the left cheekbone, increased leakage and decreased MIF. Polyurethane patches did not produce changes in facial pressure or ventilatory variables. The use of protective patches of moltopren, hydrocolloid and polyurethane transparent did not contribute to the decrease of the facial pressure. A deleterious effect of the moltopren and hydrocolloid patches was observed on the administration of ventilatory variables, concluding that the non-use of the protective patches allowed a better administration of the programmed parameters.

  7. Are tidal volume measurements in neonatal pressure-controlled ventilation accurate?

    PubMed

    Chow, Lily C; Vanderhal, Andre; Raber, Jorge; Sola, Augusto

    2002-09-01

    Bedside pulmonary mechanics monitors (PMM) have become useful in ventilatory management in neonates. These monitors are used more frequently due to recent improvements in data-processing capabilities. PMM devices are often part of the ventilator or are separate units. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have not been carefully evaluated. We compared a single ventilatory parameter, tidal volume (V(t)), as measured by several systems. We looked at two freestanding PMMs: the Ventrak Respiratory Monitoring System (Novametrix, Wallingford, CT) and the Bicore CP-100 Neonatal Pulmonary Monitor (Allied Health Care Products, Riverside, CA), and three ventilators with built-in PMM: the VIP Bird Ventilator (Bird Products Corp., Palm Springs, CA), Siemens Servo 300A (Siemens-Elema AB, Solna, Sweden), and Drager Babylog 8000 (Drager, Inc., Chantilly, VA). A calibrated syringe (Hans Rudolph, Inc., Kansas City, MO) was used to deliver tidal volumes of 4, 10, and 20 mL to each ventilator system coupled with a freestanding PMM. After achieving steady state, six consecutive V(t) readings were taken simultaneously from the freestanding PMM and each ventilator. In a second portion of the bench study, we used pressure-control ventilation and measured exhaled tidal volume (V(te)) while ventilating a Bear Test Lung with the same three ventilators. We adjusted peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) under controlled conditions to achieve the three different targeted tidal volumes on the paired freestanding PMM. Again, six V(te) measurements were recorded for each tidal volume. Means and standard deviations were calculated.The percentage difference in measurement of V(t) delivered by calibrated syringe varied greatly, with the greatest discrepancy seen in the smallest tidal volumes, by up to 28%. In pressure control mode, V(te) as measured by the Siemens was significantly overestimated by 20-95%, with the biggest discrepancy at the smallest V(te), particularly when paired with the Bicore

  8. Monitoring of total positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation by artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Perchiazzi, Gaetano; Rylander, Christian; Pellegrini, Mariangela; Larsson, Anders; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2016-04-11

    Ventilation treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) requires the application of positive airway pressure at the end of expiration (PEEPapp) to avoid lung collapse. However, the total pressure exerted on the alveolar walls (PEEPtot) is the sum of PEEPapp and intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi), a hidden component. To measure PEEPtot, ventilation must be discontinued with an end-expiratory hold maneuver (EEHM). We hypothesized that artificial neural networks (ANN) could estimate the PEEPtot from flow and pressure tracings during ongoing mechanical ventilation. Ten pigs were mechanically ventilated, and the time constant of their respiratory system (τRS) was measured. We shortened their expiratory time (TE) according to multiples of τRS, obtaining different respiratory patterns (Rpat). Pressure (PAW) and flow (V'AW) at the airway opening during ongoing mechanical ventilation were simultaneously recorded, with and without the addition of external resistance. The last breath of each Rpat included an EEHM, which was used to compute the reference PEEPtot. The entire protocol was repeated after the induction of ALI with i.v. injection of oleic acid, and 382 tracings were obtained. The ANN had to extract the PEEPtot, from the tracings without an EEHM. ANN agreement with reference PEEPtot was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Bland Altman analysis of estimation error by ANN showed -0.40 ± 2.84 (expressed as bias ± precision) and ±5.58 as limits of agreement (data expressed as cmH2O). The ANNs estimated the PEEPtot well at different levels of PEEPapp under dynamic conditions, opening up new possibilities in monitoring PEEPi in critically ill patients who require ventilator treatment.

  9. [Efficacy and safety of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation therapy in acute pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Sarullo, Filippo Maria; D'Alfonso, Giovanni; Brusca, Ignazio; De Michele, Piero; Taormina, Andrea; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Castello, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is an effective treatment for acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We assessed the efficacy and safety of this therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). In addition to routine therapy consisting of oxygen, nitrates and diuretics, 60 patients (39 male, 21 female, mean age 72.5 +/- 15.8 years) were started on full mask NIPPV using a Sullivan VPAP II ventilator delivering pressure support 15 cm H2O, PEEP 5 cm H2O, FiO2 100%. Pressure support were titrated to achieve oxygen saturation (SaO2) > 95%. Physiological measurements were obtained in the first 2 h and at 3 h, 4 h, and 10 h. Outcome measures included arterial blood gas (ABG), Borg dyspnea score, vital signs, and need for endotracheal intubation (ETI). Initial mean values on FiO2 100% by non nonrebreather mask: pH 7.11 +/- 0.25, paCO2 67.7 +/- 17.5 mmHg, paO2 71.5 +/- 29.7 mmHg, SaO2 83 +/- 12%, lactate concentrations 4.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/L, Borg score 8.6 +/- 1.3, respiratory rate (RR) 41 +/- 7. At 60 minutes of NIPPV, improvement was statistically significant: pH 7.35 +/- 0.18 (difference 0.24; p < 0.0001), paCO2 43 +/- 13 mmHg (difference 24.7; p < 0.0001), paO2 102 +/- 10 mmHg (difference 30.5; p < 0.0001), SaO2 99 +/- 5% (difference 16; p < 0.0001), lactate concentrations 1.2 +/- 0.8 (difference 3.5; p < 0.0001) Borg score 3.6 +/- 0.9 (difference 5; p < 0.0001), RR 24.6 +/- 5 (difference 17.1; p < 0.0001). NIPPV duration ranged from 40 minutes to 24 hours (median 3 hours, 30 minutes). Fifty-six patients (93.4%) improved allowing cessation of NIPPV. ETI was required in four (6.6%) of 60 patients. There were non complications of NIPPV. In this study of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, NIPPV is an effective treatment and may help prevent ETI.

  10. Total liquid ventilation provides superior respiratory support to conventional mechanical ventilation in a large animal model of severe respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ≤ 60 mm Hg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n = 5) or TLV (n = 5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded, and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p < 10(-9)) and lower PCO2 (p < 10(-3)) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40%, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS.

  11. Total Liquid Ventilation Provides Superior Respiratory Support to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in a Large Animal Model of Severe Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Joshua R; Brant, David O; Daul, Morgan A; Reoma, Junewai L; Kim, Anne C; Osterholzer, Kathryn R; Johnson, Kent J; Bartlett, Robert H; Cook, Keith E; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) has the potential to provide respiratory support superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, laboratory studies are limited to trials in small animals for no longer than 4 hours. The objective of this study was to compare TLV and CMV in a large animal model of ARDS for 24 hours. Ten sheep weighing 53 ± 4 (SD) kg were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen. Oleic acid was injected into the pulmonary circulation until PaO2:FiO2 ≥ 60 mmHg, followed by transition to a protective CMV protocol (n=5) or TLV (n=5) for 24 hours. Pathophysiology was recorded and the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. Animals treated with CMV became progressively hypoxic and hypercarbic despite maximum ventilatory support. Sheep treated with TLV maintained normal blood gases with statistically greater PO2 (p<10−9) and lower PCO2 (p < 10−3) than the CMV group. Survival at 24 hours in the TLV and CMV groups were 100% and 40% respectively (p< 0.05). Thus, TLV provided gas exchange superior to CMV in this laboratory model of severe ARDS. PMID:21084968

  12. Low-frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (LFPPV-ECCO2R): an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, L; Kolobow, T; Tomlinson, T; Iapichino, G; Samaja, M; White, D; Pierce, J

    1978-01-01

    We describe a new form of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, low-frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal CO2 removal (LEPPV-ECCO2R). In a series of animal studies the rate of mechanical ventilation was 0.66, 1, 2, and 4 min-1 at a tidal volume of 3, 10, and 15 ml kg-1. We were able to maintain normal blood gases and normal lung volumes and lung mechanics even at the lowest ventilator rate with tidal volumes of 10 or 15 ml kg-1. Each experiment lasted 7 hours. Our data suggest a possible new dimension in the management of a difficult patient on mechanical pulmonary ventilation.

  13. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  14. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  15. Treatment of Idiopathic Persistent Hiccups with Positive Pressure Ventilation -A Case Report-

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hye

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old male patient presented with idiopathic persistent hiccups. The hiccups did not respond to pharmacologic treatments including cisapride, omeprazole, and baclofen. Phrenic nerve block was also ineffective. However, the persistent hiccups were successfully treated with short-term positive pressure ventilation using a short-acting muscle relaxant. PMID:22514778

  16. Positive-Pressure Ventilator Systems at High Altitude: A Preliminary Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome ( ARDS ), which is...of using mechanical ventilator systems with ARDA patients in high-altitude environments. DTIC A1 - a ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME ARDS has been...capillary pressure) pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure. The clinical physiology of severe ARDS is characterized by three phenomena: 1)

  17. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  18. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  19. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  20. Transient tachypnea of the newborn: are there bedside clues for predicting the need of ventilation support?

    PubMed

    Kahvecioğlu, Dilek; Çakır, Ufuk; Yıldız, Duran; Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Ömer; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    Decision making to transfer a late preterm or term neonate with the diagnosis of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) to an intensive care unit for respiratory support is a challenge for caregivers in level one and two NICUs. The aim of this study was to identify "practical bedside clinical clues" that may help to predict the severity of disease and need for respiratory support in patients with the diagnosis of TTN. Newborns having the diagnosis of TTN were classified into two groups according to the intensity of the respiratory support. Infants receiving only supplemental oxygen and infants requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation constituted group 1 (mild) and group 2 (severe), respectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between the two groups. Patients in group 2 had lower gestational age, higher Silverman and Richardson scores, longer mean duration of oxygen support and hospitalization. A positive correlation was found between subcostal and xiphoid retractions, asynchrony in chest-abdomen movements, arterial pH < 7.30, ratio of PaO < sub > 2 < /sub > / % inspired O < sub > 2 < /sub > < 1.2 and need of respiratory support (p < 0.05). We suggest that simple scores can help physicians to get a good sense of a given baby's likelihood of deterioration.

  1. The Newmarket pump: a new suction pump for external negative pressure ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, W J; Shneerson, J M

    1985-01-01

    A new electronically controlled pump has been developed for use with a cuirass in providing external negative pressure ventilation. It is smaller, lighter, and more versatile than currently available pumps and operates on a servo principle. A rotary valve between the pump and the cuirass varies the rate of extraction of air from the cuirass. The pressure within the cuirass is sensed by a pressure transducer, and the output of this is used to control the position of the rotary valve by means of a motor so that the pressure within the cuirass follows a predetermined half sine wave pattern. The respiratory rate varies from 10 to 30 per minute and the inspiratory to expiratory time (I/E) ratio from 3:2 to 2:3. Inspiratory pressure varies from 0 to -50 cm H2O and an expiratory pressure of 0 to +50 cm H2O can be imposed. The performance of the new pump was assessed in 21 patients with nocturnal hypoxaemia who were accustomed to external negative pressure ventilation. The mean tidal volume achieved increased with increase in cuirass suction pressure, and changing the I/E ratio from 1:1 to 3:2 produced a small increase at a cuirass negative pressure at 20 cm water. Comparison of the Newmarket pump with the Cape pump in 14 patients showed that similar tidal volumes were achieved. Overnight monitoring of cuirass pressure in one patient showed more even control of peak negative pressure with the Newmarket pump than with the Cape pump. Ten pumps are in use in patients' homes; five have been in service for more than six months and no important problems have been encountered. The new pump seems to offer advantages that make external negative pressure ventilation more acceptable. Images PMID:3864285

  2. The Newmarket pump: a new suction pump for external negative pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kinnear, W J; Shneerson, J M

    1985-09-01

    A new electronically controlled pump has been developed for use with a cuirass in providing external negative pressure ventilation. It is smaller, lighter, and more versatile than currently available pumps and operates on a servo principle. A rotary valve between the pump and the cuirass varies the rate of extraction of air from the cuirass. The pressure within the cuirass is sensed by a pressure transducer, and the output of this is used to control the position of the rotary valve by means of a motor so that the pressure within the cuirass follows a predetermined half sine wave pattern. The respiratory rate varies from 10 to 30 per minute and the inspiratory to expiratory time (I/E) ratio from 3:2 to 2:3. Inspiratory pressure varies from 0 to -50 cm H2O and an expiratory pressure of 0 to +50 cm H2O can be imposed. The performance of the new pump was assessed in 21 patients with nocturnal hypoxaemia who were accustomed to external negative pressure ventilation. The mean tidal volume achieved increased with increase in cuirass suction pressure, and changing the I/E ratio from 1:1 to 3:2 produced a small increase at a cuirass negative pressure at 20 cm water. Comparison of the Newmarket pump with the Cape pump in 14 patients showed that similar tidal volumes were achieved. Overnight monitoring of cuirass pressure in one patient showed more even control of peak negative pressure with the Newmarket pump than with the Cape pump. Ten pumps are in use in patients' homes; five have been in service for more than six months and no important problems have been encountered. The new pump seems to offer advantages that make external negative pressure ventilation more acceptable.

  3. The pressure drop across the endotracheal tube in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Johannes; Steinmann, Daniel; Kaltofen, Heike; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    During mechanical ventilation, the airway pressure (Paw) is usually monitored. However, Paw comprises the endotracheal tube (ETT)-related pressure drop (∆PETT ) and thus does not reflect the pressure in the patients' lungs. Therefore, monitoring of mechanical ventilation should be based on the tracheal pressure (Ptrach ). We systematically investigated potential factors influencing ∆PETT in pediatric ETTs. In this study, the flow-dependent pressure drop across pediatric ETTs from four manufacturers [2.0-4.5 mm inner diameter (ID)] was estimated in a physical model of the upper airways. Additionally, ∆PETT was examined with the ETTs shortened to 75% of their original length and at different curvatures. In nine healthy mechanically ventilated children (aged between 9 days and 29 months), Ptrach was compared to Paw . ∆PETT was nonlinearly flow dependent. Low IDs corresponded to high ∆PETT . Differences between ETTs from different manufacturers were identified. Shortening of the ETTs' length by 25% reduced ∆PETT on average by 14% of the value at original length. Ventilation frequency and tube curvature did not influence ∆PETT to a relevant extent. In the pediatric patients, the root mean square deviation between Paw and Ptrach was 2.3 cm H2O. Paw and Ptrach differ considerably (by ∆PETT ) during mechanical ventilation of pediatric patients. The ETTs' ID, tube length, and manufacturer type are significant factors for ∆PETT and should be taken into account when Paw is valuated. For this purpose, Ptrach can be continuously calculated with good precision by means of the Rohrer approximation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Central Venous Pressure in Patients under Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Alimohammadi, Hossein; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Amini, Afshin; Esmailzadeh, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Finding the probable governing pattern of PEEP and CVP changes is an area of interest for in-charge physicians and researchers. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim of evaluating the relationship between the mentioned pressures. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, patients under mechanical ventilation were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of PEEP change on CVP. Non-trauma patients, over 18 years of age, who were under mechanical ventilation and had stable hemodynamics, with inserted CV line were entered. After gathering demographic data, patients underwent 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O PEEPs and the respective CVPs of the mentioned points were recorded. The relationship of CVP and PEEP in different cut points were measured using SPSS 21.0 statistical software. Results: 60 patients with the mean age of 73.95 ± 11.58 years were evaluated (68.3% male). The most frequent cause of ICU admission was sepsis with 45.0%. 5 cmH2O increase in PEEP led to 2.47 ± 1.53 mean difference in CVP level. If the PEEP baseline is 0 at the time of 5 cmH2O increase, it leads to a higher raise in CVP compared to when the baseline is 5 cmH2O (2.47 ± 1.53 vs. 1.57 ± 1.07; p = 0.039). The relationship between CVP and 5 cmH2O (p = 0.279), and 10 cmH2O (p = 0.292) PEEP changes were not dependent on the baseline level of CVP. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed the direct relationship between PEEP and CVP. Approximately, a 5 cmH2O increase in PEEP will be associated with about 2.5 cmH2O raise in CVP. When applying a 5 cmH2O PEEP increase, if the baseline PEEP is 0, it leads to a significantly higher raise in CVP compared to when it is 5 cmH2O (2.5 vs. 1.6). It seems that sex, history of cardiac failure, baseline CVP level, and hypertension do not have a significant effect in this regard. PMID:28286808

  5. Effects of non-synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation on spontaneous breathing in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Owen, L S; Morley, C J; Dawson, J A; Davis, P G

    2011-11-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) may be beneficial but the mechanisms of action are undetermined. To investigate the effects of non-synchronised NIPPV on spontaneous breathing in premature infants. 10 infants receiving ventilator generated non-synchronised NIPPV were studied for 30 min. Delivered pressure was measured at the nose; respiration was recorded using respiratory inductance plethysmography. Oxygen saturation, carbon dioxide, heart rate, inspired oxygen and video images were recorded. Median gestational age, birth weight, age and study weight were 25(+3) weeks, 797 g, 24 days and 1076 g. When the NIPPV pressure peak commenced during spontaneous inspiration the inspiratory time increased by 21% (p=0.002), relative tidal volume increased by 15% (p=0.01) and expiratory time was unchanged. When the NIPPV pressure peak commenced during spontaneous expiration the expiratory time increased by 13% (p=0.04). NIPPV pressures delivered during apnoea (range 8-28 cm H(2)O) produced chest inflation 5% of the time, resulting in small tidal volumes (26.7% of spontaneous breath size) but reduced oxygen desaturation. NIPPV pressure peaks occurred throughout spontaneous respiration proportional to the inspiratory: expiratory ratio. NIPPV pressure peaks only resulted in a small increase in relative tidal volumes when delivered during spontaneous inspiration. During apnoea pressure peaks occasionally resulted in chest inflation, which ameliorated oxygen desaturations. Infants did not become entrained with the NIPPV pressure changes. Synchronising every rise in applied pressure with spontaneous inspiration may increase the effectiveness of NIPPV and warrants investigation.

  6. High-frequency ventilation for non-invasive respiratory support of neonates

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, K.H.; Null, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used in lieu of intubated ventilator support for the management of neonatal respiratory failure, particularly in very low birth weight infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The optimal approach and mode for non-invasive support remains uncertain. This article reviews the application of high-frequency ventilation for non-invasive respiratory support in neonates, including basic science studies on mechanics of gas exchange, animal model investigations, and a review of current clinical use in human neonates. PMID:26906338

  7. Tracheal gas insufflation-pressure control versus volume control ventilation. A lung model study.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, H; Kacmarek, R M; Ritz, R; Hess, D

    1996-03-01

    Tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) has been recommended as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation in the presence of elevated Pa CO2. Based on our initial clinical experience with continuous flow TGI and pressure control ventilation (PCV), we were concerned about elevation in peak airway pressure as TGI was applied. In a lung model, we evaluated the effects of continuous flow TGI during both PCV and volume control ventilation (VCV). A single compartment lung model was configured with an artificial trachea into which an 8-mm endotracheal tube was positioned. TGI was established with a 16-G catheter positioned 2 cm beyond the tip of the endotracheal tube. Ventilation was provided by a Puritan-Bennett 7200ae ventilator with PCV 20 cm H2O or VCV with a tidal volume (VTt) similar to that with PCV. A rate of 15 breaths/min and PEEP of 10 cm H2O were used throughout. Inspiratory times (TI) of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 s were used with TGI of 0, 4, 8, and 12 L/min. Lung model compliance (ml/cm H2O) and resistance (cm H2O/L/s) combinations of 20/20, 20/5, and 50/20 were used. Auto-PEEP, VT, and peak alveolar and airway opening pressures increased as TGI and Ti increased, regardless of lung mechanics settings (p<0.01). All increases were greater with VCV than PCV (p<0.05). Continuous flow TGI with both PCV and VT-uncorrected VCV may result in marked increases in Vt and system pressures, especially at long TI.

  8. Airway pressure release ventilation reduces conducting airway micro-strain in lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Emr, Bryanna; Smith, Bradford; Ruiz, Cynthia; Roy, Shreyas; Meng, Qinghe; Jain, Sumeet; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Ghosh, Auyon; Marx, William H; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Nieman, Gary F; Gatto, Louis A

    2014-11-01

    Improper mechanical ventilation can exacerbate acute lung damage, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that VILI can be reduced by modifying specific components of the ventilation waveform (mechanical breath), and we studied the impact of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV) on the lung micro-anatomy (alveoli and conducting airways). The distribution of gas during inspiration and expiration and the strain generated during mechanical ventilation in the micro-anatomy (micro-strain) were calculated. Rats were anesthetized, surgically prepared, and randomized into 1 uninjured control group (n = 2) and 4 groups with lung injury: APRV 75% (n = 2), time at expiration (TLow) set to terminate appropriately at 75% of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR); APRV 10% (n = 2), TLow set to terminate inappropriately at 10% of PEFR; CMV with PEEP 5 cm H2O (PEEP 5; n = 2); or PEEP 16 cm H2O (PEEP 16; n = 2). Lung injury was induced in the experimental groups by Tween lavage and ventilated with their respective settings. Lungs were fixed at peak inspiration and end expiration for standard histology. Conducting airway and alveolar air space areas were quantified and conducting airway micro-strain was calculated. All lung injury groups redistributed inspired gas away from alveoli into the conducting airways. The APRV 75% minimized gas redistribution and micro-strain in the conducting airways and provided the alveolar air space occupancy most similar to control at both inspiration and expiration. In an injured lung, APRV 75% maintained micro-anatomic gas distribution similar to that of the normal lung. The lung protection demonstrated in previous studies using APRV 75% may be due to a more homogeneous distribution of gas at the micro-anatomic level as well as a reduction in conducting airway micro-strain. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  9. High Frequency Nasal Ventilation for 21 Days Maintains Gas Exchange with Lower Respiratory Pressures and Promotes Alveolarization in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Null, Donald M.; Alvord, Jeremy; Leavitt, Wendy; Wint, Albert; Dahl, Mar Janna; Presson, Angela P.; Lane, Robert H.; DiGeronimo, Robert J.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term high-frequency nasal ventilation (HFNV) of preterm neonates provides acceptable gas exchange compared to endotracheal intubation and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV). Whether long-term HFNV will provide acceptable gas exchange is unknown. We hypothesized that HFNV for up to 21d would lead to acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired oxygen (O2) levels and airway pressures compared to intubation and IMV. Methods Preterm lambs were exposed to antenatal steroids, and treated with perinatal surfactant and postnatal caffeine. Lambs were intubated and resuscitated by IMV. At ~3h of age, half of the lambs were switched to non-invasive HFNV. Support was for 3d or 21d. By design, PaO2 and PaCO2 were not different between groups. Results At 3d (n=5) and 21d (n=4) of HFNV, fractional inspired O2 (FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway, intra-tracheal, and positive end-expiratory pressures, oxygenation index, and Alveolar-arterial gradient were significantly lower than matched periods of intubation and IMV. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher at 3d and 21d of HFNV compared to matched intubation and IMV. HFNV led to better alveolarization at 3d and 21d. Conclusion Long-term HFNV provides acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired O2 levels and respiratory pressures compared to intubation and IMV. PMID:24378898

  10. Optimizing lung aeration at birth using a sustained inflation and positive pressure ventilation in preterm rabbits

    PubMed Central

    te Pas, Arjan B.; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Lee, Katie; Wallace, Megan J.; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A sustained inflation (SI) facilitates lung aeration, but the most effective pressure and duration are unknown. We investigated the effect of gestational age (GA) and airway liquid volume on the required inflation pressure and SI duration. Methods: Rabbit kittens were delivered at 27, 29, and 30 d gestation, intubated and airway liquid was aspirated. Either no liquid (control) or 30 ml/kg of liquid was returned to the airways. Lung gas volumes were measured by plethysmography and phase-contrast X-ray-imaging. Starting at 22 cmH2O, airway pressure was increased until airflow commenced and pressure was then held constant. The SI was truncated when 20 ml/kg air had entered the lung and ventilation continued with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV). Results: Higher SI pressures and longer durations were required in 27-d kittens compared to 30-d kittens. During iPPV, 27-d kittens needed higher pressures and had lower functional residual capacity (FRC) compared to 30-d kittens. Adding lung liquid increased SI duration, reduced FRC, and increased resistance and pressures during iPPV in 29- and 30-d kittens. Conclusion: Immature kittens required higher starting pressures and longer SI durations to achieve a set inflation volume. Larger airway liquid volumes adversely affected lung function during iPPV in older but not young kittens. PMID:26991259

  11. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  12. [Central alveolar hypoventilation with cor pulmonale: successful treatment by non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Montiel, G C; Roncoroni, A J; Quadrelli, S A; De Vito, E L

    1994-01-01

    A 62 year-old woman with a bilateral carotid body paraganglioma presented, 2 years after the removal of the right one, with signs of right-heart failure. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension with normal ventilatory capacity were found. Central alveolar hypoventilation was diagnosed on the basis of absence of ventilatory response and sensation of provoked hypercapnia, prolonged breath-holding time and correction of hypercapnia by voluntary ventilation. Progesterone (200 mg/d during 3 weeks) or naloxone did not improve either arterial blood gases (ABG) or the P 0.1/PCO2 curve. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia were not corrected during metabolic acidosis provoked by acetazolamide (250 mg/d). Nasal CPAP did not control hypoventilation periods. Mechanical ventilation was initiated with negative pressure (NPV) through a poncho. The patient presented severe discomfort with NPV and obstructive apneas were verified during it. She refused to continue NPV. Mechanical ventilation was initiated with positive intermittent pressure (IPPV) through a nasal mask. The patient had excellent tolerance to the procedure. SpO2 during IPPV was always higher than 95%. During sleep induction (under IPPV), respiration in phase with the ventilator 1: 1 was observed; instead, during consolidated sleep there was a complete dependence of the ventilator with apnea for over 2 min when IPPV was interrupted (Fig. 1). After 2 months of treatment, a relief of right ventricular failure occurred and hematocrit fell to 39%. There was an improvement of day-time ABG (Table I). The P. 0.1/PaCO2 curve 3 months after IPPV was the same as the previous one (Fig. 2). The patient has been for 18 months on home ventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Mechanical ventilation and thoracic artificial lung assistance during mechanical circulatory support with PUCA pump: in silico study.

    PubMed

    De Lazzari, Claudio; Genuini, Igino; Quatember, Bernhard; Fedele, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Patients assisted with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) may require prolonged mechanical ventilatory assistance secondary to postoperative respiratory failure. The goal of this work is the study of the interdependent effects LVAD like pulsatile catheter (PUCA) pump and mechanical ventilatory support or thoracic artificial lung (TAL), by the hemodynamic point of view, using a numerical simulator of the human cardiovascular system. In the simulator, different circulatory sections are described using lumped parameter models. Lumped parameter models have been designed to describe the hydrodynamic behavior of both PUCA pump and thoracic artificial lung. Ventricular behavior atrial and septum functions were reproduced using variable elastance model. Starting from simulated pathological conditions we studied the effects produced on some hemodynamic variables by simultaneous PUCA pump, thoracic artificial lung or mechanical ventilation assistance. Thoracic artificial lung was applied in parallel or in hybrid mode. The effects of mechanical ventilation have been simulated by changing mean intrathoracic pressure value from -4 mmHg to +5 mmHg. The hemodynamic variables observed during the simulations, in different assisted conditions, were: left and right ventricular end systolic (diastolic) volume, systolic/diastolic aortic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, left and right mean atrial pressure, mean systemic venous pressure and the total blood flow. Results show that the application of PUCA (without mechanical ventilatory assistance) increases the total blood flow, reduces the left ventricular end systolic volume and increases the diastolic aortic pressure. Parallel TAL assistance increases the right ventricular end diastolic (systolic) volume reduction both when PUCA is switched "ON" and both when PUCA is switched "OFF". By switching "OFF" the PUCA pump, it seems that parallel thoracic artificial lung assistance produces a greater cardiac output (respect to

  14. Higher Fresh Gas Flow Rates Decrease Tidal Volume During Pressure Control Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Shazia; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Gonsalves, Drew; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Lampotang, Samsun

    2017-05-01

    We observed that increasing fresh gas flow (FGF) decreased exhaled tidal volume (VT) during pressure control ventilation (PCV). A literature search produced no such description whereby unintended VT changes occur with FGF changes during PCV. To model an infant's lungs, 1 lung of a mechanical lung model (Dual Adult TTL 1600; Michigan Instruments, Inc, Grand Rapids, MI) was set at a compliance of 0.0068 L/cm H2O. An Rp50 resistor (27.2 cm H2O/L/s at 15 L/min) simulated normal bronchial resistance. The simulated lung was connected to a pediatric breathing circuit via a 3.5-mm cuffed endotracheal tube. A ventilator with PCV capability (Model 7900; Aestiva, GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) measured exhaled VT, and a flow monitor (NICO; Respironics, Murraysville, PA) measured peak inspiratory flow, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and peak inspiratory pressure. In PCV mode, exhaled VT displayed by the ventilator at FGF rates of 1, 6, 10, and 15 L/min was manually recorded across multiple ventilator settings. This protocol was repeated for the Avance CS2 anesthesia machine (GE Healthcare). For the Aestiva, higher FGF rates in PCV mode decreased exhaled VT. Exhaled VT for FGFs of 1, 6, 10, and 15 L/min were on average 48, 34.9, 16.5, and 10 mL, respectively, at ventilator settings of inspiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O, PEEP of 0 cm H2O, and respiratory rate of 20 breaths/min. This is a decrease by up to 27%, 65.6%, and 79.2% when FGFs of 6, 10, and 15 L/min are compared with a FGF of 1 L/min, respectively. In the GE Avance CS2 at the same ventilator settings, VT for FGF rates of 1, 6, 10, and 15 L/min were on average 46, 43, 40.4, and 39.7 mL, respectively. The FGF effect on VT was not as pronounced with the GE Avance CS2 as with the GE Aestiva. FGF has a significant effect on VT during PCV in the Aestiva bellows ventilator, suggesting caution when changing FGF during PCV in infants. Our hypothesis is that at higher FGF rates, an inadvertent PEEP is developed by the flow

  15. Non-invasive determination of respiratory effort in spontaneous breathing and support ventilation: a validation study with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Navas, Kristel; Brandt, Sebastian; Strutz, Merle; Gehring, Hartmut; Wenkebach, Ullrich

    2014-08-01

    The proper setting of support ventilation aims to follow the patients' demands, ensuring adequate assistance to their respiratory effort. Effort assessment is thus necessary. But invasive procedures like measuring transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) are impractical in long-term ventilation. Our purpose was therefore the development of the Occlusion+Delta (O+D) method for non-invasive continuous assessment of effort, quantified by the inspiratory pressure-time-product (PTPinsp), during ventilatory support. Flow and airway pressure were measured from 25 healthy volunteers at three effort levels. For the non-invasive method, short expiratory occlusions were executed each three to seven cycles to estimate resistance and compliance with a fitting algorithm fed with the differences between occluded and undisturbed cycles. Signals and estimates were then used to calculate the effort. For the validation of O+D, its estimations were compared to the results from invasive measurement of Pdi using balloon catheters. The agreement between PTPinsp from the invasive measurement and the proposed alternative was confirmed by regression analysis (PTP(O+D)=1.13PTP(Pdi)- 0.85, R²=0.84) and calculation of their differences (mean±SD=1.78±7.18 cm H2O s). Repeated execution of the non-invasive O+D method facilitates a safe automatic assessment of respiratory mechanics and breathing effort, promoting the rapid recognition of changes in patient's demands and the adaptation of support.

  16. Ventilation with biphasic positive airway pressure in experimental lung injury. Influence of transpulmonary pressure on gas exchange and haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Dietrich; Dembinski, Rolf; Bensberg, Ralf; Hochhausen, Nadine; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether improvement in ventilation perfusion (.V(A)/.Q) distribution during mechanical ventilation using biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) with spontaneous breathing may be attributed to an effectively increased transpulmonary pressure (P(TP)) and can also be achieved by increasing P(TP) during controlled ventilation. In 12 pigs with saline lavage-induced lung injury we compared the effects of BIPAP to pressure-controlled ventilation with equal airway pressure (PCV(AW)) or equal transpulmonary pressure (PCV(TP)) on V(A)/.Q distribution assessed by the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Animal laboratory study. Intrapulmonary shunt was 33+/-11% during BIPAP, 36+/-10% during PCV(AW) and 33+/-15% during PCV(TP) ( p= n.s.). BIPAP resulted in higher PaO(2) than PCV(AW) (188+/-83 versus 147+/-82 mmHg, p < 0.05), but not than PCV(TP) (187+/-139 mmHg). Oxygen delivery was significantly higher during BIPAP (530+/-109 ml/min) versus 374+/-113 ml/min during PCV(AW) and 353+/-93 ml/min during PCV(TP) ( p < 0.005). Tidal volume with PCV(TP) increased to 11.9+/-2.3 ml/kg, compared to 8.5+/-0.8 with BIPAP and 7.6+/-1.4 with PCV(AW) ( p <0.001) and cardiac output decreased to 3.5+/-0.6 l/min (BIPAP 4.9+/-0.8 and PCV(AW) 3.9+/-0.8, p<0.006). In experimental lung injury, BIPAP with preserved spontaneous breathing was effective in increasing regional P(TP), since pressure-controlled ventilation with the same P(TP) resulted in similar gas exchange effects. However, PCV(TP) caused increased airway pressures and tidal volumes, whereby, with BIPAP, less depression of oxygen delivery and cardiac output were observed. BIPAP could be useful in maintaining pulmonary gas exchange and slightly improving oxygenation without interfering with circulation as strongly as PCV does.

  17. Effectiveness of an inspiratory pressure-limited approach to mechanical ventilation in septic patients.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; de Haro, Candelaria; Dellinger, R Phillip; Ferrer, Ricard; Phillips, Gary S; Levy, Mitchell M; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis is one of the most common causes of acute lung injury (ALI) and is associated with high mortality. The aim of the study was to see whether a protective strategy based approach with a plateau pressure <30 cmH(2)O was associated with lower mortality in septic patients with ALI in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign international database. A retrospective analysis of an international multicentric database of 15,022 septic patients from 165 intensive care units was used. Septic patients with ALI and mechanical ventilation (n=1,738) had more accompanying organ dysfunction and a higher mortality rate (48.3% versus 33.0%, p<0.001) than septic patients without ALI (n=13,284). In patients with ALI and mechanical ventilation, the use of inspiratory plateau pressures maintained at <30 cmH(2)O was associated with lower mortality by Chi-squared test (46.4% versus 55.1%, p<0.001) and by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test (p<0.001). In a multivariable random-effects Cox regression, plateau pressure <30 cmH(2)O was significantly associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.99; p=0.038). ALI in sepsis was associated with higher mortality, especially when an inspiratory pressure-limited mechanical ventilation approach was not implemented.

  18. A ventilation technique for oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination in CPR: Continuous insufflation of oxygen at three levels of pressure in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Ordelman, Simone C M A; Aelen, Paul; Woerlee, Pierre H; van Berkom, Paul F J; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Noordergraaf, Gerrit J

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary ventilation remains an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, affecting gas exchange and haemodynamics. We designed and studied an improved method of ventilation for CPR, constructed specifically to support both gas exchange and haemodynamics. This method uses continuous insufflation of oxygen at three levels of pressure, resulting in tri-level pressure ventilation (TLPV). We hypothesized that TLPV improves gas exchange and haemodynamics compared to manual gold standard ventilation (GSV). In 14 pigs, ventricular fibrillation was induced and automated CPR performed for 10 min with either TLPV or GSV. After defibrillation, CPR was repeated with the other ventilation method. Gas exchange and haemodynamics were monitored. Data are presented as mean±standard error of the mean. TLPV was superior to GSV for PaO2 (163±36 mmHg difference; P=0.001), and peak AWP (-20±2 cmH2O difference; P=0.000) and higher for mean AWP (8±0.2 cmH2O difference; P=0.000). TLPV was comparable to GSV for CPP (5±3 mmHg difference; P=0.012), VCO2 (0.07±0.3 mL/min/kg difference; P=0.001), SvO2 (4±3%-point; P=0.001), mean carotid flow (-0.5±4 mL/min difference; P=0.016), and pHa (0.00±0.03 difference; P=0.002). The PaCO2 data do not provide a conclusive result (4±4 mmHg difference). We conclude that the ventilation strategy with a tri-level pressure cycle performs comparable to an expert, manual ventilator in an automated-CPR swine model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in critical and palliative care settings: understanding the goals of therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J Randall; Cook, Deborah J; Sinuff, Tasnim; White, Douglas B; Hill, Nicholas; Keenan, Sean P; Benditt, Joshua O; Kacmarek, Robert; Kirchhoff, Karin T; Levy, Mitchell M

    2007-03-01

    Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is a widely accepted treatment for some patients with acute respiratory failure, the use of NPPV in patients who have decided to forego endotracheal intubation is controversial. Therefore, the Society of Critical Care Medicine charged this Task Force with developing an approach for considering use of NPPV for patients who choose to forego endotracheal intubation. The Task Force met in person once, by conference call twice, and wrote this document during six subsequent months. We reviewed English-language literature on NPPV for acute respiratory failure. SYNTHESIS AND OVERVIEW: The use of NPPV for patients with acute respiratory failure can be classified into three categories: 1) NPPV as life support with no preset limitations on life-sustaining treatments, 2) NPPV as life support when patients and families have decided to forego endotracheal intubation, and 3) NPPV as a palliative measure when patients and families have chosen to forego all life support, receiving comfort measures only. For each category, we reviewed the rationale and evidence for NPPV, key points to communicate to patients and families, determinants of success and failure, appropriate healthcare settings, and alternative approaches if NPPV fails to achieve the original goals. This Task Force suggests an approach to use of NPPV for patients and families who choose to forego endotracheal intubation. NPPV should be applied after careful discussion of the goals of care, with explicit parameters for success and failure, by experienced personnel, and in appropriate healthcare settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of using NPPV for patients who choose to forego endotracheal intubation and to examine the perspectives of patients, families, and clinicians on use of NPPV in these contexts.

  20. Estimation of spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity using transfer function analysis: effects of positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Glos, Martin; Romberg, Dietrich; Endres, Susanne; Fietze, Ingo

    2007-02-01

    To determine the short-term effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, we acquired time series of RR interval and beat-to-beat blood pressure in 55 healthy volunteers (mean age 46.5+/-10.5 years), who performed breathing tests on four occasions at frequencies of 12 and 15/min, with application of PPV of 5 mbar, and without positive pressure (control). Using spectral and transfer function analysis, we estimated RR interval variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), as well as the gain (alpha-index) and phase shift (Phi) of the baroreceptor reflex for low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands. Compared to control breathing, PPV at 12 and 15/min led to an increase in mean RR (p<0.001) and blood pressure (p<0.05). The alpha-index in the HF band increased significantly due to PPV for both respiratory frequencies (p<0.05). Phase shifts did not show significant changes in response to pressure ventilation. These results indicate that short-term administration of PPV in normal subjects elicits significant enhancement in the HF index of baroreflex gain. These findings may contribute to understanding the mechanisms, indications, and effectiveness of positive pressure breathing strategies in treating cardiorespiratory and other disease conditions.

  1. Passive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized cross-over manikin simulation study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernd E; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Wurmb, Thomas; Struck, Manuel F; Roewer, Norbert; Kranke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    While controlled ventilation is most frequently used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and passive ventilation of the lung synchronously with chest compressions and decompressions might represent a promising alternative approach. One benefit of CPAP during CPR is the reduction of peak airway pressures and therefore a potential enhancement in haemodynamics. We therefore evaluated the tidal volumes and airway pressures achieved during CPAP-CPR. During CPR with the LUCAS™ 2 compression device, a manikin model was passively ventilated at CPAP levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30 hPa with the Boussignac tracheal tube and the ventilators Evita(®) V500, Medumat(®) Transport, Oxylator(®) EMX, Oxylog(®) 2000, Oxylog(®) 3000, Primus(®) and Servo(®)-i as well as the Wenoll(®) diver rescue system. Tidal volumes and airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were recorded and analyzed. Tidal volumes during CPAP-CPR were higher than during compression-only CPR without positive airway pressure. The passively generated tidal volumes increased with increasing CPAP levels and were significantly influenced by the ventilators used. During ventilation at 20 hPa CPAP via a tracheal tube, the mean tidal volumes ranged from 125 ml (Medumat(®)) to 309 ml (Wenoll(®)) and the peak airway pressures from 23 hPa (Primus(®)) to 49 hPa (Oxylog(®) 3000). Transport ventilators generated lower tidal volumes than intensive care ventilators or closed-circuit systems. Peak airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were lower than those during controlled ventilation CPR reported in literature. High peak airway pressures are known to limit the applicability of ventilation via facemask or via supraglottic airway devices and may adversely affect haemodynamics. Hence, the application of ventilators generating high tidal volumes with low peak airway pressures appears desirable during CPAP-CPR. The limited CPAP-CPR capabilities of transport

  2. Respiratory and haemodynamic effects of conventional volume controlled PEEP ventilation, pressure regulated volume controlled ventilation and low frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in pigs with acute ARDS.

    PubMed

    Kesecioglu, J; Telci, L; Esen, F; Akpir, K; Tütüncü, A S; Denkel, T; Erdmann, W; Lachmann, B

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any benefit of low frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (LFPPV-ECCO2R) existed over either volume controlled ventilation (VCV) with measured best-PEEP or pressure regulated volume controlled ventilation (PRVCV) with an inspiration/expiration (I/E) ratio of 4:1, with respect to arterial oxygenation, lung mechanics and haemodynamics, in acute respiratory failure. Fifteen adult pigs were used for the study. Respiratory failure was induced by surfactant depletion by repeated lung lavage. The different therapeutic approaches were applied randomly to each pig for 1 h. Measurements of gas exchange, airway pressures and haemodynamics were performed during ventilatory and haemodynamic steady state. Paco2 was kept constant in all modes. At almost similar total-PEEP, Pao2 values were significantly higher with LFPPV-ECCO2R compared to VCV with best-PEEP. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and intrapulmonary pressure amplitude defined as the difference between PIP and total-PEEP were significantly lower with PRVCV and LFPPV-ECCO2R compared to VCV with best-PEEP. There was no significant difference between the modes concerning cardiocirculatory parameters. PRVCV with I/E ratio of 4:1 and LFPPV-ECCO2R proved to be better modes to achieve better gas exchange and lower PIP at lower intrapulmonary pressure amplitudes. It is concluded that PRVCV is an adequate form of treatment under these experimental conditions imitating acute respiratory failure, without necessitating other invasive measures.

  3. Comparison of volume controlled ventilation and pressure controlled ventilation in patients undergoing robot-assisted pelvic surgeries: An open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Rishabh; Jaju, Pooja Bihani; Dubey, Mamta; Mohammad, Sadik; Bhargava, AK

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although volume controlled ventilation (VCV) has been the traditional mode of ventilation in robotic surgery, recently pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) has been used more frequently. However, evidence on whether PCV is superior to VCV is still lacking. We intended to compare the effects of VCV and PCV on respiratory mechanics and haemodynamic in patients undergoing robotic surgeries in steep Trendelenburg position. Methods: This prospective, randomized trial was conducted on sixty patients between 20 and 70 years belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status I–II. Patients were randomly assigned to VCV group (n = 30), where VCV mode was maintained through anaesthesia, or the PCV group (n = 30), where ventilation mode was changed to PCV after the establishment of 40° Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Respiratory (peak and mean airway pressure [APpeak, APmean], dynamic lung compliance [Cdyn] and arterial blood gas analysis) and haemodynamics variables (heart rate, mean blood pressure [MBP] central venous pressure) were measured at baseline (T1), post-Trendelenburg position at 60 min (T2), 120 min (T3) and after resuming supine position (T4). Results: Demographic profile, haemodynamic variables, oxygen saturation and minute ventilation (MV) were comparable between two groups. Despite similar values of APmean, APpeak was significantly higher in VCV group at T2 and T3 as compared to PCV group (P < 0.001). Cdyn and PaCO2 were also better in PCV group than in VCV group (P < 0.001 and 0.045, respectively). Conclusion: PCV should be preferred in robotic pelvic surgeries as it offers lower airway pressures, greater Cdyn and a better-preserved ventilation-perfusion matching for the same levels of MV. PMID:28216699

  4. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  5. Influence of Barometric Pressure Changes on Ventilation Conditions in Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2014-10-01

    Barometric air pressure and its changes have a critical impact on ventilation conditions in the underground workings of deep mines. Changes in pressure are particularly important because they are responsible for the transient states of ventilation conditions, therefore, assessing the scale of pressure change is essential. Unfortunately, previously for many years in the Polish mining industry barometric pressure was recorded only on tapes of mechanical barographs by the ventilation department on the surface and therefore such dependencies of methane concentration due to barometric pressure changes have not been properly documented. Today, after the implementation in mines of instruments enabling the monitoring of absolute pressure in the workings of mines (Wasilewski, 2009) the conditions have been created to study the influence of pressure changes on changes of air parameters in the mine workings. Barometric pressure changes were observed and recorded over a course of approximately two years using monitoring system that utilized high accuracy pressure sensors on the surface and in selected workings of an underground mine. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the data that we generated from assessing pressure changes on the surface and at selected underground points in the mine. In the article, which presents the results of the first part of the study, some examples of when significant changes in pressure prior to the tragic events, which were not accompanied by changes in the methane concentration in mine workings, will also be shown. Interestingly, we found that the relationship between methane ignitions and explosions in longwall gob mined via the cave-in method is associated with changes in the barometric pressure. Several instances of methane ignitions and explosions in the gob of cave-in longwalls in recent years were compared with background barometric pressure changes. Research carried out in within the strategic project "Improving work safety in

  6. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both); after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05). Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while other variables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining

  7. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation - volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2-4 hours and 48 hours. Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2-4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both); after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05). Vital signs during 2-4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2-4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while other variables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining a low peak inspiratory pressure. PRVC can reduce pulmonary barotrauma

  8. Parametric instabilities of rotor-support systems with application to industrial ventilators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parszewski, Z.; Krodkiemski, T.; Marynowski, K.

    1980-01-01

    Rotor support systems interaction with parametric excitation is considered for both unequal principal shaft stiffness (generators) and offset disc rotors (ventilators). Instability regions and types of instability are computed in the first case, and parametric resonances in the second case. Computed and experimental results are compared for laboratory machine models. A field case study of parametric vibrations in industrial ventilators is reported. Computed parametric resonances are confirmed in field measurements, and some industrial failures are explained. Also the dynamic influence and gyroscopic effect of supporting structures are shown and computed.

  9. The utility of noninvasive nasal positive pressure ventilators for optimizing oxygenation during rapid sequence intubation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Hwang, Sung Oh; Cha, Yong Sung; Kim, Oh Hyun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyoung-Chul

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the feasibility of noninvasive nasal positive pressure ventilation (NINPPV) for optimizing oxygenation during the rapid sequence intubation in critically ill patients. A prospective, observational study was performed in an emergency department. Noninvasive nasal positive pressure ventilation was applied in the preoxygenation step and maintained until successful intubation. A pulse oximetry (Spo2) was continuously monitored throughout the procedure and recorded 5 times. The degree of interfering was surveyed with 10-point Likert scale. Thirty patients were enrolled. The most of enrolled patients were diagnosed as pneumonia, acute heart failure, and traumatic brain injury. The Spo2 was increased to 100% (98%-100%) at the time of starting endotracheal intubation with NINPPV and maintained as 97% (95%-100%) until successful intubation (P< .001). Total apnea duration was 195 seconds (190-196). The degree of interfering intubation was 1 (0-1). Noninvasive nasal positive pressure ventilation would be useful for optimizing oxygenation during rapid sequence intubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis* **

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Luana Souto; Talaia, Pedro; Drummond, Marta; Natal-Jorge, Renato

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI) for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D) computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs) of the OI on the human face. METHODS: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. RESULTS: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O). CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion. PMID:25610506

  11. Improved Oxygenation 24 Hours After Transition to Airway Pressure Release Ventilation or High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Accurately Discriminates Survival in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Yehya, Nadir; Topjian, Alexis A.; Thomas, Neal J.; Friess, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children with an immunocompromised condition and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation have high risk of death. Such patients are commonly transitioned to rescue modes of non-conventional ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation and to identify factors associated with survival. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care, university-affiliated PICU. Patients Sixty pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases, oxygenation index, and Pao2/Fio2 were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation and at predetermined intervals after transition for up to 5 days. Mortality in the entire cohort was 63% and did not differ between patients transitioned to airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. For both airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improvements in oxygenation index and Pao2/Fio2 at 24 hours expressed as a fraction of pretransition values (oxygenation index24/oxygenation indexpre and Pao2/Fio224/Pao2/FIO2pre) reliably discriminated nonsurvivors from survivors, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves between 0.89 and 0.95 (p for all curves < 0.001). Sensitivity-specificity analysis suggested that less than 15% reduction in

  12. Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Patients Wearing Nasal-Oral Versus Full-Face Noninvasive Ventilation Masks.

    PubMed

    Schallom, Marilyn; Cracchiolo, Lisa; Falker, Antoinette; Foster, Jennifer; Hager, JoAnn; Morehouse, Tamara; Watts, Peggy; Weems, Linda; Kollef, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Device-related pressure ulcers from noninvasive ventilation masks alter skin integrity and cause patients discomfort. To examine the incidence, location, and stage of pressure ulcers and patients' comfort with a nasal-oral mask compared with a full-face mask. A before-after study of a convenience sample of patients with noninvasive ventilation orders in 5 intensive care units was conducted. Two groups of 100 patients each received either the nasal-oral mask or the full-face mask. Skin was assessed before the mask was applied and every 12 hours after that or upon mask removal. Comfort levels were assessed every 12 hours on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (1, most comfortable). A pressure ulcer developed in 20% of patients in the nasal-oral mask group and 2% of patients in the full-face mask group (P < .001). Comfort scores were significantly lower (more comfortable) with the full-face mask (mean [SD], 1.9 [1.1]) than with the nasal-oral mask (mean [SD], 2.7 [1.2], P < .001). Neither mean hours worn nor percentage adherence differed significantly: 28.9 (SD, 27.2) hours and 92% for full-face mask and 25 (SD, 20.7) and 92% for nasal-oral mask. No patients who had a pressure ulcer develop with the nasal-oral mask had a pressure ulcer develop with the full-face mask. The full-face mask resulted in significantly fewer pressure ulcers and was more comfortable for patients. The full-face mask is a reasonable alternative to traditional nasal-oral masks for patients receiving noninvasive ventilation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  14. The use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis during anesthesia in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Phair, Kristen; West, Gary; Biller, David

    2010-12-01

    Radiography is a valuable tool for assessment of pulmonary disease. Specifically, radiographs utilizing positive pressure ventilation can distinguish between anesthesia-induced atelectasis and pulmonary disease when survey radiographs are ambiguous. Positive pressure ventilation can be used to radiographically prove or disprove pulmonary disease. This is of particular clinical importance when working with exotic, zoo, or wildlife species because the majority of these patients require general anesthesia to perform physical examinations and diagnostics such as radiography safely and efficiently. This report is a case example of pulmonary disease in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and demonstrates how positive pressure ventilation verified both the presence of pulmonary disease and the eventual resolution of the disease. Anesthetized patients on gas anesthesia will rapidly become atelectic. Through the use of positive pressure ventilation, anesthesia-induced atelectasis and true pulmonary disease can readily be distinguished. This is a technique that should not be overlooked when performing thoracic radiography in zoo species.

  15. Changes in Therapeutic Intensity Level Following Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jeffrey J; Wilson, Thomas J; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Davidson, Scott B; Walsh, Jon C

    2016-09-20

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV. The study included 21 epochs of APRV in 21 patients. In the 6-hour epoch following the application of APRV, the TIL was significantly increased (P = .002) and the ICP significantly decreased (P = .041) compared to that before 6 hours. There was no significant change in CPP (P = .42) over time. The baseline static compliance and time interaction was not significant for TIL (χ(2) = 0.2 [df 1], P = .655), CPP (χ(2) = 0 [df 1], P = 1), or ICP (χ(2) = 0.1 [df 1], P = .752). Application of APRV in patients with severe traumatic brain injury was associated with significantly, but not clinically meaningful, increased TIL and decreased ICP. No significant change in CPP was observed. No difference was observed based on the baseline pulmonary static compliance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Choosing a negative pressure ventilation pump: are there any important differences?

    PubMed

    Smith, I E; King, M A; Shneerson, J M

    1995-10-01

    Five negative pressure ventilator pumps were assessed to determine whether there were any differences in performance which were likely to be of clinical importance. The pumps tested were the NEV-100 (Lifecare Inc.), the Negavent Respirator DA-1 (Dima Italia), the Thompson Maxivent (Puritan Bennett), the CCP-001 and Newmarket pumps (Si-Plan Electronics Research Ltd). A patient model was employed to investigate the relationship between the pressure waveform of each pump and the tidal volume generated, the stability of performance on a continuous 8 h test, and the response to a change in leak. On the continuous tests, the stability was better than +/- 1% for the inspiratory/expiratory (I:E) ratio and rate, and better than +/- 10% for the peak negative pressure for all of the pumps. The Negavent and NEV-100 pumps generated a square wave of pressure and for the same peak negative pressure produced a tidal volume up to 30% greater than the CCP-001 and the Newmarket pumps, which produced a half sine wave. The Maxivent produced an intermediate waveform, with a plateau at peak negative pressure but a curved decay back to atmospheric pressure. It is argued that if the pressure of the pumps producing a half sine wave is made more negative to compensate and produce an equivalent tidal volume, they are more likely to induce upper airway obstruction. The leak compensation of the NEV-100 and Negavent pumps was nearly complete but took several breaths to develop, the CCP-001 and Newmarket pumps had a very rapid compensation but this was less complete, whilst the Maxivent has no mechanism for leak compensation. From these results, it seems that in patients liable to upper airway obstruction the NEV-100 and Negavent pumps would be advantageous, whilst when rapidly changing leaks impair the efficiency of negative pressure ventilation the CCP-001 and Newmarket pumps would be preferable. The Maxivent pump seems to offer no advantages.

  17. Comparison of two flow generators with a noninvasive ventilator to deliver continuous positive airway pressure: a test lung study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Carolina; Caruso, Pedro; Lucatto, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; de Paula Schettino, Guilherme Pinto; de Souza, Rogério; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    To compare the performance of two continuous flow generators with a ventilator designed for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The performance of flow generators using different oxygen pressure supplies was also compared. Experimental study using a mechanical lung model in a university research laboratory. Two flow generators supplied at 100, 200, and 300 kPa and an NPPV ventilator were compared at CPAP of 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O in: (a) area under the adjusted CPAP level during inspiration, (b) capacity to attain the preset CPAP, and (c) tidal volume. The NPPV ventilator attained the preset CPAP better than flow generators, but its area under adjusted CPAP was similar to or higher than that of flow generators when these were adjusted to their better pressure supply. Both flow generators had better performance with an output flow around 100 l/min, which was achieved at 100 kPa with one flow generator and 300 with the other. Flow generators and the NPPV ventilator generated similar tidal volumes. Flow generators performance showed large variations among different devices and oxygen pressure supplies. Adjusted to their better pressure supply, flow generators had a similar or better capacity to maintain the CPAP level, but the NPPV ventilator was more reliable to attain the preset CPAP. Flow generators could be an alternative to provide CPAP in low-income areas, usually with scarce medical equipment availability.

  18. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH < 7.35) were included in the study. Baseline clinical parameters and arterial blood gas (ABG) were recorded before initiating NIPPV. Clinical parameters including heart rate (HR), RR, oxygen saturation and ABG were revaluated at 1, 4, and 24 hours after initiation of NIPPV. Change in these parameters and need for intubation was evaluated. Of the 100 patients, 76 (76%) showed improvement in clinical parameters and ABG. There was improvement in HR and RR, pH, and PCO2 within the first hour in the success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  19. [Numerical simulation of the internal noise in the pressure generator of a continuous positive airway pressure ventilator].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Huang, Fangfang; Zhu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    It is important to overcome the problem of noise for the research and development of ventilator technologies. Previous research of this subject showed that the pressure generator, produced by German EMB-PAPST Company and specially used for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilator, created noise easily, due to local backflow in the volute, uneven velocity distribution in the impeller and local negative pressure in the inlet of the impeller. Based on the previous research, a combination of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT and steady-state solution of noise source of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) was used in this study. We combined equation of Lilley and Synthetic Turbulence to get the information about speed fluctuation of the pressure generator, which is used to finish noise prediction. After detailed analysis, it showed that noise source of different degrees spreaded around the inlet of the impeller and the volute, interface of blade edge and corner of the volute tongue, which influenced its overall performance to certain extent. Therefore, its structural design needs to be improved.

  20. Clinical assessment of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure by diaphragmatic electrical activity during pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Giacomo; Coppadoro, Andrea; Patroniti, Nicolò; Turella, Marta; Arrigoni Marocco, Stefano; Grasselli, Giacomo; Mauri, Tommaso; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) may substantially increase the inspiratory effort during assisted mechanical ventilation. Purpose of this study was to assess whether the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) signal can be reliably used to estimate auto-PEEP in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and whether NAVA was beneficial in comparison with pressure support ventilation in patients affected by auto-PEEP. In 10 patients with a clinical suspicion of auto-PEEP, the authors simultaneously recorded EAdi, airway, esophageal pressure, and flow during pressure support and NAVA, whereas external PEEP was increased from 2 to 14 cm H2O. Tracings were analyzed to measure apparent "dynamic" auto-PEEP (decrease in esophageal pressure to generate inspiratory flow), auto-EAdi (EAdi value at the onset of inspiratory flow), and IDEAdi (inspiratory delay between the onset of EAdi and the inspiratory flow). The pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, auto-EAdi, and IDEAdi was significantly lower in NAVA as compared with pressure support ventilation, decreased with increase in external PEEP, although the effect of external PEEP was less pronounced in NAVA. Both auto-EAdi and IDEAdi were tightly correlated with auto-PEEP (r = 0.94 and r = 0.75, respectively). In the presence of auto-PEEP at lower external PEEP levels, NAVA was characterized by a characteristic shape of the airway pressure. In patients with auto-PEEP, NAVA, compared with pressure support ventilation, led to a decrease in the pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, which could be reliably monitored by the electrical activity of the diaphragm before inspiratory flow onset (auto-EAdi).

  1. Factors Associated with Failure of Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in a Critical Care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service.

    PubMed

    Lee, James S; O'Dochartaigh, Domhnall; MacKenzie, Mark; Hudson, Darren; Couperthwaite, Stephanie; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is used to treat severe acute respiratory distress. Prehospital NIPPV has been associated with a reduction in both in-hospital mortality and the need for invasive ventilation. The authors of this study examined factors associated with NIPPV failure and evaluated the impact of NIPPV on scene times in a critical care helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation failure was defined as the need for airway intervention or alternative means of ventilatory support. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients where NIPPV was completed in a critical care HEMS was conducted. Factors associated with NIPPV failure in univariate analyses and from published literature were included in a multivariable, logistic regression model. From a total of 44 patients, NIPPV failed in 14 (32%); a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<15 at HEMS arrival was associated independently with NIPPV failure (adjusted odds ratio 13.9; 95% CI, 2.4-80.3; P=.003). Mean scene times were significantly longer in patients who failed NIPPV when compared with patients in whom NIPPV was successful (95 minutes vs 51 minutes; 39.4 minutes longer; 95% CI, 16.2-62.5; P=.001). Patients with a decreased level of consciousness were more likely to fail NIPPV. Furthermore, patients who failed NIPPV had significantly longer scene times. The benefits of NIPPV should be balanced against risks of long scene times by HEMS providers. Knowing risk factors of NIPPV failure could assist HEMS providers to make the safest decision for patients on whether to initiate NIPPV or proceed directly to endotracheal intubation prior to transport.

  2. Fatal brain gas embolism during non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Claire B; Chevrolet, Jean-Claude; Gasche, Yvan; Charbonney, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Gas embolism is a dreaded complication following invasive medical procedures, traumatic lung injury and decompression accidents. We report a case of fatal gas embolism following the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). The patient initially underwent left bronchial artery embolisation for massive haemoptysis in the context of severe tuberculotic sequels. Under NIV and after heavy coughing he became hemiparetic and his level of consciousness suddenly dropped. Computed tomography of the brain showed multiple air embolism and ischaemic lesions were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Echocardiographic investigations showed no intracardiac defect. Vasculo-pulmonary abnormalities in the context of heavy coughing and non-invasive ventilation may have played a major role in the occurrence of this event. New neurological events in a patient with tuberculotic sequels or any known vascular pulmonary abnormalities and NIV should raise the suspicion of brain gas embolism. PMID:21716825

  3. Full face mask for noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bruce; Cordova, Francis C; Travaline, John M; D'Alonzo, Gilbert E; Criner, Gerard J

    2007-04-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) is commonly used to improve ventilation and oxygenation in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Mask leak and intolerance due to facial discomfort or claustrophobia often occur with NPPV and are frequently cited reasons for treatment failure. Retrospective review of patient records from a tertiary-care referral hospital. We report the effectiveness of a full face mask in the application of NPPV for 10 nonambulatory patients (mean [SD], 61 [9] years) who had a combined total of 13 episodes of ARF. After these patients were unable to receive NPPV therapy via the more commonly available nasal or oronasal masks, care was provided using full face masks. Eight of 10 patients had hypercapnic respiratory failure; 2 patients, hypoxemic respiratory failure. All patients were placed on ventilation initially using a bi-level positive airway pressure device. Subsequently, patient ventilation was achieved using a Puritan Bennett 7200a ventilator for on-line respiratory monitoring. The mean (SD) duration of treatment with NPPV was 9.7 (2.7) hours per day for 3.0 (1.6) days. Following NPPV via full face mask, the patients' Paco(2) decreased (65 [20] vs 82 [27] mm Hg, P=.09) and pH increased significantly (7.36 [0.07] vs 7.26 [0.07], P<.05) in less than 2 hours. Moreover, the patients demonstrated decreased respiratory rate (18 [7] vs 32 [8] breaths/min, P<.01), heart rate (106 [13] vs 124 [16] beats/min, P=.008), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (12 [3] vs 17 [4], P<.005) after NPPV via full face mask. These cardiorespiratory alterations occurred as early as 1 hour after NPPV initiation and were maintained throughout treatment. Two patients required endotracheal intubation because of copious purulent secretions. For individuals with hypercapnic respiratory failure who cannot tolerate NPPV using nasal or oronasal masks, use of full face masks may improve outcomes, allowing physicians to avoid

  4. Use of the Draeger Apollo to Deliver Bilevel Positive Pressure Ventilation During Awake Frontal Craniotomy for a Patient with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susie So-Hyun; Berman, Mitchell F

    2015-12-01

    In this case report, we describe the use of the Draeger Apollo anesthesia machine to deliver bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of lung resection undergoing frontal craniotomy for the removal of a brain tumor under moderate to deep sedation. BiPAP in the perioperative period has been described for purposes of preoxygenation and postextubation recruitment. Although its utility as a mode of ventilation during moderate to deep sedation has been demonstrated, it has not come into widespread use. We describe the intraoperative use of pressure support mode on the anesthesia machine to deliver noninvasive positive pressure ventilation through a standard anesthesia mask. Given its ease of access and effectiveness, it is our belief that intraoperative BiPAP may reduce hypoxemia and/or hypercarbia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea undergoing moderate to deep sedation.

  5. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Szeto, Hazel H; Powers, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  6. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Matthew B.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P.; Shimkus, Kevin L.; Fluckey, James D.; Szeto, Hazel H.; Powers, Scott K.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV. PMID:26361212

  7. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8-h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end-tidal P(O2)=55 Torr) in a purpose-built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (G(pO2)) and hyperoxic hypercapnia, the latter divided into peripheral (G(pCO2)) and central (G(cCO2)) components. Substantial acclimatization was observed in both ventilation and PASP, the latter being 40% greater in women than men. No correlation was found between the magnitudes of pulmonary ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses. For G(pO2), G(pCO2) and G(cC O2), but not the sensitivity of PASP to acute hypoxia, the magnitude of the increase during acclimatization was proportional to the pre-acclimatization value. Additionally, the change in G(pO2) during acclimatization to hypoxia correlated well with most other measures of ventilatory acclimatization. Of the initial measurements prior to sustained hypoxia, only G(pCO2) predicted the subsequent rise in ventilation and change in G(pO2) during acclimatization. We conclude that the magnitudes of the ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained hypoxia are predominantly determined by different factors and that the initial G(pCO2) is a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological

  8. Effect of negative pressure ventilation on arterial blood gas pressures and inspiratory muscle strength during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Montserrat, J. M.; Martos, J. A.; Alarcon, A.; Celis, R.; Plaza, V.; Picado, C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intermittent negative pressure ventilation have been studied in 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during an exacerbation of their disease. Measurements of arterial blood gas tensions and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were performed before and after six hours of negative pressure ventilation or standard treatment (control day) given in random order on two consecutive days. After negative pressure ventilation the mean (SD) value of MIP increased from 68.1 (21.5) to 74.8 (20) cm H2O;* arterial oxygen tension (PaCO2) fell from 60.6 (12.2) to 50.9 (8.9) mm Hg* but PaO2 changed little (from 48.4 (7.4) to 47.6 (8.2) mm Hg). There were no significant changes on the control day in arterial blood gas tensions (PaO2 47.8 (8.1) and 48.9 (9.4) and Paco2 59.8 (10.9) and 57.5 (8.06) mm Hg) or in MIP (69.4 (22.4) and 70.9 (22.9) cm H2O). Six patients tolerated negative pressure ventilation poorly and these patients showed less improvement after negative pressure ventilation. Our results suggest that intermittent negative pressure ventilation can increase alveolar ventilation in patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease, particularly in those who tolerate the procedure well. Most subjects showed a fall in PaCO2 and an increase in MIP. The fact that PaO2 was unchanged despite the fall in PaCO2 suggests that gas exchange may deteriorate with negative pressure ventilation in these patients. PMID:1908138

  9. Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E

    1994-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation may be influenced by factors relating to equipment, techniques and procedures. Criteria to initiate weaning and predictors of weaning outcome are generally unreliable, but mechanical work of breathing, the tidal volume: frequency ratio and the inspiratory pressure: maximal inspiratory pressure ratio may anticipate those likely to fail weaning. The optimal weaning ventilatory mode is not known, but intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, and continuous positive pressure ventilation are the most commonly used. The resistances of individual components of breathing circuits are extremely important. Blow-by heated humidifiers and ventilators which compensate for the impedances of their inspiratory demand valves impose clinically acceptable spontaneous breathing loads. Close monitoring, adequate respiratory muscle rest, attention to mineral deficiencies, nutrition and pulmonary hygiene are also important parts of the weaning process.

  10. Assessment of noninvasive ventilation with two levels of positive airway pressure in patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Franco, Aline Marques; Torres, Franciele Cristina Clapis; Simon, Isabela Scali Lourenço; Morales, Daniela; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2011-01-01

    The application of two levels of ventilation by positive pressure (BiPAP®) associated with conventional respiratory therapy (CRT) in postoperative periord of cardiac surgery may contribute to reduction of pulmonary complications. To evaluate the safety and compliance of preventive application of BiPAP® CRT associated with immediate postoperative myocardial revascularization. 26 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated in one of the groups. Patients of the Control Group (CG) were treated only with conventional respiratory therapy, compared to BiPAP group (BG) (in addition to conventional respiratory therapy the patients were subjected to 30 minutes of ventilation by two levels twice a day). The conventional respiratory therapy was held in both groups, twice a day. All patients were evaluated for vital capacity, airway permeability, maximal respiratory pressures, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory frequency, Volume Minute, tidal volume, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Evaluations were performed during hospitalization preoperatively, immediately after extubation, 24h and 48h after extubation. In CG 61.5% of patients had some degree of atelectasias, in comparison to 54% of BG (P=0.691). The vital capacity was higher in the GB postoperatively (P<0.015). All the other ventilometric, gasometric, hemodynamic and manometric parameters were similar between groups. Coronary artery bypass grafting leads to deterioration of respiratory function postoperatively, and the application of positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP®) may be beneficial to restore lung function more quickly, especially vital capacity, safely, and well accepted by patients due to greater comfort with the sensation of pain during the execution of respiratory therapy.

  11. Pressure-regulated volume control vs volume control ventilation in infants after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kocis, K C; Dekeon, M K; Rosen, H K; Bandy, K P; Crowley, D C; Bove, E L; Kulik, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare how two modes of positive pressure ventilation affect cardiac output, airway pressures, oxygenation, and carbon dioxide removal in children with congenital heart disease in the immediate postoperative period. The investigation used a one group pretest-post-test study design and was performed in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a university-affiliated children's hospital. Nine infants were enrolled immediately after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (2) or atrioventricular septal defects (7) with mean weight = 5.5 kg (4.2-7.3 kg). Children were admitted to the pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit after complete surgical repair of their cardiac defect and stabilized on a Siemen's Servo 300 ventilator in volume control mode (VCV1) (volume-targeted ventilation with a square flow wave pattern). Tidal volume was set at 15 cc/kg (total). Hemodynamic parameters, airway pressures and ventilator settings, and an arterial blood gas were measured. Patients were then changed to pressure-regulated volume control mode (PRVC) (volume-targeted ventilation with decelerating flow wave pattern) with the tidal volume set as before. Measurements were repeated after 30 minutes. Patients were then returned to volume control mode (VCV2) and final measurements made after 30 minutes. The measurements and results are as follows: After correction of congenital heart defects in infants, mechanical ventilation using a decelerating flow wave pattern resulted in a 19% decrease in peak inspiratory pressure without affecting hemodynamics, arterial oxygenation, or carbon dioxide removal.

  12. On the horizon: liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Eanes, R

    1995-02-01

    Studies in preterm animals and humans have shown that liquid ventilation is a potential alternative mode of support for neonates with respiratory failure. Perfluorochemicals have a high solubility for respiratory gases and can be instilled in the lung using lower pressures than with gas ventilation. Other potential advantages of liquid ventilation include decreased alveolar surface tension, improved pulmonary mechanics, alveolar recruitment, and the removal of pulmonary debris. This article describes in detail what liquid ventilation is, compares the physiologic effects of liquid ventilation to gas ventilation, and presents the nursing implications of this technique. A review of the recent literature on the subject is presented, including reports of laboratory and clinical experience with liquid ventilation.

  13. Continuous endotracheal tube cuff pressure control system protects against ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Roca, Isabel; Cabrera, Judith; Llanos, Celina; Mora, María L

    2014-04-21

    The use of a system for continuous control of endotracheal tube cuff pressure reduced the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in one randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 112 patients but not in another RCT with 142 patients. In several guidelines on the prevention of VAP, the use of a system for continuous or intermittent control of endotracheal cuff pressure is not reviewed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of VAP in a large sample of patients (n = 284) treated with either continuous or intermittent control of endotracheal tube cuff pressure. We performed a prospective observational study of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation during more than 48 hours in an intensive care unit (ICU) using either continuous or intermittent endotracheal tube cuff pressure control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA) and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to predict VAP. The magnitude of the effect was expressed as odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR), respectively, and 95% confidence interval (CI). We found a lower incidence of VAP with the continuous (n = 150) than with the intermittent (n = 134) pressure control system (22.0% versus 11.2%; p = 0.02). MLRA showed that the continuous pressure control system (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22-0.89; p = 0.02) and the use of an endotracheal tube incorporating a lumen for subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19-0.84; p = 0.02) were protective factors against VAP. Cox regression analysis showed that the continuous pressure control system (HR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.24-0.84; p = 0.01) and the use of an endotracheal tube incorporating a lumen for SSD (HR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.15-0.56; p < 0.001) were protective factors against VAP. However, the interaction between type of endotracheal cuff pressure control system (continuous or intermittent) and endotracheal tube (with or without SSD) was not

  14. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m: Relationship to acute mountain sickness and sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela L; Popa, Daniel A; Prisk, G Kim; Edwards, Natalie; Sullivan, Colin E

    2010-02-01

    Overnight oxyhaemoglobin desaturation is related to AMS. AMS can be debilitating and may require descent. Positive pressure ventilation during sleep at high altitude may prevent AMS and therefore be useful in people travelling to high altitude, who are known to suffer from AMS. Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhaemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhaemoglobin saturation. We aimed to determine whether positive pressure ventilation would prevent AMS by increasing oxygenation during sleep. We compared sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of AMS in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800 m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of AMS were assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation.

  15. Face Masks for Noninvasive Ventilation: Fit, Excess Skin Hydration, and Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; White, Cynthia C; Jones, Jennifer M; Cahill, Thomas; Jones, Donna C; Pan, Brian S

    2015-11-01

    Pressure ulcers (stages III and IV) are serious safety events (ie, never events). Healthcare institutions are no longer reimbursed for costs to care for affected patients. Medical devices are the leading cause of pediatric pressure ulcers. Face masks for noninvasive ventilation were associated with a high percentage of pressure ulcers at our institution. A prospective cohort study investigated factors contributing to pressure ulcer development in 50 subjects using face masks for noninvasive ventilation. Color imaging, 3-dimensional surface imaging, and skin hydration measurements were used to identify early skin compromise and evaluate 3 interventions to reduce trauma: (1) a silicone foam dressing, (2) a water/polyethylene oxide hydrogel dressing, and (3) a flexible cloth mask. A novel mask fit technique was used to examine the impact of fit on the potential for skin compromise. Fifty subjects age 10.4 ± 9.1 y participated with color images for 22, hydration for 34, and mask fit analysis for 16. Of these, 69% had diagnoses associated with craniofacial anomalies. Stage I pressure ulcers were the most common injury. Skin hydration difference was 317 ± 29 for sites with erythema versus 75 ± 28 for sites without erythema (P < .05) and smallest for the cloth mask (P < .05). Fit distance metrics differed for the nasal, oronasal, and face shield interfaces, with threshold distances being higher for the oronasal mask than the others (P < .05). Areas of high contact were associated with skin erythema and pressure ulcers. This fit method is currently being utilized to select best-fit masks from available options, to identify the potential areas of increased tissue pressure, and to prevent skin injuries and their complications. Improvement of mask fit is an important priority for improving respiratory outcomes. Strategies to maintain normal skin hydration are important for protecting tissue integrity. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Tissue interface pressure and skin integrity in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Wetzel, Paul A; Schubert, Christine M; Pepperl, Anathea; Burk, Ruth S; Lucas, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    To describe tissue interface pressure, time spent above critical pressure levels and the effect on skin integrity at seven anatomical locations. Descriptive, longitudinal study in critically ill mechanically ventilated adults, from Surgical Trauma ICU-STICU; Medical Respiratory ICU-MRICU; Neuroscience ICU-NSICU in a Mid-Atlantic urban university medical centre. Subjects were enroled in the study within 24hours of intubation. Tissue interface pressure was measured continuously using the XSENSOR pressure mapping system (XSENSOR Technology Corporation, Calgary, Canada). Skin integrity was observed at all sites, twice daily, using the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel staging system, for the first seven ICU days and at day 10 and 14. Of the 132 subjects, 90.9% had no observed changes in skin integrity. Maximum interface pressure was above 32mmHg virtually 100% of the time for the sacrum, left and right trochanter. At the 45mmHg level, the left and right trochanter had the greatest amount of time above this level (greater than 95% of the time), followed by the sacrum, left and right scapula, and the left and right heels. Similarly, at levels above 60mmHg, the same site order applied. For those six subjects with sacral skin integrity changes, maximum pressures were greater than 32mmHg 100% of the time. Four of the six sacral changes were associated with greater amounts of time above both 45mmHg and 60mmHg than the entire sample. Maximum tissue interface pressure was above critical levels for the majority of the documented periods, especially in the sacrum, although few changes in skin integrity were documented. Time spent above critical levels for mean pressures were considerably less compared to maximum pressures. Maximum pressures may have reflected pressure spikes, but the large amount of time above the critical pressure levels remains substantial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized comparison of volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation in children with the i-gel: Effects on peak inspiratory pressure, oropharyngeal leak pressure, and gastric insufflation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Kyoungun; Kil, Hae Keum

    2017-05-01

    The i-gel provides good airway sealing but gastric insufflation may occur when peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) exceeds the sealing pressure of the i-gel without a gastric tube. Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) provides lower PIP compared with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and low PIP may reduce the incidence of gastric insufflation in children during positive pressure ventilation. This study was designed to evaluate PIP, oropharyngeal leak pressure, and gastric insufflation during VCV or PCV in children undergoing general anesthesia with i-gel without a gastric tube in situ. A prospective, randomized-controlled study was conducted. Thirty-four children, aged 6 to 84 months, were randomly allocated into the VCV or PCV group. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to confirm appropriate position of i-gel. Oropharyngeal leak pressure and PIP were measured after i-gel insertion, after caudal block, and after surgery. Ultrasonography was performed to detect gastric insufflation. Gastric tube was not inserted. PIP in cm H2O was significantly lower in the PCV group than in the VCV group after i-gel insertion (10 [9-12] vs 12 [11-15], P = .021), after caudal block (11 [10-12] vs 13 [11-15], P = .014), and after surgery (10 [10-12] vs 13 [11-14], P = .002). There was no difference in the incidence of gastric insufflation between the 2 groups (4/17 in the VCV group and 3/17 in the PCV group) (P > .999). When i-gel was used without a gastric tube, gastric insufflation occurred regardless of the ventilation modes, which provided different PIP.

  18. Effects of flow amplitudes on intraprong pressures during bubble versus ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Doron J; Habib, Robert H; Courtney, Sherry E

    2008-11-01

    The goal were to characterize the flow dependence of bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery in a cohort of preterm infants and to compare the actual (delivered) intraprong continuous positive airway pressure with the intended (set) nasal continuous positive airway pressure for both ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure and bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery. A range of set values and constant flow rates were studied in the same preterm infants. For 12 premature infants of <1500 g (birth weight: 1140 +/- 267 g; gestational age: 28.5 +/- 1.9 weeks; study age: 12.9 +/- 8 days; all mean +/- SD), intraprong pressures were measured at 3 increasing flow settings, repeated for set nasal continuous positive airway pressures (or desired immersion depths) of 4 and 6 cm H(2)O. Next, intraprong pressures were measured at bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure expiratory tubing submersion depths and ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure set expiratory pressures of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 cm H(2)O while the flow rate was held constant. Actual (delivered) intraprong pressure during bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery was highly flow dependent and increased as the flow rate increased. During ventilator-generated nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery, actual pressure at the nasal prongs closely approximated the pressure set at the ventilator. During bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery at constant flow rate, the average delivered prong pressure was 1.3 cm H(2)O (range: 0.5-2.2 cm H(2)O) higher than that set through submersion of the expiratory tubing, and the relative difference between the set and actual pressures increased at lesser immersion depths. Prong pressure during bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery is highly variable and depends on the interaction of submersion depth and flow amplitudes.

  19. Airway pressure release ventilation in morbidly obese surgical patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Testerman, George M; Breitman, Igal; Hensley, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    Morbidly obese patients with body mass index greater than 40 kg/m(2) and respiratory failure requiring critical care services are increasingly seen in trauma and acute care surgical centers. Baseline respiratory pathophysiology including decreased pulmonary compliance with dependent atelectasis and abnormal ventilation-perfusion relationships predisposes these patients to acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as prolonged stays in the intensive care unit. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is an increasingly used alternative mode for salvage therapy in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure that also provides lung protection from ventilator-induced lung injury. APRV provides the conceptual advantage of an "open lung" approach to ventilation that may be extended to the morbidly obese patient population with ALI and ARDS. We discuss the theoretical benefits and a recent clinical experience of APRV ventilation in the morbidly obese patient with respiratory failure at a Level I trauma, surgical critical care, and acute care surgery center.

  20. Combination of constant-flow and continuous positive-pressure ventilation in canine pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Sznajder, J I; Becker, C J; Crawford, G P; Wood, L D

    1989-08-01

    Constant-flow ventilation (CFV) maintains alveolar ventilation without tidal excursion in dogs with normal lungs, but this ventilatory mode requires high CFV and bronchoscopic guidance for effective subcarinal placement of two inflow catheters. We designed a circuit that combines CFV with continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV; CFV-CPPV), which negates the need for bronchoscopic positioning of CFV cannula, and tested this system in seven dogs having oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Addition of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 10 cmH2O) reduced venous admixture from 44 +/- 17 to 10.4 +/- 5.4% and kept arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) normal. With the innovative CFV-CPPV circuit at the same PEEP and respiratory rate (RR), we were able to reduce tidal volume (VT) from 437 +/- 28 to 184 +/- 18 ml (P less than 0.001) and elastic end-inspiratory pressures (PEI) from 25.6 +/- 4.6 to 17.7 +/- 2.8 cmH2O (P less than 0.001) without adverse effects on cardiac output or pulmonary exchange of O2 or CO2; indeed, PaCO2 remained at 35 +/- 4 Torr even though CFV was delivered above the carina and at lower (1.6 l.kg-1.min-1) flows than usually required to maintain eucapnia during CFV alone. At the same PEEP and RR, reduction of VT in the CPPV mode without CFV resulted in CO2 retention (PaCO2 59 +/- 8 Torr). We conclude that CFV-CPPV allows CFV to effectively mix alveolar and dead spaces by a small bulk flow bypassing the zone of increased resistance to gas mixing, thereby allowing reduction of the CFV rate, VT, and PEI for adequate gas exchange.

  1. Negative- versus positive-pressure ventilation in intubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental data suggest that continuous external negative-pressure ventilation (CENPV) results in better oxygenation and less lung injury than continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV). The effects of CENPV on patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unknown. Methods We compared 2 h CENPV in a tankrespirator ("iron lung") with 2 h CPPV. The six intubated patients developed ARDS after pulmonary thrombectomy (n = 1), aspiration (n = 3), sepsis (n = 1) or both (n = 1). We used a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg predicted body weight and matched lung volumes at end expiration. Haemodynamics were assessed using the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system, and pressure measurements were referenced to atmospheric pressure. Results CENPV resulted in better oxygenation compared to CPPV (median ratio of arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen of 345 mmHg (minimum-maximum 183 to 438 mmHg) vs 256 mmHg (minimum-maximum 123 to 419 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Tank pressures were -32.5 cmH2O (minimum-maximum -30 to -43) at end inspiration and -15 cmH2O (minimum-maximum -15 to -19 cmH2O) at end expiration. NO Inspiratory transpulmonary pressures decreased (P = 0.04) and airway pressures were considerably lower at inspiration (-1.5 cmH2O (minimum-maximum -3 to 0 cmH2O) vs 34.5 cmH2O (minimum-maximum 30 to 47 cmH2O), P = 0.03) and expiration (4.5 cmH2O (minimum-maximum 2 to 5) vs 16 cmH2O (minimum-maximum 16 to 23), P =0.03). During CENPV, intraabdominal pressures decreased from 20.5 mmHg (12 to 30 mmHg) to 1 mmHg (minimum-maximum -7 to 5 mmHg) (P = 0.03). Arterial pressures decreased by approximately 10 mmHg and central venous pressures by 18 mmHg. Intrathoracic blood volume indices and cardiac indices increased at the initiation of CENPV by 15% and 20% (P < 0.05), respectively. Heart rate and extravascular lung water indices remained unchanged. Conclusions CENPV with a tank respirator improved gas exchange in patients with ARDS at

  2. Acute effects of external negative pressure ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C B; Harris, N D; Howard, P

    1991-01-01

    This study compares the acute physiological effects of external negative pressure ventilation (ENPV) in normal subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The equipment consisted of an airtight jacket (Pneumosuit) and vacuum pump. Minute ventilation (Ve) was recorded using a light-emitting turbine transducer. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were calculated every 30 s. Measurements were made at rest and during ENPV with pressures of -20 cmH2O and -40 cmH2O. The ventilator rate was fixed at 16.min-1. In 10 normal subjects, Ve increased from 8.6 to 22.9 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01) accompanied by an increase in VCO2 from 0.25 to 0.39 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01). In 10 normocapnic COPD patients (arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) less than 6.0 kPa) Ve increased from 11.5 to 17.1 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01) whilst in 10 hypercapnic patients (PaCO2 greater than 6.0 kPa) Ve increased from 9.7 to 12.4 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01). A change in VCO2 was not detected in the COPD patients, and VO2 did not change in any group. Arterial blood samples were obtained in eight hypercapnic patients. Baseline mean physiological deadspace ventilation (VD) was calculated to be 4.9 l.min-1 (56% of Ve) whilst Ve was 8.8 l.min-1 in this subgroup. During ENPV, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) increased from 6.8 to 8.2 kPa (p less than 0.01) whilst PaCO2 decreased from 6.8 to 5.8 kPa (p less than 0.01) suggesting that despite the large physiological deadspace, a significant increase in alveolar ventilation had occurred. In advanced COPD, thoracic compliance falls and limits the ventilatory response to ENPV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Positive End-Expiratory Pressure and Variable Ventilation in Lung-Healthy Rats under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Luciana M.; Ávila, Mariana B.; Cruz, Luis Felipe S.; Ribeiro, Gabriel C. M.; Spieth, Peter M.; Reske, Andreas A.; Amato, Marcelo; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A.; Carvalho, Alysson R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Variable ventilation (VV) seems to improve respiratory function in acute lung injury and may be combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in order to protect the lungs even in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that VV in combination with moderate levels of PEEP reduce the deterioration of pulmonary function related to general anesthesia. Hence, we aimed at evaluating the alveolar stability and lung protection of the combination of VV at different PEEP levels. Design Randomized experimental study. Setting Animal research facility. Subjects Forty-nine male Wistar rats (200–270 g). Interventions Animals were ventilated during 2 hours with protective low tidal volume (VT) in volume control ventilation (VCV) or VV and PEEP adjusted at the level of minimum respiratory system elastance (Ers), obtained during a decremental PEEP trial subsequent to a recruitment maneuver, and 2 cmH2O above or below of this level. Measurements and Main Results Ers, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables were measured. Cytokines were determined in lung homogenate and plasma samples and left lung was used for histologic analysis and diffuse alveolar damage scoring. A progressive time-dependent increase in Ers was observed independent on ventilatory mode or PEEP level. Despite of that, the rate of increase of Ers and lung tissue IL-1 beta concentration were significantly lower in VV than in VCV at the level of the PEEP of minimum Ers. A significant increase in lung tissue cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 beta, CINC-1 and TNF-alpha) as well as a ventral to dorsal and cranial to caudal reduction in aeration was observed in all ventilated rats with no significant differences among groups. Conclusions VV combined with PEEP adjusted at the level of the PEEP of minimal Ers seemed to better prevent anesthesia-induced atelectasis and might improve lung protection throughout general anesthesia. PMID:25383882

  4. Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Brown, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant. PMID:25210968

  5. Evaluation of intermittent long-term negative-pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zibrak, J D; Hill, N S; Federman, E C; Kwa, S L; O'Donnell, C

    1988-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intermittent ventilatory assistance in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Twenty stable patients with severe COPD were recruited from outpatient pulmonary clinics and were randomized to use a poncho wrap, negative-pressure ventilator or to receive standard care. After 6 months, the patients receiving standard care were switched over to the ventilator and vice versa, and follow-up was continued for an additional 6 months. After 3 to 6 months of ventilator use, we observed no clinically significant improvements in FEV1, FVC, blood gas determinations, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, and exercise duration. However, 11 of our patients dropped out of the study because of an inability to tolerate the ventilator, and all but one of the nine who completed the study expressed dissatisfaction with it, using it for less time (4.1 h/day) than we recommended. Musculoskeletal pain and inconvenience were the most frequently voiced complaints. Because we did not document that ventilator use actually rested the respiratory muscles in our patients and because duration of ventilator use may have been too brief, we cannot conclude that intermittent rest of respiratory muscles in patients with severe COPD fails to bring about improvement. On the other hand, our results demonstrate that the poncho wrap ventilator is poorly tolerated by patients with severe COPD in a typical outpatient setting. We suggest that future trials seek to utilize better tolerated ventilatory assist devices.

  6. Speed of collapse of the non-ventilated lung during single-lung ventilation for thoracoscopic surgery: the effect of transient increases in pleural pressure on the venting of gas from the non-ventilated lung.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, J; Peacock, M J; Harris, R J

    2001-10-01

    A study of 10 anaesthetised patients placed in the lateral position for thoracoscopic surgery assessed whether transient increases in pleural pressure on the side of the non-ventilated lung might increase the speed at which gas vents from that lung. The transient increases in pleural pressure were generated by the mediastinal displacement that occurs with each inspiratory phase of positive pressure ventilation of the dependent lung. When combined with a unidirectional valve allowing gas to flow out of the non-ventilated lung, and a second valve allowing ambient airflow into, but not out of, the thoracic cavity via an initial thoracoscopy access site, this mediastinal displacement could conceivably serve to 'pump' gas out of the non-ventilated lung. Using the four different combinations of valve inclusion or omission, the volume of gas that vented from the non-ventilated lung into a measuring spirometer was recorded during a 120-s measurement sequence. It was found that the speed of venting was not increased by the transient increases in pleural pressure, and that in all but one of a total of 34 measurement sequences, venting had ceased by the end of the sequence. Gas venting was a mean (SD) of 85.5 (11.9)% complete in 25 s (five breaths), and 96.6 (6.1)% complete in 60 s. This prompt partial lung collapse very likely reflected the passive elastic recoil of the lung, while the failure of transient increases in pleural pressure to result in ongoing venting of gas was probably a consequence of airways closure as the lung collapsed. It is concluded that techniques that aim to speed lung collapse by increasing pleural pressure are unlikely to be effective.

  7. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during prone position.

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Bakan, Mefkur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Akkoc, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Prone position during general anesthesia for special surgical operations may be related with increased airway pressure, decreased pulmonary and thoracic compliance that may be explained by restriction of chest expansion and compression of abdomen. The optimum ventilation mode for anesthetized patients on prone position was not described and studies comparing volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) during prone position are limited. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during prone position could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of PCV and VCV modes during prone position on respiratory mechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics, as well as blood cortisol and insulin levels, which has not been investigated before. Fifty-four ASA I-II patients, 18-70 years of age, who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy on prone position, were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 27) or VCV (Group VC, n = 27) under general anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O PEEP. Respiratory parameters were recorded during supine and prone position. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated during surgery and 60 min after extubation. P-peak and P-plateau levels during supine and prone positions were significantly higher and P-mean and compliance levels during prone position were significantly lower in Group VC when compared with Group PC. Postoperative PaO2 level was significantly higher in Group PC compared with Group

  8. Paradoxical responses to positive end-expiratory pressure in patients with airway obstruction during controlled ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    Caramez, Maria Paula; Borges, Joao B.; Tucci, Mauro R.; Okamoto, Valdelis N.; Carvalho, Carlos R. R.; Kacmarek, Robert M.; Malhotra, Atul; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Amato, Marcelo B. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To reevaluate the clinical impact of external positive end-expiratory pressure (external-PEEP) application in patients with severe airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. The controversial occurrence of a paradoxic lung deflation promoted by PEEP was scrutinized. Design External-PEEP was applied stepwise (2 cm H2O, 5-min steps) from zero-PEEP to 150% of intrinsic-PEEP in patients already submitted to ventilatory settings minimizing overinflation. Two commonly used frequencies during permissive hypercapnia (6 and 9/min), combined with two different tidal volumes (VT: 6 and 9 mL/kg), were tested. Setting A hospital intensive care unit. Patients Eight patients were enrolled after confirmation of an obstructive lung disease (inspiratory resistance, >20 cm H2O/L per sec) and the presence of intrinsic-PEEP (≥5 cm H2O) despite the use of very low minute ventilation. Interventions All patients were continuously monitored for intra-arterial blood gas values, cardiac output, lung mechanics, and lung volume with plethysmography. Measurements and Main Results Three different responses to external-PEEP were observed, which were independent of ventilatory settings. In the biphasic response, isovolume-expiratory flows and lung volumes remained constant during progressive PEEP steps until a threshold, beyond which overinflation ensued. In the classic overinflation response, any increment of external-PEEP caused a decrease in isovolume-expiratory flows, with evident overinflation. In the paradoxic response, a drop in functional residual capacity during external-PEEP application (when compared to zero-external-PEEP) was commonly accompanied by decreased plateau pressures and total-PEEP, with increased isovolume-expiratory flows. The paradoxic response was observed in five of the eight patients (three with asthma and two with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) during at least one ventilator pattern. Conclusions External-PEEP application may

  9. Pulmonary rehabilitation coupled with negative pressure ventilation decreases decline in lung function, hospitalizations, and medical cost in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Pan, Yu-Bin; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes. One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20–30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program. Pulmonary function tests and 6 min walk tests (6MWT) were performed every 3 to 6 months. Emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization with medical costs were recorded. A significant time-by-group interaction in the yearly decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the control group analyzed by mixed-model repeated-measure analysis was found (P = 0.048). The 6MWT distance of the NPV group was significantly increased during the first 4 years, with the interaction of time and group (P = 0.003), the time alone (P = 0.014), and the quadratic time (P < 0.001) being significant between the 2 groups. ER exacerbations and hospitalizations decreased by 66% (P < 0.0001) and 54% (P < 0.0001) in the NPV group, respectively. Patients on PR program coupled with NPV had a significant reduction of annual medical costs (P = 0.022). Our hospital-based multidisciplinary PR coupled with NPV reduced yearly decline of lung function, exacerbations, and hospitalization rates, and improved walking distance and medical costs in patients with COPD during a 5-year observation PMID:27741132

  10. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sen, Oznur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) is less frequently employed in general anesthesia. With its high and decelerating inspiratory flow, PCV has faster tidal volume delivery and different gas distribution. The same tidal volume setting, delivered by PCV versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), will result in a lower peak airway pressure and reduced risk of barotrauma. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during laparoscopic surgery could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. Forty ASA I-II patients were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 20) or VCV (Group VC, n = 20) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. General anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl was employed to all patients. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Respiratory parameters were recorded before and 30 min after pneumoperitonium. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated 30 min after pneumoperitonium and 60 min after extubation. The P-peak levels observed before (18.9 ± 3.8 versus 15 ± 2.2 cmH2O) and during (23.3 ± 3.8 versus 20.1 ± 2.9 cmH2O) pneumoperitoneum in Group VC were significantly higher. Postoperative partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values are higher (98 ± 12 versus 86 ± 11 mmHg) in Group PC. Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) values (41.8 ± 5.4 versus 36.7 ± 3.5 mmHg) during pneumoperitonium and post-operative mean cortisol and insulin levels were higher in Group VC. When compared to VCV mode, PCV mode may improve compliance during pneumoperitoneum

  11. Does airway pressure release ventilation alter lung function after acute lung injury?

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Smith, D B

    1995-03-01

    During airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), tidal ventilation occurs between the increased lung volume established by the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the relaxation volume of the respiratory system. Concern has been expressed that release of CPAP may cause unstable alveoli to collapse and not reinflate when airway pressure is restored. To compare pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation in animals with acute lung injury during CPAP with and without APRV. Experimental, subject-controlled, randomized crossover investigation. Anesthesiology research laboratory, University of South Florida College of Medicine Health Sciences Center. Ten pigs of either sex. Acute lung injury was induced with an intravenous infusion of oleic acid (72 micrograms/kg) followed by randomly alternated 60-min trials of CPAP with and without APRV. Continuous positive airway pressure was titrated to produce an arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of at least 95% (FIO2 = 0.21). Airway pressure release ventilation was arbitrarily cycled to atmospheric pressure 10 times per minute with a release time titrated to coincide with attainment of respiratory system relaxation volume. Cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous pH, blood gas tensions, hemoglobin concentration and oxyhemoglobin saturation, central venous pressure, pulmonary and systemic artery pressures, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, airway gas flow, airway pressure, and pleural pressure were measured. Tidal volume (VT), dynamic lung compliance, intrapulmonary venous admixture, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. Central venous infusion of oleic acid reduced PaO2 from 94 +/- 4 mm Hg to 52 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- 1 SD) (p < 0.001) and dynamic lung compliance from 40 +/- 6 mL/cm H2O to 20 +/- 6 mL/cm H2O (p = 0.002) and increased venous admixture from 13 +/- 3% to 32 +/- 7% (p < 0.001) in ten swine

  12. A ventilation capacity test for the Eustachian tube using a soundproof pressure chamber.

    PubMed

    Kodama, A; Kitahara, M; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    Using a soundproof pressure chamber, we performed Békésy air conduction audiometry at 1000 Hz under the following pressure conditions: 1) from atmospheric pressure (AP) to 200 mmH2O below AP, 2) AP to 200 mmH2O above AP, 3) AP to 700 mmH2O below AP, and 4) AP to 700 mmH2O above AP. In conditions 1) and 2), the patient was instructed not to swallow until the pressure change was complete, then to swallow once every 15 seconds. The number of swallows required for hearing to return to the baseline level was counted. In conditions 3) and 4), the patient was told to swallow as many times as possible both before and after completion of the pressure change; maximum hearing level and the time needed for return to the baseline level were measured. Although all except one of the seven patients with suspected tubal dysfunction showed normal results with catheter insufflation and tympanometry, six of the seven showed abnormality and one reported the disappearance of ear stuffiness after the ventilation capacity test. We concluded that this test is useful not only for the diagnosis of tubal dysfunction but also as a possible therapy for aiding adaptation to changing environmental pressure.

  13. Ventilation loss and pressurization in the NASA launch/entry suit: Potential for heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Jonathan W.; Dejneka, Katherine Y.; Askew, Gregory K.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the NASA Launch/Entry Suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment was studied. The testing was designed to identify potential heat stress hazards if the LES were pressurized or if ventilation were lost. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme pre-launch situation with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature = 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature = 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature = 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Two females and two males, 23 to 34 years of age, were employed in this study, with two subjects having exposures in all 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. Pressurized runs (Pr) were designed for 45 minutes, which all subjects also achieved. While some significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal and mean skin temperatures, evaporation rates, sweat rates, and heart rate, these differences were not thought to be physiologically significant. The results indicate that the LES garment, in either the Pr or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Space Shuttle cabin during launch or reentry.

  14. Dangerous Pressurization and Inappropriate Alarms during Water Occlusion of the Expiratory Circuit of Commonly Used Infant Ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive continuous positive airways pressure is commonly a primary respiratory therapy delivered via multi-purpose ventilators in premature newborns. Expiratory limb occlusion due to water accumulation or ‘rainout’ from gas humidification is a frequent issue. A case of expiratory limb occlusion due to rainout causing unexpected and excessive repetitive airway pressurisation in a Draeger VN500 prompted a systematic bench test examination of currently available ventilators. Objective To assess neonatal ventilator response to partial or complete expiratory limb occlusion when set to non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure mode. Design Seven commercially available neonatal ventilators connected to a test lung using a standard infant humidifier circuit with partial and/or complete expiratory limb occlusion were examined in a bench test study. Each ventilator was set to deliver 6 cmH2O in non-invasive mode and respiratory mechanics data for 75%, 80% and 100% occlusion were collected. Results Several ventilators responded inappropriately with complete occlusion by cyclical pressurisation/depressurisation to peak pressures of between 19·4 and 64·6 cm H2O at rates varying between 2 to 77 inflations per minute. Tidal volumes varied between 10·1 and 24·3mL. Alarm responses varied from ‘specific’ (tube occluded) to ‘ambiguous’ (Safety valve open). Carefusion Avea responded by continuing to provide the set distending pressure and displaying an appropriate alarm message. Draeger Babylog 8000 did not alarm with partial occlusions and incorrectly displayed airways pressure at 6·1cmH2O compared to the measured values of 13cmH2O. Conclusions This study found a potential for significant adverse ventilator response due to complete or near complete expiratory limb occlusion in CPAP mode. PMID:27116224

  15. Experience of step-wise protocol using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for treating cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Momii, Hidetoshi; Tashima, Yuki; Kadokami, Toshiaki; Narita, Sumito; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2012-08-01

    Initiating and weaning procedure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) has been determined empirically, and the total time of its use has been sometimes prolonged unnecessarily. A simple protocol for its use may facilitate initiation and avoids prolongation of the NIPPV treatment. We designed a step-wise protocol for NIPPV use and retrospectively examined the clinical outcome of our protocol for initiation and weaning of NIPPV in 45 patients with ACPE. Almost all patients recovered from respiratory distress successfully. There was no intubation nor complication related to NIPPV. In most of the cases, maximal-end expiratory pressure was less than 7-cm H2O. The mean duration of NIPPV was 19.5±28.0 h and the median duration was 8.0 h (interquartile range=14.0 h). This simple step-wise NIPPV protocol for ACPE can facilitate quick and safe initiation and termination of the treatment.

  16. Stable Small Animal Mechanical Ventilation for Dynamic Lung Imaging to Support Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Lamm, W. J.

    2011-11-08

    Pulmonary computational fluid dynamics models require 3D images to be acquired over multiple points in the dynamic breathing cycle, with no breath holds or changes in ventilatory mechanics. With small animals, these requirements result in long imaging times ({approx}90 minutes), over which lung mechanics, such as compliance, can gradually change if not carefully monitored and controlled. These changes, caused by derecruitment of parenchymal tissue, are manifested as an upward drift in peak inspiratory pressure or by changes in the pressure waveform and/or lung volume over the course of the experiment. We demonstrate highly repeatable mechanical ventilation in anesthetized rats over a long duration for pulmonary CT imaging throughout the dynamic breathing cycle. We describe significant updates to a basic commercial ventilator that was acquired for these experiments. Key to achieving consistent results was the implementation of periodic deep breaths, or sighs, of extended duration to maintain lung recruitment. In addition, continuous monitoring of breath-to-breath pressure and volume waveforms and long-term trends in peak inspiratory pressure and flow provide diagnostics of changes in breathing mechanics.

  17. Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation during Sleep at 3800m: relationship to Acute Mountain Sickness and sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, PL; Popa, DA; Prisk, GK; Sullivan, CE; Edwards, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop Acute Mountain Sickness, which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake, results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhemoglobin saturation. We aimed to test whether pressure ventilation during sleep would prevent AMS by keeping oxyhaemoglobin higher during sleep. Methods We compared sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness was assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. Results We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation. PMID:20051046

  18. The decrease of cardiac chamber volumes and output during positive-pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kyhl, Kasper; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Iversen, Kasper; Thomsen, Carsten; Vejlstrup, Niels; Engstrøm, Thomas; Madsen, Per Lav

    2013-10-01

    Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) is widely used for treatment of acute cardiorespiratory failure, occasionally at the expense of compromised cardiac function and arterial blood pressure. The explanation why has largely rested on interpretation of intracardiac pressure changes. We evaluated the effect of PPV on the central circulation by studying cardiac chamber volumes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We hypothesized that PPV lowers cardiac output (CO) mainly via the Frank-Starling relationship. In 18 healthy volunteers, cardiac chamber volumes and flow in aorta and the pulmonary artery were measured by CMR during PPV levels of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O applied via a respirator and a face mask. All cardiac chamber volumes decreased in proportion to the level of PPV. Following 20-cmH2O PPV, the total diastolic and systolic cardiac volumes (±SE) decreased from 605 (±29) ml to 446 (±29) ml (P < 0.001) and from 265 (±17) ml to 212 (±16) ml (P < 0.001). Left ventricular stroke volume decreased by 27 (±4) ml/beat; heart rate increased by 7 (±2) beats/min; and CO decreased by 1.0 (±0.4) l/min (P < 0.001). From 0 to 20 cmH2O, right and left ventricular peak filling rates decreased by -146 (±32) and -187 (±64) ml/s (P < 0.05) but maximal emptying rates were unchanged. Cardiac filling and output decrease with increasing PPV in healthy volunteers. The decrease is seen even at low levels of PPV and should be taken into account when submitting patients to mechanical ventilation with positive pressures. The decrease in CO is fully explained by the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  19. Improved ventilation-perfusion matching with increasing abdominal pressure during CO(2) -pneumoperitoneum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Strang, C M; Freden, F; Maripuu, E; Ebmeyer, U; Hachenberg, T; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2011-08-01

    CO(2) -pneumoperitoneum (PP) is performed at varying abdominal pressures. We studied in an animal preparation the effect of increasing abdominal pressures on gas exchange during PP. Eighteen anaesthetized pigs were studied. Three abdominal pressures (8, 12 and 16 mmHg) were randomly selected in each animal. In six pigs, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used for the analysis of V/Q distributions; in another six pigs, multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) was used for assessing V/Q matching. In further six pigs, computed tomography (CT) was performed for the analysis of regional aeration. MIGET, CT and central haemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange were recorded during anaesthesia and after 60 min on each of the three abdominal pressures. SPECT was performed three times, corresponding to each PP level. Atelectasis, as assessed by CT, increased during PP and in proportion to abdominal pressure [from 9 ± 2% (mean ± standard deviation) at 8 mmHg to 15 ± 2% at 16 mmHg, P<0.05]. SPECT during increasing abdominal CO(2) pressures showed a shift of blood flow towards better ventilated areas. V/Q analysis by MIGET showed no change in shunt during 8 mmHg PP (9 ± 1.9% compared with baseline 9 ± 1.2%) but a decrease during 12 mmHg PP (7 ± 0.9%, P<0.05) and 16 mmHg PP (5 ± 1%, P<0.01). PaO(2) increased from 39 ± 10 to 52 ± 9 kPa (baseline to 16 mmHg PP, P<0.01). Arterial carbon dioxide (PCO(2) ) increased during PP and increased further with increasing abdominal pressures. With increasing abdominal pressure during PP perfusion was redistributed more than ventilation away from dorsal, collapsed lung regions. This resulted in a better V/Q match. A possible mechanism is enhanced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction mediated by increasing PCO(2) . © 2011 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Effect of a downstream ventilated gas cavity on turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven D.; Brungart, Timothy A.; Lauchle, Gerald C.; Howe, Michael S.

    2005-12-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is made of the effect of a 2-D ventilated gas cavity on the spectrum of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations upstream of a gas cavity on a plane rigid surface. The analytical model predicts the ratio of the wall pressure spectrum in the presence of the cavity to the blocked wall pressure spectrum that would exist if the cavity were absent. The ratio is found to oscillate in amplitude with upstream distance (-x) from the edge of the cavity. It approaches unity as -ωx/Uc-->∞, where ω is the radian frequency and Uc is the upstream turbulence convection velocity. To validate these predictions an experiment was performed in a water tunnel over a range of mean flow velocities. Dynamic wall pressure sensors were flush mounted to a flat plate at various distances upstream from a backward facing step. The cavity was formed downstream of the step by injecting carbon dioxide gas. The water tunnel measurements confirm the predicted oscillatory behavior of the spectral ratio, as well as its relaxation to unity as -ωx/Uc-->∞. For -ωx/Uc>7 the cavity has a negligible influence on the upstream wall pressure fluctuations.

  1. [High-frequency ventilation. I. Distribution of alveolar pressure amplitudes during high frequency oscillation in the lung model].

    PubMed

    Theissen, J; Lunkenheimer, P P; Niederer, P; Bush, E; Frieling, G; Lawin, P

    1987-09-01

    The pattern of intrapulmonary pressure distribution was studied during high-frequency ventilation in order to explain the inconsistent results reported in the literature. Methods. Pressure and flow velocity (hot-wire anemometry) were measured in different lung compartments: 1. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of dried pig lungs; 2. In emphysema-simulating airbags sealed to the isolated bronchial trees of dried pig lungs; and 3. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of freshly excised pig lungs. Results. 1. The pressure amplitudes change from one area to another and depending on the exciting frequency. 2. High-frequency oscillation is associated with an increase in pressure amplitude when the exciting frequency rises, whereas with conventional high-frequency jet ventilation the pressure amplitude is more likely to decrease with frequency. 3. During high-frequency jet ventilation the local pressure amplitude changes with the position of the tube in the trachea rather than with the exciting frequency. 4. When the volume of the measuring chamber is doubled the resulting pressure amplitude falls to half the control value. 5. The pressure amplitude and mean pressure measured in the transalveolar chamber vary more or less independently from the peak flow velocity. High-frequency ventilation is thus seen to be a frequency-dependant, inhomogeneous mode of ventilation that can essentially be homogenized by systematically changing the exciting frequency. The frequency-dependant response to different lung areas to excitation is likely to result from an intrabronchially-localized aerodynamic effect rather than the mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma.

  2. [Measurement of the Minimum Pressure in the Bronchial Cuff during One-lung Ventilation Using a Capnometer].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takashi; Shibayama, Aiko; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-08-01

    It is recommended to avoid overinflation of the bronchial cuff, leading to ischemic pressure damages to the respiratory mucosa and bronchial rupture. We investigated the minimum bronchial cuff pressure of 35 Fr double lumen tubes (DLTs) during one lung ventilation using a capnometer. We studied 50 patients who were scheduled to undergo thoracic surgery. General anesthesia was induced and the patients were intubated with 35 Fr left DLT. With a fiberoptic bronchoscope, the DLT was positioned appropriately. The bronchial cuff was inflated first with air 3-3.5 ml. Lung isolation was confirmed by auscultation. Measurements were performed with the patient in the lateral position. Ventilating one lung isolatedly for 5 minutes, we confirmed non ventilated condition with a capnometer displaying flat line. The bronchial cuff was deflated 0.5-ml steps just before displaying the respiratory pattern by the capnogram. The bronchial cuff pressure and volume were recorded at this point The minimum pressures of bronchial cuff (volume) for one lung ventilation are for male 5.46 ± 0.6 cmH2O (2.33?0.1 ml) and for female 1.5?0.5 cmH20 (1.09 ± 0.3 ml). These values are smaller than the recommended value (< 25 cmH2O). There was no case in which the collapse of the operated lung was insufficient. In this study, the bronchial pressure higher than 12 cmH2O was not necessary for one lung ventilation. If high intracuff pressure is necessary to seal the bronchus, there are possibilities of the incompatibility of the size of DLT and the herniation of the bronchial cuff to the proximal side. The method of confirmation of OLV using a capnometer can display the non ventilated condition on the monitor objectively. We can thus decrease troubles during operations.

  3. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus C

    2016-09-30

    Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention has been considered weak and clinical guidelines do not recommend the intervention. NPPV might be an effective intervention for acute asthma, but no systematic review has been conducted to assess the effects of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care in children with acute asthma. To assess the benefits and harms of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care (e.g. bronchodilators and corticosteroids) in children with acute asthma. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through systematic searches of bibliographic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO, and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov (www.ClinicalTrials.gov) and the WHO trials portal (www.who.int/ictrp/en/). We searched all databases from their inception to February 2016, with no restriction on language of publication. We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing NPPV as add-on therapy to usual care versus usual care for children (age < 18 years) hospitalised for an acute asthma attack. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts. We retrieved all relevant full-text study reports, independently screened the full text, identified trials for inclusion and identified and recorded reasons for exclusion of ineligible trials. We resolved disagreements through discussion or, if required, consulted a third review author. We recorded the selection process in sufficient detail to complete a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta

  4. Mechanical Ventilation and Diaphragmatic Atrophy in Critically Ill Patients: An Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Massimo; Beccaria, Paolo; Matsuno, Jun; Gemma, Marco; Frati, Elena; Colombo, Sergio; Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation contributes to diaphragmatic atrophy and dysfunction, and few techniques exist to assess diaphragmatic function: the purpose of this study was to quantify diaphragm atrophy in a population of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with ultrasound and to identify risk factors that can worsen diaphragmatic activity. Prospective observational study. ICU of a 1,200-bed university hospital. Newly intubated adult critically ill patients. Diaphragm thickness in the zone of apposition was measured daily with ultrasound, from the first day of mechanical ventilation till discharge to the main ward. Daily atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d) was calculated as the reduction in percentage from the previous measurement. To analyze the difference in atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d), ventilation was categorized into four classes: spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure; pressure support ventilation 5-12 cm H2O (low pressure support ventilation); pressure support ventilation greater than 12 cm H2O (high pressure support ventilation); and controlled mechanical ventilation. Multivariate analysis with ventilation support and other clinical variables was performed to identify risk factors for atrophy. Forty patients underwent a total of 153 ultrasonographic evaluations. Mean (SD) ΔTdi/d was -7.5% (12.3) during controlled mechanical ventilation, -5.3% (12.9) at high pressure support ventilation, -1.5% (10.9) at low pressure support ventilation, +2.3% (9.5) during spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure. At multivariate analysis, only the ventilation support was predictive of diaphragm atrophy rate. Pressure support predicted diaphragm thickness with coefficient -0.006 (95% CI, -0.010 to -0.002; p = 0.006). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, there is a linear relationship between ventilator support and diaphragmatic atrophy rate.

  5. Impact of ventilation frequency and parenchymal stiffness on flow and pressure distribution in a canine lung model.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W

    2013-12-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cm H2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized.

  6. IMPACT OF VENTILATION FREQUENCY AND PARENCHYMAL STIFFNESS ON FLOW AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A CANINE LUNG MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cmH2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized. PMID:23872936

  7. Application of the open-lung concept during positive-pressure ventilation reduces pulmonary inflammation in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    van Kaam, Anton H; Dik, Willem A; Haitsma, Jack J; De Jaegere, Anne; Naber, Birgitta A; van Aalderen, Wim M; Kok, Joke H; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that application of the open-lung concept (OLC) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) attenuates pulmonary inflammation. We hypothesized that this attenuation could also be achieved by applying the OLC during positive-pressure ventilation (PPV). After repeated whole-lung lavage, newborn piglets were assigned to one of three ventilation groups: (1) PPV(OLC); (2) HFOV(OLC), or (3) conventional PPV (PPV(CON)). After a ventilation period of 5 h, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a reduced influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, interleukin 8, and thrombin activity in both OLC groups as compared with the PPV(CON) group. There were no differences in tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. We conclude that application of the OLC during PPV reduces pulmonary inflammation as compared with conventional PPV and that the magnitude of this reduction is comparable to that of HFOV.

  8. The effect of positive end expiratory pressure on the respiratory profile during one-lung ventilation for thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Leong, L M C; Chatterjee, S; Gao, F

    2007-01-01

    Summary In this randomised controlled trial we examined the effects of four different levels of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP at 0, 5, 8 or 10 cmH(2)O), added to the dependent lung, on respiratory profile and oxygenation during one lung ventilation. Forty-six patients were recruited to receive one of the randomised PEEP levels during one lung ventilation. We did not find significant differences in lung compliance, intra-operative or postoperative oxygenation amongst the four different groups. However, the physiological deadspace to tidal volume ventilation ratio was significantly lower in the 8 cmH(2)O PEEP group compared with the other levels of PEEP (p < 0.0001). We concluded that the use of PEEP (< or =10 cmH(2)O) during one lung ventilation does not clinically improve lung compliance, intra-operative or postoperative oxygenation despite a statistically significant reduction in the physiological deadspace to tidal volume ratio.

  9. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J

    2015-09-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is required when children undergo general anesthesia for any procedure. It is remarkable that one of the most practiced interventions such as pediatric mechanical ventilation is hardly supported by any scientific evidence but rather based on personal experience and data from adults, especially as ventilation itself is increasingly recognized as a harmful intervention that causes ventilator-induced lung injury. The use of low tidal volume and higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure became an integral part of lung-protective ventilation following the outcomes of clinical trials in critically ill adults. This approach has been readily adopted in pediatric ventilation. However, a clear association between tidal volume and mortality has not been ascertained in pediatrics. In fact, experimental studies have suggested that young children might be less susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. As such, no recommendations on optimal lung-protective ventilation strategy in children with or without lung injury can be made.

  10. Epidemiology of Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs.

    PubMed

    Romans, Ryan A; Schwartz, Steven M; Costello, John M; Chanani, Nikhil K; Prodhan, Parthak; Gazit, Avihu Z; Smith, Andrew H; Cooper, David S; Alten, Jeffrey; Mistry, Kshitij P; Zhang, Wenying; Donohue, Janet E; Gaies, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of noninvasive ventilation therapy for patients admitted to pediatric cardiac ICUs and to assess practice variation across hospitals. Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. Patients admitted to cardiac ICUs at PC4 hospitals. None. We analyzed all cardiac ICU encounters that included any respiratory support from October 2013 to December 2015. Noninvasive ventilation therapy included high flow nasal cannula and positive airway pressure support. We compared patient and, when relevant, perioperative characteristics of those receiving noninvasive ventilation to all others. Subgroup analysis was performed on neonates and infants undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. To examine duration of respiratory support, we created a casemix-adjustment model and calculated adjusted mean durations of total respiratory support (mechanical ventilation + noninvasive ventilation), mechanical ventilation, and noninvasive ventilation. We compared adjusted duration of support across hospitals. The cohort included 8,940 encounters from 15 hospitals: 3,950 (44%) received noninvasive ventilation and 72% were neonates and infants. Medical encounters were more likely to include noninvasive ventilation than surgical. In surgical neonates and infants, 2,032 (55%) received postoperative noninvasive ventilation. Neonates, extracardiac anomalies, single ventricle, procedure complexity, preoperative respiratory support, mechanical ventilation duration, and postoperative disease severity were associated with noninvasive ventilation therapy (p < 0.001 for all). Across hospitals, noninvasive ventilation use ranged from 32% to 65%, and adjusted mean noninvasive ventilation duration ranged from 1 to 4 days (3-d observed mean). Duration of total adjusted respiratory support was more strongly correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation compared with noninvasive

  11. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P. P.; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G.; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Lung ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure rise progressively in response to 8 h of hypoxia, changes described as ‘acclimatization to hypoxia’. Acclimatization responses differ markedly between humans for unknown reasons.We explored whether the magnitudes of the ventilatory and vascular responses were related, and whether the degree of acclimatization could be predicted by acute measurements of ventilatory and vascular sensitivities.In 80 healthy human volunteers measurements of acclimatization were made before, during, and after a sustained exposure to 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia.No correlation was found between measures of ventilatory and pulmonary vascular acclimatization.The ventilatory chemoreflex sensitivities to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia all increased in proportion to their pre‐acclimatization values following 8 h of hypoxia. The peripheral (rapid) chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2, measured before sustained hypoxia against a background of hyperoxia, was a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. This finding has relevance to predicting human acclimatization to the hypoxia of altitude. Abstract Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8‐h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end‐tidal P O2=55 Torr) in a purpose‐built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (GpO2) and

  12. Effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiac systolic time intervals.

    PubMed

    Brundin, T; Hedenstierna, G; McCarthy, G

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of systolic time intervals (STI) has been widely used as a non-invasive method of assessing the inotropic state of the heart, and normal values are available for healthy individuals breathing spontaneously. The present study was performed in order to evaluate how intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) affects STI. Ten subjects were investigated before and during halothane anaesthesia for routine surgery. Oesophageal pressure, respiratory minute volume and frequency, arterial blood-gas tensions, cardiac output and heart rate were also measured simultaneously. As expected, the institution of IPPV was associated with a reduction in cardiac output and an increase in oesophageal pressure. Paco2 was reduced. These changes were associated with a considerable lengthening of electro-mechanical systole. This was due to a lengthened pre-ejection period (PEP), whereas the left ventricular ejection time (LVET) was slightly shortened. These changes were even more marked during artifical hyperventilation. The changes in STI are attributed mainly to the reduction of venous return to the heart, subsidiary factors being intrathoracic pressure, myocardial inotropy and vascular resistance.

  13. Effects of short term high frequency negative pressure ventilation on gas exchange using the Hayek oscillator in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hardinge, F. M.; Davies, R. J.; Stradling, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The Hayek oscillator is a negative pressure cuirass that can operate at a range of frequencies to provide ventilation, and is a technique which could potentially be used on a general ward. This study examined the effect of different frequencies and different ranges of inspiratory and expiratory pressures on gas exchange, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in normal subjects. METHODS--Eight normal subjects received five minute periods of ventilation using the Hayek oscillator at five different frequencies, and a combination of two spans of inspiratory and expiratory pressures and two mean chamber pressures. A "sham" or control period was also performed at each frequency. Measurements were made of changes in gas exchange, spontaneous respiratory rate, and blood pressure before and after ventilation. RESULTS--There was significant intersubject variation in all results, independent of their height and weight. "Sham" settings acted as true controls in terms of gas exchange, but produced a fall in respiratory rate at 30 oscillations/min. The lower oscillatory frequencies of 30 and 60 oscillations/min produced the greatest increase in oxygenation, decrease in end tidal carbon dioxide pressure, and decrease in spontaneous respiratory rate. These effects were most significant at higher spans of pressure and were different from "sham" settings. No adverse effects were observed on blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS--The Hayek oscillator can provide assisted ventilation for short periods in normal conscious subjects with no adverse side effects on blood pressure. Maximal changes in gas exchange and a significant reduction in the spontaneous respiratory rate are seen when a combination of lower frequencies (30 and 60 oscillations/min) and higher spans of pressure are used. PMID:7886648

  14. Effect of nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Zayeri, Farid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of nature-based sounds (N-BS) on agitation, anxiety level and physiological signs of stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support. Non-pharmacological nursing interventions such as N-BS can be less expensive and efficient ways to alleviate anxiety and adverse effects of sedative medications in patients under mechanical ventilator support. This study was conducted to identify the effect of the nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety level and physiological stress responses in patients under mechanical ventilation support. A randomized placebo-controlled trial design was used to conduct this study. A total of 60 patients aged 18-65 years under mechanical ventilation support in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The patients in the intervention group received 90 min of N-BS. Pleasant nature sounds were played to the patients using media players and headphones. Patients' physiological signs were taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes and 30 min after the procedure had finished. The physiological signs of stress assessed were heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Data were collected over eight months from Oct 2011 to June 2012. Anxiety levels and agitation were assessed using the Faces Anxiety Scale and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, respectively. The experimental group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety and agitation levels than the control group. These reductions increased progressively in the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes, and 30 min after the procedure had finished indicating a cumulative dose effect. N-BS can provide an effective method of decreasing potentially harmful physiological responses arising from anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurses can incorporate N-BS intervention as a non-pharmacologic intervention into the

  15. High pressure versus high intensity noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick B; Brignall, Kate; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Davidson, A Craig; Hart, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Background High-intensity (high-pressure and high backup rate) noninvasive ventilation has recently been advocated for the management of stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative contributions of high inspiratory pressure and high backup rate to ventilator adherence and physiological outcome have not been investigated. Methods Patients with stable hypercapnic COPD (daytime PaCO2 > 6 kPa) and nocturnal hypoventilation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to high-pressure and high backup rate (high-intensity) and high-pressure and low backup rate (high-pressure) for a 6-week period. At the end of the first treatment period, patients were switched to the alternative treatment. The primary outcome measure was mean nightly ventilator usage. Results Twelve patients were recruited, with seven completing the 12-week trial protocol. The mean patient age was 71 ± 8 years, with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50% ± 13% and FEV1 of 32% ± 12%. The baseline PaCO2 and PaO2 were 8.6 ± 1.7 kPa and 7.3 ± 1.4 kPa, respectively. There was no significant difference demonstrated in mean nightly ventilator usage between the high-intensity and high-pressure groups (difference of 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval −45 to 53; P = 0.9). Furthermore, there were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints, with the exception of the respiratory domain of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, which was lower in the high-intensity arm than in the high-pressure arm (57 ± 11 versus 69 ± 16; P < 0.05). Conclusion There was no additional benefit, in terms of night-time ventilator adherence or any of the other measured parameters, demonstrated by addition of a high backup rate to high-pressure noninvasive ventilation. These data suggest that it is the high-pressure component of the high-intensity noninvasive ventilation approach that plays the important therapeutic role in

  16. High pressure versus high intensity noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick B; Brignall, Kate; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Davidson, A Craig; Hart, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    High-intensity (high-pressure and high backup rate) noninvasive ventilation has recently been advocated for the management of stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative contributions of high inspiratory pressure and high backup rate to ventilator adherence and physiological outcome have not been investigated. Patients with stable hypercapnic COPD (daytime PaCO(2) > 6 kPa) and nocturnal hypoventilation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to high-pressure and high backup rate (high-intensity) and high-pressure and low backup rate (high-pressure) for a 6-week period. At the end of the first treatment period, patients were switched to the alternative treatment. The primary outcome measure was mean nightly ventilator usage. Twelve patients were recruited, with seven completing the 12-week trial protocol. The mean patient age was 71 ± 8 years, with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50% ± 13% and FEV(1) of 32% ± 12%. The baseline PaCO(2) and PaO(2) were 8.6 ± 1.7 kPa and 7.3 ± 1.4 kPa, respectively. There was no significant difference demonstrated in mean nightly ventilator usage between the high-intensity and high-pressure groups (difference of 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval -45 to 53; P = 0.9). Furthermore, there were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints, with the exception of the respiratory domain of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, which was lower in the high-intensity arm than in the high-pressure arm (57 ± 11 versus 69 ± 16; P < 0.05). There was no additional benefit, in terms of night-time ventilator adherence or any of the other measured parameters, demonstrated by addition of a high backup rate to high-pressure noninvasive ventilation. These data suggest that it is the high-pressure component of the high-intensity noninvasive ventilation approach that plays the important therapeutic role in the management of hypercapnic

  17. Controlled trial of external negative pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Celli, B; Lee, H; Criner, G; Bermudez, M; Rassulo, J; Gilmartin, M; Miller, G; Make, B

    1989-11-01

    The effect of intermittent external negative pressure ventilation (ENPV) with the Emerson Pulmowrap ventilator upon leg cycle endurance time (ET), maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdimax), breathing pattern as expressed by the tension time index (TTdi), and sense of well being was studied in 16 patients with severe chronic airflow obstruction (CAO). The patients were randomized to 3 wk of in-hospital pulmonary rehabilitation (Group I, seven patients) or the same program plus ENPV (Group II, nine patients). Both groups were similar in terms of age (65 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 13 yr), severity of CAO (FEV1 of 0.64 +/- 0.14 versus 0.59 +/- 0.18 L), and PaCO2 (44 +/- 9 versus 45 +/- 7 mm Hg). Blood theophylline levels and nutritional status were also similar in both groups. Baseline ET (2.9 +/- 0.6 versus 3.8 +/- 1.6 min) and Pdimax (45 +/- 15 versus 56 +/- 18 cm H2O) were decreased in both groups. Baseline TTdi was high but similar in both groups; at rest the values were 0.15 +/- 0.05 versus 0.16 +/- 0.04, and at end-exercise they were 0.17 +/- 0.06 versus 0.21 +/- 0.12. After treatment FEV1 and Pdimax remained unchanged, but the patients in both groups manifested clinical improvement and had a significant increase in mean ET (Group I from 2.9 to 6.9 and Group II from 3.8 to 6 min, p less than 0.01). TTdi decreased both at rest (0.14 +/- 0.07 versus 0.13 +/- 0.04) and at end-exercise (0.14 +/- 0.06 versus 0.15 +/- 0.09) with no difference between groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of residual leaning force on intrathoracic pressure during mechanical ventilation in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Robert Michael; Niles, Dana; Nysaether, Jon; Stavland, Mette; Thomas, Melissa; Ferry, Susan; Bishnoi, Ram; Litman, Ronald; Allen, Julian; Srinivasan, Vijay; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Determine the effect of residual leaning force on intrathoracic pressure (ITP) in healthy children receiving mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that application of significant residual leaning force (2.5 kg or 20% of subject body weight) would be associated with a clinically important change in ITP. Methods IRB-approved pilot study of healthy, anesthetized, paralyzed mechanically ventilated children (6 months to 7 years). Peak endotracheal pressure (ETP), a surrogate of ITP, was continuously measured before and during serial incremental increases in sternal force from 10% to 25% of the subject’s body weight. A delta ETP of ≥2.0 cmH2O was considered clinically significant. Results 13 healthy, anesthetized, paralyzed mechanically ventilated children (age: 26 ± 24 m, range: 6.5–87 m; weight: 13 ± 5 kg, range: 7.4–24.8 kg) were enrolled. Peak ETP increased from baseline for all force applications (10% body weight: mean difference of 0.8 cmH2O, p < 0.01; 15% body weight: mean difference of 1.1 cmH2O, p < 0.01; 20% body weight: mean difference of 1.5 cmH2O, p < 0.01; 25% body weight: mean difference of 1.89 cmH2O, p < 0.01). Residual leaning force of ≥2.5 kg was associated with a 2.0 cmH2O change in peak ETP (odds ratio 7.5; CI95 1.5–37.7; p = 0.014) while sternal force ≥20% body weight was not (odds ratio 2.4; CI95 0.6–9.2; p = 0.2). Conclusion In healthy anesthetized children, changes in ETP were detectable at residual leaning forces as low as 10% of subject body weight. Residual leaning force of 2.5 kg was associated with increases in ETP ≥2.0 cmH2O. PMID:20409628

  19. Basic life support trained nurses ventilate more efficiently with laryngeal mask supreme than with facemask or laryngeal tube suction-disposable--a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Oberhammer, Rosmarie; Balkenhol, Karla; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Falk, Markus; Paal, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In some emergency situations resuscitation and ventilation may have to be performed by basic life support trained personnel, especially in rural areas where arrival of advanced life support teams can be delayed. The use of advanced airway devices such as endotracheal intubation has been deemphasized for basically-trained personnel, but it is unclear whether supraglottic airway devices are advisable over traditional mask-ventilation. In this prospective, randomized clinical single-centre trial we compared airway management and ventilation performed by nurses using facemask, laryngeal mask Supreme (LMA-S) and laryngeal tube suction-disposable (LTS-D). Basic life support trained nurses (n=20) received one-hour practical training with each device. ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for elective surgery were included (n=150). After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block nurses had two 90-second attempts to manage the airway and ventilate the patient with volume-controlled ventilation. Ventilation failed in 34% of patients with facemask, 2% with LMA-S and 22% with LTS-D (P<0.001). In patients who could be ventilated successfully mean tidal volume was 240±210 ml with facemask, 470±120 ml with LMA-S and 470±140 ml with LTS-D (P<0.001). Leak pressure was lower with LMA-S (23.3±10.8 cm H2O, 95% CI 20.2-26.4) than with LTS-D (28.9±13.9 cm·H2O, 95% CI 24.4-33.4; P=0.047). After one hour of introductory training, nurses were able to use LMA-S more effectively than facemask and LTS-D. High ventilation failure rates with facemask and LTS-D may indicate that additional training is required to perform airway management adequately with these devices. High-level trials are needed to confirm these results in cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Literature review supporting assessment of potential radionuclides in the 291-Z exhaust ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, L.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Thomas, L.M. Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-01

    This literature review was prepared to support a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the potential deposition and resuspension of radionuclides in the 291-Z ventilation exhaust building located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Project near Richland, Washington. The filtered ventilation air from three of the facilities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex are combined together in the 291-Z building before discharge through a common stack. These three facilities contributing filtered exhaust air to the discharge stream are (1) the PFP, also known as the Z-Plant or 234-5Z, (2) the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF or 236-Z), and (3), the Waste Incinerator Building (WIB or 232-Z). The 291-Z building houses the exhaust fans that pull air from the 291-Z central collection plenum and exhausts the air to the stack. Section 2.0 of this report is a description of the physical characteristic of the ventilation system from the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to the exhaust stack. A description of the processes performed in the facilities that are vented through 291-Z is given in Section 3.0. The description focuses on the chemical and physical forms of potential aerosols given off from the unit operations. A timeline of the operations and events that may have affected the deposition of material in the ventilation system is shown. Aerosol and radiation measurements taken in previous studies are also discussed. Section 4.0 discusses the factors that influence particle deposition and adhesion. Mechanisms of attachment and resuspension are covered with specific attention to the PFP ducts. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 5.0.

  1. Randomized crossover trial of a pressure sensing visual feedback system to improve mask fitting in noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J; Simonds, Anita K

    2017-10-01

    A good mask fit, avoiding air leaks and pressure effects on the skin are key elements for a successful noninvasive ventilation (NIV). However, delivering practical training for NIV is challenging, and it takes time to build experience and competency. This study investigated whether a pressure sensing system with real-time visual feedback improved mask fitting. During an NIV training session, 30 healthcare professionals (14 trained in mask fitting and 16 untrained) performed two mask fittings on the same healthy volunteer in a randomized order: one using standard mask-fitting procedures and one with additional visual feedback on mask pressure on the nasal bridge. Participants were required to achieve a mask fit with low mask pressure and minimal air leak (<10 L/min). Pressure exerted on the nasal bridge, perceived comfort of mask fit and staff- confidence were measured. Compared with standard mask fitting, a lower pressure was exerted on the nasal bridge using the feedback system (71.1 ± 17.6 mm Hg vs 63.2 ± 14.6 mm Hg, P < 0.001). Both untrained and trained healthcare professionals were able to reduce the pressure on the nasal bridge (74.5 ± 21.2 mm Hg vs 66.1 ± 17.4 mm Hg, P = 0.023 and 67 ± 12.1 mm Hg vs 60 ± 10.6 mm Hg, P = 0.002, respectively) using the feedback system and self-rated confidence increased in the untrained group. Real-time visual feedback using pressure sensing technology supported healthcare professionals during mask-fitting training, resulted in a lower pressure on the skin and better mask fit for the volunteer, with increased staff confidence. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Continuous positive pressure ventilation during epidural blockade--effects on cardiac output distribution.

    PubMed

    Elowsson, P; Norlén, K; Jakobson, S

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that when cardiac output (CO) decreases during continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPPV), its regional distribution adapts with a favouring of vital organs. Does epidural blockade modify this adaptation? Regional blood flows were assessed by the microsphere technique (15 microm) in 17 anaesthetised pigs during spontaneous breathing and CPPV with 8 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure (CPPV8) before and after epidural blockade. The block was induced at either the Th6-7 (Thep) or the L6-S1 (Lep) level with 1 ml of lidocaine 40 mg x ml(-1). When Lep was combined with CPPV8, mean arterial pressure and CO decreased significantly, and they decreased even more when combined with Thep. In contrast, the relative perfusion of the central nervous system, heart and kidneys remained stable during the four conditions studied. The adrenal perfusion during CPPV8 was obviated by epidural blockade. The absolute and relative perfusion of the skeletal muscle decreased during epidural blockade. The administered doses of epidural lidocaine did not affect blood flow in the spinal cord. The locally mediated nutritive vasoregulation of vital organs outweighed the sympathetic blockade induced by epidural blockade. During Thep blockade the animals were less capable of responding to the haemodynamic changes induced by CPPV8, probably due to the blockade of the cardiac part of the sympathetic nervous system.

  3. Assisted mechanical ventilation: the future is now!

    PubMed

    Kacmarek, Robert M; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Berra, Lorenzo

    2015-07-29

    Assisted ventilation is a highly complex process that requires an intimate interaction between the ventilator and the patient. The complexity of this form of ventilation is frequently underappreciated by the bedside clinician. In assisted mechanical ventilation, regardless of the specific mode, the ventilator's gas delivery pattern and the patient's breathing pattern must match near perfectly or asynchrony between the patient and the ventilator occurs. Asynchrony can be categorized into four general types: flow asynchrony; trigger asynchrony; cycle asynchrony; and mode asynchrony. In an article recently published in BMC Anesthesiology, Hodane et al. have demonstrated reduced asynchrony during assisted ventilation with Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) as compared to pressure support ventilation (PSV). These findings add to the growing volume of data indicating that modes of ventilation that provide proportional assistance to ventilation - e.g., NAVA and Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV) - markedly reduce asynchrony. As it becomes more accepted that the respiratory center of the patient in most circumstances is the most appropriate determinant of ventilatory pattern and as the negative outcome effects of patient-ventilator asynchrony become ever more recognized, we can expect NAVA and PAV to become the preferred modes of assisted ventilation!

  4. Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Lipinski, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

  5. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  6. Best Clinical Practices for the Sleep Center Adjustment of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) in Stable Chronic Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) devices are used during sleep to treat patients with diurnal chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH). Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) using a mask interface is the most commonly used method to provide ventilatory support in these patients. BPAP devices deliver separately adjustable inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). The IPAP and EPAP levels are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency, and the pressure support (PS = IPAP-EPAP) augments ventilation. NPPV devices can be used in the spontaneous mode (the patient cycles the device from EPAP to IPAP), the spontaneous timed (ST) mode (a backup rate is available to deliver IPAP for the set inspiratory time if the patient does not trigger an IPAP/EPAP cycle within a set time window), and the timed (T) mode (inspiratory time and respiratory rate are fixed). During NPPV titration with polysomnography (PSG), the pressure settings, backup rate, and inspiratory time (if applicable) are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency and support ventilation. However, there are no widely available guidelines for the titration of NPPV in the sleep center. A NPPV Titration Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed the available literature and developed recommendations based on consensus and published evidence when available. The major recommendations derived by this consensus process are as follows: General Recommendations:The indications, goals of treatment, and side effects of NPPV treatment should be discussed in detail with the patient prior to the NPPV titration study.Careful mask fitting and a period of acclimatization to low pressure prior to the titration should be included as part of the NPPV protocol.NPPV titration with PSG is the recommended method to determine an effective level of nocturnal ventilatory support in patients with CAH. In circumstances in which NPPV treatment is initiated

  7. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation via face mask. First-line intervention in patients with acute hypercapnic and hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G U; Turner, R E; Abou-Shala, N; Wunderink, R; Tolley, E

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported our experience with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) via face mask in a small group of selected patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). NPPV was frequently effective (70% success rate) in correcting gas exchange abnormalities and in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI); NPPV also had a low rate of complications. We have evaluated the clinical application of NPPV as first-line intervention in patients with hypercapnic and short-term hypoxemic ARF. A dedicated respiratory therapist conducted an educational program with physicians-in-training rotating through the medical ICUs of a university medical center and supervised implementation of a simplified management protocol. Over 24 months, 164 patients with heterogeneous forms of ARF received NPPV. We report on the effectiveness of NPPV in correcting gas exchange abnormalities, in avoiding ETI, and associated complications, in different conditions precipitating ARF. One hundred fifty-eight patients completed the study. Forty-one had hypoxemic ARF, 52 had hypercapnic ARF, 22 had hypercapnic acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), 17 had other forms of ARF, and 26 with advanced illness had ARF and refused intubation. Twenty-five percent of the patients developed ARF after extubation. Mechanical ventilation was delivered via a face mask. Initial ventilatory settings were continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mode, 5 cm H2O, with pressure support ventilation of 10 to 20 cm H2O titrated to achieve a respiratory rate less than 25 breaths/min and an exhaled tidal volume of 7 mL/kg or more. Ventilator settings were adjusted following arterial blood gases (ABG) results. The mean duration of NPPV was 25 +/- 24 h. When the 26 patients with advanced illness are excluded, NPPV was effective in improving or correcting gas exchange abnormalities in 105 patients (80%) and avoiding ETI in 86 (65%). Failure to improve ABG values was the reason for ETI in 20 of 46 (43%). The overall

  8. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  9. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  10. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  11. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  12. Comparison of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatments using parametric survival models.

    PubMed

    Baneshi, Mohammad-Reza; Bahmanbijari, Bahareh; Mahdian, Reza; Haji-Maghsoodi, Saeide; Nikbakht, Roya

    2014-04-01

    The Cox model is the dominant tool in clinical trials to compare treatment options. This model does not specify any specific form to the hazard function. On the other hand, parametric models allow the researcher to consider an appropriate shape of hazard function for the event of interest. The aim of this article is to compare performance of Cox and parametric models. We used data collected in a prospective clinical trial that aimed to compare performance of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatments in terms of survival of newborn infants who had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Performance of Cox, exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic models were compared in terms of goodness of fit. Fitting the Cox model, we have seen that infants who received NCPAP were 4.23 (Hazard Ratio= 4.23, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.87-9.59) times more likely to fail than those received NIPPV (P=0.001). Adequacy of the exponential model was rejected. We have seen a decreasing hazard rate over time, in both treatment groups. This decrease was sharper in NCPAP group. Akiake information criterion corresponded to the log-logistic model and was lower than all other models followed by Weibull model. Our results demonstrate the benefit of parametric survival models over traditional Cox regression model in terms of modeling of shape of hazard function. We saw a decreasing hazard that confirms the flexibility of parametric models in terms of the modeling of hazard rate.

  13. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  14. [Home mechanical ventilation: Invasive and noninvasive ventilation therapy for chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-06-01

    Home mechanical ventilation represents a valuable therapeutic option to improve alveolar ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure. For this purpose both invasive ventilation via tracheostomy and noninvasive ventilation via facemasks are available. The primary goal of home mechanical ventilation is a reduction of symptoms, improvement of quality of life and in many cases reduction of mortality. Elective establishment of home mechanical ventilation is typically provided for noninvasive ventilation in respect to clinical symptoms and partial pressure of carbon dioxide depending on the underlying disease. However, invasive mechanical ventilation is increasingly being used to continue ventilatory support in polymorbid patients following unsuccessful weaning. Recommendations and guidelines have been published by the German Respiratory Society (DGP).

  15. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  16. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  17. Effect of assist negative pressure ventilation by microprocessor based iron lung on breathing effort

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, M; Villella, G; Ginanni, R; Augustynen, A; Tozzi, D; Corrado, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The lack of patient triggering capability during negative pressure ventilation (NPV) may contribute to poor patient synchrony and induction of upper airway collapse. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a microprocessor based iron lung capable of thermistor triggering. Methods: The effects of NPV with thermistor triggering were studied in four normal subjects and six patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by measuring: (1) the time delay (TDtr) between the onset of inspiratory airflow and the start of assisted breathing; (2) the pressure-time product of the diaphragm (PTPdi); and (3) non-triggering inspiratory efforts (NonTrEf). In patients the effects of negative extrathoracic end expiratory pressure (NEEP) added to NPV were also evaluated. Results: With increasing trigger sensitivity the mean (SE) TDtr ranged from 0.29 (0.02) s to 0.21 (0.01) s (mean difference 0.08 s, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.12) in normal subjects and from 0.30 (0.02) s to 0.21 (0.01) s (mean difference 0.09 s, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.12) in patients with COPD; NonTrEf ranged from 8.2 (1.8)% to 1.2 (0.1)% of the total breaths in normal subjects and from 11.8 (2.2)% to 2.5 (0.4)% in patients with COPD. Compared with spontaneous breathing, PTPdi decreased significantly with NPV both in normal subjects and in patients with COPD. NEEP added to NPV resulted in a significant decrease in dynamic intrinsic PEEP, diaphragm effort exerted in the pre-trigger phase, and NonTrEf. Conclusions: Microprocessor based iron lung capable of thermistor triggering was able to perform assist NPV with acceptable TDtr, significant unloading of the diaphragm, and a low rate of NonTrEf. NEEP added to NPV improved the synchrony between the patient and the ventilator. PMID:11867832

  18. Flexible bronchoscopy during non-invasive positive pressure mechanical ventilation: are two better than one?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI). Some clinical scenarios represent contraindications for these techniques such as severe ARF in spontaneous breathing patients for FBO and accumulated tracheo-bronchial secretions in patients with depressed cough for NIPPV. In these contexts, the decision of performing ETI should carefully consider the risk of CMV-correlated complications. An increasing amount of published data suggested the use of FBO during NIPPV in ARF in order to avoid/reduce the need of ETI. Despite a strong rationale for the combined use of the two techniques, there is not still enough evidence for a large-scale application of this strategy in all different clinical scenarios. The majority of the available data are in favor of the "help" given by NIPPV to diagnostic FBO in high-risk spontaneously breathing patients with severe hypoxemia. Preliminary findings report the successful "help" given by early FBO to NIPPV in patients with hypoxemic-hypercapnic ARF who are likely to fail because of hypersecretion. Synergy of FBO and NIPPV application is emerging also to perform ETI in challenging situations, such as predicted difficult laringoscopy and NPPV failure in severely hypoxemic patients. This combined approach should be performed only in centers showing a wide experience with both NIPPV and FBO, where close monitoring and ETI facilities are promptly available.

  19. Impact of prolonged assisted ventilation on diaphragmatic efficiency: NAVA versus PSV.

    PubMed

    Di Mussi, Rosa; Spadaro, Savino; Mirabella, Lucia; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Serio, Gabriella; Staffieri, Francesco; Dambrosio, Michele; Cinnella, Gilda; Bruno, Francesco; Grasso, Salvatore

    2016-01-05

    Prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation depresses diaphragmatic efficiency. Assisted modes of ventilation should improve it. We assessed the impact of pressure support ventilation versus neurally adjusted ventilator assist on diaphragmatic efficiency. Patients previously ventilated with controlled mechanical ventilation for 72 hours or more were randomized to be ventilated for 48 hours with pressure support ventilation (n =12) or neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (n = 13). Neuro-ventilatory efficiency (tidal volume/diaphragmatic electrical activity) and neuro-mechanical efficiency (pressure generated against the occluded airways/diaphragmatic electrical activity) were measured during three spontaneous breathing trials (0, 24 and 48 hours). Breathing pattern, diaphragmatic electrical activity and pressure time product of the diaphragm were assessed every 4 hours. In patients randomized to neurally adjusted ventilator assist, neuro-ventilatory efficiency increased from 27 ± 19 ml/μV at baseline to 62 ± 30 ml/μV at 48 hours (p <0.0001) and neuro-mechanical efficiency increased from 1 ± 0.6 to 2.6 ± 1.1 cmH2O/μV (p = 0.033). In patients randomized to pressure support ventilation, these did not change. Electrical activity of the diaphragm, neural inspiratory time, pressure time product of the diaphragm and variability of the breathing pattern were significantly higher in patients ventilated with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. The asynchrony index was 9.48 [6.38- 21.73] in patients ventilated with pressure support ventilation and 5.39 [3.78- 8.36] in patients ventilated with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (p = 0.04). After prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilator assist improves diaphragm efficiency whereas pressure support ventilation does not. ClinicalTrials.gov study registration: NCT02473172, 06/11/2015.

  20. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

  1. Reasons for the presence or absence of convective (pressurized) ventilation in the genus Equisetum.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jean; Armstrong, William

    2011-04-01

    • The very high rates of convective ventilation reported recently in Equisetum telmateia (up to 120 cm(3) min(-1); internal wind speed, 10 cm s(-1)) prompted this study of a further eight species for the presence or absence of convection and the possible reasons for this. • Convection rates were examined in relation to anatomical pathways, internal resistance to applied pressurized gas flow and stomata. • Only species with interconnecting cortical aerenchyma in branches (when present), shoots and rhizomes induced convection. Rapid humidity-induced convection (HIC) occurred in E. palustre (up to 13 cm(3) min(-1)), with slower rates in E. × schaffneri and E. ramosissimum (≤ 6 and 3 cm(3) min(-1), respectively). Excised shoots of E. hyemale and E. fluviatile showed the potential for HIC (≤ 0.5 and 0.15 cm(3) min(-1), respectively), but not into the rhizomes. High rates were linked to low internal gas flow resistance. No convection was detected in E. scirpoides, E. sylvaticum or E. arvense due to the extremely high resistance to pressure flow, for example, from intercalary meristems and, in the last two, to nonaerenchymatous branches. • Of the nine Equisetum species studied so far, four showed through-flow convection; the other species must rely solely on diffusion for underground aeration in wet soils.

  2. Preventing facial pressure ulcers in patients under non-invasive mechanical ventilation: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Otero, D Peña; Domínguez, D Vazquez; Fernández, L Hernanz; Magariño, A Santano; González, V Jimenez; Klepzing, J V García; Montesinos, J V Beneit

    2017-03-02

    To comparatively assess the efficacy of four different therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPUs) related to the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) with oro-nasal masks in critically ill hospitalised patients. This randomised control trial was performed at the high dependency unit in the University General Hospital Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain. Overall, 152 patients with acute respiratory failure were recruited. All patients were hospitalised and received NIV through oro-nasal masks. The Norton tool was used to evaluate the general risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of them receiving a different treatment. Tissue assessment and preventive care were performed by a member of the research team. The incidence of FPUs was significantly lower in the group receiving a solution of hyperoxygenated fatty acids (HOFA) when compared with each of the other therapeutic strategies: direct mask (p=0.055), adhesive thin dressing (p=0.03) and adhesive foam dressing (p<0.001). The application of HOFA on the facial skin in contact with the oro-nasal masks showed the highest efficacy in the prevention of NIV-related FPUs.

  3. The effects of positive expiratory pressure on isovolume flow and dynamic hyperinflation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gay, P C; Rodarte, J R; Hubmayr, R D

    1989-03-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been advocated by some to assist in the weaning process of patients receiving mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. The efficacy of this technique and its effect on respiratory system mechanics are not well understood. The theoretical advantage of CPAP or PEEP during the weaning process can be obliterated if excessive dynamic hyperinflation is induced. A key determinant of the individual response to this proposed weaning technique is the recognition of the presence or absence of expiratory flow limitation. We studied the effect of progressively increased levels of applied PEEP on isovolume expiratory flow and end-expiratory lung volume in seven patients during controlled mechanical ventilation. In the absence of expiratory flow limitation, passive expiratory flow decreased and end-expiratory lung volume increased when any level of PEEP was applied. In contrast, flow-limited patients did not demonstrate a change in isovolume expiratory flow or end-expiratory lung volume until the applied PEEP reduced the driving pressure for expiratory flow below a critical value. All patients demonstrated dynamic hyperinflation during controlled ventilation as evident by the existence of intrinsic PEEP. The nominal value of applied PEEP that caused a reduction in isovolume expiratory flow was unrelated to the initial level of intrinsic PEEP. The clinical implications of these findings with respect to CPAP therapy during weaning from mechanical ventilation are discussed.

  4. Heart rate variability and stroke volume variability to detect central hypovolemia during spontaneous breathing and supported ventilation in young, healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Maja; Walløe, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular oscillations exist in many different variables and may give important diagnostic and prognostic information in patients. Variability in cardiac stroke volume (SVV) is used in clinical practice for diagnosis of hypovolemia, but currently is limited to patients on mechanical ventilation. We investigated if SVV and heart rate variability (HRV) could detect central hypovolemia in spontaneously breathing humans: We also compared cardiovascular variability during spontaneous breathing with supported mechanical ventilation.Ten subjects underwent simulated central hypovolemia by lower body negative pressure (LBNP) with >10% reduction of cardiac stroke volume. The subjects breathed spontaneously and with supported mechanical ventilation. Heart rate, respiratory frequency and mean arterial blood pressure were measured. Stroke volume (SV) was estimated by ModelFlow (Finometer). Respiratory SVV was calculated by: 1) SVV% = (SVmax - SVmin)/SVmean during one respiratory cycle, 2) SVIntegral from the power spectra (Fourier transform) at 0.15-0.4 Hz and 3) SVV_norm = (√SVIntegral)/SVmean. HRV was calculated by the same methods.During spontaneous breathing two measures of SVV and all three measures of HRV were reduced during hypovolemia compared to baseline. During spontaneous breathing SVIntegral and HRV% were best to detect hypovolemia (area under receiver operating curve 0.81). HRV% ≤ 11% and SVIntegral ≤ 12 ml(2) differentiated between hypovolemia and baseline during spontaneous breathing.During supported mechanical ventilation, none of the three measures of SVV changed and two of the HRV measures were reduced during hypovolemia. Neither measures of SVV nor HRV were classified as a good detector of hypovolemia.We conclude that HRV% and SVIntegral detect hypovolemia during spontaneous breathing and both are candidates for further clinical testing.

  5. Ventilators for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario

    2008-08-01

    The application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat acute respiratory failure has increased tremendously both inside and outside the intensive care unit. The choice of ventilator is crucial for success of NIV in the acute setting, because poor tolerance and excessive air leaks are significantly correlated with NIV failure. Patient-ventilator asynchrony and discomfort can occur if the physician or respiratory therapist fails to adequately set NIV to respond to the patient's ventilatory demand, so clinicians need to fully understood the ventilator's technical peculiarities (eg, efficiency of trigger and cycle systems, speed of pressurization, air-leak compensation, CO(2) rebreathing, reliability of fraction of inspired oxygen reading, monitoring accuracy). A wide range of ventilators of different complexity have been introduced into clinical practice to noninvasively support patients in acute respiratory failure, but the numerous commercially available ventilators (bi-level, intermediate, and intensive care unit ventilators) have substantial differences that can influence patient comfort, patient-ventilator interaction, and, thus, the chance of NIV clinical success. This report examines the most relevant aspects of the historical evolution, the equipment, and the acute-respiratory-failure clinical application of NIV ventilators.

  6. Best clinical practices for the sleep center adjustment of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in stable chronic alveolar hypoventilation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard B; Chediak, Alejandro; Brown, Lee K; Finder, Jonathan; Gozal, David; Iber, Conrad; Kushida, Clete A; Morgenthaler, Timothy; Rowley, James A; Davidson-Ward, Sally L

    2010-10-15

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) devices are used during sleep to treat patients with diurnal chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH). Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) using a mask interface is the most commonly used method to provide ventilatory support in these patients. BPAP devices deliver separately adjustable inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). The IPAP and EPAP levels are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency, and the pressure support (PS = IPAP-EPAP) augments ventilation. NPPV devices can be used in the spontaneous mode (the patient cycles the device from EPAP to IPAP), the spontaneous timed (ST) mode (a backup rate is available to deliver IPAP for the set inspiratory time if the patient does not trigger an IPAP/EPAP cycle within a set time window), and the timed (T) mode (inspiratory time and respiratory rate are fxed). During NPPV titration with polysomnography (PSG), the pressure settings, backup rate, and inspiratory time (if applicable) are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency and support ventilation. However, there are no widely available guidelines for the titration of NPPV in the sleep center. A NPPV Titration Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed the available literature and developed recommendations based on consensus and published evidence when available. The major recommendations derived by this consensus process are as follows: General Recommendations: 1. The indications, goals of treatment, and side effects of NPPV treatment should be discussed in detail with the patient prior to the NPPV titration study. 2. Careful mask fitting and a period of acclimatization to low pressure prior to the titration should be included as part of the NPPV protocol. 3. NPPV titration with PSG is the recommended method to determine an effective level of nocturnal ventilatory support in patients with CAH. In circumstances in which NPPV treatment is

  7. Blood pressure management in mechanical circulatory support

    PubMed Central

    Adatya, Sirtaz

    2015-01-01

    Durable mechanical support has become widely available for end stage heart failure as destination therapy and as bridge to transplantation. The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) as well as the recognition and management of hypertension in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) is an essential component of optimal clinical care. Strategies for the control of BP in CF-VAD patients are increasingly important as there is an evolving understanding of the connection between hypertension, pump output, and adverse outcomes. As clinical experience grows, optimal BP targets, as well as methods to measure BP in CF-VAD patients have been further defined. PMID:26793332

  8. Peak Pressures and PaO2/FiO2 Ratios Are Associated With Adverse Outcomes in Patients on Mechanical Ventilators.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Jeremy; Edriss, Hawa; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Patients requiring mechanical ventilation can have complications related to their underlying diseases and hospital-related events. It is possible that easily obtained information early in the course of mechanical ventilation can provide information about important outcomes. Medical records from 281 episodes of mechanical ventilation in the medical intensive care unit were reviewed to collect information on patient demographics, admitting diagnoses, laboratory tests, duration of mechanical ventilation, the development of ventilator-associated events and mortality. Ventilator pressures from day 2 were analyzed for this study. Most patients (72.7%) were ≥50 years, 53.8% were men and 66.3% had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25kg/m(2).The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score was 13.6 ± 5.9. The median initial PaO2/FiO2 was 240 with interquartile range of 177-414. The median duration of ventilation was 4 days (interquartile range: 2-9 days). A PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100 was associated with increased mortality compared with PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 500, and a BMI > 30kg/m(2) was associated with decreased mortality compared with normal BMIs. A PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100 and BMIs <18.5kg/m(2) or >30kg/m(2) were all associated with having a ventilator-associated event. There was a positive correlation between peak pressure (day 2) and the duration of ventilation (r = 0.263, P = 0.007). Easily available information collected on day 2 of mechanical ventilation can help identify patients at risk for poor outcomes, including the duration of mechanical ventilation, the development of ventilator-associated complications and mortality. Prospective studies measuring peak pressures are needed to evaluate the utility of this simple measurement in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A randomized comparison of volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation in children with the i-gel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Kyoungun; Kil, Hae Keum

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The i-gel provides good airway sealing but gastric insufflation may occur when peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) exceeds the sealing pressure of the i-gel without a gastric tube. Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) provides lower PIP compared with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and low PIP may reduce the incidence of gastric insufflation in children during positive pressure ventilation. This study was designed to evaluate PIP, oropharyngeal leak pressure, and gastric insufflation during VCV or PCV in children undergoing general anesthesia with i-gel without a gastric tube in situ. Methods: A prospective, randomized-controlled study was conducted. Thirty-four children, aged 6 to 84 months, were randomly allocated into the VCV or PCV group. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to confirm appropriate position of i-gel. Oropharyngeal leak pressure and PIP were measured after i-gel insertion, after caudal block, and after surgery. Ultrasonography was performed to detect gastric insufflation. Gastric tube was not inserted. Results: PIP in cm H2O was significantly lower in the PCV group than in the VCV group after i-gel insertion (10 [9–12] vs 12 [11–15], P = .021), after caudal block (11 [10–12] vs 13 [11–15], P = .014), and after surgery (10 [10–12] vs 13 [11–14], P = .002). There was no difference in the incidence of gastric insufflation between the 2 groups (4/17 in the VCV group and 3/17 in the PCV group) (P > .999). Conclusion: When i-gel was used without a gastric tube, gastric insufflation occurred regardless of the ventilation modes, which provided different PIP. PMID:28471973

  10. Five-Year Risk of Mechanical Ventilation in Community-Dwelling Adults: The Framingham-Intermountain Anticipating Life Support Study

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Allan J.; Pencina, Karol M.; Knox, Daniel; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop a quantitative tool for identifying outpatients most likely to require life support with mechanical ventilation within 5 years. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Framingham Heart Study (FHS) 1991 to 2009 and Intermountain Healthcare clinics 2008 to 2013. Participants FHS participants (n=3,666; mean age 74; 58% female) in a derivation cohort and Intermountain Healthcare outpatients aged 65 and older (n=88,302; mean age 73, 57% female) in an external validation cohort. Measurements Information on demographic characteristics and comorbidities collected during FHS examinations to derive a 5-year risk score for receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, with external validation using administrative data from outpatients seen at Intermountain Healthcare. A sensitivity analysis investigating model performance for a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death was performed. Results Eighty (2%) FHS participants were mechanically ventilated within 5 years after a FHS examination. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, alcohol use, chronic pulmonary disease, and hospitalization within the prior year predicted need for mechanical ventilation within 5 years (c-statistic=0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.68–0.80). One thousand seven hundred twenty-five (2%) Intermountain Healthcare outpatients underwent mechanical ventilation. The validation model c-statistic was 0.67 (95% CI=0.66–0.68). Approximately 1% of individuals identified as low risk and 5% to 12% identified as high risk required mechanical ventilation within 5 years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.75 (95% CI=0.75–0.75) for risk prediction of a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death. Conclusion A simple risk score using clinical examination data or administrative data may be used to predict 5-year risk of mechanical ventilation or death. Further study is necessary to determine whether use of a

  11. Five-Year Risk of Mechanical Ventilation in Community-Dwelling Adults: The Framingham-Intermountain Anticipating Life Support Study.

    PubMed

    Walkey, Allan J; Pencina, Karol M; Knox, Daniel; Kuttler, Kathryn G; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Benjamin, Emelia J; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-10-01

    To develop a quantitative tool for identifying outpatients most likely to require life support with mechanical ventilation within 5 years. Retrospective cohort study. Framingham Heart Study (FHS) 1991 to 2009 and Intermountain Healthcare clinics 2008 to 2013. FHS participants (n = 3,666; mean age 74; 58% female) in a derivation cohort and Intermountain Healthcare outpatients aged 65 and older (n = 88,302; mean age 73, 57% female) in an external validation cohort. Information on demographic characteristics and comorbidities collected during FHS examinations to derive a 5-year risk score for receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, with external validation using administrative data from outpatients seen at Intermountain Healthcare. A sensitivity analysis investigating model performance for a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death was performed. Eighty (2%) FHS participants were mechanically ventilated within 5 years after a FHS examination. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, alcohol use, chronic pulmonary disease, and hospitalization within the prior year predicted need for mechanical ventilation within 5 years (c-statistic = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.80). One thousand seven hundred twenty-five (2%) Intermountain Healthcare outpatients underwent mechanical ventilation. The validation model c-statistic was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.66-0.68). Approximately 1% of individuals identified as low risk and 5% to 12% identified as high risk required mechanical ventilation within 5 years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.75 (95% CI = 0.75-0.75) for risk prediction of a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death. A simple risk score using clinical examination data or administrative data may be used to predict 5-year risk of mechanical ventilation or death. Further study is necessary to determine whether use of a risk score enhances advance care planning or improves quality of

  12. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure following upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Faria, Debora A S; da Silva, Edina M K; Atallah, Álvaro N; Vital, Flávia M R

    2015-10-05

    Each year, more than four million abdominal surgeries are performed in the US and over 250,000 in England. Acute respiratory failure, a common complication that can affect 30% to 50% of people after upper abdominal surgery, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive ventilation has been associated with lower rates of tracheal intubation in adults with acute respiratory failure, thus reducing the incidence of complications and mortality. This review compared the effectiveness and safety of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus standard oxygen therapy in the treatment of acute respiratory failure after upper abdominal surgery. To assess the effectiveness and safety of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), that is, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel NPPV, in reducing mortality and the rate of tracheal intubation in adults with acute respiratory failure after upper abdominal surgery, compared to standard therapy (oxygen therapy), and to assess changes in arterial blood gas levels, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, gastric insufflation, and anastomotic leakage. The date of the last search was 12 May 2015. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to May 2015), EMBASE (Ovid SP, 1974 to May 2015); the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) (1999 to May 2015); the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, EBSCOhost, 1982 to May 2015), and LILACS (BIREME, 1986 to May 2015). We reviewed reference lists of included studies and contacted experts. We also searched grey literature sources. We checked databases of ongoing trials such as www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.trialscentral.org/. We did not apply language restrictions. We selected randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials involving adults with acute respiratory failure after upper abdominal

  13. Review: artifical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Historical background, terminology and patho-physiology.

    PubMed

    Stokke, D B

    1976-09-01

    CPPV (continuous positive pressure ventilation) is obviously superior to IPPV (intermittent positive pressure ventilation) for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI) and results within a few minutes in a considerable increase in the oxygen transport. The principle is to add a positive end-expiratory plateau (PEEP) to IPPV, with a subsequent increase in FRC (functional residual capacity) resulting in re-opening in first and foremost the declive alveolae, which can then once again take part in the gas exchange and possibly re-commence the disrupted surfactant production. In this manner the ventilation/perfusion ratio in the diseases lungs is normalized and the intrapulmonary shunting of venous blood (Qs/Qt) will decrease. At the same time the dead space ventilation fraction (VD/VT) normalizes and the compliance of the lungs (CL) increases. The PEEP value, which results in a maximum oxygen transport, and the lowest dead space fraction, also appears to result in the greatest total static compliance (CT) and the greatest increase in mixed venous oxygen tension (PVO2); this value can be termed "optimal PEEP". The greater the FRC is, with an airway pressure = atmospheric pressure, the lower the PEEP value required in order to obtain maximum oxygen transport. If the optimal PEEP value is exceeded the oxygen transport will fall because of a falling Qt (cardiac output) due to a reduction in venous return. CT and PVO2 will fall and VD/VT will increase. Increasing hyperinflation of the alveolae will result in a rising danger of alveolar rupture. The critical use of CPPV treatment means that the lungs may be safeguarded against high oxygen percents. The mortality of newborn infants with RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) has fallen considerably after the general introduction of CPPV and CPAP (continuous positive airway pressures). The same appears to be the case with adults suffering from ARI (acute respiratory insufficiency).

  14. Atelectasis in children undergoing either propofol infusion or positive pressure ventilation anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lutterbey, Goetz; Wattjes, Mike P; Doerr, Dorothea; Fischer, Nicolas J; Gieseke, Juergen; Schild, Hans H

    2007-02-01

    Atelectasis because of anesthesia is a recognized problem but may be affected by the anesthetic technique. We compared magnetic resonance images of atelectasis in children undergoing two types of anesthesia. Children requiring anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had additional lung imaging sequences at the beginning and the end of anesthesia. Children had either i.v. propofol infusion (PI) without an artificial airway (n = 26) or positive pressure ventilation (PPV) via a tracheal tube (n = 20); the technique was chosen for clinical reasons. The extent of atelectasis was scored by two independent radiologists. The median ages (range) for PI and PPV groups were 45 months (1-77 months) and 18 months (2-74 months), respectively. The proportion of children with atelectasis was different in the first lung scan (42% vs 80%), but in the second scan atelectasis was seen frequently in both groups (82% vs 94%) with a greater extent in the PPV group. The atelectasis score was higher in young children, but all children had normal oxygen requirements and saturations. Many factors may influence the development of atelectasis but this study found less extensive atelectasis with PI than PPV. PI allows for sufficient motionlessness, required for high diagnostic image quality in pediatric MRI.

  15. Medical hypnosis as a tool to acclimatize children to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Delord, Vincent; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Joseph, Erick Louis; Gambier, Clotilde; Belson, Maryse; Gajan, Francis; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-07-01

    Patient cooperation is crucial for the success of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). This study evaluated the efficacy of medical hypnosis to reduce anticipatory anxiety and acclimatization time in children who are candidates for long-term NPPV. Medical hypnosis was performed by a trained nurse. The acclimatization time and long-term compliance with NPPV were evaluated. Hypnosis was performed in nine children aged 2 to 15 years. Seven children had a high level of anticipatory anxiety because of a tracheotomy since birth (n=2), a history of maxillofacial surgery (n=2), severe dyspnea because of lung disease (n=2), and morbid obesity and depression (n=1), and two children with obstructive sleep apnea failed standard NPPV initiation. The hypnosis techniques were based on distraction in the youngest patient and indirect or direct hypnotic suggestions in the older children to obtain a progressive psychocorporal relaxation. All patients accepted the interface and the NPPV after the first hypnosis session. A median of three sessions was needed for overnight (>6 h) NPPV acceptance. The 6-month compliance with NPPV was excellent, with a median use of 7.5 h per night. Medical hypnosis is an effective, safe, noninvasive, and inexpensive tool for reducing the anticipatory distress and acclimatization time for NPPV. This therapy is particularly useful in children with traumatic experiences, such as a tracheotomy or facial surgical procedures.

  16. Reference values for lung function tests. II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation.

    PubMed

    Neder, J A; Andreoni, S; Lerario, M C; Nery, L E

    1999-06-01

    The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P < 0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.

  17. Paradoxical worsening of hypoxemia in a patient treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for obesity hypoventilation syndrome with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Picciotto, Carole; Duménil, Coraline; Auzel, Olivier; Giraud, Violaine; Bonay, Marcel

    2017-08-23

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is frequently prescribed to obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. However, mechanical ventilation with a positive end-expiratory pressure can induce or worsen a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale associated with systemic hypoxemia. Thus, in obese patients treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, a paradoxical worsening of hypoxemia may reveal the existence of a patent foramen ovale. A 50-year-old African woman was referred to our sleep center for severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Because she had alveolar hypoventilation and had failed previous obstructive sleep apnea syndrome therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was started. In May 2015, she had a normal residual apnea/hypopnea index calculated by the ventilator software with no hypoventilation. Six months later, severe hypoxemia without hypercapnia was noted. Contrast transthoracic echocardiography showed right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. This finding prompted a decrease in expiratory and inspiratory positive airway pressures, after which the ventilator software recorded a normal residual apnea/hypopnea index and the blood gas values improved. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy for combined obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome must be monitored by arterial blood gas measurements, both to reassess the hypercapnia and to look for worsening hypoxemia due to a patent foramen ovale.

  18. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew R; Katz, Ira M; Jenöfi, Katharina; Caillibotte, Georges; Brochard, Laurent; Texereau, Joëlle

    2012-10-03

    Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%). Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing), and with varying levels of pressure support. Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive reduction in inspiratory effort. In addition, breathing He/O2 alone may

  19. Asynchrony Between Ventilator Flow and Pressure Waveforms and the Capnograph on Dräger Anesthesia Workstations: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Tripathi, Nilay; Pandey, Mamta

    2017-03-01

    Modern anesthesia workstations display capnography, flow-time, and pressure-time waveforms in real time. We observed that at certain ventilator settings (10 breaths/min) on Dräger workstations, the expiratory phase of the capnograph overlaps both the inspiratory and the expiratory phases of ventilation. This discrepancy disappears at respiratory rates of 16 breaths/min. This synchronous respiratory monitoring display at respiratory rates 16 breaths/min is not physiologically correct, because it implies a synchronization of waveforms that is not actually present. This again becomes asynchronous once the respiratory rate is increased to >18 breaths/min. Such an artifact may not affect the patient's safety in most cases but may mislead clinicians when synchrony between flow/pressure and capnography is needed for diagnostic purposes. We wish to share this discrepancy with clinicians and notify the manufacturer so that potential solutions may be found.

  20. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  1. International project to repair Chernobyl Units 3 and 4 ventilation stack supports

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.P.; Neal, J.K.; Gore, B.F.; Osterloh, J.V.; Winkel, B.V.

    1998-09-01

    The US Department of State and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are sponsoring bilateral efforts at Chernobyl. These efforts are an integral part of a broader international effort being undertaken by the G-7 nations, which resulted in development of the shelter implementation plan (SIP) to place the shelter in a manageable and environmentally safe condition. One of these projects involves financing repairs to the units 3 and 4 ventilation stack external bracing and foundation supports. Canada has also elected to contribute to this project. This paper describes the trilateral cooperation involving a Western approach to work planning that resulted in G-7 concurrence for repairs to the stack and elimination of the safety threat imposed by this unstable structure.

  2. Albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model: Nebulization versus chlorofluorocarbon- and hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lugo, R A; Kenney, J K; Keenan, J; Salyer, J W; Ballard, J; Ward, R M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model, using three delivery methods: 1) jet nebulizer; 2) chlorofluorocarbon-pressurized metered dose inhaler (CFC-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer; and 3) hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized MDI (HFA-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer. The bench model consisted of a mechanically ventilated infant test lung with ventilator settings to simulate a very low birth weight neonate with moderate lung disease. Albuterol solution (0.5%) was nebulized at the humidifier and temperature port, 125 cm and 30 cm from the Y-piece, respectively. Albuterol metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were actuated into an ACE(R) spacer that was tested in two positions: 1) inline between the endotracheal (ET) tube and the Y-piece; and 2) attached to the ET tube and administered by manual ventilation. Albuterol was collected on a filter at the distal end of the ET tube and was quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Albuterol delivery by CFC-MDI (position 1, 4.8 +/- 1.0%, vs. position 2, 3.8 +/- 1.6%, P > 0.05) and HFA-MDI (position 1, 5.7 +/- 1.6%, vs. position 2, 5.5 +/- 2.4%, P > 0.05) were significantly greater than delivery by nebulization at 30 cm (0.16 +/- 0.07%) and 125 cm (0.15 +/- 0.03%) from the Y-piece (P < 0.001). A single actuation of albuterol MDI delivered the equivalent of nebulizing 2.5-3.7 mg of albuterol solution. We conclude that albuterol administered by MDI and ACE(R) spacer resulted in more efficient delivery than by nebulization in this mechanically ventilated neonatal lung model. There was no significant difference in drug delivery between CFC-MDI and HFA-MDI; nor did the placement of the spacer significantly affect drug delivery.

  3. Auto-trilevel versus bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation for hypercapnic overlap syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei; Huai, De; Cao, Juan; Ning, Ding; Xue, Rong; Xu, Meijie; Huang, Mao; Zhang, Xilong

    2017-06-13

    Although bilevel positive airway pressure (Bilevel PAP) therapy is usually used for overlap syndrome (OS), there is still a portion of OS patients in whom Bilevel PAP therapy could not simultaneously eliminate residual apnea events and hypercapnia. The current study was expected to explore whether auto-trilevel positive airway pressure (auto-trilevel PAP) therapy with auto-adjusting end expiratory positive airway pressure (EEPAP) can serve as a better alternative for these patients. From January of 2014 to June of 2016, 32 hypercapnic OS patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were recruited. Three variable modes of positive airway pressure (PAP) from the ventilator (Prisma25ST, Weinmann Inc., Germany) were applicated for 8 h per night. We performed the design of each mode at each night with an interval of two nights with no PAP treatment as a washout period among different modes. In Bilevel-1 mode (Bilevel-1), the expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) delivered from Bilevel PAP was always set as the lowest PAP for abolishment of snoring. For each patient, the inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) was constantly set the same as the minimal pressure for keeping end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) ≤45 mmHg for all three modes. However, the EPAP issued by Bilevel PAP in Bilevel-2 mode (Bilevel-2) was kept 3 cmH2O higher than that in Bilevel-1. In auto-trilevel mode (auto-trilevel) with auto-trilevel PAP, the initial part of EPAP was fixed at the same PAP as that in Bilevel-1 while the EEPAP was automatically regulated to rise at a range of ≤4 cmH2O based on nasal airflow wave changes. Comparisons were made for parameters before and during or following treatment as well as among different PAP therapy modes. The following parameters were compared such as nocturnal apnea hypopnea index (AHI), minimal SpO2 (minSpO2), arousal index, sleep structure and efficiency, morning PaCO2

  4. A computerized decision support system to predict the variations in the cerebral blood flow of mechanically ventilated infants.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fleur T

    2013-10-01

    A computerized decision support system is described to predict the changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) of mechanically ventilated infants in response to different ventilatory settings. A CBF controller was developed and combined with a mathematical model of the infant's respiratory system to simulate the effects of ventilatory settings on the infant's CBF. The performance of the system was examined under various ventilatory treatments and the results were compared with available experimental data. The comparisons showed good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data for preterm infants. These included the results obtained under conditions of hypoventilation, hyperventilation, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. The presented decision support system has the potential to be used as an aide to the intensivist in choosing appropriate ventilation treatments for infants to prevent the untoward consequences of hazardous changes in CBF in mechanically ventilated infants such as hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation for children on ventricular assist device support.

    PubMed

    Prodhan, Parthak; Kalikivenkata, Giridhar; Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Kassandra; Byrnes, Jonathan; Imamura, Michiaki; Jaquiss, Robert D B; Garcia, Xiomara; Frazier, Elizabeth A; Bhutta, Adnan T; Dyamenahalli, Umesh

    2015-05-01

    Patients with end-stage heart failure possess many attributes that place them at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV). However, there are only limited data on MV support among children after ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. We report the duration of MV after VAD placement, indications for respiratory support in the postimplantation period, and associated patient factors. This single-center retrospective study included 43 consecutive children (aged <18 years) with end-stage heart failure who were supported with a VAD as a bridge to transplantation from January 2005 to December 2011. Multivariable analysis was performed using the multiple Poisson regression model for the duration of MV. Overall, 33% (n = 14) remained on MV until heart transplant or death. Of those requiring pre-VAD extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, 63% (n = 12 of 19) remained on MV until heart transplant or death compared with 8% (n = 2 of 24) among those not on ECMO before VAD (p < 0.001). Patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation while on VAD support had 1.7-times more MV days compared with those with none or trivial on-VAD mitral regurgitation. In addition, previous support on ECMO, those with moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation, and those with only left VAD implants had an increased risk of prolonged MV. Our results suggest that VAD recipients previously supported on ECMO, those with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation, and those with only left VAD implants had an increased risk of prolonged MV. Future studies in larger cohorts are necessary to confirm the findings from this single-institutional experience. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Home Ventilator Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... are for negative pressure ventilators currently on the markets. There is no “standard” form for specifications. American ... specifications are for bilevel ventilators currently on the markets. There is no “standard” form for specifications. American ...

  7. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation to treat hypercapnic coma secondary to respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gumersindo Gónzalez; Alcaraz, Andres Carrillo; Talavera, Juan Carlos Pardo; Pérez, Pedro Jara; Rodriguez, Antonio Esquinas; Cordoba, Francisco García; Hill, Nicholas S

    2005-03-01

    Hypercapnic coma secondary to acute respiratory failure (ARF) is considered to be a contraindication to the use of treatment with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). However, intubation exposes these patients to the risk of complications such as nosocomial pneumonia, sepsis, and even death. We performed a prospective, open, noncontrolled study to assess the outcomes of NPPV therapy in patients with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 8 responded to therapy (70%; p = 0.04). A total of 25 coma patients died in the hospital (26.3%), and 287 noncoma patients died in the hospital (33.2%; p = 0.17). The variables related to the success of NPPV therapy were GCS score 1 h posttherapy (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 3.53) and higher levels of multiorgan dysfunction, as measured by the maximum sequential organ failure assessment index score reached during NPPV therapy (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.92). We concluded that selected patients with hypercapnic coma secondary to ARF can be treated as successfully with NPPV as awake patients with ARF.

  8. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Doris H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (p(a)CO(2) of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation.

  9. Positive pressure ventilation during anesthesia in dogs: Assessment of surface area derived tidal volume

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Doris H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of surface area derived tidal volume in anesthetized ventilated dogs (n = 71, random assignment) compared to settings by experienced personnel. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1030) between methods (paCO2 of 43.1 ± 7 mmHg and 39.8 ± 7 mmHg, respectively). Surface area derived tidal volume can achieve satisfactory ventilation. PMID:22753965

  10. A Quantile Analysis of Plateau and Driving Pressures: Effects on Mortality in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving Lung-Protective Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jesús; Martín-Rodríguez, Carmen; Domínguez-Berrot, Ana M; Fernández, Lorena; Ferrando, Carlos; Soler, Juan A; Díaz-Lamas, Ana M; González-Higueras, Elena; Nogales, Leonor; Ambrós, Alfonso; Carriedo, Demetrio; Hernández, Mónica; Martínez, Domingo; Blanco, Jesús; Belda, Javier; Parrilla, Dácil; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Tarancón, Concepción; Mora-Ordoñez, Juan M; Blanch, Lluís; Pérez-Méndez, Lina; Fernández, Rosa L; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2017-05-01

    The driving pressure (plateau pressure minus positive end-expiratory pressure) has been suggested as the major determinant for the beneficial effects of lung-protective ventilation. We tested whether driving pressure was superior to the variables that define it in predicting outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A secondary analysis of existing data from previously reported observational studies. A network of ICUs. We studied 778 patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. We assessed the risk of hospital death based on quantiles of tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, plateau pressure, and driving pressure evaluated at 24 hours after acute respiratory distress syndrome diagnosis while ventilated with standardized lung-protective ventilation. We derived our model using individual data from 478 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients and assessed its replicability in a separate cohort of 300 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure had no impact on mortality. We identified a plateau pressure cut-off value of 29 cm H2O, above which an ordinal increment was accompanied by an increment of risk of death. We identified a driving pressure cut-off value of 19 cm H2O where an ordinal increment was accompanied by an increment of risk of death. When we cross tabulated patients with plateau pressure less than 30 and plateau pressure greater than or equal to 30 with those with driving pressure less than 19 and driving pressure greater than or equal to 19, plateau pressure provided a slightly better prediction of outcome than driving pressure in both the derivation and validation cohorts (p < 0.0000001). Plateau pressure was slightly better than driving pressure in predicting hospital death in patients managed with lung-protective ventilation evaluated on standardized ventilator settings 24 hours after acute respiratory distress syndrome onset.

  11. “Expiratory holding” approach in measuring end-expiratory pulmonary artery wedge pressure for mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanjie; Zhao, Xuefeng; Feng, Qingguo; An, Youzhong; Wei, Kai; Wang, Wei; Li, Chang; Cheng, Xiuling

    2013-01-01

    Objective To accurately measure the end-expiratory pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) with the “expiration holding” function on the ventilator and the “pulmonary artery wedge pressure review” software on the monitor. Materials and methods Fifty prospective measurements were made on 12 patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheter and mechanical ventilation. All measurements were divided into <8 mmHg or ≥8 mmHg subgroups according to respiratory variability, and they were then subdivided into either an airway pressure display measurement group (AM group) or an expiration holding (EH) group for comparison. Results In all measurements, the two groups showed similar levels of accuracy; however, for the time spent for measurement, the EH group was much faster than the airway pressure display measurement group (P<0.001). Additionally, the EH group was associated with lower medical costs. Conclusion The expiration holding approach measured the PAWP more accurately, more quickly, and with reduced costs in comparison to the airway pressure display approach. PMID:24133370

  12. Sex differences in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Judith A M; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Wallin, B Gunnar; Hart, Emma C

    2010-08-01

    We tested whether the inter-individual variability in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure plays a critical role in the sex differences in tonic support of blood pressure by the autonomic nervous system. Blockade of the alpha-adrenergic receptors was achieved via phentolamine and showed a smaller (P < 0.05) decrease in blood pressure in women compared to men, implying that alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure is less in women than in men.

  13. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lígia de A; Samary, Cynthia S; Oliveira, Milena V; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Schultz, Marcus J; Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery. Thirty-five Wistar rats were used, of which 28 were anesthetized, and a laparotomy was performed with standardized bowel manipulation. Postoperatively, animals (n = 7/group) were randomly assigned to 4 hours of ventilation with: (1) tidal volume (VT) = 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 1 cm H2O without recruitment maneuvers (RMs) (low VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking the low-VT/low-PEEP strategy of PROVHILO; (2) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 3 cm H2O with RMs before laparotomy and hourly thereafter (low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+), mimicking the protective ventilation strategy of IMPROVE; (3) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 6 cm H2O with RMs only before laparotomy (low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+), mimicking the strategy used after intubation and before extubation in PROVHILO; or (4) VT = 14 mL/kg and PEEP = 1 cm H2O without RMs (high VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking conventional ventilation used in IMPROVE. Seven rats were not tracheotomized, operated, or mechanically ventilated, and constituted the healthy nonoperated and nonventilated controls. Low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+ and low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+, compared to low VT/low PEEP/RM- and high VT/low PEEP/RM-, resulted in lower ΔPRS (7.1 ± 0.8 and 10.2 ± 2.1 cm H2O vs 13.9 ± 0.9 and 16.9 ± 0.8 cm H2O, respectively; P< .001) and less mechanical power (63 ± 7 and 79 ± 20 J/min vs 110 ± 10 and 120 ± 20 J/min, respectively; P = .007). Low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+ was associated with less alveolar collapse than low VT/low PEEP/RM- (P = .03). E-cadherin expression

  14. Positive end-expiratory pressure may alter breathing cardiovascular variability and baroreflex gain in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Van de Louw, Andry; Médigue, Claire; Papelier, Yves; Cottin, François

    2010-04-19

    Baroreflex allows to reduce sudden rises or falls of arterial pressure through parallel RR interval fluctuations induced by autonomic nervous system. During spontaneous breathing, the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may affect the autonomic nervous system, as suggested by changes in baroreflex efficiency and RR variability. During mechanical ventilation, some patients have stable cardiorespiratory phase difference and high-frequency amplitude of RR variability (HF-RR amplitude) over time and others do not. Our first hypothesis was that a steady pattern could be associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity and HF-RR amplitude, reflecting a blunted autonomic nervous function. Our second hypothesis was that PEEP, widely used in critical care patients, could affect their autonomic function, promoting both steady pattern and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. We tested the effect of increasing PEEP from 5 to 10 cm H2O on the breathing variability of arterial pressure and RR intervals, and on the baroreflex. Invasive arterial pressure, ECG and ventilatory flow were recorded in 23 mechanically ventilated patients during 15 minutes for both PEEP levels. HF amplitude of RR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) time series and HF phase differences between RR, SBP and ventilatory signals were continuously computed by complex demodulation. Cross-spectral analysis was used to assess the coherence and gain functions between RR and SBP, yielding baroreflex-sensitivity indices. At PEEP 10, the 12 patients with a stable pattern had lower baroreflex gain and HF-RR amplitude of variability than the 11 other patients. Increasing PEEP was generally associated with a decreased baroreflex gain and a greater stability of HF-RR amplitude and cardiorespiratory phase difference. Four patients who exhibited a variable pattern at PEEP 5 became stable at PEEP 10. At PEEP 10, a stable pattern was associated with higher organ failure score and catecholamine dosage. During

  15. Use of controlled ventilation in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Robin L

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation has long been used to maintain ventilation in humans when the lungs are rendered incapable of oxygenation or when respiration is affected by central nervous system depression, but it has only recently been applied to similar cases in dogs and cats. Although manual ventilation is still the more common form of ventilation in dogs and cats, mechanical intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) is a much more efficient and reliable means of maintaining the highest quality of respiratory assistance. With proper training, technicians can use IPPV to support compromised animals until they are capable of maintaining normal oxygen concentrations.

  16. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  17. Ventilator waveforms.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Matthew S

    2013-08-01

    Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of changes in pressure, flow, and volume within a ventilator circuit. The changes in these parameters over time may be displayed individually (scalars) or plotted one against another (pressure-volume and flow-volume loops). There are 6 basic shapes of scalar waveforms, but only 3 are functionally distinct (square, ramp, and sine). The pressure scalar is a particularly valuable tool when constant flow (e.g., volume control) modes are employed and an inspiratory pause is added. In this setting, inspection of the pressure waveform can allow determination of static, quasistatic, and dynamic compliance, as well as relative changes in airway resistance. Inspection of the pressure waveform can also help to identify many important aspects of patient drug responses, dyssynchrony, and air trapping (auto positive end-expiratory pressure [auto-PEEP]). Depending on the ventilation mode employed, the shape of the flow waveform may be set by the ventilator operator or may be dependent on patient effort and lung mechanics. Decelerating flow patterns have several important advantages when this option is available. Inspection of flow waveforms is crucial in the recognition of dyssynchrony, setting optimal inspiratory times, evaluating responses to bronchodilators, and the recognition of auto-PEEP. The volume waveform often contains somewhat less useful information than the other 2 scalars, but plays a crucial role in the identification of leaks in the circuit. Pressure-volume loops are particularly useful in setting PEEP and peak inspiratory pressure ranges. Inspection of these loops also often helps in the evaluation of lung mechanics, in the identification of circuit leaks, and in the assessment of patient triggering effort. Flow-volume loops are extremely useful in the identification of leaks and excessive airway secretions as well as alterations in airway resistance. Lastly, serial waveform inspection is crucial to the

  18. [Classification and terminology of artificial lung ventilation].

    PubMed

    Gal'perin, Iu S

    2005-01-01

    The author considers the main features of a prepared edition of the international standard ISO 4135:2001 "Equipment for anesthesia and artificial ventilation. Glossary" as the state standard of Russia. He shows methods for classification of the modes of ventilation support. A classification scheme of its procedures is proposed, by giving necessary notes. The abbreviations of these procedures are given in the Russian and English languages. The shorthand notations of airways gas pressure in the characteristic points of a respiratory cycle are clarified in detail and on this basis the procedures for limiting inspiration pressure during controlled artificial ventilation.

  19. The Effect of Equal Ratio Ventilation on Oxygenation, Respiratory Mechanics, and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure During Laparoscopy in the Trendelenburg Position.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Ji Young; Chang, Young Jin; Lee, Sehwan; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of equal ratio ventilation (ERV) on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and the cerebral perfusion pressure during pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. Thirty patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection (25 to 65 y) were enrolled. Mechanical ventilator was set to volume-controlled mode at an inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ratio of 1:2 with a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg of ideal body weight with a 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. Twenty minutes after pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position, the I:E ratio was changed to 1:1 for 20 minutes and then restored to 1:2. No significant changes in arterial oxygen tension and respiratory compliance after adopting ERV. Mean arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure decreased significantly over time after adopting the Trendelenburg position during pneumoperitoneum (P=0.014 and 0.005, respectively). In conclusion, there was no improvement in oxygenation or respiratory mechanics with ERV.

  20. Automatic versus manual pressure support reduction in the weaning of post-operative patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Corinne; Eid, Raquel C; Saghabi, Cilene; Souza, Rogério; Silva, Eliezer; Knobel, Elias; Paes, Ângela T; Barbas, Carmen S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Reduction of automatic pressure support based on a target respiratory frequency or mandatory rate ventilation (MRV) is available in the Taema-Horus ventilator for the weaning process in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. We hypothesised that MRV is as effective as manual weaning in post-operative ICU patients. Methods There were 106 patients selected in the post-operative period in a prospective, randomised, controlled protocol. When the patients arrived at the ICU after surgery, they were randomly assigned to either: traditional weaning, consisting of the manual reduction of pressure support every 30 minutes, keeping the respiratory rate/tidal volume (RR/TV) below 80 L until 5 to 7 cmH2O of pressure support ventilation (PSV); or automatic weaning, referring to MRV set with a respiratory frequency target of 15 breaths per minute (the ventilator automatically decreased the PSV level by 1 cmH2O every four respiratory cycles, if the patient's RR was less than 15 per minute). The primary endpoint of the study was the duration of the weaning process. Secondary endpoints were levels of pressure support, RR, TV (mL), RR/TV, positive end expiratory pressure levels, FiO2 and SpO2 required during the weaning process, the need for reintubation and the need for non-invasive ventilation in the 48 hours after extubation. Results In the intention to treat analysis there were no statistically significant differences between the 53 patients selected for each group regarding gender (p = 0.541), age (p = 0.585) and type of surgery (p = 0.172). Nineteen patients presented complications during the trial (4 in the PSV manual group and 15 in the MRV automatic group, p < 0.05). Nine patients in the automatic group did not adapt to the MRV mode. The mean ± sd (standard deviation) duration of the weaning process was 221 ± 192 for the manual group, and 271 ± 369 minutes for the automatic group (p = 0.375). PSV levels were significantly higher in MRV compared with that of

  1. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  2. Mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland: a multi-center point-prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Andrzej; Maciejewski, Dariusz; Adamik, Barbara; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-06-03

    Mechanical ventilation is the primary method of supporting organ function in patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Lung damage from mechanical ventilation can be avoided by using the correct ventilation modes. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and treatment strategies of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland. This study was done using a point-prevalence methodology. Questionnaires requesting demographic data, indications for ventilation, variables involved in ventilation, airway access, methods of sedation, and mode of weaning were sent to 148 ICUs. Eighty-three ICUs took part in the study. The rate of ventilated patients was 73.6%. The indications for mechanical ventilation were: acute respiratory failure (40%), coma (40%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (14%), and neuromuscular diseases (5%). Patients were ventilated by orotracheal tube (58%), tracheostomy tube (41%), and mask/helmet (1%). The mean tidal volume was 8 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was commonly used. The mean oxygen concentration was 40%. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support was the most frequently used ventilatory mode. Benzodiazepine and opioids were used for sedation in 91% of centers. A systematic testing of the depth of sedation was performed at 48% surveyed ICUs. Ventilation monitoring with biomechanical methods was used at 53% of centers. Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in ICUs in Poland. Almost half of the ventilated patients had extrapulmonary indications. Patients were ventilated with low concentrations of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was commonly employed.

  3. A pilot prospective study on closed loop controlled ventilation and oxygenation in ventilated children during the weaning phase.

    PubMed

    Jouvet, Philippe; Eddington, Allen; Payen, Valérie; Bordessoule, Alice; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Gasco, Ricardo Lopez; Wysocki, Marc

    2012-05-16

    The present study is a pilot prospective safety evaluation of a new closed loop computerised protocol on ventilation and oxygenation in stable, spontaneously breathing children weighing more than 7 kg, during the weaning phase of mechanical ventilation. Mechanically ventilated children ready to start the weaning process were ventilated for five periods of 60 minutes in the following order: pressure support ventilation, adaptive support ventilation (ASV), ASV plus a ventilation controller (ASV-CO2), ASV-CO2 plus an oxygenation controller (ASV-CO2-O2) and pressure support ventilation again. Based on breath-by-breath analysis, the percentage of time with normal ventilation as defined by a respiratory rate between 10 and 40 breaths/minute, tidal volume > 5 ml/kg predicted body weight and end-tidal CO2 between 25 and 55 mmHg was determined. The number of manipulations and changes on the ventilator were also recorded. Fifteen children, median aged 45 months, were investigated. No adverse event and no premature protocol termination were reported. ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 kept the patients within normal ventilation for, respectively, 94% (91 to 96%) and 94% (87 to 96%) of the time. The tidal volume, respiratory rate, peak inspiratory airway pressure and minute ventilation were equivalent for all modalities, although there were more automatic setting changes in ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2. Positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2 require further investigation. Over the short study period and in this specific population, ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 were safe and kept the patient under normal ventilation most of the time. Further research is needed, especially for positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01095406.

  4. Oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio is a simple predictor of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Carol; Gandhi, Rikesh; Patel, Sanjay R.; Nuccio, Paul; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Lee, Po-Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can improve outcomes of critically ill patients. Early and simple predictors of NPPV outcome could improve clinical management of patients with respiratory failure. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary medical center. Patients requiring NPPV were included and followed. Clinical data including respiratory mechanics at the time of NPPV initiation, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Data were analyzed to identify variables that distinguished NPPV success or failure. Results A total of 133 patients were included in the study. NPPV success rate was 41%. Patients diagnosed with malignancy had only 29% NPPV success rate. Among patients without malignancy, higher oxygen saturation, oxygen saturation/FiO2 (SF) ratios, and SF/minute ventilation (MV) ratios were associated with NPPV success. Receiver operating curve analyses identify SF < 98.5 to be a specific (89% specificity, P=0.013) predictor of NPPV failure. Furthermore, for patients requiring at least 24hr of NPPV support, tidal volume (TV)/predicted body weight (PBW) ratio inversely correlated with respiratory improvement. Conclusions For patients without malignancy, SF ratios at the time of NPPV initiation discriminated NPPV success and failure, and could be used to help guide the management of critically ill patients who require ventilatory support. PMID:21036535

  5. Multifaceted bench comparative evaluation of latest intensive care unit ventilators.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Quesnel, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Degrain, M; Carteaux, G; Bonnet, F; Similowski, T; Demoule, A

    2015-07-01

    Independent bench studies using specific ventilation scenarios allow testing of the performance of ventilators in conditions similar to clinical settings. The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of the latest generation ventilators to deliver chosen parameters in various typical conditions and to provide clinicians with a comprehensive report on their performance. Thirteen modern intensive care unit ventilators were evaluated on the ASL5000 test lung with and without leakage for: (i) accuracy to deliver exact tidal volume (VT) and PEEP in assist-control ventilation (ACV); (ii) performance of trigger and pressurization in pressure support ventilation (PSV); and (iii) quality of non-invasive ventilation algorithms. In ACV, only six ventilators delivered an accurate VT and nine an accurate PEEP. Eleven devices failed to compensate VT and four the PEEP in leakage conditions. Inspiratory delays differed significantly among ventilators in invasive PSV (range 75-149 ms, P=0.03) and non-invasive PSV (range 78-165 ms, P<0.001). The percentage of the ideal curve (concomitantly evaluating the pressurization speed and the levels of pressure reached) also differed significantly (range 57-86% for invasive PSV, P=0.04; and 60-90% for non-invasive PSV, P<0.001). Non-invasive ventilation algorithms efficiently prevented the decrease in pressurization capacities and PEEP levels induced by leaks in, respectively, 10 and 12 out of the 13 ventilators. We observed real heterogeneity of performance amongst the latest generation of intensive care unit ventilators. Although non-invasive ventilation algorithms appear to maintain adequate pressurization efficiently in the case of leakage, basic functions, such as delivered VT in ACV and pressurization in PSV, are often less reliable than the values displayed by the device suggest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. Low-positive pressure ventilation improves non-hypoxaemic apnoea tolerance during ear, nose and throat pan-endoscopy: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abou-Arab, Osama; Guinot, Pierre-Grégoire; Dimov, Evgeny; Diouf, Momar; de Broca, Bruno; Biet, Aurélie; Zaatar, Rody; Bernard, Eugénie; Dupont, Hervé; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that oxygenation using pressure support ventilation (PSV) before general anaesthesia can reduce the duration of non-hypoxaemic apnoea. The objective was to determine whether or not pre-oxygenation with PSV increases the duration of non-hypoxaemic apnoea in non-obese patients during pan-endoscopy. A randomised, controlled trial. Amiens University Hospital, France. Fifty patients scheduled for ENT pan-endoscopy with a BMI lower than 35  kg  m(-2). Patients scheduled for pan-endoscopy were enrolled to receive either 100% oxygen at neutral pressure (the control group) or 100% oxygen with positive-pressure ventilation (a positive inspiratory pressure of 4  cmH2O and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 4  cmH2O; the PSV group) during spontaneous ventilation with a face mask. The goal of pre-oxygenation was to obtain an end-tidal oxygen concentration of more than 90% prior to induction of anaesthesia. The primary efficacy criterion was the duration of non-hypoxaemic apnoea (i.e. before the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation fell to 90%). Secondary outcomes were duration of pre-oxygenation, pre-oxygenation failure and tolerance. The mean (interquartile range) duration of non-hypoxaemic apnoea was longer in the PSV group [598 (447 to 717) s] than in the control group [310 (217 to 451) s] (P < 0.001). Oxygenation time was shorter in the PSV group [190 (159 to 225) s] than in the control group [245 (151 to 435) s] (P = 0.037). Pre-oxygenation was unsuccessful (i.e. end-tidal oxygen concentration was < 90%) in 20% of the patients in the control group but none in the PSV group. The intergroup difference in the duration of pan-endoscopy was not significant. Tolerance was good or very good in all patients. Our results show that pre-oxygenation with PSV is associated with a longer duration of non-hypoxaemic apnoea and a lower frequency of manual reventilation during ENT pan-endoscopy. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02167334.

  7. [Mechanical ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akio; Hashimoto, S

    2009-07-01

    The development of the computer technology brought reform in the field of medical equipment. Originally the mechanical ventilator was an instrument only as for running by pressure and the tool that let you breathe. However, it has a function to assist a measurement (tidal volume, peek pressure, etc.) and to wean from a ventilator. There is a case to use a mechanical ventilator for after a chest surgical operation. After the operation without the complication, it seems that there is not the special administration. However, special respiratory management is necessary in case of chronic respiratory failure and acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore I introduce a method to use a respirator after an operation in our institution.

  8. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  9. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    PubMed Central

    Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support. PMID:27730162

  10. Low Transmission of Airway Pressures to the Abdomen in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With or Without Acute Respiratory Failure and Intra-Abdominal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Bram G A D H; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique M E; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2017-03-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure, measured at end expiration, may depend on ventilator settings and transmission of intrathoracic pressure. We determined the transmission of positive intrathoracic pressure during mechanical ventilation at inspiration and expiration into the abdominal compartment. We included 9 patients after uncomplicated cardiac surgery and 9 with acute respiratory failure. Intravesical pressures were measured thrice (reproducibility of 1.8%) and averaged, at the end of each inspiratory and expiratory hold maneuvers of 5 seconds. Transmission, the change in intra-abdominal over intrathoracic pressures from end inspiration to end expiration, was about 8%. End-expiratory intra-abdominal pressure was lower than "total" intra-abdominal pressure over the entire respiratory cycle by 0.34 cm H2O. It was 0.73 cm H2O higher than "true" intra-abdominal pressure over the entire respiratory cycle, taking transmission into account. The percentage error was 3% for total and 10% for true pressure. Results did not differ among patients with or without acute respiratory failure and decreased respiratory compliance or between those with (≥12 mm Hg, n = 5) or without intra-abdominal hypertension. Transmitted airway pressure only slightly affects intra-abdominal pressure in mechanically ventilated patients, irrespective of respiratory compliance and baseline intra-abdominal pressure values. End-expiratory measurements referenced against atmospheric pressure may suffice for clinical practice.

  11. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: why are we still looking for alternative methods?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, F; Esteban, A

    2013-12-01

    Most patients who require mechanical ventilation for longer than 24 hours, and who improve the condition leading to the indication of ventilatory support, can be weaned after passing a first spontaneous breathing test. The challenge is to improve the weaning of patients who fail that first test. We have methods that can be referred to as traditional, such as the T-tube, pressure support or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In recent years, however, new applications of usual techniques as noninvasive ventilation, new ventilation methods such as automatic tube compensation (ATC), mandatory minute ventilation (MMV), adaptive support ventilation or automatic weaning systems based on pressure support have been described. Their possible role in weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients with difficult or prolonged weaning remains to be established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical ventilation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The timing of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation and its outcome in the management of respiratory and cardiac failure have received considerable attention, but very little attention has been given to mechanical ventilation during ECMO. Mechanical ventilation settings in non-ECMO studies have been shown to have an effect on survival and may also have contributed to a treatment effect in ECMO trials. Protective lung ventilation strategies established for non-ECMO-supported respiratory failure patients may not be optimal for more severe forms of respiratory failure requiring ECMO support. The influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on the reduction of the left ventricular compliance may be a matter of concern for patients receiving ECMO support for cardiac failure. The objectives of this review were to describe potential mechanisms for lung injury during ECMO for respiratory or cardiac failure, to assess the possible benefits from the use of ultra-protective lung ventilation strategies and to review published guidelines and expert opinions available on mechanical ventilation-specific management of patients requiring ECMO, including mode and ventilator settings. Articles were identified through a detailed search of PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane databases and Google Scholar. Additional references were retrieved from the selected studies. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation settings are important in ECMO patients to minimize further lung damage and improve outcomes. An ultra-protective ventilation strategy may be optimal for mechanical ventilation during ECMO for respiratory failure. The effects of airway pressure on right and left ventricular afterload should be considered during venoarterial ECMO support of cardiac failure. Future studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of invasive mechanical ventilation modes and settings on outcomes. PMID:24447458

  13. Pulmonary rehabilitation coupled with negative pressure ventilation decreases decline in lung function, hospitalizations, and medical cost in COPD: A 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Pan, Yu-Bin; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes.One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20-30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program. Pulmonary function tests and 6 min walk tests (6MWT) were performed every 3 to 6 months. Emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization with medical costs were recorded.A significant time-by-group interaction in the yearly decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the control group analyzed by mixed-model repeated-measure analysis was found (P = 0.048). The 6MWT distance of the NPV group was significantly increased during the first 4 years, with the interaction of time and group (P = 0.003), the time alone (P = 0.014), and the quadratic time (P < 0.001) being significant between the 2 groups. ER exacerbations and hospitalizations decreased by 66% (P < 0.0001) and 54% (P < 0.0001) in the NPV group, respectively. Patients on PR program coupled with NPV had a significant reduction of annual medical costs (P = 0.022).Our hospital-based multidisciplinary PR coupled with NPV reduced yearly decline of lung function, exacerbations, and hospitalization rates, and improved walking distance and medical costs in patients with COPD during a 5-year observation.

  14. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  15. Nasal ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is likely to have an increasing role in the management of acute ventilatory failure, weaning, and chronic ventilatory problems. Further improvements in ventilator and mask design will be seen. Appropriate application is likely to reduce both mortality and admissions to intensive care, while domiciliary use can improve life expectancy and/or quality of life in chronic ventilatory disorders. As with any new technique, enthusiasm should not outweigh clear outcome information, and possible new indications should always be subject to careful assessment. Images Figure 2 PMID:9799887

  16. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  17. Relationship between Mean Airways Pressure, Lung Mechanics, and Right Ventricular Output during High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Infants.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Emanuela; Doni, Daniela; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Fedeli, Tiziana; Rigotti, Camilla; Dellacá, Raffaele L; Tagliabue, Paolo E

    2017-01-01

    To characterize changes in lung mechanics and right ventricular output (RVO) during incremental/decremental continuous distending pressure (CDP) maneuvers in newborn infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, with the aim of evaluating when open lung maneuvers are needed and whether they are beneficial. Thirteen infants on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation were studied with a median (IQR) gestational age of 26(1) (25(3)-29(1)) weeks and median (IQR) body weight of 810 (600-1020) g. CDP was increased stepwise from 8 cmH2O to a maximum pressure and subsequently decreased until oxygenation deteriorated or a CDP of 8 cmH2O was reached. The lowest CDP that maintained good oxygenation was considered the clinically optimal CDP. At each CDP, the following variables were evaluated: oxygenation, respiratory system reactance (Xrs), and RVO by Doppler echocardiography. At maximal CDP reached during the trial, 19 [1] cmH2O (mean [SEM]), oxygenation markedly improved, and Xrs and RVO decreased. During deflation, oxygenation remained stable over a wide range of CDP settings, Xrs returned to the baseline values, and RVO increased but the baseline values were not readily restored in all patients. These results suggest that Xrs and RVO are more sensitive than oxygenation to overdistension and they may be useful in clinical practice to guide open lung maneuvers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heliox and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation: a role for heliox in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2006-06-01

    Evidence-based respiratory therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes oxygen, inhaled bronchodilators, and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Examining the physics of gas flow, a case can be made either for or against the use of helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) in the care of patients with COPD. The evidence for the use of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation is not strong at present. Most of the peer-reviewed literature consists of case reports, case series, and physiologic studies in small samples of carefully selected patients. Some patients with COPD exacerbation have a favorable physiologic response to heliox therapy, but predicting who will be a responder is difficult. Moreover, the use of heliox is hampered by the lack of widespread availability of an approved heliox delivery system. Appropriately designed randomized controlled trials with patient-important outcomes, such as avoidance of intubation, decreased intensive-care-unit and hospital days, and decreased cost of therapy, are sorely needed to establish the role of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation, including those receiving noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Lacking such evidence, the use of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation cannot be considered standard therapy.

  19. Combined effects of ventilation mode and positive end-expiratory pressure on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium in mice with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (V(T)) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-V(T) combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH(2)O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CV(LB)) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VV(N)). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CV(LB) was better than CV, VV(N) outperformed CV(LB) in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury.

  20. Changes in Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Alter the Distribution of Ventilation within the Lung Immediately after Birth in Newborn Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Siew, Melissa L.; Wallace, Megan J.; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; te Pas, Arjan B.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC) and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation) were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL), upper right (UR), lower left (LL) and lower right (LR) quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (p<0.05). Consequently, the relative distribution of incoming VT was preferentially directed into the lower lobes at low PEEP, primarily due to the loss of FRC in those lobes. Following ventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation. PMID:24690890

  1. Combined Effects of Ventilation Mode and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Mechanics, Gas Exchange and the Epithelium in Mice with Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The accepted protocol to ventilate patients with acute lung injury is to use low tidal volume (VT) in combination with recruitment maneuvers or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, an important aspect of mechanical ventilation has not been considered: the combined effects of PEEP and ventilation modes on the integrity of the epithelium. Additionally, it is implicitly assumed that the best PEEP-VT combination also protects the epithelium. We aimed to investigate the effects of ventilation mode and PEEP on respiratory mechanics, peak airway pressures and gas exchange as well as on lung surfactant and epithelial cell integrity in mice with acute lung injury. HCl-injured mice were ventilated at PEEPs of 3 and 6 cmH2O with conventional ventilation (CV), CV with intermittent large breaths (CVLB) to promote recruitment, and a new mode, variable ventilation, optimized for mice (VVN). Mechanics and gas exchange were measured during ventilation and surfactant protein (SP)-B, proSP-B and E-cadherin levels were determined from lavage and lung homogenate. PEEP had a significant effect on mechanics, gas exchange and the epithelium. The higher PEEP reduced lung collapse and improved mechanics and gas exchange but it also down regulated surfactant release and production and increased epithelial cell injury. While CVLB was better than CV, VVN outperformed CVLB in recruitment, reduced epithelial injury and, via a dynamic mechanotransduction, it also triggered increased release and production of surfactant. For long-term outcome, selection of optimal PEEP and ventilation mode may be based on balancing lung physiology with epithelial injury. PMID:23326543

  2. Positive End-Expiratory Pressure may alter breathing cardiovascular variability and baroreflex gain in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Baroreflex allows to reduce sudden rises or falls of arterial pressure through parallel RR interval fluctuations induced by autonomic nervous system. During spontaneous breathing, the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may affect the autonomic nervous system, as suggested by changes in baroreflex efficiency and RR variability. During mechanical ventilation, some patients have stable cardiorespiratory phase difference and high-frequency amplitude of RR variability (HF-RR amplitude) over time and others do not. Our first hypothesis was that a steady pattern could be associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity and HF-RR amplitude, reflecting a blunted autonomic nervous function. Our second hypothesis was that PEEP, widely used in critical care patients, could affect their autonomic function, promoting both steady pattern and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Methods We tested the effect of increasing PEEP from 5 to 10 cm H2O on the breathing variability of arterial pressure and RR intervals, and on the baroreflex. Invasive arterial pressure, ECG and ventilatory flow were recorded in 23 mechanically ventilated patients during 15 minutes for both PEEP levels. HF amplitude of RR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) time series and HF phase differences between RR, SBP and ventilatory signals were continuously computed by complex demodulation. Cross-spectral analysis was used to assess the coherence and gain functions between RR and SBP, yielding baroreflex-sensitivity indices. Results At PEEP 10, the 12 patients with a stable pattern had lower baroreflex gain and HF-RR amplitude of variability than the 11 other patients. Increasing PEEP was generally associated with a decreased baroreflex gain and a greater stability of HF-RR amplitude and cardiorespiratory phase difference. Four patients who exhibited a variable pattern at PEEP 5 became stable at PEEP 10. At PEEP 10, a stable pattern was associated with higher organ failure score and

  3. ProSeal versus Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Qamarul Hoda, Muhammad; Samad, Khalid; Ullah, Hameed

    2017-07-20

    The development of supraglottic airway devices has revolutionized airway management during general anaesthesia. Two devices are widely used in clinical practice to facilitate positive pressure ventilation: the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). It is not clear whether these devices have important clinical differences in terms of efficacy or complications. To compare the effectiveness of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic LMA (cLMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); Embase (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1946 to April 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO host, 1982 to April 2017).We searched trial registries for ongoing studies to April 2017.We did not impose language restrictions. We restricted our search to the time from 1997 to April 2017 because pLMA was introduced into clinical practice in the year 2000. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effectiveness of pLMA and cLMA for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We planned to include only data related to the first phase of cross-over RCTs. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We included eight RCTs that involved a total of 829 participants (416 and 413 participants in the pLMA and cLMA groups, respectively). We identified six cross-over studies that are awaiting classification; one is completed but has not been published, and data related to the first treatment period for the other five studies were not yet available. Seven included studies provided data related to the primary outcome, and eight studies provided data related to more than

  4. End-inspiratory airway occlusion: a method to assess the pressure developed by inspiratory muscles in patients with acute lung injury undergoing pressure support.

    PubMed

    Foti, G; Cereda, M; Banfi, G; Pelosi, P; Fumagalli, R; Pesenti, A

    1997-10-01

    We evaluated the end-inspiratory occlusion maneuver as a means to estimate the inspiratory effort during pressure support ventilation (PS). In nine nonobstructed acute lung injury (ALI) patients, we applied four levels of PS (0, 5, 10, 15 cm H2O) to modify the inspiratory effort. End inspiratory occlusions (2 to 3 s) were performed at the end of each experimental period by pushing the inspiratory hold button of the ventilator (Servo 900 C; Siemens, Berlin, Germany). We took the difference between the end-inspiratory occlusion plateau pressure and the airway pressure before the occlusion (PEEP + PS) as an estimate of the inspiratory effort and called it PMI (Pmusc,index). From the esophageal pressure tracing we obtained a reference measurement of the pressure developed by the inspiratory muscles at end inspiration (Pmusc,ei) and of the pressure-time product per breath (PTP/b) and per minute (PTP/min). In each patient, PMI was correlated with Pmusc,ei (p < 0.01) and PTP/b (p < 0.01). A PMI threshold of 6 cm H2O detected PTP/min < 125 cm H2O s/min with a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.89. We conclude that PMI is a good estimate of the pressure developed by the inspiratory muscles in ALI patients and may be used to titrate PS level. The major advantage of PMI is that it can be obtained from the ventilator display without any additional equipment.

  5. [Measurement of tissue (correction of tissne) tension and ventilation resistance in eustachian (correction of eustachiam) tube opened by positive pressure in respiratory tract and the study on mechanism of ventilation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-lin; Zheng, Zhang-qing; Li, Xiang; Wan, Zheng; Cheng, Ping; Lu, Yao

    2004-10-01

    To determine the ventilation resistance of the Eustachian tube (VRET) and the lowest positive pressure to maintain the opening of the tube. Through which to elucidate the mechanism of positive ventilation. To determine the tissue tension, 24 male flyers. Middle ear pressure was measured by a Zodiac 901 analyzer. To determine the VRET: when the Eustachian tube was opened, the change of pressure in the nasopharynx during the change of pressure in the external auditory canal was the VRET. In order to understand the relationship between middle ear barotraumas and VRET, 160 ears were tested in flight, and 60 ears were tested in the hypobaric chamber. The Eustachian tube ventilation resistance was found to have a large respective divergence (1.20-6.86 kPa). When the tube was opened, the pressure of the middle ear changed with the change of the mask pressure. When the mask pressure dropped to 0.70 kPa, the middle ear pressure dropped down to 0 kPa. The individual difference was comparatively small. Among 160 ears of 80 combat aircraft flyers in flight, 19 ears had presentations of middle ear barotalgia. 141 ears had no presentation of barotalgia. The VRET's were significantly different (P<0.001). Among the 60 ears of 30 flyers tested in the low-pressure chamber, 9 ears had presentations of middle ear barotraumas. 51 ears had no presentation of barotalgia. The difference between the VRET's were also significant (P<0.001). If there is enough positive pressure in the mask, it will open the Eustachian tube. Then, it needs only a small positive pressure (about 0.70 kPa) to maintain the tube open. The airflow in the tube follows the law of pneumatics. The occurrence of barotalgia and VRET are correlative.

  6. A bench study of intensive-care-unit ventilators: new versus old and turbine-based versus compressed gas-based ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Thille, Arnaud W.; Lyazidi, Aissam; Richard, Jean-Christophe M.; Galia, Fabrice; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare 13 commercially available, new-generation, intensive-care-unit (ICU) ventilators regarding trigger function, pressurization capacity during pressure-support ventilation (PSV), accuracy of pressure measurements and expiratory resistance. Design and Setting Bench study at a research laboratory in a university hospital. Material Four turbine-based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were tested using a two-compartment lung model. Results Three levels of effort were simulated. Each ventilator was evaluated at four PSV levels (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O), with and without positive end-expiratory pressure (5 cm H2O, Trigger function was assessed as the time from effort onset to detectable pressurization. Pressurization capacity was evaluated using the airway pressure-time product computed as the net area under the pressure-time curve over the first 0.3 s after inspiratory effort onset. Expiratory resistance was evaluated by measuring trapped volume in controlled ventilation. Significant differences were found across the ventilators, with a range of triggering-delay from 42 ms to 88 ms for all conditions averaged (P<.001). Under difficult conditions, the triggering delay was longer than 100 ms and the pressurization was poor with five ventilators at PSV5 and three at PSV10, suggesting an inability to unload patient’s effort. On average, turbine-based ventilators performed better than conventional ventilators, which showed no improvement compared to a 2000 bench comparison. Conclusion Technical performances of trigger function, pressurization capacity and expiratory resistance vary considerably across new-generation ICU ventilators. ICU ventilators seem to have reached a technical ceiling in recent years, and some ventilators still perform inadequately. PMID:19352622

  7. Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during ventilation through small endotracheal tubes during general anesthesia: incidence, mechanism, and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Marco; Nicelli, Elisa; Corti, Daniele; De Vitis, Assunta; Patroniti, Nicolò; Foti, Giuseppe; Calvi, Maria Rosa; Beretta, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    To assess the safety of mechanical ventilation and effectiveness of extrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEPe) in improving peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during direct microlaryngeal laser surgery; to assess the incidence, amount, and nature (dynamic hyperinflation or airflow obstruction) of ensuing intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi); and to find a surrogate PEEPi indicator. Quasiexperimental. S. Raffaele Hospital (Milano), November 2009 to December 2010. Fifty-two adults scheduled for direct microlaryngeal laser surgery. Exclusion criterion is pregnancy. Twenty-one percent O2 mechanical ventilation through 4.5- to 5.5-mm internal diameter endotracheal tubes; in 29 patients, after measurement of PEEPi, an identical amount of PEEPe was added; and PEEPi. SpO2, peak (Pawpeak) and plateau (Pawplateau) airway pressure, and end-expiratory carbon dioxide were measured every 5 minutes. Respiratory compliance (Crs) was computed. PEEPi was measured (end-expiratory occlusion method). PEEPi ≥5 cm H2O occurred in 14 patients (27%) after intubation, in 16 (30%) at the beginning, and in 14 (27.3%) at the end of surgery. Thirty-one patients (59.4%) exhibited PEEPi ≥5 cm H2O on at least 1 time point. PEEPi at the beginning of surgery was positively correlated with Pawplateau, Crs, tidal volume, and body mass index. Body mass index was the only predictor for the occurrence of PEEPi ≥5 cm H2O. At the beginning of surgery, the Pawplateau receiver operating characteristic curve predicting PEEPi ≥5 cm H2O had area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85; best cutoff value of 15.5 cm H2O (sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; correctly classified cases, 86.1%). When PEEPe was applied, in 23 cases (82.1%), total PEEP equaled PEEPe+ PEEPi; in 3 (10.7%), it was lower; and in 2 (7.1%), it was higher. Application of PEEPe increased SpO2 (P< .05) and Crs (P< .05). During ventilation through small endotracheal tubes, PEEPi (mostly due to dynamic hyperinflation

  8. Comparison of the effect of LMA and ETT on ventilation and intragastric pressure in pediatric laparoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, D; Güvenç, B H; Toker, K; Solak, M; Ekingen, G

    2010-08-01

    The aim of our study was to compare classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA-C) with the endotracheal tube (ETT) in pediatric laparoscopic surgery to evaluate the intragastric pressures (IGP) using intragastric pressure monitoring. We also sought to investigate the related influence on respiratory parameters. The Ethics Committee of the Health Institution approved the study protocol. A total of 40 patients, ASA I-II, three and a half months to 12 years old were included in this randomized study. Two study groups were formed: the ETT group and the LMA-C group. A nasogastric tube was inserted following induction to evacuate any intragastric gas and fluid before application of either LMA-C or ETT. The change in IGP was measured with a transducer, which was attached to the nasogastric tube. IGP, peak airway pressures (PAP), SPO2 and ETCO2 were recorded. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to evaluate the change in IGP, PAP, SPO2 and ETCO2 times in both groups. The change in IGP was not significant among the groups except at 15 and 30 minutes (P<0.05). The changes in PAP, SPO2, and ETCO2 levels were not significant. The perioperative intragastric pressure evaluation failed to show any significant change in intragastric pressures and ventilation parameters due to the application of LMA-C in this study. We advocate LMA-C application as a feasible anesthetic device in pediatric laparoscopic surgery.

  9. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    SciTech Connect

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  10. The effect of a bellows leak in an Ohmeda 7810 ventilator on room contamination, inspired oxygen, airway pressure, and tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Lampotang, Samsun; Sanchez, Justin C; Chen, Baixi; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the effect of a small bellows leak (bellows full at end-expiration) on inspired oxygen fraction (Fio(2)), exhaled tidal volume (Vt), airway pressure, and room contamination in an oxygen-driven anesthesia ventilator (Ohmeda 7810, Madison, WI). CO(2) concentration at the ventilator exhalation valve, Fio(2), Vt, and airway pressure were measured (n = 3) while ventilating a CO(2)-producing test lung at 8 breaths/min and an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:2, with and without a bellows leak (4-mm-long tear). Set Vt was 400, 600, 800, and 1000 mL. Fresh gas flow (FGF) was 0.3 L/min O(2) and (a) 5.0 L/min air, (b) 2.0 L/min air, and (c) 0.2 L/min nitrogen. There was no clinical difference in Fio(2), Vt, PIP (peak inspiratory pressure) and PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure), with and without a 4-mm bellows tear, at all FGFs and Vt settings. CO(2) at the ventilator exhalation valve was always nonzero with a bellows leak, indicating that CO(2)-laden circuit gas was contaminating the drive gas via the bellows leak. A 4-mm bellows tear in an Ohmeda 7810 ventilator allows anesthetic gases to contaminate ambient air but does not cause clinically significant changes in Fio(2), exhaled Vt, PIP, or PEEP.

  11. Endotoxemia accelerates diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Pan, Chun; Longhini, Federico; Liu, Ling; Huang, Yingzi; Guo, Fengmei; Qiu, Haibo

    2016-12-01

    Ventilators may induce diaphragm dysfunction, and most of the septic population who are admitted to the intensive care unit require mechanical ventilation. However, there is no evidence that sepsis accelerates the onset of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction or affects the microcirculation. Our study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia accelerated diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits by evaluating microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and diaphragm contractility. After anesthesia and tracheostomy, 25 invasively monitored and mechanically ventilated New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to control (n = 5), controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) (n = 5), pressure support ventilation (PSV; n = 5), CMV or PSV with LPS-induced endotoxemia (CMV-LPS and PSV-LPS, respectively; n = 5 for each). Rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated for 24 h, except the control rabbits (30 min). Diaphragmatic contractility was evaluated using neuromechanical and neuroventilatory efficiency. We evaluated the following at the end of the protocol: (1) diaphragm microcirculation; (2) lipid accumulation; and (3) diaphragm muscular fibers structure. Diaphragm contractility, microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and fiber structures were severely compromised in endotoxemic animals after 24 h compared to nonendotoxemic rabbits. Moreover, a slight but significant increase in lipid accumulation was observed in CMV and PSV groups compared with controls (P < 0.05). Endotoxemia accelerates the diaphragm dysfunction process in ventilated rabbits, affects the microcirculation, and results in diaphragmatic lipid accumulation and contractility impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined nutritional support in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), under mechanical ventilation (MV).

    PubMed

    Grigorakos, Leonidas; Sotiriou, Evangelia; Markou, Nikolaos; Stratouli, Stamatina; Boutzouka, Eleni; Philntisis, George; Baltopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    The importance of nutrition is clearly established in the management of the critically ill patient: malnutrition contributes to immune incompetence, poor wound healing, increased postoperative complication and prolonged hospital stay. The interaction between nutritional status, nutritional supply and respiratory function is important in the management of the Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). In the present study was analyzed the benefits of combined nutritional support in patients with COPD under MV. One hundred ninety two (192) patients with COPD were admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU), due to severe respiratory failure of whom 163 (84.9%) patients were under MV. In 18 (11.04%) patients after the 10th day under MV and due to severe malnutrition (serum albumin < 2.5 gm/dl, total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 900/mm3), added in the enteral nutrition (EN) of 1800 Kcals and parenteral nutrition (PN) of 2000 Kcals, at high concentration in lipids from central venous catheter. Seven (38.89%) patients on the 4th day, after combined nutrition, had a positive balance of nitrogen and normal level of the nutritional indices, 4 (22.22%) were on normal level on the 5th day, 3 (16.67%) on the 6th day, 1 (5.56%) on the 7th day after combined nutrition. We had no complications from the combination of EN and PN. Conclusively, of these 18 patients that were given both EN and PN, 15 (83.33%) were weaned from MV and continued the combined nutritional support for 3 days, while 3 (16.67%) died during the combination of EN and PN, without having achieved a normal level of the indices of nutrition and without a positive balance of nitrogen. In this study was found that: 1. patients with COPD under MV rapidly developed malnutrition, 2. the combination EN and PN without complications contribute to the weaning from MV, 3. positive nitrogen balance and normal increases of nutrition are achieved after the 4th day of combined nutrition

  13. Average volume-assured pressure support in obesity hypoventilation: A randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Storre, Jan Hendrik; Seuthe, Benjamin; Fiechter, René; Milioglou, Stavroula; Dreher, Michael; Sorichter, Stephan; Windisch, Wolfram

    2006-09-01

    Average volume-assured pressure support (AVAPS) has been introduced as a new additional mode for a bilevel pressure ventilation (BPV) device (BiPAP; Respironics; Murrysville, PA), but studies on the physiologic and clinical effects have not yet been performed. There is a particular need to better define the most efficient ventilatory treatment modality for patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). In OHS patients who did not respond to therapy with continuous positive airway pressure, the effects of BPV with the spontaneous/timed (S/T) ventilation mode with and without AVAPS over 6 weeks on ventilation pattern, gas exchange, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessed by the severe respiratory insufficiency questionnaire (SRI) were prospectively investigated in a randomized crossover trial. Ten patients (mean [+/- SD] age, 53.5 +/- 11.7 years; mean body mass index, 41.6 +/- 12.1 kg/m2; mean FEV1/FVC ratio, 79.4 +/- 6.5%; mean transcutaneous P(CO2) [PtcCO2], 58 +/- 12 mm Hg) were studied. PtcCO2 nonsignificantly decreased during nocturnal BPV-S/T by -5.6 +/- 11.8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], -14.7 to 3.4 mm Hg; p = 0.188), but significantly decreased during BPV-S/T-AVAPS by -12.6 +/- 12.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -22.0 to -3.2 mm Hg; p = 0.015). Pneumotachographic measurements revealed a higher individual variance of peak inspiratory pressure (p < 0.001) and a trend for lower leak volumes but also for higher tidal volumes during BPV-S/T-AVAPS. The SRI summary scale score improved from 63 +/- 15 to 78 +/- 14 during BPV-S/T (p = 0.004) and to 76 +/- 16 during BPV-S/T-AVAPS (p = 0.014). Sleep quality and oxygen saturation also comparably improved following BPV-S/T and BPV-S/T-AVAPS. BPV-S/T substantially improved oxygenation, sleep quality, and HRQL in patients with OHS. AVAPS provided additional benefits on ventilation quality, thus resulting in a more efficient decrease of PtcCO2. However, this did not provide further clinical benefits

  14. Liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  15. [High frequency jet ventilation in heated gas saturated in water vapor without a reserve of medical gas under pressure. An original method].

    PubMed

    Neidhardt, A; Péquignot, M; Combe, M; Bachour, K; Badet, J M

    1992-01-01

    A prototype of high frequency jet ventilator is compared with a classic device: Gambro Soxijet ventilator. The advantages of the prototype are: no need of pressured medical gas; warming and saturated moisture of the gas. A powerful compressor (2 M3.H-1 flow--3 bar pressure) draws up the moistened and warmed gases and injects them into a double pneumatic capacity. The first capacity is pressure limited by a relief valve (3 bar). Exhausted gases flow back to the pump. A miniature pressure regulator, placed between the two capacities, rules the driving pressure. Gas mixture is injected through a solenoid valve controlled by an electronic twin-timer. Results of both devices are similar. However, our prototype seems to be very convenient for developing countries where medical gases under high pressure are not often available.

  16. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs.

  17. T-piece or self inflating bag for positive pressure ventilation during delivery room resuscitation: an RCT.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anup; Saluja, Satish; Modi, Manoj; Kler, Neelam; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Kaur, Avneet; Chetri, Sanjeev

    2015-05-01

    To compare the duration of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) during delivery room resuscitation in neonates resuscitated with self-inflating bag (SIB) and T-piece resuscitator (TPR). Randomized control trial. Delivery room and neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care center in northern India. Consecutively born neonates more than 26 weeks of gestation requiring PPV at birth. Eligible neonates were randomized to two groups, SIB and TPR. Duration of PPV, intubation rates in delivery room, incidence of respiratory distress, need for mechanical ventilation during first 48h and its duration, need for surfactant replacement therapy and mortality during NICU stay. Fifty neonates received PPV with a SIB and 40 received PPV with a TPR. The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of neonates in SIB and TPR groups were 2264 (872) and 2065 (814)g; 35.1 (3.6) and 34.3 (3.7) weeks, respectively. The median (IQR) duration of PPV in delivery room was significantly less in TPR group as compared to SIB; 30 (30-60)s vs. 60 (30-90)s, respectively; (p<0.001). A higher proportion of neonates required delivery room intubation in SIB group as compared to TPR group (34% vs. 15%, p=0.04). In the TPR group, a higher proportion of neonates could be resuscitated with room air only (72.5% vs. 38%, p=0.001). Other outcomes were comparable in the two groups. Similar findings were observed in neonates <34 weeks, except that fewer neonates resuscitated with TPR required invasive ventilation (31.6% vs. 77.8%, p=0.008). Use of TPR during delivery room resuscitation resulted in shorter duration of PPV and lesser rates of intubation as compared to SIB. More infants in this group could be resuscitated with room air only (CTRI/2010/091/002946). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Relating to Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in an Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Belenguer-Muncharaz, Alberto; Mateu-Campos, Lidón; González-Luís, Rubén; Vidal-Tegedor, Bárbara; Ferrándiz-Sellés, Amparo; Árguedas-Cervera, Joaquín; Altaba-Tena, Susana; Casero-Roig, Patricia; Moreno-Clarí, Ester

    2017-10-01

    To compare the application of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). In a prospective, randomized, controlled study performed in an ICU, patients with CPE were assigned to NIV (n=56) or CPAP (n=54). Primary outcome was intubation rate. Secondary outcomes included duration of ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, improvement of gas exchange, complications, ICU and hospital mortality, and 28-day mortality. The outcomes were analyzed in hypercapnic patients (PaCO2>45mmHg) with no underlying chronic lung disease. Both devices led to similar clinical and gas exchange improvement; however, in the first 60min of treatment a higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed in the NIV group (205±112 in NIV vs. 150±84 in CPAP, P=.02). The rate of intubation was similar in both groups (9% in NIV vs. 9% in CPAP, P=1.0). There were no differences in duration of ventilation, ICU and length of hospital stay. There were no significant differences in ICU, hospital and 28-d mortality between groups. In the hypercapnic group, there were no differences between NIV and CPAP. Either NIV or CPAP are recommended in patients with CPE in the ICU. Outcomes in the hypercapnic group with no chronic lung disease were similar using NIV or CPAP. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory dynamics and dead space to tidal volume ratio of volume-controlled versus pressure-controlled ventilation during prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ming; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2016-12-30

    Laparoscopic operations have become longer and more complex and applied to a broader patient population in the last decades. Prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgeries require prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position, which can influence respiratory dynamics and other measurements of pulmonary function. We investigated the differences between volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and tried to determine the more efficient ventilation mode during prolonged pneumoperitoneum in gynecological laparoscopy. Twenty-six patients scheduled for laparoscopic radical hysterectomy combined with or without laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy were randomly allocated to be ventilated by either VCV or PCV. Standard anesthesic management and laparoscopic procedures were performed. Measurements of respiratory and hemodynamic dynamics were obtained after induction of anesthesia, at 10, 30, 60, and 120 min after establishing pneumoperitoneum, and at 10 min after return to supine lithotomy position and removal of carbon dioxide. The logistic regression model was applied to predict the corresponding critical value of duration of pneumoperitoneum when the Ppeak was higher than 40 cmH2O. Prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position produced significant and clinically relevant changes in dynamic compliance and respiratory mechanics in anesthetized patients under PCV and VCV ventilation. Patients under PCV ventilation had a similar increase of dead space/tidal volume ratio, but had a lower Ppeak increase compared with those under VCV ventilation. The critical value of duration of pneumoperitoneum was predicted to be 355 min under VCV ventilation, corresponding to the risk of Ppeak higher than 40 cmH2O. Both VCV and PCV can be safely applied to prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgery. However, PCV may become the better choice of ventilation after ruling out of other reasons for Ppeak increasing.

  20. [Analysis of compliance of 2 prevention measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (raised head of bed and cuff pressure control)].

    PubMed

    del Cotillo Fuente, M; Valls Matarín, J

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the hours of mechanical ventilation in patients with head of bed elevation≥30°. Determining compliance of cuff measurement every 6h. Descriptive longitudinal study. Measured: time head of bed elevation≥30°, <30° and reasons for non compliance, as well as cuff control every 6h. One hundred and seventy-two records of head of bed elevation and 584 of cuff pressure. Daily average head<30° for care or procedures: 2h (1h19'). The theoretical average number of hours that patients should remain at≥30° was 21h15' (3h) and actual 14h (5h) (P<.001). Registration of cuff was 76,7%. Cuffs between 20-30cmH2O were 75.9%. The 20% of cuff pressure were measured every 6h<20cmH2O and 33.7% when the interval was higher (P=.04). A third of the day patients are<30° without justification. Cuff pressure registration and percentage of therapeutic range are high. Control every 6h decreases the cuff with pressure<20cmH2O. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Daren K; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Drover, John W; Gramlich, Leah; Dodek, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support (ie, enteral and parenteral nutrition) in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults. The following interventions were systematically reviewed for inclusion in the guidelines: enteral nutrition (EN) versus parenteral nutrition (PN), early versus late EN, dose of EN, composition of EN (protein, carbohydrates, lipids, immune-enhancing additives), strategies to optimize delivery of EN and minimize risks (ie, rate of advancement, checking residuals, use of bedside algorithms, motility agents, small bowel versus gastric feedings, elevation of the head of the bed, closed delivery systems, probiotics, bolus administration), enteral nutrition in combination with supplemental PN, use of PN versus standard care in patients with an intact gastrointestinal tract, dose of PN and composition of PN (protein, carbohydrates, IV lipids, additives, vitamins, trace elements, immune enhancing substances), and the use of intensive insulin therapy. The outcomes considered were mortality (intensive care unit [ICU], hospital, and long-term), length of stay (ICU and hospital), quality of life, and specific complications. We systematically searched MEDLINE and CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that evaluated any form of nutrition support in critically ill adults. We also searched reference lists and personal files, considering all articles published or unpublished available by August 2002. Each included study was critically appraised in duplicate using a standard scoring system. For each intervention, we considered the validity of the randomized trials or meta-analyses, the effect size and its associated confidence intervals, the homogeneity of trial results, safety, feasibility, and the economic consequences. The context for discussion was mechanically

  2. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Methods Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%). Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing), and with varying levels of pressure support. Results Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. Conclusions The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive reduction in inspiratory effort

  3. The Effects of Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation during Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Pulmonary Function Following Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Mostafa; Pakrooh, Behshid; Mirmesdagh, Yalda; Bakhshandeh., Hooman; Babaee, Touraj; Hosseini, Saeid; Kargar, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intrapulmonary shunt as a result of atelectasis following cardiac surgeries is an important and common postoperative complication that results into pulmonary dysfunction typically lasting more than a week following surgery. Different methods have been provided to prevent these complications. Objectives: In order to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications, investigation of the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Materials and Methods: In this prospective interventional study, 300 patients, candidate for elective CABG (On-Pump), were randomly allocated to 3 groups: A, B, C. Group A (CPAP) patients received CPAP at 10 cm H2O during CPB. Group B (IMV) patients received IMV with a tidal volume of 2 cc/kg and respiratory rate of 15/min and group C (control) patients did not receive any type of ventilation during CPB. Other procedures were similar between groups. Arterial blood samples were taken at 8 moments and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis were compared between groups. Chest x-rays after CABG were also evaluated with respect to atelectasis. Results: The demographic data were similar in between three groups. Graft number, pump time and preoperative ABGs were not significantly different. Postoperative PaO2 were significantly higher in the CPAP and IMV groups and (A-a) DO2 were significantly lower in these two groups, compared to the control group. Conclusions: In the present study, applying positive airway pressure methods (CPAP or IMV) during CPB was associated with better postoperative ABG measurements and (A-a) DO2. PMID:25478498

  4. Monitoring of intratidal lung mechanics: a Graphical User Interface for a model-based decision support system for PEEP-titration in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Buehler, S; Lozano-Zahonero, S; Schumann, S; Guttmann, J

    2014-12-01

    In mechanical ventilation, a careful setting of the ventilation parameters in accordance with the current individual state of the lung is crucial to minimize ventilator induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has to be set to prevent collapse of the alveoli, however at the same time overdistension should be avoided. Classic approaches of analyzing static respiratory system mechanics fail in particular if lung injury already prevails. A new approach of analyzing dynamic respiratory system mechanics to set PEEP uses the intratidal, volume-dependent compliance which is believed to stay relatively constant during one breath only if neither atelectasis nor overdistension occurs. To test the success of this dynamic approach systematically at bedside or in an animal study, automation of the computing steps is necessary. A decision support system for optimizing PEEP in form of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) was targeted. Respiratory system mechanics were analyzed using the gliding SLICE method. The resulting shapes of the intratidal compliance-volume curve were classified into one of six categories, each associated with a PEEP-suggestion. The GUI should include a graphical representation of the results as well as a quality check to judge the reliability of the suggestion. The implementation of a user-friendly GUI was successfully realized. The agreement between modelled and measured pressure data [expressed as root-mean-square (RMS)] tested during the implementation phase with real respiratory data from two patient studies was below 0.2 mbar for data taken in volume controlled mode and below 0.4 mbar for data taken in pressure controlled mode except for two cases with RMS < 0.6 mbar. Visual inspections showed, that good and medium quality data could be reliably identified. The new GUI allows visualization of intratidal compliance-volume curves on a breath-by-breath basis. The automatic categorisation of curve shape into one of six shape

  5. Tissue perfusion in relation to cardiac output during continuous positive-pressure ventilation and administration of propranolol or verapamil.

    PubMed

    Elowsson, P; Norlén, K; Jakobson, S

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to determine whether administration of propranolol or verapamil modifies the hemodynamic adaptation to continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV), in particular the regional distribution of cardiac output (CO). General hemodynamics and regional blood flows assessed by microsphere technique (15 microns) were recorded in 16 anesthetized pigs during spontaneous breathing (SB) and CPPV with 8 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure (CPPV8) before and after intravenous administration of propanolol (0.3 mg.kg-1 followed by 0.15 mg.kg-1.h-1, n = 8) or verapamil (0.1 mg.kg-1 followed by 0.3 mg.kg-1.h-1, n = 8). CPPV8 depressed CO by 25% without shifts in its relative distribution with the exception of a noteworthy increase in adrenal perfusion. Propranolol increased arterial blood pressure, and due to a fall in heart rate, CO dropped by 25%. The kidneys and, to a lesser extent, the splanchic region and central nervous system received increased fractions of the remaining CO at the expense of skeletal muscle flow. Similar patterns were seen during SB and CPPV8 such that the combination of propranolol and CPPV8 depressed CO by 50%. The circulatory effects of verapamil were less evident but myocardial perfusion tended to increase. The combination of propranolol or verapamil with CPPV does not result in any specific hemodynamic interaction in anesthetized pigs, except that the combined effect of propranolol and CPPV may severely reduce CO.

  6. Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.

    PubMed

    Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2.

  7. Reliability of the special support system for sitting pressure redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the reliability of the Special Support System. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen female and 14 male volunteers participated in this study. Participants were asked to sit on the Special Support System with their chins tucked in, spines straight, pelvis neutrally positioned, and their hands placed on their thighs. They were also asked to flex their hips, knees, and ankles to approximately 90 degrees and to put their feet flat on the floor. The total contact area, mean total pressure, as well as mean and peak pressures of each quadrant were each measured 15 times. Test-retest reliability was analyzed for inflated air pressure, and pressure redistribution values by using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient was greater than 0.89 for inflated air pressure and greater than 0.92 for total contact area, mean total pressure, and each quadrant’s mean and peak pressure. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that the Special Support System is reliable and can be used as an alternative method for redistributing sitting pressure. PMID:28174458

  8. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Modes of mechanical ventilation for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Ball, Lorenzo; Dameri, Maddalena; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Most patients undergoing surgical procedures need to be mechanically ventilated, because of the impact of several drugs administered at induction and during maintenance of general anaesthesia on respiratory function. Optimization of intraoperative mechanical ventilation can reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications and improve the patient's outcome. Preoxygenation at induction of general anaesthesia prolongs the time window for safe intubation, reducing the risk of hypoxia and overweighs the potential risk of reabsorption atelectasis. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation delivered through different interfaces should be considered at the induction of anaesthesia morbidly obese patients. Anaesthesia ventilators are becoming increasingly sophisticated, integrating many functions that were once exclusive to intensive care. Modern anaesthesia machines provide high performances in delivering the desired volumes and pressures accurately and precisely, including assisted ventilation modes. Therefore, the physicians should be familiar with the potential and pitfalls of the most commonly used intraoperative ventilation modes: volume-controlled, pressure-controlled, dual-controlled and assisted ventilation. Although there is no clear evidence to support the advantage of any one of these ventilation modes over the others, protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be considered in patients undergoing surgery. The target tidal volume should be calculated based on the predicted or ideal body weight rather than on the actual body weight. To optimize ventilation monitoring, anaesthesia machines should include end-inspiratory and end-expiratory pause as well as flow-volume loop curves. The routine administration of high PEEP levels should be avoided, as this may lead to haemodynamic impairment and fluid overload. Higher PEEP might be considered during surgery longer than 3 h

  10. Masses of radiation pressure supported stars in extreme relativistic realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2007-04-01

    It is known that there could be stars supported by radiation pressure alone. In Newtonian gravity, it turns out that such stars must be excessively massive and are called ``Supermassive Stars''. We show that this requirement for excessive mass arises because of weak gravity associated with Newtonian stars . The weakness of gravity here is expressed by the fact that for Newtonian stars, z << 1, where z is the surface gravitational redshift of the star. However, it is also known that sufficiently massive stars undergo continued gravitational collapse to become Black Holes (BH) marked by z=Infinity. Hence as the massive stars would tend to form BHs, they would pass through stages z>> 1. Recently, it has been shown that, such z>>1 stages would be be completely dominated by radiation energy rather than rest mass energy (Mitra, MNRAS Lett., 367, L66, 2006, gr-qc/0601025). By using this result, we show here that, in the realm of extremely strong gravity, there could be radiation pressure supported stars at arbitrary mass scale. Therefore, as we break free from the Newtonian restriction of z <<1, (1) Radiation Pressure Supported Stars need not be supermassive , (2) Radiation Pressure supported stars may have arbitrary low mass (say a few solar mass) or (3) They could be as massive as billion solar masses. The latter would be examples of Relativistic Supermassive Stars. All radiation pressure supported stars are shining at their respective maximal Eddington values and they are never in strict hydrodynamical equilibrium. On the other hand, they are in dynamical quasistatic state and their luminosity could be simply due to secular gravitational contraction known as Helmholtz -Kelvin process. The observed BH candidates could be in this intermediate state of radiation pressure supported relativistic stars (z >>1) rather than in the limiting BH stage (z = Infinity). Ref: A. Mitra, ``Radiation Pressure Supported Stars in Einstein Gravity: Eternally Collapsing Objects'', MNRAS (in

  11. Interrupted expiratory flow on automatically constructed flow-volume curves may determine the presence of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bardoczky, G I; d'Hollander, A A; Cappello, M; Yernault, J C

    1998-04-01

    We studied patients undergoing elective pulmonary surgery to establish whether observing interrupted expiratory flow (IEF) on the flow-volume curves constructed by the Ultima SV respiratory monitor is a reliable way to identify patients with dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi). Patients' tracheas were intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube and ventilated with a Siemens 900C constant flow ventilator. In 30 patients, PEEPi was determined by the end-expiratory occlusion (EEO) method during the periods of two-lung and one-lung ventilation in the lateral position. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy of the IEF method were calculated. From the 122 measurement pairs, PEEPi was identified with the EEO method in 65 occasions. The mean level of PEEPi was 4.4 cm H2O. During one-lung ventilation, the level of PEEPi and the number of true-positive findings was significantly higher (PEEPi = 4.7 cm H2O and 32 episodes) than during two-lung ventilation (2.9 cm H2O and 19 episodes). When the level of PEEPi was higher than 5 cm H2O, the predictive value of IEF was 100%. The overall sensitivity of the IEF method was 0.78, its specificity was 0.91, and its predictive value was 0.92. In conclusion, examination of the flow-volume curves displayed on the respiratory monitor may identify patients with dynamic hyperinflation and PEEPi during anesthesia for thoracic surgery. To identify patients with intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during anesthesia without the need to interrupt mechanical ventilation, the flow-volume curves of an online respiratory monitor may be examined. The presence of an interrupted expiratory flow may suggest the presence of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure with a reasonable accuracy.

  12. Attenuation of pressure swings along the endotracheal tube is indicative of optimal distending pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    van Genderingen, Huibert R; van Vught, Adrianus J; Duval, Elisabeth L I M; Markhorst, Dick G; Jansen, Jos R C

    2002-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, the oscillatory pressure ratio (OPR) is minimal at the optimal mean airway pressure (Paw). OPR is defined as the ratio of pressure swings at the distal end and the proximal opening of the endotracheal tube. Optimal Paw was assumed to be the lowest Paw at which the physiological shunt fraction was below 0.1. Acute lung injury was produced by saline lung lavage of pigs who were then subjected to a stepwise increase of Paw to impose underinflation, optimal inflation, and overdistention (inflation phase), followed by a stepwise decrease of Paw (deflation phase). OPR reached a minimum of 0.10 +/- 0.01 at Paw = 31 +/- 4 cm H(2)O during the inflation phase and a minimum of 0.04 +/- 0.01 at Paw = 18 +/- 1 cm H(2)O during the deflation phase. Optimal Paw was 31 +/- 4 cm H(2)O on the inflation limb and 14 +/- 2 cm H(2)O on the deflation limb. Paw at the minimal OPR was not significantly different from the optimal Paw during the inflation phase, and slightly but significantly higher (4.1 +/- 1.6 cm H(2)O) during the deflation phase. In conclusion, a consistent relationship was found between OPR and Paw, with a minimum in all animals. The minimal OPR coincides fairly well with the Paw where oxygenation is optimal.

  13. Prediction of Arterial Blood pH and Partial Pressure of Carbon dioxide from Venous Blood Samples in Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Kamran; Ghahramanpoori, Bahareh; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Substitution of arterial with venous blood samples to estimate blood gas status is highly preferable due to practical and safety concerns. Numerous studies support the substitution of arterial by venous blood samples, reporting strong correlations between arterial and venous values. This study further investigated the predictive ability of venous blood samples for arterial Acid-Base Balance (pH) and pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Participants were 51 post-brain surgery patients receiving mechanical ventilation, who had blood samples taken simultaneously from radial artery of the wrist and elbow vein. Results showed significant associations between arterial and venous pH and pCO2. However, the variation of regression residuals was not homogenous, and the regression line did not fit properly to the data, indicating that simple linear regression is sub-optimal for prediction of arterial pH and pCO2 by venous blood sample. Although highly significant correlations were found between arterial and venous blood pH and pCO2, the results did not support the reliability of prediction of arterial blood pH and pCO2 by venous blood samples across a range of concentrations.

  14. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to severe acute exacerbations of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Jie; Mohammed Akram, Redhuan; Carson, Kristin V; Mysore, Satya; Labiszewski, Nadina A; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Rowe, Brian H; Smith, Brian J

    2012-12-12

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition causing inflammation and changes to the airways. Care of people with asthma includes routine and urgent management across primary and tertiary care; however, due to sub-optimal long-term care and delays in obtaining help during acute exacerbations, the mortality and morbidity related to asthma is still a major health concern. There is reason to believe that non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) could be beneficial to patients with severe acute asthma; however, the evidence surrounding the efficacy of NPPV is unclear, despite its common use in clinical practice. To determine the efficacy of NPPV in adults with severe acute asthma in comparison to usual medical care with respect to mortality, tracheal intubation, changes in blood gases and hospital length of stay. We carried out a search in the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials (July 2012). Following this, the bibliographies of included studies and review articles were searched for additional studies (July 2012). We included randomised controlled trials of adults with severe acute asthma as the primary reason for presentation to the emergency department or for admission to hospital. Asthma diagnosis was defined by internationally accepted criteria. Studies were included if the intervention was usual medical care for the management of severe acute asthma plus NPPV applied through a nasal or facemask compared to usual medical care alone. Studies including patients with features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were excluded unless data were provided separately for patients with asthma in studies recruiting both COPD and asthmatic patients. A combination of two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where required. All data were analysed using RevMan 5.1. For continuous variables, a mean difference and 95% confidence interval were used and for

  15. Ventilation with increased apparatus dead space vs positive end-expiratory pressure: effects on gas exchange and circulation during anesthesia in a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Enekvist, Bruno; Bodelsson, Mikael; Chew, Michelle; Johansson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Atelectasis formation can be reduced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), but resulting increases in intrathoracic pressure could affect circulation. We have earlier demonstrated that increased tidal volumes with larger apparatus dead space improves oxygenation and sevoflurane uptake. In the present study, we hypothesize that isocapnic ventilation with increased tidal volumes increases oxygen and sevoflurane uptake similar to ventilation with PEEP, but with less impact on cardiac output. Thirty patients, with ASA physical status 1 or 2, scheduled for elective open colon surgery were randomly assigned to be ventilated with either PEEP at 10 cm H20 (PEEP, 15 patients) or increased tidal volumes achieved with larger apparatus dead space but with zero end-expiratory pressure (DS group, 15 patients). Oxygen tension and arterial sevoflurane concentration were significantly higher in the DS group (P < .05). Cardiac output decreased significantly less in the DS group compared with the PEEP group (5% and 33%, respectively; P < .05). Consequently, isocapnic ventilation with increased tidal volumes using apparatus dead space increased oxygen and sevoflurane tensions in arterial blood and preserved cardiac output better than did PEEP.

  16. Evaluation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation after extubation from moderate positive end-expiratory pressure level in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Kurazumi, Takuya; Toyonaga, Shinya; Masuda, Yuya; Morita, Yoshihisa; Masuda, Junichi; Kosugi, Shizuko; Katori, Nobuyuki; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It remains to be clarified if the application of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is effective after extubation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure who require the sufficient level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). This study was aimed at examining the effect and the safety of NPPV application following extubation in patients requiring moderate PEEP level for sufficient oxygenation after cardiovascular surgery. With institutional ethic committee approval, the patients ventilated invasively for over 48 h after cardiovascular surgery were enrolled in this study. The patients who failed the first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, but passed the second SBT at 8 cmH2O of PEEP, received NPPV immediately after extubation following our weaning protocol. Respiratory parameters (partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension to inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio: P/F ratio, respiratory ratio, and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide: PaCO2) 2 h after extubation were evaluated with those just before extubation as the primary outcome. The rate of re-intubation, the frequency of respiratory failure and intolerance of NPPV, the duration of NPPV, and the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also recorded. While 51 postcardiovascular surgery patients were screened, 6 patients who met the criteria received NPPV after extubation. P/F ratio was increased significantly after extubation compared with that before extubation (325 ± 85 versus 245 ± 55 mmHg, p < 0.05). The other respiratory parameters did not change significantly. Re-intubation, respiratory failure, and intolerance of NPPV never occurred. The duration of NPPV and the length of ICU stay were 2.7 ± 0.7 (SD) and 7.5 (6 to 10) (interquartile range) days, respectively. While further investigation should be warranted, NPPV could be applied effectively and safely after extubation in patients requiring the moderate PEEP level after

  17. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  18. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient’s own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  19. [Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist: a revolution of mechanical ventilation?].

    PubMed

    Piquilloud, Lise; Jolliet, Philippe; Tassaux, Didier

    2010-12-15

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist or NAVA is a new assisted ventilatory mode which, in comparison with pressure support, leads to improved patient-ventilator synchrony and a more variable ventilatory pattern. It also improves arterial oxygenation. With NAVA, the electrical activity of the diaphragm is recorded through a nasogastric tube equipped with electrodes. This electrical activity is then used to pilot the ventilator. With NAVA, the patient's respiratory pattern controls the ventilator's timing of triggering and cycling as well as the magnitude of pressurization, which is proportional to inspiratory demand. The effect of NAVA on patient outcome remains to be determined through well-designed prospective studies.

  20. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  1. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce; Sompyrac, Robert; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  2. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to facilitate the post-operative respiratory outcome of spine surgery in neuromuscular children.

    PubMed

    Khirani, Sonia; Bersanini, Chiara; Aubertin, Guillaume; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphaël; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    Scoliosis surgery may be associated with a high morbidity and even mortality in children with non-idiopathic scoliosis. The aim of the study was to report our experience with a pre-operative training to non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and a mechanical insufflator-exsufflator (MI-E) device to improve the post-operative respiratory outcome of children scheduled for scoliosis surgery. Consecutive patients with non-idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior arthrodesis were trained to NPPV and MI-E before intervention. NPPV and MI-E were performed immediately after extubation. Length of intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, duration of NPPV, and respiratory complications were assessed. Thirteen patients participated in the training (mean age 13.9 ± 2.6, mean vital capacity 52.3 ± 15.4% predicted). The patients had severe respiratory muscle weakness with a mean sniff oesophageal pressure of 35.8 ± 14.2 cmH2O (50% predicted) and a mean gastric pressure during a cough of 31.9 ± 7.8 cmH2O (30% predicted). The mean length of intubation was 19.9 ± 12.3 h with a mean length of ICU stay of 2.5 ± 2.5 days. NPPV was used during a mean of 2.7 ± 1.9 days after surgery. No respiratory complication was observed. One patient died 3 months after surgery from multi-organ failure of non-respiratory origin. No respiratory complications were observed after scoliosis correction surgery in children with non-idiopathic scoliosis after pre-operative training and post-operative use of NPPV and MI-E, underlying the interest of this management in these high-risk patients.

  3. [Effect of artificial ventilation on pulmonary capillary pressure in acute respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Labrousse, J; Tenaillon, A; Massabie, P; Simonneau, G; Lissac, J

    1977-05-07

    To determine the influence of intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the level of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was compared during IPPB and after a short period off the respirator in 68 occasions on 42 patients with an acute respiratory failure (ARF) of various etiologies. During IPPB, the average PCWP was in the normal range in patients with toxic or neurologic comas and in cases of increased pulmonary capillary permeability edema (IPCPE), PCWP slightly increased within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with ARF and in hemodynamic acute pulmonary edema (HAPE). During the weaning stage, PCWP decreased in the groups of coma, COPD, and IPCPE, but increased in HAPE. The weaning test demonstrates that IPPB influenced PCWP in all patients. Therefore, PCWP cannot be assumed to represent the left ventricle filling pressure. The weaning test allows differentiation of IPCPE from HAPE. In the event of over-infusion or hypovolemia, PCWP measured under IPPB can lead to misinterpretation if not followed up by a second measurement off the respirator.

  4. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  5. [The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kern, D; Larcher, C; Cottron, N; Ait Aissa, D; Fesseau, R; Alacoque, X; Delort, F; Masquère, P; Agnès, E; Visnadi, G; Fourcade, O

    2013-12-01

    The technology of anesthesia ventilators has substantially progressed during last years. The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator needs to be led by multiple parameters: requirement, technical (pneumatic performance, velocity of halogenated or oxygen delivery), cost (purchase, in operation, preventive and curative maintenance), reliability, ergonomy, upgradability, and compatibility. The demonstration of the interest of pressure support mode during maintenance of spontaneous ventilation anesthesia makes this mode essential in pediatrics. In contrast, the financial impact of target controlled inhalation of halogenated has not be studied in pediatrics. Paradoxically, complex and various available technologies had not been much prospectively studied. Anesthesia ventilators performances in pediatrics need to be clarified in further clinical and bench test studies. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventilatory support of the critically ill foal.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jonathan E

    2005-08-01

    Critically ill foals often have respiratory failure and benefit from respiratory support. Conventional mechanical ventilation using modem mechanical ventilators is easily adapted to foals. Establish-ing ventilator settings is a dynamic process aided by constant monitoring of blood gas values, end-tidal carbon dioxide, airway pressures, respiratory volumes, airway resistance, and respiratory compliance. Early weaning is as important as timely initiation of ventilation.

  7. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and risk of hospital mortality in intensive care patients on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Ana M; Martínez-Ruiz, Susana; Garrido-Colmenero, Cristina; Roldan, Delphine; Jiménez-Quintana, María Del Mar; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Colmenero, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common and serious complication in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the development of a PU and hospital mortality in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in an intensive care unit (ICU). A prospective cohort study was performed over two years in patients requiring MV for ≥ 24 hours in a medical-surgical ICU. Primary outcome measure was hospital mortality and main independent variable was the development of a PU grade ≥ II. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox model with time-dependent covariates. Out of 563 patients in the study, 110 (19.5%) developed a PU. Overall hospital mortality was 48.7%. In the adjusted multivariate model, PU onset was a significant independent predictor of mortality (adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.003-1.65; P = 0.047). The model also included the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment on day 3, hepatic cirrhosis and medical admission. Within the limitations of a single-centre approach, PU development appears to be associated with an increase in mortality among patients requiring MV for 24 hours or longer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Speckle-Tracking Strain Imaging Identifies Alterations in Left Atrial Mechanics With General Anesthesia and Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Anderson-Dam, John; McCabe, Melissa; Hall, Michael; Mazor, Einat; Mahajan, Aman

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to use speckle-tracking strain imaging to evaluate the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) on left atrial (LA) mechanics. The authors hypothesized that GA and PPV would be associated with a decrease in LA strain. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of GA and PPV on traditional Doppler-derived measures of LA function and Doppler echocardiographic grade of diastolic function. A prospective observational study. A university hospital. Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at baseline and under GA with PPV. Changes in LA function associated with GA and PPV were assessed using LA speckle-tracking strain imaging. A reduction was observed in LA peak longitudinal strain (24% v 18%, p<0.001) and preatrial contraction strain (13% v 8%, p<0.001). No difference was seen in LA contraction strain or atrial ejection fraction. Indexed LA volume and Doppler diastolic indices also were reduced significantly, and 39% of patients had a change in measured diastolic grade under GA with PPV. Speckle-tracking strain imaging of the left atrium demonstrated that GA and PPV had a significant impact on LA mechanics by decreasing strain measures of LA preload, with a lesser effect on LA contractility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Young Athletes' Perceptions of Parental Support and Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1995-01-01

    Individual participation in athletics was examined as an achievement-oriented activity in which perceived parental support or pressure influence adolescents' perceptions of themselves and their performance. Results with 97 male and 57 female tennis players provide evidence of an association between perceptions of parental involvement and activity…

  10. Influence of respiratory pressure support on hemodynamics and exercise tolerance in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Carrascosa, Cláudia Regina; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Berton, Danilo C; Queiroga, Fernando; Ferreira, Eloara M V; Nery, Luiz E; Neder, J Alberto; Alberto Neder, J

    2010-07-01

    Inspiratory pressure support (IPS) plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation might potentially interfere with the "central" hemodynamic adjustments to exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-one non- or mildly-hypoxemic males (FEV(1) = 40.1 +/- 10.7% predicted) were randomly assigned to IPS (16 cmH(2)O) + PEEP (5 cmH(2)O) or spontaneous ventilation during constant-work rate (70-80% peak) exercise tests to the limit of tolerance (T (lim)). Heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were monitored by transthoracic cardioimpedance (Physioflow, Manatec, France). Oxyhemoglobin saturation was assessed by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)). At similar SpO(2), IPS(16) + PEEP(5) was associated with heterogeneous cardiovascular effects compared with the control trial. Therefore, 11 patients (Group A) showed stable or increased Delta "isotime" - rest SV [5 (0-29) mL], lower DeltaHR but similar DeltaCO. On the other hand, DeltaSV [-10 (-15 to -3) mL] and DeltaHR were both lower with IPS(16) + PEEP(5) in Group B (N = 10), thereby reducing DeltaCO (p < 0.05). Group B showed higher resting lung volumes, and T (lim) improved with IPS(16) + PEEP(5) only in Group A [51 (-60 to 486) vs. 115 (-210 to 909) s, respectively; p < 0.05]. We conclude that IPS(16) + PEEP(5) may improve SV and exercise tolerance in selected patients with advanced COPD. Impaired SV and CO responses, associated with a lack of enhancement in exercise capacity, were found in a sub-group of patients who were particularly hyperinflated at rest.

  11. Pinching, electrocution, ravens' beaks, and positive pressure ventilation: a brief history of neonatal resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, C P F; Gibson, A T; Davis, P G

    2006-01-01

    Since ancient times many different methods have been used to revive newborns. Although subject to the vagaries of fashion for 2000 years, artificial respiration has been accepted as the mainstay of neonatal resuscitation for about the last 40. Formal teaching programmes have evolved over the last 20 years. The last 10 years have seen international collaboration, which has resulted in careful evaluation of the available evidence and publication of recommendations for clinical practice. There is, however, little evidence to support current recommendations, which are largely based on expert opinion. The challenge for neonatologists today is to gather robust evidence to support or refute these recommendations, thereby refining this common and important intervention. PMID:16923936

  12. Attitudes regarding the use of ventilator support given a supposed terminal condition among community-dwelling Mexican American and non-Hispanic white older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Finley, M Rosina; Becho, Johanna; Macias, R Lillianne; Wood, Robert C; Hernandez, Arthur E; Espino, David V

    2012-01-01

    To determine the factors that are associated with Mexican Americans' preference for ventilator support, given a supposed terminal diagnosis. 100 Mexican Americans, aged 60-89, were recruited and screened for MMSE scores above 18. Eligible subjects answered a questionnaire in their preferred language (English/Spanish) concerning ventilator use during terminal illness. Mediator variables examined included demographics, generation, religiosity, occupation, self-reported depression, self-reported health, and activities of daily living. Being first or second generation American (OR = 0.18, CI = 0.05-0.66) with no IADL disability (OR = 0.11, CI = 0.02-0.59) and having depressive symptoms (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.08-1.89) were associated with preference for ventilator support. First and second generation older Mexican Americans and those functionally independent are more likely to prefer end-of-life ventilation support. Although depressive symptoms were inversely associated with ventilator use at the end of life, scores may more accurately reflect psychological stress associated with enduring the scenario. Further studies are needed to determine these factors' generalizability to the larger Mexican American community.

  13. Effect of bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) nasal ventilation on the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome in obese patients undergoing gastroplasty.

    PubMed

    Joris, J L; Sottiaux, T M; Chiche, J D; Desaive, C J; Lamy, M L

    1997-03-01

    Upper abdominal surgery results in a postoperative restrictive pulmonary syndrome. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP System; Respironics Inc; Murrysville, Pa), which combines pressure support ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure via a nasal mask, could allow alveolar recruitment during inspiration and prevent expiratory alveolar collapse, and therefore limit the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome. This study investigated the effect of BiPAP on postoperative pulmonary function in obese patients after gastroplasty. Prospective controlled randomized study. GI surgical ward in a university hospital. Thirty-three morbidly obese patients scheduled for gastroplasty were studied. The patients were assigned to one of three techniques of ventilatory support during the first 24 h postoperatively: O2 via a face mask, BiPAP System 8/4, with inspiratory and expiratory positive airway pressure set at 8 and 4 cm H2O, respectively, or BiPAP System 12/4 set at 12 and 4 cm H2O. Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR]) were measured the day before surgery, 24 h after surgery, and on days 2 and 3. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (SpO2) was also recorded during room air breathing. Three patients were excluded. After surgery, FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and SpO2 significantly decreased in the three groups. On day 1, FVC and FEV1 were significantly improved in the group BiPAP System 12/4, as compared with no BiPAP; SpO2 was also significantly improved. After removal of BiPAP System 12/4, these benefits were maintained, allowing faster recovery of pulmonary function. No significant effects were observed on PEFR. BiPAP System 8/4 had no significant effect on the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome. Prophylactic use of BiPAP System 12/4 during the first 24 h postoperatively significantly reduces pulmonary dysfunction after gastroplasty in obese patients and accelerates reestablishment of preoperative pulmonary function.

  14. Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Tucci, Mauro Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection); three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay); and one worked properly. The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM.

  15. Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study* **

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Tucci, Mauro Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. Methods: This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Results: Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection); three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay); and one worked properly. Conclusions: The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM. PMID:25029653

  16. Efficacy and safety of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang-fa; Wang, Di-jia; Liu, Shuang; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shi-jie

    2013-12-01

    Although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has been successfully used for various kinds of acute respiratory failure, the data are limited regarding its application in postoperative respiratory failure after cardiac surgery. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized control study in a university surgical intensive care unit to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NPPV in the treatment of acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery, and explore the predicting factors of NPPV failure. From September 2011 to November 2012 patients with acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery who had indication for the use of NPPV were randomly divided into a NPPV treatment group (NPPV group) and the conventional treatment group (control group). The between-group differences in the patients' baseline characteristics, re-intubation rate, tracheotomy rate, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence, in-hospital mortality, mechanical ventilation time after enrollment (MV time), intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative hospital stays were compared. The factors that predict NPPV failure were analyzed. During the study period, a total of 139 patients who had acute respiratory failure after cardiac surgery were recorded, and 95 of them met the inclusion criteria, which included 59 males and 36 females with a mean age of (61.5 ± 11.2) years. Forty-three patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 23 underwent valve surgery, 13 underwent CABG+valve surgery, 13 underwent major vascular surgery, and three underwent other surgeries. The NPPV group had 48 patients and the control group had 47 patients. In the NPPV group, the re-intubation rate was 18.8%, tracheotomy rate was 12.5%, VAP incidence was 0, and the in-hospital mortality was 18.8%, significantly lower than in the control group 80.9%, 29.8%, 17.0% and 38.3% respectively, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The MV time and ICU stay (expressed as the median (P25, P75)) were 18.0 (9.2, 35.0) hours

  17. Positive-pressure ventilation during transport: a randomized crossover study of self-inflating and flow-inflating resuscitators in a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Malcolm J; Gamble, Jonathan J; Daku, Brian L; Bryce, Rhonda D; Rana, Masud

    2014-12-01

    Positive-pressure ventilation during transport of intubated patients is generally delivered via a hand-pressurized device. Of these devices, self-inflating resuscitators (SIR) and flow-inflating resuscitators (FIR) constitute the two major types used. Selection of a particular device for transport, however, remains largely an institutional practice. To evaluate the hypothesis that transport ventilation goals of intubated pediatric patients are better achieved using an FIR compared to an SIR. This randomized crossover simulation study compared the performance of SIR and FIR among anesthesia providers in a pediatric transport scenario. Subjects hand-ventilated a test lung while simultaneously maneuvering a stretcher bed to simulate patient transport. Hand ventilation was carried out using a Jackson-Rees circuit (FIR) and a Laerdal pediatric silicone resuscitator (SIR). The primary outcome was the proportion of total breaths delivered within the predefined target PIP/PEEP range (30+/- 3, 10+/- 3 cm H2O). Secondary outcomes included proportion of total breaths delivered with operationally defined unacceptable breath variables (PIP > 35 cm H2O or PEEP < 5 cm H2O). Overall, participants were four times more likely to deliver target breaths and one-third less likely to deliver unacceptable breaths using the FIR compared to the SIR. When comparing device performance, a 44% increase in the proportions of target breaths and a 40.4% decrease in unacceptable breaths using the FIR were observed (P < 0.0001 for both). Hand ventilation during patient transport is superior using the FIR compared to the SIR to achieve target ventilatory goals and avoid unacceptable ventilatory cycles. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Protective lung ventilation in operating room: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Constantin, J M; Jaber, S

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications adversely affect clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization, so that prevention has become a measure of the quality of perioperative care. Mechanical ventilation is an essential support therapy to maintain adequate gas exchange during general anesthesia for surgery. Mechanical ventilation using high tidal volume (VT) (between 10 and 15 mL/kg) has been historically encouraged to prevent hypoxemia and atelectasis formation in anesthetized patients undergoing abdominal and thoracic surgery. However, there is accumulating evidence from both experimental and clinical studies that mechanical ventilation, especially the use of high VT and plateau pressure, may potentially aggravate or even initiate lung injury. Ventilator-associated lung injury can result from cyclic alveolar overdistension of non-dependent lung tissue, and repetitive opening and closing of dependent lung tissue resulting in ultrastructural damage at the junction of closed and open alveoli. Lung-protective ventilation, which refers to the use of lower VT and limited plateau pressure to minimize overdistension, and positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent alveolar collapse at end-expiration, was shown to improve outcome in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been recently suggested that this approach might also be beneficial in a broader population, especially in critically ill patients without ARDS at the onset of mechanical ventilation. There is, however, little evidence regarding a potential beneficial effect of lung protective ventilation during surgery, especially in patients with healthy lungs. Although surgical patients are frequently exposed to much shorter periods of mechanical ventilation, this is an important gap in knowledge given the number of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the operating room. This review developed the benefits of lung protective ventilation during surgery

  19. Mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland: A multi-center point-prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Andrzej; Maciejewski, Dariusz; Adamik, Barbara; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation is the primary method of supporting organ function in patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Lung damage from mechanical ventilation can be avoided by using the correct ventilation modes. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and treatment strategies of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland. Material/Methods This study was done using a point-prevalence methodology. Questionnaires requesting demographic data, indications for ventilation, variables involved in ventilation, airway access, methods of sedation, and mode of weaning were sent to 148 ICUs. Results Eighty-three ICUs took part in the study. The rate of ventilated patients was 73.6%. The indications for mechanical ventilation were: acute respiratory failure (40%), coma (40%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (14%), and neuromuscular diseases (5%). Patients were ventilated by orotracheal tube (58%), tracheostomy tube (41%), and mask/helmet (1%). The mean tidal volume was 8 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was commonly used. The mean oxygen concentration was 40%. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support was the most frequently used ventilatory mode. Benzodiazepine and opioids were used for sedation in 91% of centers. A systematic testing of the depth of sedation was performed at 48% surveyed ICUs. Ventilation monitoring with biomechanical methods was used at 53% of centers. Conclusions Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in ICUs in Poland. Almost half of the ventilated patients had extrapulmonary indications. Patients were ventilated with low concentrations of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was commonly employed. PMID:23727991

  20. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  1. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated.

  2. Assessment of tunnel’s face support pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubesova, Eva; Duris, Lukas

    2017-09-01

    The evaluation of support pressure ensuring tunnel’s face stability during excavation using tunnel boring machines is one of the fundamental problems in tunnelling. This paper presents various approaches to this problem. The analytical models, based either on the principle of limit equilibrium or the limiting analysis (low boundary or upper boundary limiting methods), requires considerable simplification (circular tunnel, homogeneous rock mass etc.). But, on the other hand they are less time-consuming in comparison with the numerical models based on the finite element method. This paper describes the comparison of results of minimum face pressure obtained on the basis of different calculation methods with respect to the specific geometrical and material characteristics of the problem. Geotechnical software Midas GTS NX (based on finite element method) was used for presented numerical analysis. The paper also provides a comparison of modelling results with the results of the face pressure corresponding to the real excavation of the tunnel.

  3. Multicentre randomised controlled trial to investigate the usefulness of continuous pneumatic regulation of tracheal cuff pressure for reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated severe trauma patients: the AGATE study protocol.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Nicolas; Frasca, Denis; Asehnoune, Karim; Paugam, Catherine; Lasocki, Sigismond; Ichai, Carole; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Leone, Marc; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Pottecher, Julien; Falcon, Dominique; Veber, Benoit; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Seguin, Sabrina; Guénézan, Jérémy; Mimoz, Olivier

    2017-08-07

    Severe trauma represents the leading cause of mortality worldwide. While 80% of deaths occur within the first 24 hours after trauma, 20% occur later and are mainly due to healthcare-associated infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Preventing underinflation of the tracheal cuff is recommended to reduce microaspiration, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of VAP. Automatic devices facilitate the regulation of tracheal cuff pressure, and their implementation has the potential to reduce VAP. The objective of this work is to determine whether continuous regulation of tracheal cuff pressure using a pneumatic device reduces the incidence of VAP compared with intermittent control in severe trauma patients. This multicentre randomised controlled and open-label trial will include patients suffering from severe trauma who are admitted within the first 24 hours, who require invasive mechanical ventilation to longer than 48 hours. Their tracheal cuff pressure will be monitored either once every 8 hours (control group) or continuously using a pneumatic device (intervention group). The primary end point is the proportion of patients that develop VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) at day 28. The secondary end points include the proportion of patients that develop VAP in the ICU, early (≤7 days) or late (>7 days) VAP, time until the first VAP diagnosis, the number of ventilator-free days and antibiotic-free days, the length of stay in the ICU, the proportion of patients with ventilator-associated events and that die during their ICU stay. This protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Poitiers University Hospital, and will be carried out according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Good Clinical Practice guidelines. The results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Clinical Trials NCT02534974. © Article author(s) (or

  4. Social support and ambulatory blood pressure in older people.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Martínez, Mercedes; López-García, Esther; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Cruz, Juan J; Orozco, Edilberto; García-Esquinas, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2016-10-01

    Social support has been associated with greater nocturnal decline (dipping) in blood pressure (BP) in younger and middle-aged individuals. However, it is uncertain if aggregated measures of social support are related to ambulatory SBP in older adults, where high SBP is frequent and clinically challenging. We studied 1047 community-living individuals aged at least 60 years in Spain. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was determined under standardized conditions. Social support was assessed with a seven-item questionnaire on marital status, cohabitation, frequency of contact with relatives, or with friends and neighbors, emotional support, instrumental support, and outdoor companionship. A social support score was built by summing the values of the items that were significantly associated with SBP variables, such that the higher the score, the better the support. Participants' mean age was 71.7 years (50.8% men). Being married, cohabiting, and being accompanied when out of home were the support items significantly associated with SBP variables. After adjustment for sociodemographic (age, sex, education), behavioral (BMI, alcohol, tobacco, salt consumption, physical activity, Mediterranean diet score), and clinical variables [sleep quality, mental stress, comorbidity, BP medication, and ambulatory BP levels and heart rate (HR)], one additional point in the social support score built with the abovementioned three support variables, was associated with a decrease of 0.93 mmHg in night-time SBP (P = 0.039), totaling 2.8 mmHg decrease for a score of 3 vs. 0. The three-item social support score was also inversely associated with the night/day SBP ratio (β = -0.006, P = 0.010). In older adults, social support is independently associated with lower nocturnal SBP and greater SBP dipping. Further research is needed in prospective studies to confirm these results.

  5. Long term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in children: Initiation criteria in real life.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, A; Moreau, J; Frapin, A; Khirani, S; Felix, O; Fernandez-Bolanos, M; Ramirez, A; Fauroux, B

    2016-09-01

    Long term noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are increasingly used in children but limited information is available on the criteria and conditions leading to the initiation of these treatments. The aim of the study is to describe the objective overnight respiratory parameters and clinical situations that led to the initiation of CPAP/NIV in a pediatric NIV unit. Retrospective analysis of the data of all the children discharged on home CPAP/NIV over a 1 year period. Seventy-six patients were started on CPAP (n = 64) or NIV (n = 12). CPAP/NIV was initiated because of CPAP/NIV weaning failure (Acute group) in 15 patients. None of these patients had an overnight gas exchange or sleep study before CPAP/NIV initiation. In 18 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated on abnormal nocturnal gas exchange alone (Subacute group). These patients had a median of three of the following five overnight gas exchange abnormalities: minimal pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) <90%, maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) >50 mmHg, time spent with SpO2 <90% or PtcCO2 >50 mmHg ≥2% of recording time, oxygen desaturation index >1.4/hr. In the last 43 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated after an abnormal sleep study (Chronic group) on a mean of four of the aforementioned criteria and an apnea-hypopnea index >10/hr. In clinical practice, CPAP/NIV was initiated in an acute, subacute and chronic setting with most patients having an association of several abnormal gas exchange or sleep study parameters. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of CPAP/NIV according to the clinical situation and initiation criteria. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:968-974. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Continuous positive airway pressure and ventilation are more effective with a nasal mask than a full face mask in unconscious subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a major problem in unconscious subjects, making full face mask ventilation difficult. The mechanism of UAO in unconscious subjects shares many similarities with that of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially the hypotonic upper airway seen during rapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via nasal mask is more effective at maintaining airway patency than a full face mask in patients with OSA. We hypothesized that CPAP via nasal mask and ventilation (nCPAP) would be more effective than full face mask CPAP and ventilation (FmCPAP) for unconscious subjects, and we tested our hypothesis during induction of general anesthesia for elective surgery. Methods In total, 73 adult subjects requiring general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of four groups: nCPAP P0, nCPAP P5, FmCPAP P0, and FmCPAP P5, where P0 and P5 represent positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 0 and 5 cm H2O applied prior to induction. After apnea, ventilation was initiated with pressure control ventilation at a peak inspiratory pressure over PEEP (PIP/PEEP) of 20/0, then 20/5, and finally 20/10 cm H2O, each applied for 1 min. At each pressure setting, expired tidal volume (Vte) was calculated by using a plethysmograph device. Results The rate of effective tidal volume (Vte > estimated anatomical dead space) was higher (87.9% vs. 21.9%; P<0.01) and the median Vte was larger (6.9 vs. 0 mL/kg; P<0.01) with nCPAP than with FmCPAP. Application of CPAP prior to induction of general anesthesia did not affect Vte in either approach (nCPAP pre- vs. post-; 7.9 vs. 5.8 mL/kg, P = 0.07) (FmCPAP pre- vs. post-; 0 vs. 0 mL/kg, P = 0.11). Conclusions nCPAP produced more effective tidal volume than FmCPAP in unconscious subjects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524614. PMID:24365207

  7. Continuous positive airway pressure and ventilation are more effective with a nasal mask than a full face mask in unconscious subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oto, Jun; Li, Qian; Kimball, William R; Wang, Jingping; Sabouri, Abdolnabi S; Harrell, Priscilla G; Kacmarek, Robert M; Jiang, Yandong

    2013-12-23

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a major problem in unconscious subjects, making full face mask ventilation difficult. The mechanism of UAO in unconscious subjects shares many similarities with that of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially the hypotonic upper airway seen during rapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via nasal mask is more effective at maintaining airway patency than a full face mask in patients with OSA. We hypothesized that CPAP via nasal mask and ventilation (nCPAP) would be more effective than full face mask CPAP and ventilation (FmCPAP) for unconscious subjects, and we tested our hypothesis during induction of general anesthesia for elective surgery. In total, 73 adult subjects requiring general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of four groups: nCPAP P0, nCPAP P5, FmCPAP P0, and FmCPAP P5, where P0 and P5 represent positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 0 and 5 cm H2O applied prior to induction. After apnea, ventilation was initiated with pressure control ventilation at a peak inspiratory pressure over PEEP (PIP/PEEP) of 20/0, then 20/5, and finally 20/10 cm H2O, each applied for 1 min. At each pressure setting, expired tidal volume (Vte) was calculated by using a plethysmograph device. The rate of effective tidal volume (Vte > estimated anatomical dead space) was higher (87.9% vs. 21.9%; P<0.01) and the median Vte was larger (6.9 vs. 0 mL/kg; P<0.01) with nCPAP than with FmCPAP. Application of CPAP prior to induction of general anesthesia did not affect Vte in either approach (nCPAP pre- vs. post-; 7.9 vs. 5.8 mL/kg, P = 0.07) (FmCPAP pre- vs. post-; 0 vs. 0 mL/kg, P = 0.11). nCPAP produced more effective tidal volume than FmCPAP in unconscious subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524614.

  8. Assessment of respiratory output in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Franco

    2005-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are subject to few pathophysiologic disturbances that have such intuitive importance as abnormal function of the respiratory output. Abnormal function of the respiratory output plays a fundamental role in all aspects of mechanical ventilation: in determining which patients require mechanical ventilation, in determining the interaction between a patient and the ventilator, and in determining when a patient can tolerate discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Monitoring indexes such as the rate of rise in electrical activity of the diaphragm, Po.1, (dP/dt)max, and Pmus, has provided insight into the performance of the respiratory centers in critically ill patients, but these methods require considerable refinement. A large body of research on measurements of energy expenditure of the respiratory muscles, such as pressure-time product, and measurements of inspiratory effort, such as the tension-time index, is currently accumulating. Several challenges, however, lay ahead regarding these indices. First, there is the need to identify the correct level of pressure generation and respiratory muscle effort that should be attained in the day-to-day management of mechanically ventilated patients. The correct titration of ventilator setting should not cause iatrogenic muscle damage because the support is excessive or insufficient. One of the challenges in reaching this goal is that for the same patient, different underlying pathologic conditions (eg, sepsis or ventilator-associated muscle injury) may require different levels of support. Second, many of the measurements of pressure generation and effort have been confined to the research laboratory. Modifications of the technology to achieve accurate measurements in the intensive care unit-outside of the research laboratory--are needed. To facilitate individual titration of ventilator settings, the new technologies must provide easier access to quantification of drive, pressure output, and

  9. Developing a neonatal unit ventilation protocol for the preterm baby.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, G M; Keszler, M

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a resource-intensive complex medical intervention associated with high morbidity. Considerable practice style variation exists in most hospitals and is not only confusing for parents, but the lack of consistently high standard of optimal ventilation deprives some infants of the benefits of state-of-the-art care. Developing a unit protocol for mechanical ventilation requires exhaustive research, inclusion of all stake-holders, thoughtful protocol development and careful implementation after a thorough educational process, followed by monitoring. A protocol for respiratory support should be comprehensive, addressing respiratory support in the delivery room, the use of non-invasive support, intubation criteria, surfactant administration, specific ventilation modes and settings, criteria for escalating therapy, weaning protocols, extubation criteria, and post-extubation management. Evidence favors the use of non-invasive support as first line treatment, progressing to assist/control or pressure support ventilation combined with volume guarantee, if needed, and high-frequency ventilation only for specific indications. The open lung strategy is crucial to lung-protective ventilation.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Ventilation of a Surface Piercing Hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Casey; Miguel Montero, Francisco; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2013-11-01

    Bodies that pierce a liquid free-surface are prone to entrainment of atmospheric and/or vaporous gases. This process, called ventilation, can occur suddenly and violently, drastically altering hydrodynamic response. Experiments have been conducted at the free-surface towing-tank in the University of Michigan Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory to investigate fully attached, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flows around a canonical surface-piercing hydrofoil. The objectives of the work are: (i) to gain a broad and improved understanding of the physics of ventilation, (ii) to classify the physical mechanisms by which ventilation inception and washout may occur and quantify the conditions required for each mechanism and (iii) to quantify the effects of ventilation on global hydrodynamic responses, including the six force and moment components. Experimental data and high-speed video will be used to illustrate the impact of ventilation on hydrodynamic loads, pressures, and flow structures. The completion of this study is expected to contribute significantly toward a comprehensive understanding of ventilation physics, and toward an improved ability to design safe and controllable ventilated lifting surfaces for use in propulsion, energy harvesting, and turbomachinery. Supported by: The Office of Naval Research (ONR) (Grant No. N00014-09-1-1204); the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (GCRC-SOP Grant No. 2012-0004783); the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship (Grant No. DGE 1256260).