Calculation of compressible adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Alston, D. W.
1972-01-01
Difficulties encountered in computing profile shapes in supersonic turbulent boundary layers with large pressure gradients, which result from a disagreement between data and theory, are investigated. Possible reasons given by various authors for this disagreement are discussed. Initial results seem to indicate that conventional reasons do not account for the observed difficulties. However, inclusion of the effect of curvature upon turbulent mixing has brought an improvement in calculations. Possible three-dimensional effects are also examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Clarence B; Reshotko, Eli
1956-01-01
Stewartson's transformation is applied to the laminar compressible boundary-layer equations and the requirement of similarity is introduced, resulting in a set of ordinary nonlinear differential equations previously quoted by Stewartson, but unsolved. The requirements of the system are Prandtl number of 1.0, linear viscosity-temperature relation across the boundary layer, an isothermal surface, and the particular distributions of free-stream velocity consistent with similar solutions. This system admits axial pressure gradients of arbitrary magnitude, heat flux normal to the surface, and arbitrary Mach numbers. The system of differential equations is transformed to integral system, with the velocity ratio as the independent variable. For this system, solutions are found by digital computation for pressure gradients varying from that causing separation to the infinitely favorable gradient and for wall temperatures from absolute zero to twice the free-stream stagnation temperature. Some solutions for separated flows are also presented.
The Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Clarence B; Reshotko, Eli
1956-01-01
An approximate method for the calculation of the compressible laminar boundary layer with heat transfer and arbitrary pressure gradient, based on Thwaites' correlation concept, is presented. With the definition of dimensionless shear and heat-transfer parameters and an assumed correlation of these parameters in terms of a momentum parameter, a complete system of relations for calculating skin friction and heat transfer results. Knowledge of velocity or temperature profiles is not necessary in using this calculation method. When the method is applied to a convergent-divergent, axially symmetric rocket nozzle, it shows that high rates of heat transfer are obtained at the initial stagnation point and at the throat of the nozzle. Also indicated are negative displacement thicknesses in the convergent portion of the nozzle; these occur because of the high density within the lower portions of the cooled boundary layer. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Economos, C.; Boccio, J.
1971-01-01
The analysis uses a compressibility transformation and utilizes higher order closure rules to complete the transformation. By requiring that the momentum equations in differential form be satisfied at the wall and at the sublayer edge, correspondence rules are obtained which relate the variable property (VP) flow to a constant property (CP) flow in which mass transfer and pressure gradient occur simultaneously. A new CP formulation is developed and numerical results for a variety of cases are presented. Comparisons with earlier forms of the transformation and with experiment are included. For the zero pressure gradient case some differences between the various predictions are observed. For the several pressure gradient cases examined, the results are found to be essentially identical to those given by first order closure rules; i.e., by a form of transformation which relates the VP flow to a CP flow with pressure gradient but zero mass transfer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morduchow, Morris
1955-01-01
A survey of integral methods in laminar-boundary-layer analysis is first given. A simple and sufficiently accurate method for practical purposes of calculating the properties (including stability) of the laminar compressible boundary layer in an axial pressure gradient with heat transfer at the wall is presented. For flow over a flat plate, the method is applicable for an arbitrarily prescribed distribution of temperature along the surface and for any given constant Prandtl number close to unity. For flow in a pressure gradient, the method is based on a Prandtl number of unity and a uniform wall temperature. A simple and accurate method of determining the separation point in a compressible flow with an adverse pressure gradient over a surface at a given uniform wall temperature is developed. The analysis is based on an extension of the Karman-Pohlhausen method to the momentum and the thermal energy equations in conjunction with fourth- and especially higher degree velocity and stagnation-enthalpy profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, W. C.
1973-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of the mean- and fluctuating-flow properties of a compressible turbulent boundary layer in a shock-wave-induced adverse pressure gradient are presented. The turbulent boundary layer developed on the wall of an axially symmetric nozzle and test section whose nominal free-stream Mach number and boundary-layer thickness Reynolds number were 4 and 100,000, respectively. The adverse pressure gradient was induced by an externally generated conical shock wave. Mean and time-averaged fluctuating-flow data, including the complete experimental Reynolds stress tensor and experimental turbulent mass- and heat-transfer rates are presented for the boundary layer and external flow, upstream, within and downstream of the pressure gradient. The mean-flow data include distributions of total temperature throughout the region of interest. The turbulent mixing properties of the flow were determined experimentally with a hot-wire anemometer. The calibration of the wires and the interpretation of the data are discussed. From the results of the investigation, it is concluded that the shock-wave - boundary-layer interaction significantly alters the turbulent mixing characteristics of the boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boccio, J.; Economos, C.
1972-01-01
An analysis of the incompressible turbulent boundary layer, developing under the combined effects of mass transfer and pressure gradient, is presented in this paper. A strip-integral method is employed whereby two of the three governing equations are obtained by integrating the combined momentum and continuity equation to 50 percent and 100 percent, respectively, of the boundary-layer height. The latter equation is the usual momentum-integral equation; the former equation requires specification of shear. Accordingly, Clauser's equilibrium eddy-viscosity law is assumed valid at this point. The third and final equation is obtained by specifying that Stevenson's velocity profiles apply throughout the domain of interest, from which a skin-friction law can be derived. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experiments of McQuaid, which include combined effects of variable pressure gradient and mass transfer, show good agreement.
Observation of soliton compression in silicon photonic crystals
Blanco-Redondo, A.; Husko, C.; Eades, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Krauss, T.F.; Eggleton, B.J.
2014-01-01
Solitons are nonlinear waves present in diverse physical systems including plasmas, water surfaces and optics. In silicon, the presence of two photon absorption and accompanying free carriers strongly perturb the canonical dynamics of optical solitons. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of soliton-effect pulse compression of picosecond pulses in silicon, despite two photon absorption and free carriers. Here we achieve compression of 3.7 ps pulses to 1.6 ps with <10 pJ energy. We demonstrate a ~1-ps free-carrier-induced pulse acceleration and show that picosecond input pulses are critical to these observations. These experiments are enabled by a dispersion-engineered slow-light photonic crystal waveguide and an ultra-sensitive frequency-resolved electrical gating technique to detect the ultralow energies in the nanostructured device. Strong agreement with a nonlinear Schrödinger model confirms the measurements. These results further our understanding of nonlinear waves in silicon and open the way to soliton-based functionalities in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible platforms. PMID:24423977
Second-harmonic pulse compression in the soliton regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibragimov, Edem; Struthers, Allan
1996-10-01
Analytical soliton solutions of the three-wave interaction equations are shown to exhibit high power conversion for a range of nonlinear materials with no satellite peaks and energy conversion close to 100%. Related numerical solutions that yield power conversion up to 10 times those of the initial waves with less than 3% energy in the small satellite peaks and high-energy efficiency are exhibited for KDP crystals; substantial compression of the fundamental pulses is observed in this case.
Soliton instability and fold formation in laterally compressed graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libério de Lima, Amauri; Müssnich, Lucas A. M.; Manhabosco, Taíse M.; Chacham, Hélio; Batista, Ronaldo J. C.; Barros de Oliveira, Alan
2015-01-01
We investigate—through simulations and analytical calculations—the consequences of uniaxial lateral compression applied to the upper layer of multilayer graphene. The simulations of compressed graphene show that strains larger than 2.8% induce soliton-like deformations that further develop into large, mobile folds. Such folds were indeed experimentally observed in graphene and other solid lubricants two-dimensional (2D) materials. Interestingly, in the soliton-fold regime, the shear stress decreases with the strain s, initially as {{s}-2/3} and rapidly going to zero. Such instability is consistent with the recently observed negative dynamic compressibility of 2D materials. We also predict that the curvatures of the soliton-folds are given by {{r}c}=δ \\sqrt{β /2α }, where 1≤slant δ ≤slant 2, and β and α are respectively related to the layer bending modulus and to the interlayer binding energy of the material. This finding might allow experimental estimates of the β /α ratio of 2D materials from fold morphology.
Soliton instability and fold formation in laterally compressed graphene.
de Lima, Amauri Libério; Müssnich, Lucas A M; Manhabosco, Taíse M; Chacham, Hélio; Batista, Ronaldo J C; de Oliveira, Alan Barros
2015-01-30
We investigate-through simulations and analytical calculations-the consequences of uniaxial lateral compression applied to the upper layer of multilayer graphene. The simulations of compressed graphene show that strains larger than 2.8% induce soliton-like deformations that further develop into large, mobile folds. Such folds were indeed experimentally observed in graphene and other solid lubricants two-dimensional (2D) materials. Interestingly, in the soliton-fold regime, the shear stress decreases with the strain s, initially as s(-2/3) and rapidly going to zero. Such instability is consistent with the recently observed negative dynamic compressibility of 2D materials. We also predict that the curvatures of the soliton-folds are given by r(c) = δ√(β/2α) where 1 ≤ δ ≤ 2 and β and α are respectively related to the layer bending modulus and to the interlayer binding energy of the material. This finding might allow experimental estimates of the β/α ratio of 2D materials from fold morphology. PMID:25566691
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seginer, A.
1972-01-01
The failure of most viscous-inviscid interaction methods at strong interactions is attributed to the presence of a normal pressure gradient. A new theory is proposed for supersonic laminar boundary layers that can generate normal pressure gradients. The Navier-Stokes equations are reexamined by an order of magnitude analysis and all first and second order terms are retained. The approximation is found to be dependent not only on the boundary layer thickness but also on the ratio of the dimensionless viscosity and density. The equations are transformed into two quasi-similar, nonlinear, third order, ordinary integro-differential equations for the velocity and pressure as functions of a single transverse variable. The properties of the equations at the boundaries are discussed.
A turbulence model for nonequilibrium adverse pressure gradient flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.
1976-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating compressible adverse pressure gradient boundary layers by using an algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model that has been modified for variable pressure gradient and turbulence memory effects. The pressure gradient corrections are based on previous incompressible data correlations. Several methods for including the effects of turbulence memory are evaluated. A new lag model, which gives good agreement with available experimental data, is developed. Finally, a correlation is developed for the lag length parameter employed in the model as a function of the known experimental flow variables.
Ion-acoustic compressive and rarefactive solitons in an electron-beam plasma system
Yadav, L.L.; Tiwari, R.S.; Sharma, S.R. )
1994-03-01
Using the general formulation of reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for an electron-beam plasma with hot isothermal beam and plasma electrons and warm ions. The soliton solution of the KdV equation is discussed in detail. It is found that above a critical velocity of electron-beam two additional ion-acoustic soliton branches appear. It is found that corresponding to two linear modes, the system supports the existence of compressive as well as rarefactive solitons depending upon the plasma parameters, while corresponding to other two wave modes, the system supports only rarefactive solitons. The effect of different parameters on the characteristics of solitons have been investigated in detail.
Compressive and rarefactive dressed solitons in plasma with nonthermal electrons and positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Zahran, M. A.; Elwakil, S. A.
2016-02-01
The study of dressed solitary ion waves in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma composed warm fluid of ion, nonthermal distributed positrons and electrons are discussed. Concerning nonlinear ion acoustic waves, a reductive perturbation method is applied to obtain the KdV equation in terms of first order potential. Our results exemplify that, if soliton amplitude enlarged, the shape of the wave sidetrack from KdV equation. In order to improve the soliton shape, the perturbed KdV equation is suggest. In particular, the effects of nonthermal positrons and ionic temperature on the electrostatic dressed rarefactive and compressive soliton structures are discussed.
Chang, W; Hölzer, P; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J
2013-08-15
We numerically investigate self-frequency blueshifting of a fundamental soliton in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Because of the changing underlying soliton parameters, the blueshift gives rise to adiabatic soliton compression. Based on these features, we propose a device that enables frequency shifting over an octave and pulse compression from 30 fs down to 2.3 fs. PMID:24104627
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Corro, G. H.; Agüero Granados, M.
2003-05-01
It is shown that stimulated Raman self-scattering (SRSS) can be efficiently used for the compression of femtosecond optical solitons in optical fibres with the spectrally inhomogeneous frequency dependence of the group-velocity dispersion. The SRS dynamics is studied in detail near the point of the second-order zero dispersion. The saturation of compression of femtosecond solitons in spectrally inhomogeneous fibres in the zero-dispersion region is predicted.
Compressive and rarefactive DIA solitons beyond the KdV limit
Mamun, A. A.; Deeba, F.
2012-04-15
The modified Gardner equation (MGE), showing the existence of compressive and rarefactive dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) solitons in a nonplanar dusty plasma (containing inertial ions, Boltzmann electrons, and negatively charged stationary dust) beyond the KdV Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) limit, is derived and numerically solved. The basic features of the compressive and rarefactive cylindrical and spherical DIA solitons, which are found to exist beyond the KdV limit, i.e., exist for {mu} {approx} 2/3 (where {mu} = Z{sub n}n{sub d0}/n{sub i0}, z{sub d} is the number of electrons residing onto the dust grain surface, n{sub d0}(n{sub i0}) is the dust (ion) number density at equilibrium, and {mu} {approx} 2/3 means that {mu} is not equal to 2/3, but it is around 2/3) are identified. These solitons (which can be referred to as DIA Gardner solitons (DIA-GSs)) are completely different from the KdV solitons because {mu} = 2/3 corresponds to the vanishing of the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation, and {mu} {approx} 2/3 corresponds to extremely large amplitude KdV solitons for which the validity of the reductive perturbation method breaks down. It is also shown that the properties of the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) DIA-GSs are significantly different from those of the one dimensional planar ones.
Compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic solitons in a magnetized two-ion component plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Aman-ur-Rehman
2014-10-01
The formation of compressive (hump) and rarefactive (dip) ion acoustic solitons is studied in magnetized O+- H+- e and O+- H-- e plasmas. The hydrodynamics equations are described for cold heavy (oxygen) ions, warm light (hydrogen) ions and isothermal Boltzmann distributed electrons along with Poisson equations in the presence of a magnetic field. The reductive perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for an ion acoustic wave in magnetized two-ion component plasma. It is found that two modes of ion acoustic waves with fast and slow speeds can propagate in the linear limit in such a plasma. It is noticed that, in the case of positively charged light hydrogen ions O+- H+- e plasmas, the slow ion acoustic wave solitons formed both potential hump as well as dip structures, while fast ion acoustic wave solitons give only hump structures. However in the case of negatively charged light hydrogen ions O+- H-- e plasmas, the slow ion acoustic wave solitons formed potential hump structures while fast ion acoustic wave solitons produce dip structures. The variations in the amplitude and width of the nonlinear slow and fast ion acoustic wave structures with density, temperature of light ions and magnetic field intensity are obtained in magnetized two-ion component plasmas. The magnetic field has its effect only on the width of the nonlinear ion acoustic wave structures in two-ion component plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapathy, R.; Kuriakose, V. C.
We have considered soliton pulse compression in a dispersion decreasing ideal elliptical birefringent fiber with phase modulation. We have shown that there is exact balancing between the effective gain and the effective phase modulation and as a result arrive at the fundamental soliton solution. For the various dispersion decreasing profiles we have considered, we have shown that the hyperbolic profile is the best suitable choice for the dispersion decreasing profile as it provides fairly good compression even after compensating for the fiber loss.
Pressure gradient influence in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuther, Nico; Kaehler, Christian J.
2015-11-01
Understanding wall-bounded turbulence is still an ongoing process. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decades, many challenges still remain. Mean flow statistics are well understood in case of zero pressure gradient flows. However, almost all turbulent boundary layers in technical applications, such as aircrafts, are subjected to a streamwise pressure gradient. When subjecting turbulent boundary layers to adverse pressure gradients, significant changes in the statistical behavior of the near-wall flow have been observed in experimental studies conducted however the details dynamics and characteristics of these flows has not been fully resolved. The sensitivity to Reynolds number and the dependency on several parameters, including the dependence on the pressure gradient parameter, is still under debate and very little information exists about statistically averaged quantities such as the mean velocity profile or Reynolds stresses. In order to improve the understanding of wall-bounded turbulence, this work experimentally investigates turbulent boundary layer subjected to favorable and adverse pressure gradients by means of Particle Image Velocimetry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, 4200
Characterization and compression of dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in fiber lasers.
Li, Daojing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Junyu; Zhao, Luming; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan
2016-01-01
We report numerical and experimental studies of dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) in a fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The DSR pulse presents temporally a flat-top profile and a clamped peak power. Its spectrum has a rectangle profile with characteristic steep edges. It shows a unique behavior as pulse energy increases: The rectangle part of the spectrum is unchanged while the newly emerging spectrum sits on the center part and forms a peak. Experimental observations match well with the numerical results. Moreover, the detailed evolution of the DSR pulse compression is both numerically and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. An experimentally obtained DSR pulse of 63 ps duration is compressed down to 760 fs, with low-intensity pedestals using a grating pair. Before being compressed to its narrowest width, the pulse firstly evolves into a cat-ear profile, and the corresponding autocorrelation trace shows a crown shape, which distinguishes itself from properties of other solitons formed in fiber lasers. PMID:27025189
Characterization and compression of dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in fiber lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daojing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Junyu; Zhao, Luming; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan
2016-03-01
We report numerical and experimental studies of dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) in a fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The DSR pulse presents temporally a flat-top profile and a clamped peak power. Its spectrum has a rectangle profile with characteristic steep edges. It shows a unique behavior as pulse energy increases: The rectangle part of the spectrum is unchanged while the newly emerging spectrum sits on the center part and forms a peak. Experimental observations match well with the numerical results. Moreover, the detailed evolution of the DSR pulse compression is both numerically and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. An experimentally obtained DSR pulse of 63 ps duration is compressed down to 760 fs, with low-intensity pedestals using a grating pair. Before being compressed to its narrowest width, the pulse firstly evolves into a cat-ear profile, and the corresponding autocorrelation trace shows a crown shape, which distinguishes itself from properties of other solitons formed in fiber lasers.
Characterization and compression of dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in fiber lasers
Li, Daojing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Junyu; Zhao, Luming; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan
2016-01-01
We report numerical and experimental studies of dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) in a fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The DSR pulse presents temporally a flat-top profile and a clamped peak power. Its spectrum has a rectangle profile with characteristic steep edges. It shows a unique behavior as pulse energy increases: The rectangle part of the spectrum is unchanged while the newly emerging spectrum sits on the center part and forms a peak. Experimental observations match well with the numerical results. Moreover, the detailed evolution of the DSR pulse compression is both numerically and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. An experimentally obtained DSR pulse of 63 ps duration is compressed down to 760 fs, with low-intensity pedestals using a grating pair. Before being compressed to its narrowest width, the pulse firstly evolves into a cat-ear profile, and the corresponding autocorrelation trace shows a crown shape, which distinguishes itself from properties of other solitons formed in fiber lasers. PMID:27025189
Nonpremixed Combustion in a Transitional Flow Under Strong Pressure Gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feng
2004-11-01
The goal of this paper is to study the instability of reacting and accelerating shear layers by direct numerical simulation. A fnite difference method is developed for the unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with multiple species and chemical reactions in order to study transonic flows in a turbine-burner. Main focus will be on the instability of two-dimensional, accelerating, reacting shear layers with strong pressure gradients. Comparisons with non-reacting flows will be made. Results indicate that the unsteady vortex development has signifcant effects on the mixing and combustion process of the shear layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Hamman, Curtis W.; Moin, Parviz
2012-09-01
In this fluid dynamics video, recent simulations of transition to turbulence in compressible (M = 0.2), zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers triggered by fundamental (Klebanoff K-type) and subharmonic (Herbert H-type) secondary instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves are highlighted.
Shape optimization of pressure gradient microphones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norum, T. D.; Seiner, J. M.
1977-01-01
Recently developed finite element computer programs were utilized to investigate the influence of the shape of a body on its scattering field with the aim of determining the optimal shape for a Pressure Gradient Microphone (PGM). Circular cylinders of various aspect ratios were evaluated to choose the length to diameter ratio best suited for a dual element PGM application. Alterations of the basic cylindrical shape by rounding the edges and recessing at the centerline were also studied. It was found that for a + or - 1 db deviation from a linear pressure gradient response, a circular cylinder of aspect ratio near 0.5 was most suitable, yielding a useful upper frequency corresponding to ka = 1.8. The maximum increase in this upper frequency limit obtained through a number of shape alterations was only about 20 percent. An initial experimental evaluation of a single element cylindrical PGM of aspect ratio 0.18 utilizing a piezoresistive type sensor was also performed and is compared to the analytical results.
Pressure gradient induced generation of microbubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel
2015-11-01
It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse bubbles possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy and industry. Here we provide with a detailed physical description of the bubble formation processes taking place in a type of flow where the liquid pressure gradient can be straightforwardly controlled. In our experiments, a gas flow rate discharges through a cylindrical needle into a pressurized chamber. The pressure gradient created from the exit of the injection needle towards the entrance of a extraction duct promotes the stretching of the gas ligament downstream. In our analysis, which is supported by an exhaustive experimental study in which the liquid viscosity is varied by three orders of magnitude, different regimes can be distinguished depending mainly on the Reynolds number. Through our physical modeling, we provide closed expressions for both the bubbling frequencies and for the bubble diameters as well as the conditions under which a monodisperse generation is obtained in all regimes found. The excellent agreement between our expressions and the experimental data fully validates our physical modeling.
Turbulence measurements in axisymmetric supersonic boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.
1976-01-01
Measurements have been made of the mean-flow and turbulence properties in adiabatic turbulent boundary layer flows subjected to adverse pressure gradients. In the freestream region upstream of the adverse pressure gradient the Mach number was 3.86, the unit Reynolds number 5.3 million per foot. The boundary layer developed on the wall of an axisymmetric nozzle and straight test section. The pressure gradients at the test section wall were induced by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The flow under study simulated that which might be found in an axially symmetric engine inlet of a supersonic aircraft. The results obtained have shown good agreement to exist between the measured normalized turbulent velocity fluctuations and the results from other recent investigations of compressible boundary layers.
Turbulence measurements in axisymmetric supersonic boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.
1977-01-01
Mean flow and turbulence measurements are presented for adiabatic compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients. The gradients were induced on the wall of an axially symmetric wind tunnel by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The boundary layer turbulence downstream of a boundary layer bleed section in a zero pressure gradient was also examined. The measurements were obtained using a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The adverse pressure gradients were found to significantly alter the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. With flow through the bleed holes there was a measureable decrease in the rms longitudinal velocity fluctuations near the wall and the turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer was reduced.
Turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient without effect of wall curvature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zakkay, V.; Chi-Rong, W.
1972-01-01
The hypersonic compressible turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient along a cylindrical axisymmetric body was studied. The tests were conducted in a Mach 6 contoured axisymmetric nozzle. An external compression cowl was used to produce the gradual adverse pressure gradient and a maximum pressure rise of 7 times the freestream static pressure was achieved in a test region of 23 cm. Boundary layer profiles of static pressure, total pressure, and total temperature, as well as wall transient heat transfer rates were measured. Comparisons of the velocity total temperature profiles to linear and quadratic relations were made. Measured heat transfer data were in good agreement with the prediction from the flat-plate reference enthalpy method. Integral parameters were also in good agreement with results of numerical solutions for compressible turbulent boundary layer equations.
Mak, K F; Travers, J C; Joly, N Y; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J
2013-09-15
We demonstrate temporal pulse compression in gas-filled kagomé hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using two different approaches: fiber-mirror compression based on self-phase modulation under normal dispersion, and soliton effect self-compression under anomalous dispersion with a decreasing pressure gradient. In the first, efficient compression to near-transform-limited pulses from 103 to 10.6 fs was achieved at output energies of 10.3 μJ. In the second, compression from 24 to 6.8 fs was achieved at output energies of 6.6 μJ, also with near-transform-limited pulse shapes. The results illustrate the potential of kagomé-PCF for postprocessing the output of fiber lasers. We also show that, using a negative pressure gradient, ultrashort pulses can be delivered directly into vacuum. PMID:24104822
Modeling turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcher, Stephen E.
1991-01-01
Many of the turbulent layers encountered in practical flows develop in adverse pressure gradients; hence, the dynamics of the thickening and possible separation of the boundary layer has important implications for design practices. What are the key physical processes that govern how a turbulent boundary layer responds to an adverse pressure gradient, and how should these processes be modeled? Despite the ubiquity of such flows in engineering and nature, these equations remain largely unanswered. The turbulence closure models presently used to describe these flows commonly use 'wall functions' that have ad hoc corrections for the effects of pressure gradients. There is, therefore, a practical and theoretical need to examine the effects of adverse pressure gradients on wall bounded turbulent flows in order to develop models based on sound physical principle. The evolution of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat wall with an externally imposed pressure gradient is studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-05-01
The aim of this comment is to show the solution of the KdVB equation used by Shah et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 335:529-537, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s10509-011-0766-y) is not correct. So, the numerical results that are predicted in this manuscript should not be helpful for further investigations in a plasma laboratory. For this reason, we have employed the Bernoulli's equation method to obtain the correct form of analytical solution to this equation, which is appropriate for the study of electrostatic compressive and rarefactive shocks and solitons in relativistic plasmas occurring in polar regions of pulsar.
Zero pressure gradient boundary layer at extreme Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hultmark, Marcus; Vallikivi, Margit; Smits, Alexander
2011-11-01
Experiments were conducted in a zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layer using the Princeton/ONR High Reynolds number Test Facility (HRTF). The HRTF uses highly compressed air, up to 220 atmospheres, to produce Reynolds numbers up to Reθ =225,000 . This corresponds to a δ+ =65,000 which is one of the highest Reynolds numbers ever measured in a laboratory. When using pressure to achieve high Reynolds numbers the size of the measurement probes become critical, thus the need for very small sensors is acute. The streamwise component of velocity was investigated using a nanoscale thermal anemometer (NSTAP) as well as a 200 μm pitot tube. The NSTAP has a spatial resolution as well as a temporal resolution one order of magnitude better than conventional measurement techniques. The data was compared to recent data from a high Reynolds number turbulent pipe flow and it was shown that the two flows are more similar than previous data suggests. Supported under NR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257(program manager Henning Winter).
Transition length prediction for flows with rapidly changing pressure gradients
Solomon, W.J.; Walker, G.J.; Gostelow, J.P.
1996-10-01
A new method for calculating intermittency in transitional boundary layers with changing pressure gradients is proposed and tested against standard turbomachinery flow cases. It is based on recent experimental studies, which show the local pressure gradient parameter to have a significant effect on turbulent spot spreading angles and propagation velocities (and hence transition length). This can be very important for some turbomachinery flows. On a turbine blade suction surface, for example, it is possible for transition to start in a region of favorable pressure gradient and finish in a region of adverse pressure gradient. Calculation methods that estimate the transition length from the local pressure gradient parameter at the start of transition will seriously overestimate the transition length under these conditions. Conventional methods based on correlations of zero pressure gradient transition date are similarly inaccurate. The new calculation method continuously adjusts the spot growth parameters in response to changes in the local pressure gradient through transition using correlations based on data given in the companion paper by Gostelow et al. (1996). Recent experiment correlations of Gostelow et al. (1994a) are used to estimate the turbulent spot generation rate at the start of transition. The method has been incorporated in a linear combination integral computation and tested with good results on cases that report both the intermittency and surface pressure distribution data. It has resulted in a much reduced sensitivity to errors in predicting the start of the transition zone, and can be recommended for engineering use in calculating boundary layer development on axial turbomachine blades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uts, Ilya; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Lee, Kanani K. M.
2013-10-01
Pressure media are one of the most effective deterrents of pressure gradients in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments. The media, however, become less effective with increasing pressure, particularly for solid pressure media. One of the most popular ways of alleviating the increase in pressure gradients in DAC samples is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique for six common solid pressure media that include: alkali metal halides LiF, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, KBr, as well as amorphous SiO2. Pressure gradients are determined through the analysis of the first-order diamond Raman band across the sample before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser to temperatures between ˜2000 and 3000 K. As expected, we find that in the absence of sample chamber geometrical changes and diamond anvil damage, laser annealing reduces pressure gradients, albeit to varying amounts. We find that under ideal conditions, NaCl provides the best deterrent to pressure gradients before and after laser annealing, at least up to pressures of 60 GPa and temperatures between ˜2000 and 3000 K. Amorphous SiO2, on the other hand, transforms in to harder crystalline stishovite upon laser annealing at high pressures resulting in increased pressure gradients upon further compression without laser annealing.
Effect of pressure gradient fluctuations on boundary layer turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pranav; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Xiaofeng
2013-11-01
The present study focuses on the effect of large-scale pressure gradient fluctuations on turbulence in both, zero pressure gradient (ZPG) and mean favorable pressure gradient (FPG) boundary layers. Time-resolved, two-dimensional PIV data in the streamwise-wall-normal plane enables us to calculate the instantaneous pressure distributions by integrating the planar projection of the material acceleration of the fluid. In both boundary layers, sweeps (u'> 0, v'< 0) mostly occur during periods of adverse pressure gradient fluctuations (∂p'/ ∂x > 0), while favorable pressure gradient fluctuations (∂p'/ ∂x < 0) accompany ejections (u'< 0, v'> 0). Conditional averaging indicates that in the ZPG boundary layer, large-scale ∂p'/ ∂x > 0 events accompanying sweeps lead to the formation of a growing region of ejection downstream, in a phenomenon resembling adverse-pressure induced flow separation. This phenomenon is much less pronounced in the FPG boundary layer, as the large-scale ∂p'/ ∂x > 0 events are for the most part significantly weaker than the mean FPG. Conditional sampling and instantaneous data in the ZPG boundary layer also confirm that although some of the ejections are preceded, and presumably initiated, by regions of adverse pressure gradients and sweeps, others are not. In the FPG boundary layer, there is no evidence of sweeps or adverse pressure gradients immediately upstream of ejections. The mechanisms initiating these structures presumably occur far upstream of the peak in favorable pressure gradient fluctuations. Sponsored by NSF, CBET Division, Fluid Dynamics program.
Similarity Theory for Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Luciano
1997-11-01
The analysis of George et al. (1996)(George, W.K., Castillo, L. and Knecht, P. (1996). The Zero Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer. Tech. Rep. TRL-153a, Turb. Res. Lab., SUNY Buffalo.) for the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer is extended to boundary layers with pressure gradient. As noted by George and Castillo (1993)(George, W.K. and Castillo, L. (1993). Boundary layers with pressure gradient: Another look at the equilibrium boundary layer, Near Wall Turbulent Flows), (So, R.M.C. et al. eds.), 901--910, Elsevier, NY., the velocity deficit scales with U_∞ and a parameter, Λ = δ /(ρ U_∞^2 dδ/dx)dP_∞/dx, which is proportional to the Clauser parameter in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. Like the zero-pressure gradient boundary layer, the velocity profile in the overlap region is also a power law in y+a where a^+ is an offset which is nearly constant and accounts for the mesolayer. In inner variables: u^+ = C_ipy^+^γ_p in outer: \\overlineu = C_op\\overliney^γ_p. It can be shown theoretically that away from separation, both C_ip and γp are equal to the zero pressure gradient values. Moreover, C_op differs from the zero-pressure gradient value only by an additive parameter which depends only on Λ. Thus, the Reynolds number dependence is independent of the pressure gradient.
A finite volume discretization of the pressure gradient force using analytic integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adcroft, Alistair; Hallberg, Robert; Harrison, Matthew
Layered ocean models can exhibit spurious thermobaric instability if the compressibility of sea water is not treated accurately enough. We find that previous solutions to this problem are inadequate for simulations of a changing climate. We propose a new discretization of the pressure gradient acceleration using the finite volume method. In this method, the pressure gradient acceleration is exhibited as the difference of the integral "contact" pressure acting on the edges of a finite volume. This integral "contact" pressure can be calculated analytically by choosing a tractable equation of state. The result is a discretization that has zero truncation error for an isothermal and isohaline layer and does not exhibit the spurious thermobaric instability.
Effects of pressure gradients on turbulent premixed flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veynante, D.; Poinsot, T.
1995-01-01
The influence of a constant acceleration on a turbulent premixed flame is studied by direct numerical simulation. This acceleration induces a mean pressure gradient across the flame brush, leading to a modification of the turbulent flame structure due to differential buoyancy mechanisms between heavy cold fresh and light hot burnt gases. Such a pressure gradient may be encountered in practical applications in ducted flames. A favorable pressure gradient, i.e. the pressure decreases from unburnt to burnt gases, is found to decrease the flame wrinkling, the flame brush thickness, and the turbulent flame speed. A favorable pressure gradient also promotes counter-gradient turbulent transport. On the other hand, adverse pressure gradients tend to increase the flame brush thickness and turbulent flame speed, and promote classical gradient turbulent transport. The balance equation for the turbulent flux of the Favre averaged progress variable is also analyzed. The first results show that the fluctuating pressure term, cannot be neglected as generally assumed in models. Simple models assuming that a high mean pressure gradient may only be balanced by the cross-dissipation term seem too approximate. This analysis has to be continued to compare simulation data and closure schemes proposed for the transport equation. The analysis developed by Veynante et al.(1995) has been extended to imposed acceleration and mean pressure gradients. A simple model for the turbulent flux is proposed and validated from simulation data. Then, a modified criterion is derived to delineate between counter-gradient and gradient turbulent diffusion. In fact, counter-gradient diffusion may occur in most practical applications, especially for ducted flames.
Numerical Study of the Transverse Stability of Compressive and Rarefactive Alfven Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, R.; Haneberg, C.
2015-12-01
A numerical study of the stability of DNLS bright and dark solitons subject to oblique perturbations is reported. The DNLS equation is a weakly nonlinear, weakly dispersive and one dimensional limiting form of MHD with the inclusion of Hall dispersion which has been shown to remain valid for plane wave propagation parallel, as well as quasiparallel, to the ambient magnetic field. Related analytic work has dealt with the transverse stability of circularly polarized Alfven waves [E. Mjolhus, T. Hada, J. Plasma Phys., 43, 257 - 268 (1990)] describing stability in relation to the propagation angle of the perturbation and the wave's amplitude and wavenumber. The amplitude and wavenumber relation for transverse stability has a striking similarity to the criterion for modulational instability. A prior analytic work [M. S. Ruderman, Fluid Dyn. 22, 299, (1987)] found the dark soliton to be unstable. Our numerical results are established in the context of these analytic results. Additionally, the transverse stability properties of dark solitons will be addressed as they relate to their role in representing magnetic decreases observed in interplanetary space.
Enhanced magnetic reconnection in the presence of pressure gradients
Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.
2015-06-15
Magnetic reconnection in the presence of background pressure gradients is studied, with special attention to parallel (compressional) magnetic fluctuations. A process is reported that reconnects fields through coupling of drift-wave-type instabilities with current sheets. Its time scale is set not by the reconnecting field but by inhomogeneities of the background density or temperature. The observed features can be attributed to a pressure-gradient-driven linear instability which interacts with the reconnecting system but is fundamentally different from microtearing. In particular, this mode relies on parallel magnetic fluctuations and the associated drift. For turbulent reconnection, similar or even stronger enhancements are reported. In the solar corona, this yields a critical pressure gradient scale length of about 200 km below which this new process becomes dominant over the tearing instability.
The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chovancová, Michaela; Elcner, Jakub
2014-03-01
Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose) to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance) is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.
Pressure Gradients and Annealing Effects in Solid Helium-4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhel, Md. Abdul Halim
The Kim and Chan experiment in 2004 gave the first experimental evidence of a possible supersolid state. Even though the origin of this state is not clear yet, several experimental and theoretical investigations suggest defects are responsible for this curious phase. We have used heat pulses and thermal quenching to study pressure gradients and annealing mechanisms in solid 4He crystals. Large pressure gradients exist in crystals grown at constant volume. These can be enhanced by phase transitions, thermal quenching or by partial melting. Annealing reduces defect densities and hence pressure gradients in crystals. Our measurements show that the pressure at different points in a crystal can behave differently, even if there is little change in the crystal's average pressure. We measured the activation energy that is associated with the annealing process.
Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet
1987-01-01
A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.
Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.
2016-01-01
In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.
Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zorumski, William E.
1989-01-01
The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.
Statistics of pressure and pressure gradient in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R. S.
1994-01-01
The statistics of pressure and pressure gradient in stationary isotropic turbulence are measured within direct numerical simulations at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. It is found that the one-point pdf of the pressure is highly skewed and that the pdf of the pressure gradient is of stretched exponential form. The power spectrum of the pressure P(k) is found to be larger than the corresponding spectrum P(sub G)(k) computed from a Gaussian velocity field having the same energy spectrum as that of the DNS field. The ratio P(k)/P(sub G)(k), a measure of the pressure-field intermittence, grows with wavenumber and Reynolds number as -R(sub lambda)(exp 1/2)log(k/k(sub d)) for k less than k(sub d)/2 where k(sub d) is the Kolmogorov wavenumber. The Lagrangian correlations of pressure gradient and velocity are compared and the Lagrangian time scale of the pressure gradient is observed to be much shorter than that of the velocity.
Three-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layer With Adverse Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, David M.; Hebbar, Sheshagiri K.
1992-01-01
Report describes experiment to measure effects of adverse pressure gradient on three-dimensional turbulent boundary-layer flow; effect of streamwise gradient of pressure on crossflow of particular interest. Production of turbulent kinetic energy grows rapidly in vicinity of step as result of steep mean-flow velocity gradients. Dissipation grows less quickly than production; leading to net growth with distance along streamline.
A new simple method to estimate fracture pressure gradient
Rocha, L.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.
1994-12-31
Projecting safer and more economic wells calls for estimating correctly the fracture pressure gradient. On the other hand, a poor prediction of the fracture pressure gradient may lead to serious accidents such as lost circulation followed by a kick. Although these kinds of accidents can occur in any phase of the well, drilling shallow formations can offer additional dangerous due to shallow gas kicks, because they have the potential of becoming a shallow gas blowout leading sometimes to the formation of craters. Often, one of the main problems when estimating the fracture pressure gradient is the lack of data. In fact, drilling engineers generally face situations where only leak off test data (frequently having questionable results) are available. This problem is normally the case when drilling shallow formations where very few information is collected. This paper presents a new method to estimate fracture pressure gradient. The proposed method has the advantage of (a) using only the knowledge of leak off test data and (b) being independent of the pore pressure. The method is based on a new concept called pseudo-overburden pressure, defined as the overburden pressure a formation would exhibit if it were plastic. The method was applied in several areas of the world such as US Gulf Coast (Mississippi Canyon and Green Canyon) with very good results.
Numerical analysis of turbulent flows with pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hattori, Hirofumi; Nagano, Yasutaka
1992-12-01
A k-epsilon turbulence model is developed to calculate wall turbulent shear flows under various pressure gradient conditions. In the present model, the dissipation rate of turbulent energy zero at a wall is made, though the wall limiting behavior of velocity fluctuations is reproduced exactly. Thus, the model assures computational expediency and convergence. The proposed model is constructed to properly take into account the effects of pressure gradients on shear layers. It was found by Nagano et al. that in adverse pressure gradient flows a Van Driest damping constant decreased with increasing dimensionless pressure gradient parameter P(sup +). Therefore, the present model has introduced the modified Van Driest damping function which is a function of P(sup +). The proposed model was tested by application to a turbulent channel flow and boundary layers with P(sup +) is less than 0, P(sup +) = 0 and P(sup +) is greater than zero. The model predictions indicate that agreement with the experiment and the direct simulation data is good over a wide range of pressure variations.
Pressure Gradient Effects on Hypersonic Cavity Flow Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everhart, Joel L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.; Prabhu, Ramdas K.
2007-01-01
The effect of a pressure gradient on the local heating disturbance of rectangular cavities tested at hypersonic freestream conditions has been globally assessed using the two-color phosphor thermography method. These experiments were conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel and were initiated in support of the Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Program. Two blunted-nose test surface geometries were developed, including an expansion plate test surface with nearly constant negative pressure gradient and a flat plate surface with nearly zero pressure gradient. The test surface designs and flow characterizations were performed using two-dimensional laminar computational methods, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred using the measured heating distributions. Three-dimensional computational predictions of the entire model geometry were used as a check on the design process. Both open-flow and closed-flow cavities were tested on each test surface. The cavity design parameters and the test condition matrix were established using the computational predictions. Preliminary conclusions based on an analysis of only the cavity centerline data indicate that the presence of the pressure gradient did not alter the open cavity heating for laminar-entry/laminar-exit flows, but did raise the average floor heating for closed cavities. The results of these risk-reduction studies will be used to formulate a heating assessment of potential damage scenarios occurring during future Space Shuttle flights.
Pressure Gradient Effects on Hypersonic Cavity Flow Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everhart, Joel L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
2006-01-01
The effect of a pressure gradient on the local heating disturbance of rectangular cavities tested at hypersonic freestream conditions has been globally assessed using the two-color phosphor thermography method. These experiments were conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel and were initiated in support of the Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Program. Two blunted-nose test surface geometries were developed, including an expansion plate test surface with nearly constant negative pressure gradient and a flat plate surface with nearly zero pressure gradient. The test surface designs and flow characterizations were performed using two-dimensional laminar computational methods, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred using the measured heating distributions. Three-dimensional computational predictions of the entire model geometry were used as a check on the design process. Both open-flow and closed-flow cavities were tested on each test surface. The cavity design parameters and the test condition matrix were established using the computational predictions. Preliminary conclusions based on an analysis of only the cavity centerline data indicate that the presence of the pressure gradient did not alter the open cavity heating for laminar-entry/laminar-exit flows, but did raise the average floor heating for closed cavities. The results of these risk-reduction studies will be used to formulate a heating assessment of potential damage scenarios occurring during future Space Shuttle flights.
New insights into adverse pressure gradient boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, William K.; Stanislas, Michel; Laval, Jean-Philippe
2010-11-01
In a recent paper Shah et al. 2010 (Proc. of the WALLTURB Meeting, 2009), Lille, FR, Springer, in press) documented a number of adverse pressure gradient flows (APG's), with and without wall curvature, where the turbulence intensity peak moved quite sharply away from the wall with increasing distance. They further suggested that this peak was triggered by the adverse pressure gradient and had its origin in an instability hidden in the turbulent boundary layer, developing soon after the change of sign of the pressure gradient. They then offered that this may explain the difficulties encountered up to now in finding a universal scaling for turbulent boundary layers. We build on these observations, and show that in fact there is clear evidence in the literature (in most experiments, both old and new) for such a development downstream of the imposition of an adverse pressure gradient. The exact nature of the evolution and the distance over which it occurs depends on the upstream boundary layer and the manner in which the APG is imposed. But far enough downstream the mean velocity profile in all cases becomes an inflectional point profile with the location of the inflection point corresponding quite closely to the observed peak in the streamwise turbulence intensity. This does not seem to have been previously noticed.
Compressive and rarefactive dust-ion-acoustic Gardner solitons in a multi-component dusty plasma
Ema, S. A.; Ferdousi, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-04-15
The linear and nonlinear propagations of dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated theoretically. The linear properties are analyzed by using the normal mode analysis and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), the modified K-dV (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of Gardner solitons (GS) are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit and these dust-ion-acoustic GS are qualitatively different from the K-dV and mK-dV solitons. It is observed that the basic features of DIASWs are affected by various plasma parameters (viz., electron nonextensivity, negative-to-positive ion number density ratio, electron-to-positive ion number density ratio, electron-to-positive ion temperature ratio, etc.) of the considered plasma system. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the nonlinear structures and the characteristics of DIASWs propagating in both space and laboratory plasmas.
The effects of pressure gradients on convective heat flux predictions in engine environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, I.-Ping
1991-02-01
Accurate convective heat transfer predictions inside engines is important to improvements in performance, reduction of harmful exhaust emissions, and structural and material design. Current heat transfer models used in engine simulations do not incorporate the effects of pressure gradients. In this study, wall functions that use local pressure gradients to correct the friction velocity, wall shear stress, and heat flux were developed. The pressure-gradient-corrected (PGC) model predictions of nondimensional velocity and temperature were validated by experimental data available in the literature and were also compared with other models. Results showed reasonable agreement with the experimental data for both accelerated and decelerated flows before flow separation. The drag law relations predicted by the PGC wall function gave good trend analysis of skin coefficient variation over the local Reynolds number for different local pressure gradient conditions. The piecewise linear correlations between the skin friction coefficient and the Stanton number for different pressure gradients were observed. The PGC model wall function parameters which include a modified friction velocity, wall shear stress, and heat flux were calculated using the engine hydrodynamic simulation code KIVA-II. The predictions exhibited appropriate response to a variety of engine flow and operating conditions. The PGC model wall function predictions of friction velocity and wall shear stress were compared with two different models for a flat-piston and a deep-bowl engine at the same operating conditions and location. The wall heat flux predictions from the PGC model were compared with four different models for the different flow, geometry, and operating conditions from a flat-piston engine and a deep-bowl piston engine. Results of different model predictions were compared with experimental data. For the flat-piston engine, the PGC model predictions underestimated peaks and valleys in the compression
Observations of ion-acoustic cylindrical solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hershkowitz, N.; Romesser, T.
1974-01-01
Experimental observations of cylindrical solitons in a collisionless plasma are presented. The data obtained show that cylindrical solitonlike objects exist and that their properties are consistent with those of one- and three-dimensional solitons. It is found that compressive density perturbations evolve into solitons. The number of the solitons is determined by the width and amplitude of the applied pulse.
Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators in an Adverse Pressure Gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Christopher; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint
2013-11-01
A wind tunnel experiment was conducted to compare plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs) and passive vortex generators (VGs). These devices were installed on a wing section by which the angle of attack could be used to vary the streamwise pressure gradient. The experiment was performed for freestream Mach numbers 0.1-0.2. Three-dimensional velocity components were measured using a 5-hole Pitot probe in the boundary layer. These measurements were used to quantify the production of streamwise vorticity and the magnitude of the reorientation term from the vorticity transport equation. The effect of Mach number, pressure gradient, operating voltage, and electrode length was then investigated for the PSVGs. The results indicate that the PSVGs could easily outperform the passive VGs and provide a suitable alternative for flow control.
Computation of Turbulent Wake Flows in Variable Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duquesne, N.; Carlson, J. R.; Rumsey, C. L.; Gatski, T. B.
1999-01-01
Transport aircraft performance is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of high-lift systems. Developing wakes generated by the airfoil elements are subjected to strong pressure gradients and can thicken very rapidly, limiting maximum lift. This paper focuses on the effects of various pressure gradients on developing symmetric wakes and on the ability of a linear eddy viscosity model and a non-linear explicit algebraic stress model to accurately predict their downstream evolution. In order to reduce the uncertainties arising from numerical issues when assessing the performance of turbulence models, three different numerical codes with the same turbulence models are used. Results are compared to available experimental data to assess the accuracy of the computational results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jin-Hui; Li, Sha; Xie, Song-Lin; Yan, Bin-Bin; Sang, Xin-Zhu; Yu, Chong-Xiu
2013-11-01
In this paper, we propose an optical quantization scheme for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion that facilitates photonics integration. A segment of 10-m photonic crystal fiber with a high nonlinear coefficient of 62.8 W-1/km is utilized to realize large scale soliton self-frequency shift relevant to the power of the sampled optical signal. Furthermore, a 100-m dispersion-increasing fiber is used as the spectral compression module for further resolution enhancement. Simulation results show that 317-nm maximum wavelength shift is realized with 1550-nm initial wavelength and 6-bit quantization resolution is obtained with a subsequent spectral compression process.
Pressure gradient torque in highly supersonic nonaxisymmetric accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Cheng; Taam, Ronald E.; Fryxell, Bruce A.; Matsuda, Takuya; Koide, Hiroshi
1989-01-01
The contribution of a pressure gradient torque to the angular momentum transfer rate in highly supersonic nonaxisymmetric accretion flows is considered. This study takes into account the contribution due to the pressure variation in the postaccretion-shock region which is significant for high Mach number accretion. For the case of accretion flow with Mach (infinity) of not less than 5, the overall accretion torque is shown to approach a constant value.
On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.
Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B
2016-08-23
Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems. PMID:27463696
A new simple method to estimate fracture pressure gradient
Rocha, L.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.
1996-09-01
Projecting safety and more economic wells calls for estimating correctly the fracture pressure gradient. On the other hand, a poor prediction of the fracture pressure gradient may lead to serious accidents, such as lost circulation followed by a kick. Although these kind of accidents can occur in any phase of the well, drilling shallow formations can offer additional dangers caused by shallow gas kicks because they have the potential of becoming a shallow gas blowout leading sometimes to the formation of craters. This paper presents a new method to estimate fracture pressure gradient. The proposed method has the advantage of (1) using only the knowledge of leakoff test data and (2) being independent of the pore pressure. The method is based on a new concept called pseudo-overburden pressure, defined as the overburden pressure a formation would exhibit if it were plastic. The method was applied in several areas of the world, such as the US Gulf Coast (Mississippi Canyon and Green Canyon), with very good results.
[Measuring the intracoronary pressure gradient--value and methodologic limitations].
Sievert, H; Kaltenbach, M
1987-06-01
Measurements of pressure gradients were performed in a fluid-filled model. The hydrostatically regulated perfusion pressure, as well as the diameter of the tube segments and the regulation of the flow by peripheral resistance, were comparable to conditions in human coronary arteries. Pressure gradients above 20 mm Hg were only measured with a reduction in cross-sectional area of more than 90%. Even after increasing the flow four-fold, which corresponds to the human coronary flow reserve, as well as after probing the stenosis with different catheters (2F-5F), gradients greater than 20 mm Hg were only recorded with high-grade stenoses (more than 80% reduction in cross-sectional area). The findings in this model demonstrate that measurement of pressure gradients allows only a quantitative differentiation between high-grade (greater than 80%) and low-grade (less than 80%) stenoses. The catheter itself can substantially contribute to the gradient by vessel obstruction, depending on the diameter of the catheter and of the coronary vessel. A quantitative assessment of the stenosis therefore requires knowledge of the pre- and post-stenotic vessel diameter as well as of the catheter diameter. However, pressure measurements during transluminal coronary angioplasty should not be abandoned. They can be useful to aid catheter positioning and to estimate dilatation efficacy. Moreover, measurement of coronary capillary wedge pressure during balloon expansion provides valuable information about the extent of collateralisation. PMID:2957862
Pore-pressure gradients in the proximity of a submarine buried pipeline
Magda, W.
1995-12-31
This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional finite-element modeling of the wave-induced pore-pressure field in the proximity of a submarine pipeline buried in sandy seabed sediments subject to continuous loading of regular surface waves. Neglecting inertial forces, a linear elastic stress-strain relationship for the soil, and Darcy`s law for the flow of pore-fluid are assumed. The model takes into account the compressibility of both components (i.e., pore-fluid and soil skeleton) of the two-phase medium. The results of numerical computations are discussed with respect to the hydraulic gradient in the upper part of seabed sediments just above the buried submarine pipeline. The pore-pressure gradient is studied as a function of geometry (depth of burial) as well as soil and pore-fluid compressibility parameters where the later of which is defined in terms of soil saturation conditions.
Vandenberg Air Force Base Pressure Gradient Wind Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shafer, Jaclyn A.
2013-01-01
Warning category winds can adversely impact day-to-day space lift operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. NASA's Launch Services Program and other programs at VAFB use wind forecasts issued by the 30 Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle. The 30 OSSWF tasked the AMU to develop an automated Excel graphical user interface that includes pressure gradient thresholds between specific observing stations under different synoptic regimes to aid forecasters when issuing wind warnings. This required the AMU to determine if relationships between the variables existed.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Effectiveness of Micro-Blowing Technique in Adverse Pressure Gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Gerard E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.; Hwang, Danny P.; Wood, Jerry R.
2001-01-01
The impact of the micro-blowing technique (MBT) on the skin friction and total drag of a strut in a turbulent, strong adverse-pressure-gradient flow is assessed experimentally over a range of subsonic Mach numbers (0.3 less than M less than 0.7) and reduced blowing fractions (0 less than or equal to 2F/C (sub f,o) less than or equal to 1.75). The MBT-treated strut is situated along the centerline of a symmetric 2-D diffuser with a static pressure rise coefficient of 0.6. In agreement with presented theory and earlier experiments in zero-pressure-gradient flows, the effusion of blowing air reduces skin friction significantly (e.g., by 60% at reduced blowing fractions near 1.75). The total drag of the treated strut with blowing is significantly lower than that of the treated strut in the limit of zero-blowing; further, the total drag is reduced below that of the baseline (solid-plate) strut, provided that the reduced blowing fractions are sufficiently high. The micro-blowing air is, however, deficient in streamwise momentum and the blowing leads to increased boundary-layer and wake thicknesses and shape factors. Diffuser performance metrics and wake surveys are used to discuss the impact of various levels of micro-blowing on the aerodynamic blockage and loss.
Turbulent boundary layers subjected to multiple curvatures and pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Ahmed, Anwar
1993-01-01
The effects of abruptly applied cycles of curvatures and pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers are examined experimentally. Two two-dimensional curved test surfaces are considered: one has a sequence of concave and convex longitudinal surface curvatures and the other has a sequence of convex and concave curvatures. The choice of the curvature sequences were motivated by a desire to study the asymmetric response of turbulent boundary layers to convex and concave curvatures. The relaxation of a boundary layer from the effects of these two opposite sequences has been compared. The effect of the accompaying sequences of pressure gradient has also been examined but the effect of curvature dominates. The growth of internal layers at the curvature junctions have been studied. Measurements of the Gortler and corner vortex systems have been made. The boundary layer recovering from the sequence of concave to convex curvature has a sustained lower skin friction level than in that recovering from the sequence of convex to concave curvature. The amplification and suppression of turbulence due to the curvature sequences have also been studied.
Investigation of pressure gradient aware wall modeling in LES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiry, Olivier; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Duponcheel, Matthieu
2015-11-01
This work focuses on the investigation of various wall modeling strategies for the simulation of high Reynolds number wall-bounded turbulent flows with acceleration and/or deceleration. Our code is based on fourth order finite differences, is momentum conserving, and is energy conserving up to fourth order. We here use a ``channel flow'' set-up, with no slip and wall modeling at the bottom, with slip at the top, and with blowing and/or suction at the top in order to generate the desired acceleration-deceleration profile. Two strategies are investigated and compared. Pressure gradient corrected algebraic models are first considered, and we investigate various local averaging techniques so as to avoid imposing mean profile laws pointwise. RANS sub-layer models are then also considered, where the turbulent viscosity is corrected to account for pressure gradient effects and for resolved LES fluctuations effects. A wall-resolved LES was also performed to provide a reference solution. Research fellow (Ph.D. student) at the F.R.S. - FNRS (Belgium).
Implicit Large-Eddy Simulations of Zero-Pressure Gradient, Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekhar, Susheel; Mansour, Nagi N.
2015-01-01
A set of direct simulations of zero-pressure gradient, turbulent boundary layer flows are conducted using various span widths (62-630 wall units), to document their influence on the generated turbulence. The FDL3DI code that solves compressible Navier-Stokes equations using high-order compact-difference scheme and filter, with the standard recycling/rescaling method of turbulence generation, is used. Results are analyzed at two different Re values (500 and 1,400), and compared with spectral DNS data. They show that a minimum span width is required for the mere initiation of numerical turbulence. Narrower domains ((is) less than 100 w.u.) result in relaminarization. Wider spans ((is) greater than 600 w.u.) are required for the turbulent statistics to match reference DNS. The upper-wall boundary condition for this setup spawns marginal deviations in the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, particularly in the buffer region.
Spong, D. A.; Shaing, K. C.; Carreras, B. A.; Charlton, L. A.; Callen, J. D.; Garcia, L.
1988-10-01
The linearized neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic equations, including perturbed neoclassical flows and currents, have been solved for parameter regimes where the neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven instability becomes important. This instability is driven by the fluctuating bootstrap current term in Ohm's law. It begins to dominate the conventional resistive ballooning mode in the banana-plateau collisionality regime ({mu}{sub e}/{nu}{sub e} approx {radical}{epsilon}/(1 + {nu}{sub *e}) > {epsilon}{sup 2}) and is characterized by a larger radial mode width and higher growth rate. The neoclassical instability persists in the absence of the usual magnetic field curvature drive and is not significantly affected by compressibility. Scalings with respect to {beta}, n (toroidal mode number), and {mu} (neoclassical viscosity) are examined using a large-aspect-ratio, three-dimensional initial-value code that solves linearized equations for the magnetic flux, fluid vorticity, density, and parallel ion flow velocity in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. 13 refs., 10 figs.
Wake measurements in a strong adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffenberg, R.; Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, S. P.
1994-01-01
The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although 'wake bursting' is known to be important for high-lift systems, no detailed measurements of 'burst' wakes have ever been reported. Wake bursting has been successfully achieved in the wake of a flat plate as it decelerated in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose sidewalls were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pilot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to investigate the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.
Theory of neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven turbulence
Kwon, O.J.; Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H.
1988-11-01
The nonlinear evolution and saturation of neoclassical pressure- gradient-driven turbulence (NPGDT), evolving from linearly unstable bootstrap current modes, are investigated. The theoretical model is based on '' neoclassical MHD equations'' which are valid in the banana-plateau regimes of collisionality. Modes with poloidal wavelengths shorter than radial wavelengths are shown to be suppressed. From nonlinear saturation conditions, the turbulent pressure diffusivity is determined as an eigenvalue of the renormalized equations. Levels and radial scales of turbulence are determined from the pressure diffusivity and are shown to exceed mixing length estimates by powers of a nonlinear enhancement factor. The problem of the electron heat transport due to stochastic magnetic fields driven by NPGDT is revisited. The reconsideration of the radial structure of magnetic flutter leads to estimates of the electron heat transport and magnetic fluctuation levels which differ qualitatively and quantitatively from previous calculations. 25 refs.
Theory of neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven turbulence
Kwon, O.J. ); Diamond, P.H.; Biglari, H. General Atomics, Inc., San Diego, California 92138 )
1990-02-01
The nonlinear evolution and saturation of neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven turbulence (NPGDT), evolving from linearly unstable bootstrap-current modes, are investigated. The theoretical model is based on neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations'' that are valid in the banana-plateau regimes of collisionality. Modes with poloidal wavelengths shorter than radial wavelengths are shown to be suppressed. From nonlinear saturation conditions, the turbulent pressure diffusivity is determined as an eigenvalue of the renormalized equations. Levels and radial scales of turbulence are determined from the pressure diffusivity and are shown to exceed mixing-length estimates by powers of a nonlinear enhancement factor. The problem of the electron heat transport resulting from stochastic magnetic fields driven by NPGDT is revisited. The reconsideration of the radial structure of magnetic flutter leads to estimates of the electron heat transport and magnetic fluctuation levels that differ qualitatively and quantitatively from previous calculations.
Radio jet refraction in galactic atmospheres with static pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henriksen, R. N.; Vallee, J. P.; Bridle, A. H.
1981-01-01
A theory of double radio sources which have a 'Z' or 'S' morphology is proposed, based on the refraction of radio jets in the extended atmosphere of an elliptical galaxy. The model describes a collimated jet of supersonic material bending self-consistently under the influence of external static pressure gradients. Gravity and magnetic fields are neglected in the simplest case except insofar as they determine the static pressure distribution. The calculation is a straightforward extension of a method used to calculate a ram-pressure model for twin radio trails ('C' morphology). It may also be described as a continuous-jet version of a buoyancy model proposed in 1973. The model has the added virtue of invoking a galactic atmosphere similar to those already indicated by X-ray measurements of some other radio galaxies and by models for the collimation of other radio jets.
Radio jet refraction in galactic atmospheres with static pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henriksen, R. N.; Vallee, J. P.; Bridle, A. H.
1981-01-01
A theory based on the refraction of radio jets in the extended atmosphere of an elliptical galaxy, is proposed for double radio sources with a Z or S morphology. The model describes a collimated jet of supersonic material that bends self-consistently under the influence of external static pressure gradients, and may alternatively be seen as a continuous-jet version of the buoyancy model proposed by Gull (1973). Emphasis is placed on (1) S-shaped radio sources identified with isolated galaxies, such as 3C 293, whose radio structures should be free of distortions resulting from motion relative to a cluster medium, and (2) small-scale, galaxy-dominated rather than environment-dominated S-shaped sources such as the inner jet structure of Fornax A.
The Pressure Gradient Force in Sigma-Co Ocean Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slørdal, Leiv Håvard
1997-05-01
The error in computing the horizontal pressure gradient force near steep topography is investigated in a primitive equation, -co-ordinate, numerical ocean model (Blumberg and Mellor, in Three -Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, Vol. 4, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 1987, pp. 1-16). By performing simple test experiments where the density field is allowed to vary in both the vertical and the horizontal direction, severe errors are detected in the areas where the isopycnals hit the sloping bottom. An alternative method of computing the pressure force (Stelling and van Kester, Int. j. numer. methods fluids, 18, 915-935 (1994) is adopted, resulting in substantial reduction of the errors. However, a systematic underestimation of the calculated quantities is revealed, leading to erroneous depth-mean values of the pressure force. In this study a modification of the Stelling and van Kester method is proposed which seems to improve the overall performance of the method.
Diverging boundary layers with zero streamwise pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pauley, Wayne R.; Eaton, John K.; Cutler, Andrew D.
1989-01-01
The effects of spanwise divergence on the boundary layer forming between a pair of embedded streamwise vortices with the common flow between them directed toward the wall was studied. Measurements indicate that divergence controls the rate of development of the boundary layer and that large divergence significantly retards boundary layer growth and enhances skin friction. For strongly diverging boundary layers, divergence accounts for nearly all of the local skin friction. Even with divergence, however, the local similarity relationships for two-dimensional boundary layers are satisfactory. Although divergence modifies the mean development of the boundary layer, it does not significantly modify the turbulence structure. In the present experiments with a zero streamwise pressure gradient, it was found that spanwise divergence dit not significantly affect the Reynolds stress and the turbulent triple product distributions.
Protein osmotic pressure gradients and microvascular reflection coefficients.
Drake, R E; Dhother, S; Teague, R A; Gabel, J C
1997-08-01
Microvascular membranes are heteroporous, so the mean osmotic reflection coefficient for a microvascular membrane (sigma d) is a function of the reflection coefficient for each pore. Investigators have derived equations for sigma d based on the assumption that the protein osmotic pressure gradient across the membrane (delta II) does not vary from pore to pore. However, for most microvascular membranes, delta II probably does vary from pore to pore. In this study, we derived a new equation for sigma d. According to our equation, pore-to-pore differences in delta II increase the effect of small pores and decrease the effect of large pores on the overall membrane osmotic reflection coefficient. Thus sigma d for a heteroporous membrane may be much higher than previously derived equations indicate. Furthermore, pore-to-pore delta II differences increase the effect of plasma protein osmotic pressure to oppose microvascular fluid filtration. PMID:9277520
Pore-pressure gradients, stresses, and induced earthquakes
Segall, P. . Geophysics Dept. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA )
1992-01-01
In the theory of poroelasticity, spatial gradients in pore-pressure enter the equilibrium equations in the same way as distributed body forces. Pore-pressure gradients are thus associated with poroelastic stresses in the same way that temperature gradients associated with thermoelastic stresses. The author has suggested that pore-pressure gradients caused by pumping are responsible for earthquakes near some oil and gas fields. Seismic data from a number of active oil and gas fields in California, Texas, Alberta, and elsewhere clearly show that earthquakes are occurring near fields where pore pressures have declined by several 10's of MPa. These observations can not be explained by changes in effective stress alone, which predicts that decreasing pore-fluid pressures tend to stabilize faults. He believes that poro-elastic stresses resulting from pore-fluid extraction are responsible for earthquakes in these situations. Fluid injection also induces poro-elastic stresses, however it is difficult to separate this effect from the destabilizing effect of increased pore-pressure within fault zones. To test the poroelastic model for induced seismicity, theoretical predictions are compared to data from a deep gas field in the Pyrenean foreland. Hundreds of shallow, small to moderate earthquakes have occurred there since 1969. The earthquakes are tightly clustered near the gas field. Reservoir pressure had declined by 30 MPa at the onset of seismicity. The relationship between average reservoir pressure decline and subsidence is remarkably linear, lending support to the linear poroelastic model. Using laboratory derived material parameters and in situ reservoir pressure measurements, it is possible to predict the surface deformations and the change in stress field without adjustable parameters. The computed vertical displacements are in good agreement with the observed subsidence. The poroelastic stress changes at the onset of seismicity are of the order of a few bars.
A turbulent burst model for boundary layer flows with pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, L. C.; Benton, D. J.
The object of this paper is to develop a surface renewal model of the turbulent burst phenomenon for momentum and energy transfer in the wall region for turbulent boundary layer flows with pressure gradient. In addition to obtaining inner laws for the distributions in velocity and temperature, predictions are obtained for the effect of pressure gradient on the mean burst frequency and on the turbulent Prandtl number within the wall region for slight favorable and mild adverse pressure gradients.
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Hepatic venous pressure gradient: clinical use in chronic liver disease
2014-01-01
Portal hypertension is a severe consequence of chronic liver diseases and is responsible for the main clinical complications of liver cirrhosis. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is the best available method to evaluate the presence and severity of portal hypertension. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as an increase in HVPG to >10 mmHg. In this condition, the complications of portal hypertension might begin to appear. HVPG measurement is increasingly used in the clinical fields, and the HVPG is a robust surrogate marker in many clinical applications such as diagnosis, risk stratification, identification of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who are candidates for liver resection, monitoring of the efficacy of medical treatment, and assessment of progression of portal hypertension. Patients who had a reduction in HVPG of ≥20% or to ≤12 mmHg in response to drug therapy are defined as responders. Responders have a markedly decreased risk of bleeding/rebleeding, ascites, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, which results in improved survival. This review provides clinical use of HVPG measurement in the field of liver disease. PMID:24757653
Optimal Disturbances in Boundary Layers Subject to Streamwise Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumin, Anatoli; Ashpis, David E.
2003-01-01
Laminar-turbulent transition in shear flows is still an enigma in the area of fluid mechanics. The conventional explanation of the phenomenon is based on the instability of the shear flow with respect to infinitesimal disturbances. The conventional hydrodynamic stability theory deals with the analysis of normal modes that might be unstable. The latter circumstance is accompanied by an exponential growth of the disturbances that might lead to laminar-turbulent transition. Nevertheless, in many cases, the transition scenario bypasses the exponential growth stage associated with the normal modes. This type of transition is called bypass transition. An understanding of the phenomenon has eluded us to this day. One possibility is that bypass transition is associated with so-called algebraic (non-modal) growth of disturbances in shear flows. In the present work, an analysis of the optimal disturbances/streamwise vortices associated with the transient growth mechanism is performed for boundary layers in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The theory will provide the optimal spacing of the control elements in the spanwise direction and their placement in the streamwise direction.
Effects of pressure gradient on global Alfvén eigenmodes in reversed field pinch
Cai, Huishan; Fu, Guoyong; Lin, Liang; Ding, Weixing; Brower, D. L.; Liu, D. Y.; Hu, Y. J.
2014-02-15
The effects of pressure gradient on the existence of global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE) in Reversed Field Pinch are studied by numerical calculation. It is found that GAEs near the plasma core can exist when pressure gradient is sufficiently large. The calculated mode frequency and structure are consistent with the experimental results in the Madison Symmetric Torus.
HAYASHI, Naokazu; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; YATSUSHIRO, Satoshi; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; ABDULLAH, Afnizanfaizal; KURODA, Kagayaki
2015-01-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict not only anatomical information, but also physiological factors such as velocity and pressure gradient. Measurement of these physiological factors is necessary to understand the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. In this study we quantified CSF motion in various parts of the CSF space, determined changes in the CSF environment with aging, and compared CSF pressure gradient between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and six iNPH patients underwent four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI. CSF motion was observed and the pressure gradient of CSF was quantified in the CSF space. In healthy volunteers, inhomogeneous CSF motion was observed whereby the pressure gradient markedly increased in the center of the skull and gradually decreased in the periphery of the skull. For example, the pressure gradient at the ventral surface of the brainstem was 6.6 times greater than that at the convexity of the cerebrum. The pressure gradient was statistically unchanged with aging. The pressure gradient of patients with iNPH was 3.2 times greater than that of healthy volunteers. The quantitative analysis of 4D-PC MRI data revealed that the pressure gradient of CSF can be used to understand the CSF environment, which is not sufficiently given by subjective impression of the anatomical image. PMID:26226976
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uts, I.; Glazyrin, K.; Lee, K. K.
2012-12-01
Advances in experimental techniques allow for the studying of geophysics and planetary science related materials under high pressure and high temperature conditions. With the intrinsic limits of the multianvil apparatus, compression in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has become the preferred method for creating the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. High pressures up to 1 Mbar can be routinely obtained in laboratories with the use of DACs. Additionally, as in situ laser heating is becoming progressively more affordable for DACs, it is becoming more common to find laser heating setups in many large scale facilities. After the sample material, the pressure medium is the second most important ingredient for a successful high pressure DAC experiment. Not every pressure medium is equally suitable for every experiment. For example, solid pressure media are more persistent than gaseous pressure media if high temperature heating is required. The melting point of the former is much higher, and melting of pressure media may induce undesirable sample shift in the pressure chamber. However, the most important characteristic of a pressure medium is its ability to maintain hydrostaticity in the DAC. The media, particularly solid pressure media, become less effective with increasing pressure. One of the most popular ways of alleviating pressure gradients is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique in relation to common pressure media, namely, alkali metal halides NaCl, CsCl, KCl, LiF, and oxide MgO. The samples were laser annealed at temperatures above 2000 K. Pressure gradients were determined through the analysis of diamond Raman and ruby fluorescence peaks before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser. We find that the effect of annealing varies for different materials. For some (NaCl and KCl), it reduces pressure gradients considerably, but for the others (MgO), the effect of annealing is less profound.
Tasu, J P; Mousseaux, E; Delouche, A; Oddou, C; Jolivet, O; Bittoun, J
2000-07-01
A method for estimating pressure gradients from MR images is demonstrated. Making the usual assumption that the flowing medium is a Newtonian fluid, and with appropriate boundary conditions, the inertial forces (or acceleration components of the flow) are proportional to the pressure gradients. The technique shown here is based on an evaluation of the inertial forces from Fourier acceleration encoding. This method provides a direct measurement of the total acceleration defined as the sum of the velocity derivative vs. time and the convective acceleration. The technique was experimentally validated by comparing MR and manometer pressure gradient measurements obtained in a pulsatile flow phantom. The results indicate that the MR determination of pressure gradients from an acceleration measurement is feasible with a good correlation with the true measurements (r = 0.97). The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the aorta of a normal volunteer. Magn Reson Med 44:66-72, 2000. PMID:10893523
The relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, Andrew D.; Johnston, James P.
1989-01-01
Reattached turbulent boundary layer relaxation downstream of a wall fence is investigated. An adverse pressure gradient is imposed upon it which is adjusted to bring the boundary layer into equilibrium. The pressure gradient is adjusted so as to bring the Clauser parameter G down to a value of about 11.4 and then maintain it constant. In the region from the reattachment point to 2 or 3 reattachment lengths downstream, the boundary layer recovers from the initial major effects of reattachment. Farther downstream, where G is constant, the pressure-gradient parameter changes very slowly and profiles of non-dimensionalized eddy viscosity appear self-similar. However, pressure gradient and eddy viscosity are both roughly twice as large as expected on the basis of previous equilibrium turbulent boundary layer studies.
Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobke, Alexandra; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2016-04-01
Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics of turbulent boundary layers with two different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets show that more energy is transported from the near-wall region to farther away from the wall.
Siegel, R J; Criley, J M
1985-01-01
Thirty three patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied to determine whether the presence of an intraventricular pressure gradient impaired left ventricular emptying. Patients with resting gradients had a higher mean left ventricular ejection fraction (92 (6.4)%) than patients without a resting or inducible pressure gradient (75.5 (9)%). The rate and degree of emptying increased when gradients greater than 85 mm Hg were induced in two patients with insignificant mitral regurgitation. If the induced gradients had been the result of obstruction a decrease in the rate or degree of ventricular emptying would be expected. Higher ejection fractions in patients with intracavitary pressure gradients as well as enhanced rate and degree of left ventricular emptying with induced gradients are inconsistent with outflow obstruction. These findings support the concept that cavity obliteration is responsible for the pressure gradient in these patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Images PMID:4038604
Experimental analysis of the boundary layer transition with zero and positive pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnal, D.; Jullen, J. C.; Michel, R.
1980-01-01
The influence of a positive pressure gradient on the boundary layer transition is studied. The mean velocity and turbulence profiles of four cases are examined. As the intensity of the pressure gradient is increased, the Reynolds number of the transition onset and the length of the transition region are reduced. The Tollmein-Schlichting waves disturb the laminar regime; the amplification of these waves is in good agreement with the stability theory. The three dimensional deformation of the waves leads finally to the appearance of turbulence. In the case of zero pressure gradient, the properties of the turbulent spots are studied by conditional sampling of the hot-wire signal; in the case of positive pressure gradient, the turbulence appears in a progressive manner and the turbulent spots are much more difficult to characterize.
A turbulent boundary layer at low Reynolds number with adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, J. H.; Westphal, R. V.
1989-01-01
The evolution of a low Re(theta) turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient (APG) is studied for comparison with CFD simulations by Spalart (1988). A short region of favorable pressure gradient is applied first to establish a self-preserving layer which is a suitable initial condition for the simulations. The APG is then applied rapidly such that Beta(x) of about 2 for Re(theta) of about 1500.
Bagheri, N.; White, B.R.; Lei, T.
1994-01-01
Hot-wire anemometry measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary-layer flow over a heated flat plate under equilibrium adverse-pressure-gradient conditions (beta = 1.8) were made for two different temperature difference cases (10 and 15 C) between the wall and the freestream. Space-time correlations of temperature fluctuations (T`) were obtained with a pair of subminiature temperature fluctuation probes. The mean convection velocities, the mean inclination angles, and coherence characteristics of the T` large-scale structure were determined. The present temperature structures measurements for a nonisothermal boundary layer are compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case with identical temperature differences previously reported, in which the mean convection velocity of the T` structure was a function of position y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested. The three major findings of the present study, as compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case, are (1) the mean convection speed of the T` structure under beta = 1.8 pressure-gradient conditions was found to be substantially lower in the logarithmic core region than the zero-pressure-gradient case. Additionally, the mean convection speed is felt by the authors to be a function of pressure-gradient parameter beta; (2) the mean inclination angle of the T` structure to the wall under the adverse-pressure-gradient flow was 32 deg, which compares favorably to the 30-deg value of the zero-pressure-gradient case; and (3) the limited data suggests that the mean convection velocity of the T` structure is a function of y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested. 11 refs.
Secondary subharmonic instability of boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, Nabil M.
1988-01-01
Three-dimensional linear secondary instability is investigated for boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction in the presence of a finite amplitude TS wave. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for a strong growth of subharmonics in a low disturbance environment. Calculations are presented for the effect of pressure gradients and suction on controlling the onset and amplification of the secondary instability.
A model for jet-noise analysis using pressure-gradient correlations on an imaginary cone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norum, T. D.
1974-01-01
The technique for determining the near and far acoustic field of a jet through measurements of pressure-gradient correlations on an imaginary conical surface surrounding the jet is discussed. The necessary analytical developments are presented, and their feasibility is checked by using a point source as the sound generator. The distribution of the apparent sources on the cone, equivalent to the point source, is determined in terms of the pressure-gradient correlations.
Flow and heat transfer with pressure gradients, Reynolds number and surface curvature
Umur, H.
2000-04-01
The combined effects of pressure gradients, Reynolds number and surface curvature on heat transfer are of great importance for such as gas turbine engines so that this investigation was conducted to enhance the knowledge of heat transfer prediction. Flow and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flows were investigated with pressure gradients, streamwise distance Reynolds number and wall curvature. Measurements were carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a dimensionless streamwise pressure gradient parameter of k{sub x}(=x/u{sub m}du{sub m}/dx) between {minus}0.4 and 1.0. Results were compared with analytical solutions and numerical predictions and a new empirical equation as a function of k{sub x}. It was found that Stanton numbers augmentation with Reynolds number became more pronounced than concave curvature. Favorable pressure gradients caused heat transfer to increase and adverse pressure gradients to decrease. The also results showed that the distribution of Stanton numbers with acceleration has similar trends with analytical solutions and numerical predictions. The proposed equation showed much better agreement with the measured Stanton numbers, in case of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients.
Limits to the H-mode pedestal pressure gradient in DIII-D
Groebner, R. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. H.; Leonard, A. W.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Yan, Z.; Mckee, G. R.; Lasnier, C. J.; Boedo, J.A.; Watkins, J. G.
2010-01-01
The spatial and temporal evolution of the total pedestal pressure profile has been measured during the pedestal evolution between successive edge localized modes (ELMs) of type-I ELMing H-mode discharges in DIII-D. Measurements are used to test a model that predicts that kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) provide a strong constraint on the pedestal pressure gradient obtained during an inter-ELM cycle and cause the pedestal width to scale as the square root of the pedestal poloidal beta. Discharges in two different parameter regimes are examined for evidence that the evolution of the pressure gradient reaches a limit prior to the onset of an ELM. Both discharges show evidence of rapid evolution of the pressure profile very early in the recovery phase from an ELM. In one discharge, the pressure gradient reached approximate steady state within similar to 3 ms after the ELM event. In the other discharge, the pressure gradient just inboard of the last closed flux surface reached steady state early in the ELM recovery phase even as the pedestal expanded into the core and the maximum pressure gradient continued to rise during the remainder of the ELM cycle. Simple quantitative theoretical metrics show that pressure gradients in both discharges reached levels that were large enough to excite KBMs. In addition, the peeling-ballooning theory for the onset of type-I ELMs and the EPED1 model for pedestal height and width make predictions consistent with the data of both discharges.
On determining characteristic length scales in pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinuesa, R.; Bobke, A.; Örlü, R.; Schlatter, P.
2016-05-01
In the present work, we analyze three commonly used methods to determine the edge of pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers: two based on composite profiles, the one by Chauhan et al. ["Criteria for assessing experiments in zero pressure gradient boundary layers," Fluid Dyn. Res. 41, 021404 (2009)] and the one by Nickels ["Inner scaling for wall-bounded flows subject to large pressure gradients," J. Fluid Mech. 521, 217-239 (2004)], and the other one based on the condition of vanishing mean velocity gradient. Additionally, a new method is introduced based on the diagnostic plot concept by Alfredsson et al. ["A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the `outer' peak," Phys. Fluids 23, 041702 (2011)]. The boundary layers developing over the suction and pressure sides of a NACA4412 wing section, extracted from a direct numerical simulation at chord Reynolds number Rec = 400 000, are used as the test case, besides other numerical and experimental data from favorable, zero, and adverse pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layers. We find that all the methods produce robust results with mild or moderate pressure gradients, although the composite-profile techniques require data preparation, including initial estimations of fitting parameters and data truncation. Stronger pressure gradients (with a Rotta-Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β larger than around 7) lead to inconsistent results in all the techniques except the diagnostic plot. This method also has the advantage of providing an objective way of defining the point where the mean streamwise velocity is 99% of the edge velocity and shows consistent results in a wide range of pressure gradient conditions, as well as flow histories. Collapse of intermittency factors obtained from a wide range of pressure-gradient and Re conditions on the wing further highlights the robustness of the diagnostic plot method to determine the
A Study of Wake Development and Structure in Constant Pressure Gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, R. C.; Liu, Xiaofeng
2000-01-01
Motivated by the application to high-lift aerodynamics for commercial transport aircraft, a systematic investigation into the response of symmetric/asymmetric planar turbulent wake development to constant adverse, zero, and favorable pressure gradients has been conducted. The experiments are performed at a Reynolds number of 2.4 million based on the chord of the wake generator. A unique feature of this wake study is that the pressure gradients imposed on the wake flow field are held constant. The experimental measurements involve both conventional LDV and hot wire flow field surveys of mean and turbulent quantities including the turbulent kinetic energy budget. In addition, similarity analysis and numerical simulation have also been conducted for this wake study. A focus of the research has been to isolate the effects of both pressure gradient and initial wake asymmetry on the wake development. Experimental results reveal that the pressure gradient has a tremendous influence on the wake development, despite the relatively modest pressure gradients imposed. For a given pressure gradient, the development of an initially asymmetric wake is different from the initially symmetric wake. An explicit similarity solution for the shape parameters of the symmetric wake is obtained and agrees with the experimental results. The turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements of the symmetric wake demonstrate that except for the convection term, the imposed pressure gradient does not change the fundamental flow physics of turbulent kinetic energy transport. Based on the turbulent kinetic energy budget measurements, an approach to correct the bias error associated with the notoriously difficult dissipation estimate is proposed and validated through the comparison of the experimental estimate with a direct numerical simulation result.
Quantifying Dynamic Changes in Plantar Pressure Gradient in Diabetics with Peripheral Neuropathy
Lung, Chi-Wen; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T.; Burns, Stephanie; Lin, Fang; Jan, Yih-Kuen
2016-01-01
Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) and peak pressure gradient (PPG) during walking have been shown to be associated with the development of diabetic foot ulcers. To gain further insight into the mechanical etiology of diabetic foot ulcers, examination of the pressure gradient angle (PGA) has been recently proposed. The PGA quantifies directional variation or orientation of the pressure gradient during walking and provides a measure of whether pressure gradient patterns are concentrated or dispersed along the plantar surface. We hypothesized that diabetics at risk of foot ulceration would have smaller PGA in key plantar regions, suggesting less movement of the pressure gradient over time. A total of 27 participants were studied, including 19 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and 8 non-diabetic control subjects. A foot pressure measurement system was used to measure plantar pressures during walking. PPP, PPG, and PGA were calculated for four foot regions – first toe (T1), first metatarsal head (M1), second metatarsal head (M2), and heel (HL). Consistent with prior studies, PPP and PPG were significantly larger in the diabetic group compared with non-diabetic controls in the T1 and M1 regions, but not M2 or HL. For example, PPP was 165% (P = 0.02) and PPG was 214% (P < 0.001) larger in T1. PGA was found to be significantly smaller in the diabetic group in T1 (46%, P = 0.04), suggesting a more concentrated pressure gradient pattern under the toe. The proposed PGA may improve our understanding of the role of pressure gradient on the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:27486576
On magnetohydrodynamic solitons in jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, B.
1987-01-01
Nonlinear solitary wave propagation in a compressible magnetic beam model of an extragalactic radio jet is examined and shown to lead to solitons of the Benjamin-Ono type. A number of similarities between such magnetic beam models of jets and models of solar photospheric flux tubes are pointed out and exploited. A single soliton has the appearance of a symmetric bulge on the jet which propagates faster than the jet's flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Blaine Keith
An experimental study was conducted in Lehigh University's low-speed water channel to examine the effects of a zero, adverse, and favorable pressure gradients on the development of single hairpin vortices. Single hairpin vortices were generated in an initially laminar environment using controlled fluid injection through a streamwise slot at a Re(delta)* = 380, 440, and 570. Behavior of hairpin structures was determined by the use of dye and hydrogen bubble flow visualization techniques. Visualization results indicate that as a single hairpin vortex convects downstream a complicated growth process due to viscous-inviscid interactions and Biot-Savart deformation results in the generation of secondary and subsidiary vortices, eventually yielding a turbulent spot-like structure. The hairpin vortex structures are observed to be strongly affected by the presence of a pressure gradient, undergoing significant spatial growth changes, as well as experiencing significant flow structure modifications. As the hairpin initiation location is moved further into an adverse pressure gradient, the hairpin vortex lifts and rotates farther away from the surface relative to the behavior in a zero pressure gradient. Regions of low and high-velocity fluid near the surface are accentuated within an adverse pressure gradient, which amplifies the low-speed streak formation and breakdown process, accelerating the formation of vortical substructures and ejection of fluid from the surface.
Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients: Effect of viscosity
Da Hlaing, Nan; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat; Wilkes, James O.
2007-05-15
The effect of liquid viscosity on the flow regimes and the corresponding pressure gradients along the vertical two-phase flow was investigated. Experiment was carried out in a vertical transparent tube of 0.019 m in diameter and 3 m in length and the pressure gradients were measured by a U-tube manometer. Water and a 50 vol.% glycerol solution were used as the working fluids whose kinematic viscosities were 0.85 x 10{sup -6} and 4.0 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, respectively. In our air-liquid annular two-phase flow, the liquid film of various thicknesses flowed adjacent to the wall and the gas phase flowed at the center of the tube. The superficial air velocity, j{sub air}, was varied between 0.0021 and 58.7 m/s and the superficial liquid velocity, j{sub liquid}, was varied between 0 and 0.1053 m/s. In the bubble, the slug and the slug-churn flow regimes, the pressure gradients decreased with increasing Reynolds number. But in the annular and the mist flow regimes, pressure gradients increased with increasing Reynolds number. Finally, the experimentally measured pressure gradient values were compared and are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (author)
Intraarterial Pressure Gradients After Randomized Angioplasty or Stenting of Iliac Artery Lesions
Tetteroo, Eric; Haaring, Cees; Graaf, Yolanda van der; Schaik, Jan P.J. van; Engelen, A.D. van; Mali, Willem P.T.M.
1996-11-15
Purpose: To determine initial technical results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent procedures in the iliac artery, mean intraarterial pressure gradients were recorded before and after each procedure. Methods: We randomly assigned 213 patients with typical intermittent claudication to primary stent placement (n= 107) or primary PTA (n= 106), with subsequent stenting in the case of a residual mean pressure gradient of > 10 mmHg (n= 45). Eligibility criteria included angiographic iliac artery stenosis (> 50% diameter reduction) and/or a peak systolic velocity ratio > 2.5 on duplex examination. Mean intraarterial pressures were simultaneously recorded above and below the lesion, at rest and also during vasodilatation in the case of a resting gradient {<=} 10 mmHg. Results: Pressure gradients in the primary stent group were 14.9 {+-} 10.4 mmHg before and 2.9 {+-} 3.5 mmHg after stenting. Pressure gradients in the primary PTA group were 17.3 {+-} 11.3 mmHg pre-PTA, 4.2 {+-} 5.4 mmHg post-PTA, and 2.5 {+-} 2.8 mmHg after selective stenting. Compared with primary stent placement, PTA plus selective stent placement avoided application of a stent in 63% (86/137) of cases, resulting in a considerable cost saving. Conclusion: Technical results of primary stenting and PTA plus selective stenting are similar in terms of residual pressure gradients.
On determining characteristic length scales in pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinuesa, Ricardo; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2016-04-01
In the present work we analyze three methods used to determine the edge of pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers: two based on composite profiles, the one by Chauhan et al. (Fluid Dyn. Res. 41:021401, 2009) and the one by Nickels (J. Fluid Mech. 521:217–239, 2004), and the other one based on the condition of vanishing mean velocity gradient. Additionally, a new method is introduced based on the diagnostic plot concept by Alfredsson et al. (Phys. Fluids 23:041702, 2011). The boundary layer developing over the suction side of a NACA4412 wing profile, extracted from a direct numerical simulation at Rec = 400,000, is used as the test case. We find that all the methods produce robust results with mild or moderate pressure gradients, but stronger pressure gradients (with β larger than around 7) lead to inconsistent results in all the techniques except the diagnostic plot. This method also has the advantage of providing an objective way of defining the point where the mean streamwise velocity is 99% of the edge velocity, and shows consistent results in a wide range of pressure gradient conditions, as well as flow histories. Therefore, the technique based on the diagnostic plot is a robust method to determine the boundary layer thickness (equivalent to δ99) and edge velocity in pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers.
DNS of turbulent channel flow driven by temporally periodic pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaki, Takahiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi
2001-11-01
Various direct numerical simulations ( DNS ) of turbulence are performed hitherto. In most of those DNS's, the mean flow is assumed to be steady. This is because the DNS of the turbulence with an unsteady mean flow requires more computational effort to obtain a stable statistical average. In the present study, DNS of turbulent channel flow driven by temporally-changing pressure gradient is performed. The pressure gradient is so determined that the bulk mean velocity averaged over one cycle is approximately equal to the one with a steady state Reynolds number of Re_τs=180 . Four cases with different pressure gradient histories are calculated. The each period is divided into twenty phases and statistical average is obtained for various turbulence statistics. A large number of turbulence statistics are compared with steady ones. The coherent structures is discussed in detail.
Effects of free-stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with mild adverse pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Kassir, S. M.
1988-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free-stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free-stream to the boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, Jon A.
1988-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent bounday layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free stream to the boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Kassir, S. M.; Larwood, S. M.
1989-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free-stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free-stream to the boundary layers.
Drag-Reduction Effectiveness of Riblet Films in Adverse Pressure Gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-11-01
Riblet films are micro-grooved structures that are widely known to passively reduce skin friction. Past studies have almost solely focused on riblet performance in channel-flows. However, possible applications of riblets include wind turbine blades, gas turbine blades, and other complex bodies that are exposed to non-zero pressure gradient flows--specifically adverse pressure gradients. We use high-resolution large eddy simulations of turbulent flow over three-dimensional riblets under an adverse pressure gradient. We analyze the computed results to quantify drag reduction effectiveness for different riblet shapes and to examine pertinent turbulent structures to gain a fundamental understanding of riblet performance. Supported by the DOE Wind Energy Consortium
Three-dimensional boundary layer flow with streamwise adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, David M.; Johnston, James P.
1989-01-01
The present study examines the effects of a strong adverse pressure gradient on a 3D turbulent boundary layer in an axisymmetric spinning cylinder geometry. Velocity measurements made with a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter include all three mean flow components, all six Reynolds stress components, and all ten triple-product correlations. Total Reynolds shear stress diminishes as the flow becomes 3D. Lower levels of shear stress were found to persist under adverse pressure gradient conditions. This low stress level was observed to roughly correlate with the magnitude of the crossflow. Variations in the pressure gradient do not alter this correlation. It is inferred that a 3D boundary layer is more prone to separate than a 2D boundary layer.
Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.
FIRST MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT-DRIVEN CURRENTS IN TOKAMAK EDGE PLASMAS
THOMAS DM; LEONARD AW; LAO LL; OSBORNE TH; MUELLER HW; FINKENTHAL DK
2003-11-01
Localized currents driven by pressure gradients play a pivotal role in the magnetohydrodynamic stability of toroidal plasma confinement devices. We have measured the currents generated in the edge of L- (low) and H- (high confinement) mode discharges on the DIII-D tokamak, utilizing the Zeeman effect in an injected lithium beam to obtain high resolution profiles of the poloidal magnetic field. We find current densities in excess of 1 MA/m{sup 2} in a 1 to 2 cm region near the peak of the edge pressure gradient. These values are sufficient to challenge edge stability theories based on specific current formation models.
Dynamical behaviour of three-way throttle valve with pressure gradient stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vašina, Martin; Hružík, Lumír; Bureček, Adam; Sikora, Roman
2015-05-01
Three-way throttle valves with pressure gradient stabilization are used in order to ensure constant flow independently of load changes of hydraulic motors in hydraulic systems. These valves are used to vibration damping in hydraulic systems too. For this reason, it is suitable to install the valves close to hydraulic motors. The valves also have a positive influence on an increasing of system eigenfrequency. The paper deals with investigation of dynamical behaviour and eigenfrequency of a three-way throttle valve with pressure gradient stabilization in consequence of transient changes.
Three-dimensional shear-driven boundary layer flow with streamwise adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, David M.; Hebbar, Sheshagiri K.
1988-01-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradient on a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer are studied in an axisymmetric forward-facing step geometry. Velocity measurements made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter include mean flow as well as Reynolds stresses and velocity triple-product correlations. Turbulent Prandtl mixing-lengths are extracted from the data, showing the effects of curvature. Streamwise pressure gradient was seen to alter streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress without significantly affecting transverse velocity and Reynolds stress. Transverse-strain was seen to have the effect of reducing the streamwise component of Reynolds stress.
Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul
2014-02-15
Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio σ, non-thermal parameters β and γ, electron to ion density ratio μ, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.
Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R.; Carretero-González, R.
2016-02-01
The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle.
Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle.
Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R; Carretero-González, R
2016-02-01
The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle. PMID:26986326
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenchao; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhangxin; Liu, Yuewu
2016-02-01
A relatively high formation pressure gradient can exist in seepage flow in low-permeable porous media with a threshold pressure gradient, and a significant error may then be caused in the model computation by neglecting the quadratic pressure gradient term in the governing equations. Based on these concerns, in consideration of the quadratic pressure gradient term, a basic moving boundary model is constructed for a one-dimensional seepage flow problem with a threshold pressure gradient. Owing to a strong nonlinearity and the existing moving boundary in the mathematical model, a corresponding numerical solution method is presented. First, a spatial coordinate transformation method is adopted in order to transform the system of partial differential equations with moving boundary conditions into a closed system with fixed boundary conditions; then the solution can be stably numerically obtained by a fully implicit finite-difference method. The validity of the numerical method is verified by a published exact analytical solution. Furthermore, to compare with Darcy's flow problem, the exact analytical solution for the case of Darcy's flow considering the quadratic pressure gradient term is also derived by an inverse Laplace transform. A comparison of these model solutions leads to the conclusion that such moving boundary problems must incorporate the quadratic pressure gradient term in their governing equations; the sensitive effects of the quadratic pressure gradient term tend to diminish, with the dimensionless threshold pressure gradient increasing for the one-dimensional problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y.; Wright, D.
1998-01-01
A formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically analyzed by Song. We investigate numerical consistency with respect to global energy conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the represent of the bottom pressure torque.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun
2014-11-01
Predicitive capabilites of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) techniques for separated flow under unsteady adverse pressure gradients have been assessed using SST k - ω model and Spalart-Allmaras model by comparing their results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Both DNS and RANS have been conducted with a zero pressure gradient, a steady adverse pressure gradient, and an unsteady adverse pressure gradient, respectively. Comparative studies show that both RANS models predict earlier separation and fuller velocity profiles at the reattachment zone than DNS in the unsteady case, while reasonable agreements with DNS are observed for steady counterparts. Causes for differences in the predictive capability of RANS for steady and unsteady cases, are explained by examining the Reynolds stress term and eddy viscosity term in detail. The Reynolds stress and eddy viscosity are under-predicted by both RANS models in the unsteady case. The origin of the under-prediction of the Reynolds stress with both RANS models is revealed by investigating Reynolds stress budget terms obtained from DNS. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699 and the Brain Korea 21+ program.
Effect of adverse pressure gradient on high speed boundary layer transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franko, Kenneth J.; Lele, Sanjiva
2014-02-01
The effect of adverse pressure gradients (APG) on boundary layer stability, breakdown, and heat-transfer overshoot is investigated. Flat plate isothermal boundary layers initially at Mach 6 with APG imposed through the freestream boundary condition are simulated using suction and blowing to produce boundary layer instabilities. The three different transition mechanisms compared are first mode oblique breakdown, second mode oblique breakdown, and second mode fundamental resonance. For all of the transition mechanisms, an adverse pressure gradient increases the linear growth rates and quickens the transition to turbulence. However, the nonlinear breakdown for all three transition mechanisms is qualitatively the same as for a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. First mode oblique breakdown leads to the earliest transition location and an overshoot in heat transfer in the transitional region. Both types of Mack second mode forcing lead to a transitional boundary layer but even with the increased growth rates and N factors produced by the adverse pressure gradient, the breakdown process is still more gradual than first mode oblique breakdown because the primary Mack second mode instabilities saturate and produce streaks that breakdown further downstream.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgrath, B. E.; Simpson, R. L.
1987-01-01
Measurements of surface pressure fluctuation spectra, coherence and convective wave speeds from zero and favorable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are reported for momentum Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 18,800. The acceleration parameter K is near 2 x 10 to the -7 power for the favorable pressure gradient flow. The outer variables, U sub e, tau sub w and delta sub 1 non-dimensionalize and collapse the spectra for the low to middle range of frequencies for most test cases. The grouping using the inner variable, U sub tau and gamma, collapse the spectra for the middle to high range of frequencies for all test cases. The value of p'/tau sub w was near 3.8 and 2.8 for the smallest values of d+ in the zero and favorable pressure gradient flows, respectively. The coherence exhibits a decay that is not exponential in some cases, but the Corcos similarity parameters omega Delta x/U sub c and omega Delta z/U sub c collapse the data for all test cases. The ratio of U sub c/U sub e increases with omega delta sub 1/U sub e up to omega delta sub 1/U sub e on the order of unity, where U sub c/U sub e becomes nearly constant. This was observed in the present results for both streamwise pressure gradient flows. The experimental results presented show good agreement with previous research.
Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, Fereidoun
2007-01-01
The scattering of rotor noise is an area that has received little attention over the years, yet the limited work that has been done has shown that both the directivity and intensity of the acoustic field may be significantly modified by the presence of scattering bodies. One of the inputs needed to compute the scattered acoustic field is the acoustic pressure gradient on a scattering surface. Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. These formulations are presented in this paper. The first formulation is derived by taking the gradient of Farassat's retarded-time Formulation 1A. Although this formulation is relatively simple, it requires numerical time differentiation of the acoustic integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with the acoustic pressure gradient determined by a purely numerical approach for two model rotors. The agreement between analytic formulations and numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observers case.
Huang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Ding; Dai, Ye; Li, Yanyan; Guo, Xiaoyang; Li, Wenkai; Chen, Yun; Lu, Jun; Liu, Zhengzheng; Zhao, Ruirui; Leng, Yuxin
2016-05-01
We theoretically study the nonlinear compression of the 10-mJ, 62-fs, 3.6-µm laser pulses in an argon gas-filled hollow-core fiber with large diameter of 1000 µm. Using a pressure gradient to restrict undesirable nonlinear effect such as ionization, especially at the entrance, we obtain the intense 18.3-fs (~1.5 cycle) pulses at 3.6 µm only through compression with CaF_{2} crystal, which can be used as an ultrafast source for strong field driven experiments. In addition, we calculate and discuss the relation between optimal fiber length and coupling efficiency for a given bandwidth. These results are useful for the design of using hollow-core fiber to compress the high-energy pulses with long wavelength. PMID:27137543
Stability and bifurcation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.
1992-01-01
The inverse scattering transformation (IST) is used to study the one-parameter and two-parameter soliton families of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The two-parameter soliton family is determined by the discrete complex eigenvalue spectrum of the Kaup-Newell scattering problem and the one-parameter soliton family corresponds to the discrete real eigenvalue spectrum. The structure of the IST is exploited to discuss the existence of discrete real eigenvalues and to prove their structural stability to perturbations of the initial conditions. Also, though the two-parameter soliton is structurally stable in general, it is shown that a perturbation of the initial conditions may change the two-parameter soliton into a degenerate soliton which, in turn, is structurally unstable. This degenerate, or double pole, soliton may bifurcate due to a perturbation of the initial conditions into a pair of one-parameter solitons. If the initial profile is on compact support, then this pair of one-parameter solitons must be compressive and rarefactive respectively. Finally, the Gelfand-Levitan equations appropriate for the double pole soliton are solved.
Mak, K F; Seidel, M; Pronin, O; Frosz, M H; Abdolvand, A; Pervak, V; Apolonski, A; Krausz, F; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J
2015-04-01
Compression of 250-fs, 1-μJ pulses from a KLM Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator down to 9.1 fs is demonstrated. A kagomé-PCF with a 36-μm core-diameter is used with a pressure gradient from 0 to 40 bar of krypton. Compression to 22 fs is achieved by 1200 fs^{2} group-delay-dispersion provided by chirped mirrors. By coupling the output into a second kagomé-PCF with a pressure gradient from 0 to 25 bar of argon, octave spanning spectral broadening via the soliton-effect is observed at 18-W average output power. Self-compression to 9.1 fs is measured, with compressibility to 5 fs predicted. Also observed is strong emission in the visible via dispersive wave generation, amounting to 4% of the total output power. PMID:25831302
Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines
Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.
2015-11-24
Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.
Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines
Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.
2015-11-24
Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less
Features of a reattaching turbulent shear layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, D. M.; Seegmiller, H. L.
1982-01-01
Experimental data have been obtained in an incompressible turbulent flow over a rearward-facing step with superimposed adverse pressure gradient. Mean velocities, Reynolds stresses and triple-products measured by a laser Doppler velocimeter are presented for two cases of adverse pressure gradient. Mixing lengths, eddy viscosities, production, convection, turbulent diffusion, and dissipation terms are extracted from the data. These data are compared with various mixing length and eddy-viscosity turbulence models. Numerical calculations incorporating the k-epsilon and the algebraic-stress turbulence models are compared with the data. When determining quantities of engineering interest, the modified algebraic-stress model (ASM) is a significant improvement over the unmodified ASM and the unmodified k-epsilon model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Junshin; Bromby, William; You, Donghyun
2013-11-01
To understand turbulence characteristics of separated boundary layer flow under unsteady pressure gradients, a direct numerical simulation study is performed. Steady and unsteady blowing-suction velocity distributions are imposed along the upper boundary of the computational domain to introduce steady and unsteady adverse pressure gradients leading to steady and unsteady separated turbulent boundary layers, respectively. Time averaged and phase averaged turbulence statistics such as velocity, vorticity, kinetic energy budgets, Reynolds stress budgets, wall pressure fluctuations and skin friction distributions are examined in detail with aims of gaining understanding of flow physics for unsteady separated turbulent boundary layer and the sources of incapability of the conventional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models in predicting unsteady separation. Supported by the Army Research Office Grant W911NF1010348 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Sillero, Juan; Guillem, Borrell; Gungor, Ayse; Jimenéz, Javier; Soria, Julio
2014-11-01
We investigate the structure of an adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at the verge of separation. The intended flow is generated via direct numerical simulation (DNS). The adopted DNS code was previously developed for a zero pressure gradient TBL. Here the farfield boundary condition (BC) is modified to generate the desired APG flow. The input parameters required for the APG BC are initially estimated from a series of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. The BC is implemented into the DNS code with further refinement of the BC performed. The behaviour of the large scale dynamics is illustrated via the extraction of coherent structures from the DNS using analysis of the velocity gradient tensor and vortex clustering techniques. The authors acknowledge the research funding from the Australian Research Council and European Research Council, and the computational resources provided by NCI and PRACE.
Sound scattering by rigid oblate spheroids, with implication to pressure gradient microphones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maciulaitis, A.; Seiner, J.; Norum, T. D.
1976-01-01
The frequency limit below which sound scattering by a microphone body is sufficiently small to permit accurate pressure gradient measurements was determined. The sound pressure was measured at various points on the surface of a rigid oblate spheroid illuminated by spherical waves generated by a point source at a large distance from the spheroid, insuring an essentially plane sound field. The measurements were made with small pressure microphones flush mounted from the inside of the spheroid model. Numerical solutions were obtained for a variety of spheroid shapes, including that of the experimental model. Very good agreement was achieved between the experimental and theoretical results. It was found that scattering effects are insignificant if the ratio of the major circumference of the spheroid to the wavelength of the incident sound is less than about 0.7, this number being dependent upon the shape of the spheroid. This finding can be utilized in the design of pressure gradient microphones.
Vertical two-phase flow regimes and pressure gradients under the influence of SDS surfactant
Duangprasert, Tanabordee; Sirivat, Anuvat; Siemanond, Kitipat; Wilkes, James O.
2008-01-15
Two-phase gas/liquid flows in vertical pipes have been systematically investigated. Water and SDS surfactant solutions at various concentrations were used as the working fluids. In particular, we focus our work on the influence of surfactant addition on the flow regimes, the corresponding pressure gradients, and the bubble sizes and velocity. Adding the surfactant lowers the air critical Reynolds numbers for the bubble-slug flow and the slug flow transitions. The pressure gradients of SDS solutions are lower than those of pure water especially in the slug flow and the slug-churn flow regimes, implying turbulent drag reduction. At low Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the surfactant solution are lower than those of pure water due to the increase in viscosity. With increasing and at high Re{sub air}, the bubble sizes of the SDS solution become greater than those of pure water which is attributed to the effect of surface tension. (author)
Roll-up of vorticity in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Durbin, P. A.; Leib, S. J.
1987-01-01
It is shown how the unsteady, nonlinear critical-layer equation determines the evolution of instability waves in a weak adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Numerical solutions show that the nonlinearity halts the growth of these inviscidly unstable waves. The stabilizing effect of nonlinearity, in the present case, can be described as a consequence of either the increase (toward zero) of the phase jump across the critical layer or the roll-up of the critical-layer disturbance vorticity.
Sound Localization in Lizards: Functioning of a Pressure-Gradient Receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hemmen, J. Leo
2009-03-01
Because of their small interaural distance, lizards as well as some other animals have developed a special hearing mechanism, the ``pressure-gradient receiver''. The lizard peripheral auditory system differs from the mammalian one by a coupling of the two eardrums through the internal mouth cavity. We present a three-dimensional analytical model of the pressure-gradient receiver. The central aspect of the coupling of the membranes through the mouth cavity is realized by means of the boundary conditions. Moreover, the lizard's middle ear, a simple lever construction called columella, is asymmetrically attached to the tympanic membrane. This has motivated us to solve the problem of how the middle ear influences the spatial-amplitude profile and the frequency distribution of the tympanic membrane vibration. Finally, we show results from numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies in a lizard's internal mouth cavity bounded by the eardrums. To this end, we have constructed the complex geometry from a cast imprint of the cavity with the help of three-dimensional scans. Our results led to an interesting speculation regarding the neurobiological use of the pressure-gradient system.
Pressure gradient sensors for bearing determination in shallow water tracking ranges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Peter J.; Euerle, Steven E.; Menoche, Richard K.; Janiesch, Robert E.
1996-04-01
Underwater acoustic tracking has traditionally used only the arrival time of tracking pings to localize targets. This implies that the ping transmitted from a target must be received at a minimum of three separate nodes (receiver locations) in order to determine the position. For deep water ranges this was acceptable. In shallow water, where propagation ranges are limited, this requires a large number of nodes. This makes shallow water ranges very costly. An effort is underway to use pressure gradient hydrophones as receivers and measure the bearing of the ping arrival along with arrival time, thereby locating the target using only one tracking node. This allows for increased node spacing and greatly reduced cost. However, the accuracy required for training ranges is on the order of 1 degree. Further, the directional receiver must be housed so as to withstand impacts from fishing operations. Research including design, fabrication, and testing of conventional and unconventional pressure gradient hydrophones, the housing, and signal processing methods are discussed. Extensive testing has already been conducted using a 1″ diameter by 5″ long multimode hydrophone. A shallow water tracking test was conducted at the NUWC Lake Seneca test facility. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tracking using a single pressure gradient hydrophone with an accuracy of 50 yds out to 2 kyds. The effects of multiple paths and scattering are also discussed.
An inclined jet in crossflow under the effect of streamwise pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.
2013-09-01
An inclined turbulent jet discharging a passive scalar into a turbulent crossflow is investigated under conditions of favorable, zero and adverse streamwise pressure gradient. Experiments are conducted in water by means of magnetic resonance velocimetry and magnetic resonance concentration measurements. The velocity ratio and density ratio are equal to one for all cases. The flow configuration is relevant to film cooling technology, the molecular properties of the fluid being immaterial in the fully turbulent regime. Under favorable pressure gradient (FPG), the streamwise acceleration tilts the jet trajectory toward the wall, which would be beneficial for the film cooling performance. However, the counter-rotating vortex pair is strengthened in the accelerating flow by streamwise stretching. Also, the crossflow boundary layer is significantly thickened by increasingly adverse pressure gradient, which affects the mass transfer from the jet. Overall, the more intense counter-rotating vortices and the thinner boundary layer associated with increasingly FPG enhance the scalar dispersion into the main flow, hampering the film cooling performance in terms of surface effectiveness.
Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dróżdż, Artur
2014-08-01
The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.
Self-similar turbulent boundary layer with imposed pressure gradient. Four flow regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigdorovich, I. I.
2014-11-01
Self-similar flows of an incompressible fluid in a turbulent boundary layer, when the free-stream velocity is a power function (with the exponent m) of the longitudinal coordinate, have been studied. It has been shown that there are four different self-similar flow regimes corresponding to four individual similarity parameters one of which is the known Clauser parameter and the three other parameters have been established for the first time. At adverse pressure gradient, when the exponent m lies in a certain range depending on Reynolds number, the problem has two solutions with different values of the boundary-layer thickness and skin friction; consequently, hysteresis in a pre-separation flow is possible. Separation occurs not at the minimal value of m that corresponds to the strongest adverse pressure gradient, but at m = -0.216 -0.4 Re{/p -1/3} + O(Re{/p -2/3}), where Re p is the Reynolds number based on longitudinal pressure gradient. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Assesment of turbulence models for boundary layers with pressure gradient and roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Rabijit; Piomelli, Ugo
2015-11-01
The performance of sand-grain-based roughness corrections for the SA, SST k - ω and k - ɛ models has been evaluated by comparing the model results with large eddy simulation (LES) data. Computations are performed for a turbulent boundary layer with both smooth and rough walls subjected to two different pressure-gradient conditions, namely, an adverse pressure gradient (APG) with separation and a realistic pressure-gradient situation encountered in a hydraulic turbine blade. A new roughness correction was developed for the SST k - ω model that gave improved results near separation. For the cases with smooth wall, RANS models give reasonable agreement in predicting skin friction coefficient (cf) at the wall. RANS models predict too high Reynolds stresses in the separated region, which lead to earlier reattachment. For the rough wall computations, the RANS models predict that cf changes sign much later than the LES data. In the LES, however, the wall stress becomes negative inside the roughness sublayer, and the flow reversal does not correspond to the separation, which occurs much later, where the separation leaves the body, and the total stress above the roughness crest changes sign. The RANS models predict the position of this point more accurately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, H.; Deutsch, S.
1991-12-01
The influence of both a favorable and an adverse applied axial pressure gradient on microbubble-induced skin friction reduction was examined. An 87 mm diameter, 632 mm long model equipped with a 273 mm long cylindrical force balance was employed. Experiments were carried out in a 305 mm diameter water tunnel, at free-stream speeds of 4.6, 7.6, 10.7, 13.7, and 16.8 m/sec. Air was injected at rates as high as 12×10-3 m3/sec. Measurement of the static pressure along the body with gas injection demonstrated that gas injection did not alter the pressure gradient and that the flow remained axisymmetric. Reductions in skin friction for the zero pressure gradient case agreed well with the earlier results of Deutsch and Castano [Phys. Fluids 29, 3590 (1986)]. The adverse-gradient-induced separation of the boundary layer for speeds at and above 7.6 m/sec, for air injection rates in excess of 5.0×10-3 m3/sec. The favorable gradient strongly inhibited the drag reduction mechanism [47].
The F-Region Gravity and Pressure Gradient Current Systems: A Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alken, P.; Maute, A.; Richmond, A. D.
2016-07-01
The ionospheric gravity and pressure-gradient current systems are most prominent in the low-latitude F-region due to the plasma density enhancement known as the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). This enhancement of plasma density which builds up during the day and lasts well into the evening supports a toroidal gravity current which flows eastward around the Earth in the F-region during the daytime and evening, and eventually returns westward through the E-region. The existence of pressure-gradients in the EIA region also gives rise to a poloidal diamagnetic current system, whose flow direction acts to reduce the ambient geomagnetic field inside the plasma. The gravity and pressure-gradient currents are among the weaker ionospheric sources, with current densities of a few nA/m2, however they produce clear signatures of about 5-7 nT in magnetic measurements made by low-Earth orbiting satellites. In this work, we review relevant observational and modeling studies of these two current systems and present new results from a 3D ionospheric electrodynamics model which allows us to visualize the entire flow pattern of these currents throughout the ionosphere as well as calculate their magnetic perturbations.
Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.
2008-01-01
Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. The pressure gradient can be used to solve the boundary condition for scattering problems and it is a key aspect to solve acoustic scattering problems. The first formulation is derived from the gradient of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This formulation has a form involving the observer time differentiation outside the integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. This formulation avoids the numerical time differentiation with respect to the observer time, which is computationally more efficient. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with available exact solutions for a stationary and moving monopole sources. The agreement between the predictions and exact solutions is excellent. The formulations are applied to the rotor noise problems for two model rotors. A purely numerical approach is compared with the analytical formulations. The agreement between the analytical formulations and the numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observer cases.
Self-similar turbulent boundary layer with imposed pressure gradient. Four flow regimes
Vigdorovich, I. I.
2014-11-15
Self-similar flows of an incompressible fluid in a turbulent boundary layer, when the free-stream velocity is a power function (with the exponent m) of the longitudinal coordinate, have been studied. It has been shown that there are four different self-similar flow regimes corresponding to four individual similarity parameters one of which is the known Clauser parameter and the three other parameters have been established for the first time. At adverse pressure gradient, when the exponent m lies in a certain range depending on Reynolds number, the problem has two solutions with different values of the boundary-layer thickness and skin friction; consequently, hysteresis in a pre-separation flow is possible. Separation occurs not at the minimal value of m that corresponds to the strongest adverse pressure gradient, but at m = −0.216 −0.4 Re{sub p}{sup −1/3} + O(Re{sub p}{sup −2/3}), where Re{sub p} is the Reynolds number based on longitudinal pressure gradient. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Pressure gradient sensors for bearing determination in shallow water tracking ranges
Stein, P.J.; Euerle, S.E.; Menoche, R.K.; Janiesch, R.E.
1996-04-01
Underwater acoustic tracking has traditionally used only the arrival time of tracking pings to localize targets. This implies that the ping transmitted from a target must be received at a minimum of three separate nodes (receiver locations) in order to determine the position. For deep water ranges this was acceptable. In shallow water, where propagation ranges are limited, this requires a large number of nodes. This makes shallow water ranges very costly. An effort is underway to use pressure gradient hydrophones as receivers and measure the bearing of the ping arrival along with arrival time, thereby locating the target using only one tracking node. This allows for increased node spacing and greatly reduced cost. However, the accuracy required for training ranges is on the order of 1 degree. Further, the directional receiver must be housed so as to withstand impacts from fishing operations. Research including design, fabrication, and testing of conventional and unconventional pressure gradient hydrophones, the housing, and signal processing methods are discussed. Extensive testing has already been conducted using a 1{double_prime} diameter by 5{double_prime} long multimode hydrophone. A shallow water tracking test was conducted at the NUWC Lake Seneca test facility. The results demonstrate the feasibility of tracking using a single pressure gradient hydrophone with an accuracy of 50 yds out to 2 kyds. The effects of multiple paths and scattering are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Polarization scattering by soliton-soliton collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mollenauer, L. F.; Gordon, J. P.; Heismann, F.
1995-10-01
We have discovered experimentally that soliton-soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing significantly alter the polarization states of the colliding solitons. Analysis shows that the change in polarization is according to the cross product of the Stokes vectors of the colliding solitons. Birefringence of the fiber spans can turn this polarization scattering into a significant source of timing jitter.
Analysis of transient flow and starting pressure gradient of power-law fluid in fractal porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Cai, Jianchao
2015-09-01
A transient flow model for power-law fluid in fractal porous media is derived by combining transient flow theory with the fractal properties of tortuous capillaries. Pressure changes of transient flow for power-law fluid in fractal porous media are related to pore fractal dimension, tortuosity fractal dimension and the power-law index. Additionally, the starting pressure gradient model of power-law fluid in fractal porous media is established. Good agreement between the predictions of the present model and that of the traditional empirical model is obtained, the sensitive parameters that influence the starting pressure gradient are specified and their effects on the starting pressure gradient are discussed.
Reevaluation of compressible-flow Preston tube calibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, J. M.
1977-01-01
Revised zero-pressure-gradient, adiabatic wall skin-friction-balance data covering a Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.6 led to a reevaluation of existing compressible flow Preston tube calibration equations.
Experimental Pore-scale Study on the Dynamic Response of Blobs in Porous Media to Pressure Gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, S.; Hilpert, M.
2012-12-01
The dynamic response of blobs, which are trapped in porous media due to capillary forces, to applied pressure gradients is of interest to petroleum reservoir detection, enhanced oil recovery, and groundwater remediation. By performing planar laser-induced fluorescence experiments, we visualized the dynamics of blobs subject to steady and oscillatory pressure gradients in porous media. By analyzing blob images, we measured the 2D/3D contact angles and mean curvatures of the liquid-liquid interfaces and furthermore quantified the effects of contact angle hysteresis on blob mobilization. Once a blob was mobilized, the subsequent movement and interface behavior, such as contact line pinning, contact line slipping, and snap off, depended very much on the magnitude of the applied pressure gradient. We also revealed the flow patterns inside moving blobs by performing particle image velocimetry experiments. For an oscillatory pressure gradient, we showed that a trapped blob can exhibit resonance which can be exploited to enhance blob mobilization by seismic waves.
Chong, Tze-Pei; Zhong, Shan; Hodson, Howard P
2002-10-01
Turbulent wedges induced by a three-dimensional surface roughness placed on a flat plate were studied using both shear sensitive and temperature sensitive liquid crystals, respectively denoted by SSLC and TSLC. The experiments were carried out at a free-stream velocity of 28 m/sec at three different favorable pressure gradients. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the spreading angles of the turbulent wedges, as indicated by their associated surface shear stresses and heat transfer characteristics, and to obtain more insight about the behavior of transitional momentum and thermal boundary layers when a streamwise pressure gradient exists. It was shown that under a zero pressure gradient the spreading angles indicated by the two types of liquid crystals are the same, but the difference increases as the level of the favorable pressure gradient increases. The result from the present study is important for modelling the transition of thermal boundary layers over gas turbine blades. PMID:12496003
Stability of the flow in a soft tube deformed due to an applied pressure gradient.
Verma, M K S; Kumaran, V
2015-04-01
A linear stability analysis is carried out for the flow through a tube with a soft wall in order to resolve the discrepancy of a factor of 10 for the transition Reynolds number between theoretical predictions in a cylindrical tube and the experiments of Verma and Kumaran [J. Fluid Mech. 705, 322 (2012)]. Here the effect of tube deformation (due to the applied pressure difference) on the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient is incorporated in the stability analysis. The tube geometry and dimensions are reconstructed from experimental images, where it is found that there is an expansion and then a contraction of the tube in the streamwise direction. The mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations and the pressure gradient, determined using computational fluid dynamics, are found to be substantially modified by the tube deformation. The velocity profiles are then used in a linear stability analysis, where the growth rates of perturbations are calculated for the flow through a tube with the wall modeled as a neo-Hookean elastic solid. The linear stability analysis is carried out for the mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations using the parallel flow approximation. The analysis indicates that the flow first becomes unstable in the downstream converging section of the tube where the flow profile is more pluglike when compared to the parabolic flow in a cylindrical tube. The flow is stable in the upstream diverging section where the deformation is maximum. The prediction for the transition Reynolds number is in good agreement with experiments, indicating that the downstream tube convergence and the consequent modification in the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient could reduce the transition Reynolds number by an order of magnitude. PMID:25974574
Stability of the flow in a soft tube deformed due to an applied pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, M. K. S.; Kumaran, V.
2015-04-01
A linear stability analysis is carried out for the flow through a tube with a soft wall in order to resolve the discrepancy of a factor of 10 for the transition Reynolds number between theoretical predictions in a cylindrical tube and the experiments of Verma and Kumaran [J. Fluid Mech. 705, 322 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2011.55]. Here the effect of tube deformation (due to the applied pressure difference) on the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient is incorporated in the stability analysis. The tube geometry and dimensions are reconstructed from experimental images, where it is found that there is an expansion and then a contraction of the tube in the streamwise direction. The mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations and the pressure gradient, determined using computational fluid dynamics, are found to be substantially modified by the tube deformation. The velocity profiles are then used in a linear stability analysis, where the growth rates of perturbations are calculated for the flow through a tube with the wall modeled as a neo-Hookean elastic solid. The linear stability analysis is carried out for the mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations using the parallel flow approximation. The analysis indicates that the flow first becomes unstable in the downstream converging section of the tube where the flow profile is more pluglike when compared to the parabolic flow in a cylindrical tube. The flow is stable in the upstream diverging section where the deformation is maximum. The prediction for the transition Reynolds number is in good agreement with experiments, indicating that the downstream tube convergence and the consequent modification in the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient could reduce the transition Reynolds number by an order of magnitude.
Pressure-gradient effects on hypersonic turbulent skin friction and boundary-layer profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, E. J.; Keener, E. R.
1972-01-01
Local skin friction, total-temperature profiles, and pitot-pressure profiles were measured on the wall of a Mach-7.4 wind tunnel. The wall to adiabatic wall temperature ratio was varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Boundary-layer characteristics were compared with those predicted by a finite-difference method. Local skin friction was predicted to within 15%. Pressure-gradient effects on the temperature and Mach number distributions and the shape factor (displacement thickness/momentum thickness) were underpredicted, but the velocity distributions were closely predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano
2013-09-01
An innovative method for prescribing turbulent thermal inflow information in spatially developing boundary layers under streamwise pressure gradients is introduced for attached flows. The approach is tested and validated in a suite of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of thermal boundary layers for zero (ZPG) and adverse (APG) pressure gradients with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (Reθ) up to 3000. The turbulent thermal data are generated based on the dynamic multi-scale approach proposed by Araya et al. ["A dynamic multi-scale approach for turbulent inflow boundary conditions in spatially evolving flows," J. Fluid Mech. 670, 581-605 (2011)], which is extended to include thermal field simulations in the present article. The approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method developed by Lund, Wu, and Squires ["Generation of turbulent inflow data for spatially developing boundary layer simulations," J. Comput. Phys. 140, 233-258 (1998)] for ZPG flows. Isothermal walls are considered for the thermal field and the molecular Prandtl number is 0.71. In addition, only inlet momentum/thermal boundary layer thicknesses must be prescribed while other flow parameters such as the inlet friction velocity, uτ, and friction temperature, Θτ, are computed dynamically based on the flow solution obtained downstream by means of a test plane. This plane is located between the inlet and recycle stations. Based on the unique and extensive DNS results of heat transfer obtained in this investigation, the effects of Reynolds numbers and adverse pressure gradients on the flow and thermal parameters are also explored and visualized. The principal outcome of adverse pressure gradient on the flow parameters has been determined as a secondary peak, particularly on the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the outer region, which shows clear evidence of energy production in the outer flow and not only in the buffer layer as traditionally known. Nevertheless, this peak is not so
Turbulence model investigations on the boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Zhao; Zhi, Zong; Li, Zou; Tianlin, Wang
2015-06-01
In this paper, a numerical study of flow in the turbulence boundary layer with adverse and pressure gradients (APGs) is conducted by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This research chooses six typical turbulence models, which are critical to the computing precision, and to evaluating the issue of APGs. Local frictional resistance coefficient is compared between numerical and experimental results. The same comparisons of dimensionless averaged velocity profiles are also performed. It is found that results generated by Wilcox (2006) k- w are most close to the experimental data. Meanwhile, turbulent quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds-stress are also studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.
1974-01-01
The boundary-layer transition on a short plate was studied by means of the china-clay visual technique. The plate model was mounted in a wind tunnel so that it was subjected to small simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients. Results of the experimental study, which was performed at three subsonic velocities, indicated that the transition pattern was appreciably curved in the spanwise direction but quite smooth and well behaved. Reasonable comparisons between predictions of transition and experiment were obtained from two finite-difference two-dimensional boundary-layer calculation methods which incorporated transition models based on the concept of a transition intermittency factor.
Coherent structures in a zero-pressure-gradient and a strongly decelerated boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simens, Mark P.; Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan
2016-04-01
Coherent structures in a strongly decelerated large-velocity-defect turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and a zero pressure gradient (ZPG) boundary layer are analysed by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The characteristics of the one-point velocity stastistics are also considered. The adverse pressure gradient (APG) TBL simulation is a new one carried out by the present authors. The APG TBL begins as a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, decelerates under a strong adverse pressure gradient, and separates near the end of the domain in the form of a very thin separation bubble. The one-point velocity statistics in the outer region of this large-defect boundary layer are compared to those of two other large-velocity-defect APG TBLs (one in dynamic equilibrium, the other in disequilibrium) and a mixing layer. In the upper half of the large-defect boundary layers, the velocity statistics are similar to those of the mixing layer. The dominant peaks of turbulence production and Reynolds stresses are located in the middle of the boundary layers. Three-dimensional spatial correlations of (u, u) and (u, v) show that coherence is lost in the streamwise and spanwise directions as the velocity defect increases. Near-wall streaks tend to disappear in the large-defect zone of the flow to be replaced by more disorganized u motions. Near-wall sweeps and ejections are also less numerous. In the outer region, the u structures tend to be shorter, less streaky, and more inclined with respect to the wall than in the ZPG TBL. The sweeps and ejections are generally bigger with respect to the boundary layer thickness in the large-defect boundary layer, even if the biggest structures are found in the ZPG TBL. Large sweeps and ejections that reach the wall region (wall-attached) are less streamwise elongated and they occupy less space than in the ZPG boundary layer. The distinction between wall-attached and wall-detached structures is not as pronounced in the large-defect TBL.
Gap heating with pressure gradients. [for Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, C. D.; Maraia, R. J.
1979-01-01
The heating rate distribution and temperature response on the gap walls of insulating tiles is analyzed to determine significant phenomena and parameters in flows where there is an external surface pressure gradient. Convective heating due to gap flow, modeled as fully developed pipe flow, is coupled with a two-dimensional thermal model of the tiles that includes conduction and radiative heat transfer. To account for geometry and important environmental parameters, scale factors are obtained by curve-fitting measured temperatures to analytical solutions. These scale factors are then used to predict the time-dependent gap heat flux and temperature response of tile gaps on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry.
Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement before TIPS for acute variceal bleeding
Qi, Xing-Shun; Fan, Dai-Ming
2014-01-01
Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an independent predictor of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis. After pharmacological and/or endoscopic therapy, the use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be necessary in HVPG non-responders, but not in responders. Thus, HVPG measurement may be incorporated into the treatment algorithm for acute variceal bleeding, which further identifies the candidates that should undergo early insertion of TIPS or maintain the traditional pharmacological and/or endoscopic therapy. The potential benefits are to reduce the cost and prevent TIPS-related complications. PMID:24966625
Local pressure gradients due to incipience of boiling in subcooled flows
Ruggles, A.E.; McDuffee, J.L.
1995-09-01
Models for vapor bubble behavior and nucleation site density during subcooled boiling are integrated with boundary layer theory in order to predict the local pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient. Models for bubble growth rate and bubble departure diameter are used to scale the movement of displaced liquid in the laminar sublayer. An added shear stress, analogous to a turbulent shear stress, is derived by considering the liquid movement normal to the heated surface. The resulting mechanistic model has plausible functional dependence on wall superheat, mass flow, and heat flux and agrees well with data available in the literature.
Chu, T.K.
1987-12-01
The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, W. J.
1973-01-01
A theoretical study of heat transfer for zero pressure gradient hypersonic laminar boundary layers for various gases with particular application to the flows produced in an expansion tube facility was conducted. A correlation based on results obtained from solutions to the governing equations for five gases was formulated. Particular attention was directed toward the laminar boundary layer shock tube splitter plates in carbon dioxide flows generated by high speed shock waves. Computer analysis of the splitter plate boundary layer flow provided information that is useful in interpreting experimental data obtained in shock tube gas radiation studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Fully coupled resonant-triad interaction in an adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Lee, Sang S.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear resonant-triad interaction, proposed by Raetz (1959), Craik (1971), and others for a Blasius boundary layer, is analyzed here for an adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. We assume that the adverse pressure gradient is in some sense weak and, therefore, that the instability growth rate is small. This ensures that there is a well-defined critical layer located somewhere within the flow and that the nonlinear interaction is effectively confined to that layer. The initial interaction is of the parametric resonance type, even when the modal amplitudes are all of the same order. This means that the oblique instability waves exhibit faster than exponential growth and that the growth rate of the two-dimensional mode remains linear. However, the interaction and the resulting growth rates become fully coupled, once oblique-mode amplitudes become sufficiently large, but the coupling terms are now quartic, rather than quadratic as in the Craik (1971) analysis. More importantly, however, new nonlinear interactions, which were not present in the Craik-type analyses, now come into play. These interactions eventually have a dominant effect on the instability wave development.
DNS of self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at incipient separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soria, Julio; Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Sillero, Juan; Borrell, Guillem; Gungar, Ayse; Jimenez, Javier
2015-11-01
A direct numerical simulation of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) flow at incipient separation has been carried out. The maximum Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness, Reδ2 , reached in this DNS is 6,500. A wall-normal far-field boundary condition to effect the desired APG that will lead to the desired self-similar flow at the verge of separation has been developed. The self-similar analysis of the mean turbulent boundary layer equations yields the necessary conditions for a self-similar mean flow to exists. These conditions are tested using the DNS APG-TBL data base. First and second order statistics of the velocity across the APG-TBL are also presented in the light of the self-similar analysis results and compared to the results of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer DNS with similar mean inflow characteristics as the APG-TBL. The support of the ARC, NCI and Pawsey SCC funded by the Australian and Western Australian governments as well as the support of PRACE funded by the European Union are gratefully acknowledged.
Mixed mode transition in zero and adverse pressure gradient boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Rikhi; Durbin, Paul
2015-11-01
Flow regimes exist where interaction of Klebanoff streaks and the Tollmien-Sclichting waves trigger transition but either mode is individually insufficient. Such interaction between orderly and bypass routes of transition is called Mixed mode transition. In zero pressure gradient boundary layers, mixed mode transition follows three routes depending upon strength of these perturbation modes. At high free-stream turbulence intensity (Tu), bypass transition is dominant and the flow is very weakly sensitive to the TS mode strength. In the presence of a strong TS mode, low Tu triggers secondary instability of the TS wave forming Λ vortices. The Λ vortices are forced response due to the weak streaks rather than resonance mechanism seen in monochromatic excitations. When both of these modes are weak, secondary instability of streaks trigger consequent breakdown to turbulent spots. Three-dimensional visualization of the perturbation fields shows toroidal n = 0 and helical n = 1 modes observed in instability of axisymmetric jets and wakes. In adverese pressure gradient boundary layers, the presence of an inflection point significantly increases the growth rate of TS mode thereby strengthening the secondary instability route and the interaction is more interesting. This work was supported by NSF grant CBET-1228195. Computer time was provided by the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE).
Effect of Freestream Turbulence over Rough, Favorable Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Lebron-Bosques, Jose; Brzek, Brian; Castillo, Luciano; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Meneveau, Charles
2007-11-01
Laser Doppler anemometry measurements are performed downstream of an active grid in the Corrsin wind tunnel at The Johns Hopkins University to study the effect of freestream turbulence (Tu<=7%), surface roughness and external favorable pressure gradient. Overall, the effect of freestream turbulence has proven to be dominant over pressure gradient and roughness. Mean profiles show that freestream turbulence effects alter the entire boundary layer including the inner flow. A reduction in the wake is also seen. Moreover, freestream turbulence increases the Reynolds stresses, making the values near the edge of the boundary layer to be non-zero. For the streamwise fluctuations, turbulence intensity affects the inner and outer regions, while the wall-normal and shear stress only change in the outer flow. Also, it is seen that roughness prevents the streamwise fluctuations from increasing near the wall, mainly because of the destruction of the viscous regions. Furthermore, a 20% increase in the skin friction is reported, 25% more than the increase obtained over smooth surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan; Ng, Lian; Streett, Craig
1995-01-01
The boundary layer receptivity to free-stream acoustic waves in the presence of localized surface disturbances is studied for the case of incompressible Falkner-Skan flows with adverse pressure gradients. These boundary layers are unstable to both viscous and inviscid (i.e., inflectional) modes, and the finite Reynolds number extension of the Goldstein-Ruban theory provides a convenient method to compare the efficiency of the localized receptivity processes in these two cases. The value of the efficiency function related to the receptivity caused by localized distortions in surface geometry is relatively insensitive to the type of instability mechanism, provided that the same reference length scale is used to normalize the efficiency function for each type of instability. In contrast, when the receptivity is induced by variations in wall suction velocity or in wall admittance distribution, the magnitudes of the related efficiency functions, as well as the resulting coupling coefficients, are smaller for inflectional (i.e., Rayleigh) modes than for the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The reduced levels of receptivity can be attributed mainly to the shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies of the inflectional modes. Because the most critical band of frequencies shifts toward higher values, the overall efficiency of the wall suction- and the wall admittance-induced receptivity decreases with an increase in the adverse pressure gradient.
Internal pressure gradient errors in σ-coordinate ocean models in high resolution fjord studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berntsen, Jarle; Thiem, Øyvind; Avlesen, Helge
2015-08-01
Terrain following ocean models are today applied in coastal areas and fjords where the topography may be very steep. Recent advances in high performance computing facilitate model studies with very high spatial resolution. In general, numerical discretization errors tend to zero with the grid size. However, in fjords and near the coast the slopes may be very steep, and the internal pressure gradient errors associated with σ-models may be significant even in high resolution studies. The internal pressure gradient errors are due to errors when estimating the density gradients in σ-models, and these errors are investigated for two idealized test cases and for the Hardanger fjord in Norway. The methods considered are the standard second order method and a recently proposed method that is balanced such that the density gradients are zero for the case ρ = ρ(z) where ρ is the density and z is the vertical coordinate. The results show that by using the balanced method, the errors may be reduced considerably also for slope parameters larger than the maximum suggested value of 0.2. For the Hardanger fjord case initialized with ρ = ρ(z) , the errors in the results produced with the balanced method are orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding errors in the results produced with the second order method.
Pressure gradient effects on heat transfer to reusable surface insulation tile-array gaps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Throckmorton, D. A.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect of pressure gradient on the heat transfer within space shuttle reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile-array gaps under thick, turbulent boundary-layer conditions. Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a curved array of full-scale simulated RSI tiles in a tunnel-wall boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number and free-stream Reynolds numbers. Transverse pressure gradients of varying degree were induced over the model surface by rotating the curved array with respect to the flow. Definition of the tunnel-wall boundary-layer flow was obtained by measurement of boundary-layer pitot pressure profiles, wall pressure, and heat transfer. Flat-plate heat-transfer data were correlated and a method was derived for prediction of heat transfer to a smooth curved surface in the highly three-dimensional tunnel-wall boundary-layer flow. Pressure on the floor of the RSI tile-array gap followed the trends of the external surface pressure. Heat transfer to the surface immediately downstream of a transverse gap is higher than that for a smooth surface at the same location. Heating to the wall of a transverse gap, and immediately downstream of it, at its intersection with a longitudinal gap is significantly greater than that for the simple transverse gap.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Tony L.; Zorumski, William E.; Rawls, John W., Jr.
1990-01-01
The feasibility is discussed for an experimental program for studying the behavior of acoustic wave propagation in the presence of strong gradients of pressure, temperature, and flow. Theory suggests that gradients effects can be experimentally observed as resonant frequency shifts and mode shape changes in a waveguide. A convenient experimental geometry for such experiments is the annular region between two co-rotating cylinders. Radial temperature gradients in a spinning annulus can be generated by differentially heating the two cylinders via electromagnetic induction. Radial pressure gradients can be controlled by varying the cylinder spin rates. Present technology appears adequate to construct an apparatus to allow independent control of temperature and pressure gradients. A complicating feature of a more advanced experiment, involving flow gradients, is the requirement for independently controlled cylinder spin rates. Also, the boundary condition at annulus terminations must be such that flow gradients are minimally disturbed. The design and construction of an advanced apparatus to include flow gradients will require additional technology development.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakatani, S.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
The pressure-velocity relationship across the normal mitral valve is approximated by the Bernoulli equation DeltaP = 1/2 rhoDeltav(2) + M. dv/dt, where DeltaP is the atrioventricular pressure difference, rho is blood density, v is transmitral flow velocity, and M is mitral inertance. Although M is indispensable in assessing transvalvular pressure differences from transmitral flow, this term is poorly understood. We measured intraoperative high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressures and simultaneous transmitral flow velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography in 100 beats (8 patients). We computed mean mitral inertance (M) by M = integral((DeltaP)-(1/2 x rho v(2))dt/integral(dv/dt)dt and we assessed the effect of the inertial term on the transmitral pressure-flow relation. ranged from 1.03 to 5.96 g/cm(2) (mean = 3.82 +/- 1.22 g/cm(2)). DeltaP calculated from the simplified Bernoulli equation (DeltaP = 1/2. rhov(2)) lagged behind (44 +/- 11 ms) and underestimated the actual peak pressures (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg). correlated with left ventricular systolic pressure (r = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and transmitral pressure gradients (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). Because mitral inertance causes the velocity to lag significantly behind the actual pressure gradient, it needs to be considered when assessing diastolic filling and the pressure difference across normal mitral valves.
Beneficial effect of cibenzoline on left ventricular pressure gradient with sigmoid septum.
Konishi, Chika; Shiraishi, Jun; Muraguchi, Naoko; Ohtsuki, Katsuichi; Inoue, Miho; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Azuma, Akihiro; Matsubara, Hiroaki
2004-10-01
An 83-year-old woman with hypertension was admitted to hospital with episodes of dyspnea on effort after having breakfast. Physical examination revealed a systolic murmur at the left sternal border in the third to fourth intercostal space. Cross-sectional echocardiography showed a sigmoid-shaped interventricular septum markedly protruding into the left ventricle, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, and a resultant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a pressure gradient of 121.8 mmHg. She began daily treatment with 60 mg metoprolol. However, the chest symptoms were not relieved and the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was still visible on echocardiography. She was then given 200 mg daily of cibenzoline, in addition to 40 mg metoprolol, and the left ventricular pressure gradient significantly decreased and she was free of symptoms without any complications. This case shows that cibenzoline may be useful in the treatment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by sigmoid septum. PMID:15459474
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
2001-01-01
Turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is a very important quantity for turbulence modeling and the budget of this quantity in its transport equation can provide insight into the flow physics. Turbulence kinetic energy budget measurements were conducted for a symmetric turbulent wake flow subjected to constant zero, favorable and adverse pressure gradients in year-three of research effort. The purpose of this study is to clarify the flow physics issues underlying the demonstrated influence of pressure gradient on wake development and provide experimental support for turbulence modeling. To ensure the reliability of these notoriously difficult measurements, the experimental procedure was carefully designed on the basis of an uncertainty analysis. Four different approaches, based on an isotropic turbulence assumption, a locally axisymmetric homogeneous turbulence assumption, a semi-isotropy assumption and a forced balance of the TKE equation, were applied for the estimate of the dissipation term. The pressure transport term is obtained from a forced balance of the turbulence kinetic energy equation. This report will present the results of the turbulence kinetic energy budget measurement and discuss their implication on the development of strained turbulent wakes.
Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.
2002-01-01
The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.
Acoustic solitons in inhomogeneous pair-ion plasmas
Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.
2010-12-15
The acoustic solitons are investigated in inhomogeneous unmagnetized pair ion plasmas. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) like equation with an additional term due to density gradients is deduced by employing reductive perturbation technique. It is noticed that pair-ion plasma system is conducive for the propagation of compressive as well as rarefactive solitons. The increase in the temperature ratio causes the amplitude of the rarefactive soliton to decrease. However, the amplitude of the compressive solitons is found to be increased as the temperature ratio of ions is enhanced. The amplitude of both compressive and rarefactive solitons is found to be increased as the density gradient parameter is increased. The equlibrium density profile is assumed to be exponential. The numerical results are shown for illustration.
Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mani Rajan, M. S.; Mahalingam, A.; Uthayakumar, A.
2014-07-01
We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management.
Mislevy, S.P.; Wang, T.
1996-10-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the thermal and momentum characteristics of a heated transitional boundary layer were investigated with free-stream turbulence ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 %. The acceleration parameter, K, was kept constant along the test section. Both surface heat transfer and boundary layer measurements were conducted. The boundary layer measurements were conducted with a three-wire probe (two velocity wires and one temperature wire) for two representative cases, K1 = {minus}0.51 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} and K2 = {minus}1.05 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. The surface heat transfer measurements were conducted for K values ranging from {minus}0.045 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to {minus}1.44 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} over five divergent wall angles. The Stanton numbers of the cases with adverse pressure gradients were greater than that of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent correlation in the low-Reynolds-number turbulent flow, and the difference increased as the adverse pressure gradient was increased. The adverse pressure gradient caused earlier transition onset and shorter transition length based on Re{sub x}, Re*{sub {delta}}, and Re{sub {theta}} in comparison to zero-pressure-gradient conditions. As expected, there was a reduction in skin friction as the adverse pressure gradient increased. In the U{sup +}-Y{sup +} coordinates, the adverse pressure gradients had a significant effect on the mean velocity profiles in the near-wall region for the late-laminar and early transition stations. The mean temperature profile was observed to precede the velocity profile in starting and ending the transition process, opposite to what occurred in favorable pressure gradient cases in previous studies. A curve fit of the turbulent temperature profile in the log-linear region for the K2 case gave a conduction layer thickness of Y{sup +}=9.8 and an average Pr{sub t}=0.71. The wake region of the turbulent mean temperature profile was significantly suppressed.
Interpretation of the Finite Pressure Gradient Effects in the Reversed Shear Alfvén Eigenmode Theory
N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, R. Nazikian
2008-02-21
Ideal MHD equations employed in the NOVA code are analyzed analytically and numerically in order to investigate the role of the pressure gradient on global reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) or Alfvén cascades. We confirm both numerically and analytically conclusions obtained earlier using the ideal MHD code NOVA and analytically that the plasma pressure gradient plays a key role in the existence condition and in the dispersion relation for the mode. The effect of the plasma pressure gradient is to shift the mode frequency up at the low part of the RSAE frequency chirp and downshift the mode frequency when the frequency approaches the TAE gap This finding is opposite to predictions in a recent publication , where the pressure gradient is found to be always stabilizing by means of downshifting the RSAE frequency and enhancing its in- teraction with the continuum. We resolve this discrepancy by showing that neglecting the pressure gradient effect on the plasma equilibrium (modification of the Shafranov shift and the averaged curvature) leads to conclusions at variance to the numerical and analytical results presented here. A new variational approximation of the RSAE is introduced which compares remarkably well with NOVA solutions. With this new approximation we clearly demonstrate the diagnostic potential and limitations of the RSAE frequency measurement for MHD spectroscopy.
Parameterizing large-scale dynamics with the weak pressure gradient approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edman, J. P.; Romps, D. M.
2013-12-01
Cloud-resolving and single-column models are useful tools for understanding the dynamics of convection and developing convective parameterizations. However, these tools are severely limited by their inherent inability to simulate the dynamics of the environment in which they are imagined to be immersed. Previous attempts to solve this problem have resulted in various ';supra-domain scale' parameterizations, which allow the model to prescribe its own vertical velocity profile based on some limited information about the external environment (e.g. pressure and potential temperature profiles). Here we present a new implementation of one of these schemes, the weak pressure gradient approximation (WPG), which is shown to reproduce both the transient and steady state dynamics of a 3D atmosphere in a single column. Further, we demonstrate the skill of this new WPG method at replicating observed time series of precipitation and vertical velocity in a series of cloud-resolving simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Doenhoff, Albert E
1938-01-01
Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.
An experimental investigation of boundary layer transition in an adverse pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1991-01-01
The evolution of a small perturbation introduced periodically into a boundary layer with a moderately strong adverse pressure gradient (APG) was investigated experimentally using the hot-wire method. The magnitude of the disturbance is found to decay with the streamwise distance in the APG before undergoing rapid growth and triggering transition in a very repetitive manner. The evidence suggests that the laminar layer separates and that the transition mechanism is an inviscid shear-layer type of instability. Contours of spanwise vorticity in the plane of the disturbance show the formation of roll-ups in the initial stages. Subsequent interaction with the wall leads to the formation of large-scale vortex loops which merge into a single vortex loop further downstream.
Performance of popular turbulence models for attached and separated adverse pressure gradient flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menter, F. R.
1991-01-01
The performance of four popular eddy-viscosity turbulence models under adverse pressure gradient conditions is investigated. The Baldwin-Lomax, the Johnson-King, the Baldwin-Barth, and the Wilcox-omega models have been implemented into the INS code, which solves the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Results are shown for the well known Samuel-Joubert flow and two new flowfields, recently reported by D. M. Driver (1991). The two new flowfields pose a stronger test of the models than the Samuel-Joubert flow, because of the more severe retardation of the boundary layer, including separation in one case. A detailed comparison of the numerical results and the experimental data is shown.
Performance of popular turbulence models for attached and separated adverse pressure gradient flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menter, F. R.
1991-06-01
The performance of four popular eddy-viscosity turbulence models under adverse pressure gradient conditions is investigated. The Baldwin-Lomax, the Johnson-King, the Baldwin-Barth, and the Wilcox-omega models have been implemented into the INS code, which solves the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Results are shown for the well known Samuel-Joubert flow and two new flowfields, recently reported by D. M. Driver (1991). The two new flowfields pose a stronger test of the models than the Samuel-Joubert flow, because of the more severe retardation of the boundary layer, including separation in one case. A detailed comparison of the numerical results and the experimental data is shown.
Influence of Pressure-gradient and Shear on Ballooning Stability in Stellarators
S.R. Hudson; C.C. Hegna; N. Nakajima
2005-02-28
Pressure-driven, ideal ballooning stability calculations are often used to predict the achievable plasma in stellarator configurations. In this paper, the sensitivity of ballooning stability to plasmas profile variations is addressed. A simple, semi-analytic method for expressing the ballooning growth rate, for each field line, as a polynomial function of the variation in the pressure gradient and the average magnetic shear from an original equilibrium has recently been introduced [Phys. Plasmas 11:9 (September 2004) L53]. This paper will apply the expression to various stellarator configurations and comment on the validity of various truncated forms of the polynomial expression. In particular, it is shown that in general it is insufficient to consider only the second order terms as previously assumed, and that higher order terms must be included to obtain accurate predictions of stability.
Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.
2014-01-01
A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.
Comparison between pressure gradient method and MAC method on high Re calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, C.-H.; Duh, J. C.
1989-01-01
A cavity flow driven by shear and buoyancy forces is used as a test problem in the application of a nonstaggered pressure gradient (PG) method in solving the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Twelve finite differencing schemes are used to solve the cavity flow problem. The schemes consist of various combinations of grid arrangements, upwinding treatments, and conservativeness of convection terms. An artificial source term is introduced, and the solutions are compared with those obtained by the conventional marker-and-cell (MAC) method. The comparisons favor the PG method. Numerical results obtained by the twelve schemes are compared with exact solutions in order to assess the stability and accuracy of each scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuehn, Donald M.
1980-01-01
The turbulent, incompressible reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step has been studied by many researchers over the years. One of the principal quantities determined in these experiments has been the distance from the step to the point (or region) where the separated shear layer reattaches to the surface (x(r)). The values for x(r)/h, where h is the step height, have covered a wider range than can reasonably be attributed to experimental technique or inaccuracy. Often the reason for a largely different value of x(r)/h can be attributed to an incompletely developed turbulent layer, or a transitional or laminar boundary layer. However, for the majority of experiments where the boundary layer is believed to be fully developed and turbulent, x(r)/h still varies several step heights; generally, 5 1/2 approximately < x(r)/h approximately < 7 1/2. This observed variation has usually been attributed to such variables as l/h (step length to height, h/delta (step height to initial boundary-layer thickness), R(e)(theta)), or the experimental technique for determining reattachment location. However, there are so many different combinations of variables in the previous experiments that it was not possible to sort out the effects of particular conditions on the location of reattachment. In the present experiment velocity profiles have been measured in and around the region of separated flow. Results show a large influence of adverse pressure gradient on the reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step that has not been reported previously. Further, the many previous experiments for fully developed, turbulent flow in parallel-walled channels have shown a range of reattachment location that has not been explained by differences in initial flow conditions. Although these initial flow conditions might contribute to the observed variation of reattachment location, it appears that the pressure gradient effect can explain most of that variation.
Siaudvytyte, Lina; Ragauskas, Arminas; Meiliuniene, Indre; Harris, Alon
2014-01-01
Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG) and neuroretinal rim area (NRA) in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), high tension glaucoma (HTG), and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients). Intraocular pressure (IOP), intracranial pressure (ICP), and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. NTG patients had significantly lower IOP (13.7(1.6) mmHg), NRA (0.97(0.36) mm2), comparing with HTG and healthy subjects, P < 0.05. ICP was lower in NTG (7.4(2.7) mmHg), compared with HTG (8.9(1.9) mmHg) and healthy subjects (10.5(3.0) mmHg); however, the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7) mmHg) and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1) mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7) mmHg) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01) in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management. PMID:24876948
A pressure gradient facilitates mass flow in the oomycete Achlya bisexualis.
Muralidhar, Abishek; Swadel, Emma; Spiekerman, Marjolein; Suei, Sandy; Fraser, Miranda; Ingerfeld, Manfred; Tayagui, Ayelen B; Garrill, Ashley
2016-02-01
We have used a single cell pressure probe and observed movement of microinjected oil droplets to investigate mass flow in the oomycete Achlya bisexualis. To facilitate these experiments, split Petri dishes that had media containing different sorbitol concentrations (and hence a different osmotic potential) on each side of the dish were inoculated with a single zoospore. An initial germ tube grew out from this and formed a mycelium that extended over both sides of the Petri dish. Hyphae growing on the 0 M sorbitol side of the dish had a mean turgor ( ± sem) of 0.53 ± 0.03 MPa (n = 13) and on the 0.3 M sorbitol side had a mean turgor ( ± sem) of 0.3 ± 0.027 MPa (n = 9). Oil droplets that had been microinjected into the hyphae moved towards the lower turgor area of the mycelia (i.e. retrograde movement when microinjected into hyphae on the 0 M sorbitol side of the split Petri dish and anterograde movement when microinjected into hyphae on the 0.3 M sorbitol side of the Petri dish). In contrast, the movement of small refractile vesicles occurred in both directions irrespective of the pressure gradient. Experiments with neutral red indicate that the dye is able to move through the mycelia from one side of a split Petri dish to the other, suggesting that there is no compartmentation. This study shows that hyphae that are part of the same mycelia can have different turgor pressures and that this pressure gradient can drive mass flow. PMID:26608611
Observations of pressure gradient driven m = 1 internal kink mode in EAST tokamak
Xu Liqing; Hu Liqun; Chen Kaiyun; Li Erzhong; Wang Fudi; Xu Ming; Duan Yanmin; Shi Tonghui; Zhang Jizong; Zhou Ruijie; Chen Yebin
2012-12-15
Pressure gradient driven m = 1 internal kink mode destabilization that follows an L-H transition is observed in the operational region of the EAST tokamak, which manifests in periodic oscillations in soft x-ray (SXR) and Mirnov coil signals. Using tomography with the high resolution soft x-ray detection array, we find that the rotation direction of the 1/1 kink mode is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction in poloidal cross-section. A large displacement of the hot core is attributable to the shift of the 1/1 internal kink mode. In contrast to stationary oscillations with fixed frequency, various frequency chirping behavior is observed with this 1/1 kink mode. Furthermore, we also occasionally observe that a 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is triggered by a 1/1 internal kink mode via mode coupling in a high-performance plasma. The spatial structure of a 2/2 mode, which is the harmonic mode of the 1/1 kink mode, is also presented in this paper. Large amounts of medium-Z impurities accumulate in the central plasma region where the 1/1 kink mode instability bursts. Finally, we also find that the frequency beating associated with a 1/1 kink mode is a consequence of plasma rotation. Based on all of these observations, we propose that the plasma pressure gradient, the driving force in kink modes, is plausibly the product of an intense concentration of impurities, which are related to plasma rotation.
Observations of pressure gradient driven m = 1 internal kink mode in EAST tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun; Li, Erzhong; Wang, Fudi; Xu, Ming; Duan, Yanmin; Shi, Tonghui; Zhang, Jizong; Zhou, Ruijie; Chen, Yebin
2012-12-01
Pressure gradient driven m = 1 internal kink mode destabilization that follows an L-H transition is observed in the operational region of the EAST tokamak, which manifests in periodic oscillations in soft x-ray (SXR) and Mirnov coil signals. Using tomography with the high resolution soft x-ray detection array, we find that the rotation direction of the 1/1 kink mode is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction in poloidal cross-section. A large displacement of the hot core is attributable to the shift of the 1/1 internal kink mode. In contrast to stationary oscillations with fixed frequency, various frequency chirping behavior is observed with this 1/1 kink mode. Furthermore, we also occasionally observe that a 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is triggered by a 1/1 internal kink mode via mode coupling in a high-performance plasma. The spatial structure of a 2/2 mode, which is the harmonic mode of the 1/1 kink mode, is also presented in this paper. Large amounts of medium-Z impurities accumulate in the central plasma region where the 1/1 kink mode instability bursts. Finally, we also find that the frequency beating associated with a 1/1 kink mode is a consequence of plasma rotation. Based on all of these observations, we propose that the plasma pressure gradient, the driving force in kink modes, is plausibly the product of an intense concentration of impurities, which are related to plasma rotation.
Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J
2010-01-01
Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.
Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation
Mani Rajan, M.S.; Mahalingam, A.; Uthayakumar, A.
2014-07-15
We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management. -- Highlights: •We consider the nonlinear tunneling of soliton in birefringence fiber. •3-coupled NLS (CNLS) equation with variable coefficients is considered. •Two soliton solutions are obtained via Darboux transformation using constructed Lax pair. •Soliton tunneling through dispersion barrier and well are investigated. •Finally, cascade compression of soliton has been achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahalingam, A.; Mani Rajan, M. S.
2015-10-01
Soliton control and management using generalized external potentials in an inhomogeneous fiber to the design of high speed optical devices and ultrahigh capacity transmission systems are investigated based on solving the variable-coefficient generalized nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of symbolic computation. We construct Lax pair for GNLS equation by means of AKNS method and two soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the Darboux transformation. With symbolic computation, we manipulate the control parameters and external potentials to investigate the propagation behaviors of nonautonomous solitons. Moreover, the main evolution features of obtained two soliton solutions are exposed by some interesting figures through computer simulation. Especially, we analyze the influence of external potentials such as periodic, exponential and parabolic potential on soliton propagation. Finally, soliton propagation under the absence (vanishing) of external potential is also discussed. Obtained results confirmed that external potentials has strong influence on the soliton dynamics. Our results might provide a new method to achieve the soliton pulse compression while they passing through the potential barrier or well under the influence of external potentials.
Cascaded generation of coherent Raman dissipative solitons.
Kharenko, Denis S; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Apolonski, Alexander; Babin, Sergey A
2016-01-01
The cascaded generation of a conventional dissipative soliton (at 1020 nm) together with Raman dissipative solitons of the first (1065 nm) and second (1115 nm) orders inside a common fiber laser cavity is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. With sinusoidal (soft) spectral filtering, the generated solitons are mutually coherent at a high degree and compressible down to 300 fs. Numerical simulation shows that an even higher degree of coherence and shorter pulses could be achieved with step-like (hard) spectral filtering. The approach can be extended toward a high-order coherent Raman dissipative soliton source offering numerous applications such as frequency comb generation, pulse synthesis, biomedical imaging, and the generation of a coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum. PMID:26696187
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.
1974-01-01
Measurements have been made of the mean flow properties and turbulent fluctuations in adiabatic turbulent boundary layer flows subjected to distributed adverse pressure gradients. In the freestream region upstream of the adverse pressure gradient the Mach number was 3.86, the unit Reynolds number 5.3 million per foot. The boundary layer developed on the wall of an axisymmetric nozzle and straight test section. In order to avoid the effects of streamwise surface curvature the adverse pressure gradients at the test section wall were induced by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The flow under study simulated that which might be found in an axially symmetric engine inlet of a supersonic aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hornung, Hans; Seto, Jeffrey
1991-01-01
A new, robust oil film skin friction meter was designed and constructed. This enables skin friction measurements remotely and from within the model, as well as avoiding the need to know the location of the leading edge of the film. The instrument was tested by comparing measurements with those given by a floating element gage in a zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Both instruments agreed satisfactorily with the well-known curve for this case. Significant discrepancies between the two instruments were observed in the case of adverse and favorable pressure gradients. The discrepancies were of opposite sign for opposite-sign pressure gradients as is consistent with the error expected from floating-element gages. Additional confidence in the oil film technique is supplied by the good agreement of the behavior of the film profile with predictions from lubrication theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.
1972-01-01
An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, Julianne M.
1994-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics is being used increasingly to predict flows for aerospace propulsion applications, yet there is still a need for an easy to use, computationally inexpensive turbulence model capable of accurately predicting a wide range of turbulent flows. The Baldwin-Lomax model is the most widely used algebraic model, even though it has known difficulties calculating flows with strong adverse pressure gradients and large regions of separation. The modified mixing length model (MML) was developed specifically to handle the separation which occurs on airfoils and has given significantly better results than the Baldwin-Lomax model. The success of these calculations warrants further evaluation and development of MML. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of MML for zero and adverse pressure gradient flows, and modify it as needed. The Proteus Navier-Stokes code was used for this study and all results were compared with experimental data and with calculations made using the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model, which is currently available in Proteus. The MML model was first evaluated for zero pressure gradient flow over a flat plate, then modified to produce the proper boundary layer growth. Additional modifications, based on experimental data for three adverse pressure gradient flows, were also implemented. The adapted model, called MMLPG (modified mixing length model for pressure gradient flows), was then evaluated for a typical propulsion flow problem, flow through a transonic diffuser. Three cases were examined: flow with no shock, a weak shock and a strong shock. The results of these calculations indicate that the objectives of this study have been met. Overall, MMLPG is capable of accurately predicting the adverse pressure gradient flows examined in this study, giving generally better agreement with experimental data than the Baldwin-Lomax model.
Design and development of second order MEMS sound pressure gradient sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albahri, Shehab
The design and development of a second order MEMS sound pressure gradient sensor is presented in this dissertation. Inspired by the directional hearing ability of the parasitoid fly, Ormia ochracea, a novel first order directional microphone that mimics the mechanical structure of the fly's ears and detects the sound pressure gradient has been developed. While the first order directional microphones can be very beneficial in a large number of applications, there is great potential for remarkable improvements in performance through the use of second order systems. The second order directional microphone is able to provide a theoretical improvement in Sound to Noise ratio (SNR) of 9.5dB, compared to the first-order system that has its maximum SNR of 6dB. Although second order microphone is more sensitive to sound angle of incidence, the nature of the design and fabrication process imposes different factors that could lead to deterioration in its performance. The first Ormia ochracea second order directional microphone was designed in 2004 and fabricated in 2006 at Binghamton University. The results of the tested parts indicate that the Ormia ochracea second order directional microphone performs mostly as an Omni directional microphone. In this work, the previous design is reexamined and analyzed to explain the unexpected results. A more sophisticated tool implementing a finite element package ANSYS is used to examine the previous design response. This new tool is used to study different factors that used to be ignored in the previous design, mainly; response mismatch and fabrication uncertainty. A continuous model using Hamilton's principle is introduced to verify the results using the new method. Both models agree well, and propose a new way for optimizing the second order directional microphone using geometrical manipulation. In this work we also introduce a new fabrication process flow to increase the fabrication yield. The newly suggested method uses the shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2013-06-01
A detailed comparison between recent direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments of a turbulent boundary layer under zero pressure gradient at Re θ = 2,500 and 4,000 (based on the free-stream velocity and momentum-loss thickness) is presented. The well-resolved DNS is computed in a long spatial domain (Schlatter and Örlü in J Fluid Mech 659:116, 2010a), including the disturbance strip, while the experiments consist of single hot-wire probe and oil-film interferometry measurements. Remarkably, good agreement is obtained for integral quantities such as skin friction and shape factor, as well as mean and fluctuating streamwise velocity profiles, higher-order moments and probability density distributions. The agreement also extends to spectral/structural quantities such as the amplitude modulation of the small scales by the large-scale motion and temporal spectral maps throughout the boundary layer. Differences within the inner layer observed for statistical and spectral quantities could entirely be removed by spatially averaging the DNS to match the viscous-scaled length of the hot-wire sensor, thereby explaining observed differences solely by insufficient spatial resolution of the hot-wire sensor. For the highest Reynolds number, Re θ = 4,000, the experimental data exhibit a more pronounced secondary spectral peak in the outer region ( y/ δ 99 = 0.1) related to structures with length on the order of 5-7 boundary layer thicknesses, which is weaker and slightly moved towards lower temporal periods in the DNS. The cause is thought to be related to the limited spanwise box size which constrains the growth of the very large structures. In the light of the difficulty to obtain "canonical" flow conditions, both in DNS and the wind tunnel where effects such as boundary treatment, pressure gradient and turbulence tripping need to be considered, the present cross-validation of the data sets, at least for the present Re θ -range, provides important reference data
Comparison of hepatic venous pressure gradient and endoscopic grading of esophageal varices
Lee, EunJi; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Yang, Seung Boo; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won
2016-01-01
AIM: To determine the correlation between the hepatic venous pressure gradient and the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices. METHODS: From September 2009 to March 2013, a total of 176 measurements of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were done in 146 patients. Each transjugular HVPG was measured twice, first using an end whole catheter (EH-HVPG), and then using a balloon catheter (B-HVPG). The HVPG was compared with the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices (according to the general rules for recording endoscopic findings of esophagogastric varices), which was recorded within a month of the measurement of HVPG. RESULTS: The study included 110 men and 36 women, with a mean age of 56.1 years (range, 43-76 years). The technical success rate of the pressure measurements was 100% and there were no complication related to the procedures. Mean HVPG was 15.3 mmHg as measured using the end hole catheter method and 16.5 mmHg as measured using the balloon catheter method. Mean HVPG (both EH-HVPG and B-HVPG) was not significantly different among patients with different characteristics, including sex and comorbid factors, except for cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (B-HVPG, P = 0.01; EH-HVPG, P = 0.02). Portal hypertension (> 12 mmHg HVPG) occurred in 66% of patients according to EH-HVPG and 83% of patients according to B-HVGP, and significantly correlated with Child’s status (B-HVPG, P < 0.000; EH-HVGP, P < 0.000) and esophageal varies observed upon endoscopy (EH-HVGP, P = 0.003; B-HVGP, P = 0.006). One hundred and thirty-five endoscopies were performed, of which 15 showed normal findings, 27 showed grade 1 endoscopic esophageal varices, 49 showed grade 2 varices, and 44 showed grade 3 varices. When comparing endoscopic esophageal variceal grades and HVPG using univariate analysis, the P value was 0.004 for EH-HVPG and 0.002 for B-HVPG. CONCLUSION: Both EH-HVPG and B-HVPG showed a positive correlation with the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices, with B
Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.
2007-11-15
Considering an inhomogeneous plasma having finite-temperature negative and positive ions, and the isothermal electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field, the solitons at noncritical and critical densities of the negative ions are studied through Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations, respectively. The compressive (rarefactive) KdV solitons are found to propagate when the negative ion concentration is less (greater) than the critical density of the negative ions. At the critical density, both the compressive and the rarefactive solitons of equal amplitudes are found to occur. The energies of the compressive KdV soliton and the mKdV solitons are found to increase and that of the rarefactive KdV soliton is found to decrease with the negative ion density. Soliton energy for both the KdV and the mKdV solitons gets lowered under the effect of stronger magnetic field. The effect of ion temperature is to increase the energy of the compressive KdV soliton, whereas the energy of the rarefactive KdV soliton as well as of the mKdV solitons gets decreased. The variation of the energy with the obliqueness of the magnetic field is different for the KdV and the mKdV solitons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Tuttle, M. H.
1979-01-01
A survey was conducted and a bibliography compiled on attainment of laminar flow in air through the use of favorable pressure gradient and suction. This report contains the survey, summaries of data for both ground and flight experiments, and abstracts of referenced reports. Much early information is also included which may be of some immediate use as background material for LFC applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, D.; Weng, Z.; Xiang, Y.
1985-09-01
This paper presents a method for predicting the blade root loss in an annular nozzle cascade in which consideration is given to the influence of the radial pressure gradient (RPG) on it. The variation of blade root losses under different RPG is obtained experimentally, and finite element method is used to calculate the pressure distribution in the blade passage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhongyi; Gao, Qi; Wang, Chengyue; Wei, Runjie; Wang, Jinjun
2016-06-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based pressure reconstruction has become a popular technique in experimental fluid mechanics. Noise or errors in raw velocity field would significantly affect the quality of pressure reconstruction in PIV measurement. To reduce experimental errors in pressure gradient and improve the precision of reconstructed pressure field, a minimal 2-norm criteria-based new technique called irrotation correction (IC) with orthogonal decomposition is developed. The pressure reconstruction is therefore composed of three steps: calculation of pressure gradient from time-resolved velocity fields of PIV, an irrotation correction on the pressure gradient field, and finally a simple orthogonal-path integration (OPI) for pressure. Systematic assessments of IC algorithm are performed on synthetic solid-body rotation flow, direct numerical simulations of a channel flow and an isotropic turbulent flow. The results show that IC is a robust algorithm which can significantly improve the accuracy of pressure reconstruction primarily in the low wave number domain. After irrotation correction, noisy pressure gradient field ideally becomes an irrotational field on which the pressure integration is independent of integrating paths. Therefore, an OPI algorithm is proposed to perform the pressure integration in an efficient way with very few integration paths. This makes the new technique to be a doable method on three-dimensional pressure reconstruction with acceptable computational cost.
Solitons on Tori and Soliton Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speight, J. M.
2014-11-01
Necessary conditions for a soliton on a torus to be a soliton crystal, that is, a spatially periodic array of topological solitons in stable equilibrium, are derived. The stress tensor of the soliton must be L 2 orthogonal to , the space of parallel symmetric bilinear forms on TM, and, further, a certain symmetric bilinear form on , called the hessian, must be positive. It is shown that, for baby Skyrme models, the first condition actually implies the second. It is also shown that, for any choice of period lattice Λ, there is a baby Skyrme model which supports a soliton crystal of periodicity Λ. For the three-dimensional Skyrme model, it is shown that any soliton solution on a cubic lattice which satisfies a virial constraint and is equivariant with respect to (a subgroup of) the lattice symmetries automatically satisfies both tests. This verifies, in particular, that the celebrated Skyrme crystal of Castillejo et al., and Kugler and Shtrikman, passes both tests.
Estimation of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients by Doppler M-mode echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenberg, N. L.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Previous studies have shown that small intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) are important for efficient filling of the left ventricle (LV) and as a sensitive marker for ischemia. Unfortunately, there has previously been no way of measuring these noninvasively, severely limiting their research and clinical utility. Color Doppler M-mode (CMM) echocardiography provides a spatiotemporal velocity distribution along the inflow tract throughout diastole, which we hypothesized would allow direct estimation of IVPG by using the Euler equation. Digital CMM images, obtained simultaneously with intracardiac pressure waveforms in six dogs, were processed by numerical differentiation for the Euler equation, then integrated to estimate IVPG and the total (left atrial to left ventricular apex) pressure drop. CMM-derived estimates agreed well with invasive measurements (IVPG: y = 0.87x + 0.22, r = 0.96, P < 0.001, standard error of the estimate = 0.35 mmHg). Quantitative processing of CMM data allows accurate estimation of IVPG and tracking of changes induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. This novel approach provides unique information on LV filling dynamics in an entirely noninvasive way that has previously not been available for assessment of diastolic filling and function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; Prior, D. L.; Scalia, G. M.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.
2000-01-01
The simplified Bernoulli equation relates fluid convective energy derived from flow velocities to a pressure gradient and is commonly used in clinical echocardiography to determine pressure differences across stenotic orifices. Its application to pulmonary venous flow has not been described in humans. Twelve patients undergoing cardiac surgery had simultaneous high-fidelity pulmonary venous and left atrial pressure measurements and pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler echocardiography performed. Convective gradients for the systolic (S), diastolic (D), and atrial reversal (AR) phases of pulmonary venous flow were determined using the simplified Bernoulli equation and correlated with measured actual pressure differences. A linear relationship was observed between the convective (y) and actual (x) pressure differences for the S (y = 0.23x + 0.0074, r = 0.82) and D (y = 0.22x + 0.092, r = 0.81) waves, but not for the AR wave (y = 0. 030x + 0.13, r = 0.10). Numerical modeling resulted in similar slopes for the S (y = 0.200x - 0.127, r = 0.97), D (y = 0.247x - 0. 354, r = 0.99), and AR (y = 0.087x - 0.083, r = 0.96) waves. Consistent with numerical modeling, the convective term strongly correlates with but significantly underestimates actual gradient because of large inertial forces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, D. A.; King, L. S.
1984-01-01
A new turbulence closure model designed specifically to treat two-dimensional, turbulent boundary layers with strong adverse pressure gradients and attendant separation, is presented. The influence of history effects are modeled by using an ordinary differential equation (ODE) derived from the turbulence kinetic-energy equation, to describe the streamwise development of the maximum Reynolds shear stress in conjunction with an assumed eddy-viscosity distribution which has as its velocity scale the maximum Reynolds shear stress. In the outer part of the boundary layer, the eddy viscosity is treated as a free parameter which is adjusted in order to satisfy the ODE for the maximum shear stress. Because of this, the model s not simply an eddy-viscosity model, but contains features of a Reynolds-stress model. Comparisons with experiments are presented which clearly show the proposed model to be superior to the Cebeci-Smith model in treating strongly retarded and separated flows. In contrast to two-equation, eddy-viscosity models, it requires only slightly more computational effort than simple models like the Cebeci-Smith model.
Numerical simulation of adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer with or without roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottaghian, Pouya; Yuan, Junlin; Piomelli, Ugo
2014-11-01
Large-eddy and direct numerical simulations are carried out on flat-plate boundary layer over smooth and rough surfaces, with adverse pressure gradient.The deceleration is achieved by imposing a wall-normal freestream velocity profile, and is strong enough to cause separation at the wall. The Reynolds number based on momentum thickness and freestream velocity at inlet is 600. Numerical sandgrain roughness is applied based on an immersed boundary method, yielding a flow that is transitionally rough. The turbulence intensity increases before separation, and reaches a higher value for the rough case, indicating stronger mixing. Roughness also causes higher momentum deficit near the wall, leading to earlier separation. This is consistent with previous observation made on rough-wall flow separation over a ramp. In both cases, the turbulent kinetic energy peaks inside the shear layer above the detachment region, with higher values in the rough case; it then decreases approaching the reattachment region. Near the wall inside the separation bubble, the near-zero turbulent intensity indicates that the turbulent structures are lifted up in the separation region. Compared with the smooth case, the shear layer is farther from the wall and the reattachment length is longer on the rough wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayzus, P.; Fang, L.; Deng, X.; Bauwens, L.
2002-05-01
Significant pressure drops are typical in the regenerator, and their impact on performance can be significant. It is clear that irreversibilities associated with viscous friction lower efficiency. But in the pulse-tube, this is perhaps not the most crucial issue. Indeed, by virtue of having only one driven element (the compressor), the pulse-tube is a fairly inflexible device from a design standpoint. Pressure and velocity amplitude and phase determine energy fluxes. Impedances depend upon volume distribution, orifice resistances, and viscous friction in the regenerator. While the combined effect of volume distribution and orifice impedance is relatively easy to analyze, the role of the resistance in the regenerator is harder to deal with. An analysis is presented of the regenerator as an arbitrary porous medium, assuming large pressure gradients. Results are readily incorporated within a small amplitude, harmonic, model of the overall device, including the bypass, if any. For simple assumptions with respect to the temperature profile, such as linear and exponential temperature profiles, closed form solutions are obtained. Results from the model are compared with experiments and their relevance is discussed.
Estimation of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients by Doppler M-mode echocardiography.
Greenberg, N L; Vandervoort, P M; Firstenberg, M S; Garcia, M J; Thomas, J D
2001-06-01
Previous studies have shown that small intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) are important for efficient filling of the left ventricle (LV) and as a sensitive marker for ischemia. Unfortunately, there has previously been no way of measuring these noninvasively, severely limiting their research and clinical utility. Color Doppler M-mode (CMM) echocardiography provides a spatiotemporal velocity distribution along the inflow tract throughout diastole, which we hypothesized would allow direct estimation of IVPG by using the Euler equation. Digital CMM images, obtained simultaneously with intracardiac pressure waveforms in six dogs, were processed by numerical differentiation for the Euler equation, then integrated to estimate IVPG and the total (left atrial to left ventricular apex) pressure drop. CMM-derived estimates agreed well with invasive measurements (IVPG: y = 0.87x + 0.22, r = 0.96, P < 0.001, standard error of the estimate = 0.35 mmHg). Quantitative processing of CMM data allows accurate estimation of IVPG and tracking of changes induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. This novel approach provides unique information on LV filling dynamics in an entirely noninvasive way that has previously not been available for assessment of diastolic filling and function. PMID:11356605
Functional assessment of the stenotic carotid artery by CFD-based pressure gradient evaluation.
Liu, Xin; Zhang, Heye; Ren, Lijie; Xiong, Huahua; Gao, Zhifan; Xu, Pengcheng; Huang, Wenhua; Wu, Wanqing
2016-09-01
The functional assessment of a hemodynamic significant stenosis base on blood pressure variation has been applied for evaluation of the myocardial ischemic event. This functional assessment shows great potential for improving the accuracy of the classification of the severity of carotid stenosis. To explore the value of grading the stenosis using a pressure gradient (PG)-we had reconstructed patient-specific carotid geometries based on MRI images-computational fluid dynamics were performed to analyze the PG in their stenotic arteries. Doppler ultrasound image data and the corresponding MRI image data of 19 patients with carotid stenosis were collected. Based on these, 31 stenotic carotid arterial geometries were reconstructed. A combinatorial boundary condition method was implemented for steady-state computer fluid dynamics simulations. Anatomic parameters, including tortuosity (T), the angle of bifurcation, and the cross-sectional area of the remaining lumen, were collected to investigate the effect on the pressure distribution. The PG is highly correlated with the severe stenosis (r = 0.902), whereas generally, the T and the angle of the bifurcation negatively correlate to the pressure drop of the internal carotid artery stenosis. The calculation required <10 min/case, which made it prepared for the fast diagnosis of the severe stenosis. According to the results, we had proposed a potential threshold value for distinguishing severe stenosis from mild-moderate stenosis (PG = 0.88). In conclusion, the PG could serve as the additional factor for improving the accuracy of grading the severity of the stenosis. PMID:27371686
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-11-01
We present results of large eddy simulation (LES) for a smooth-wall, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. We employ the stretched vortex sub-grid-scale model in the simulations augmented by a wall model. Our wall model is based on the virtual-wall model introduced by Chung & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech 2009). An essential component of their wall model is an ODE governing the local wall-normal velocity gradient obtained using inner-scaling ansatz. We test two variants of the wall model based on different similarity laws: one is based on a log-law and the other on a power-law. The specific form of the power law scaling utilized is that proposed by George & Castillo (Appl. Mech. Rev. 1997), dubbed the ``GC Law''. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated by a recycling method, and applying scaling laws corresponding to the two variants of the wall model, and a uniform way to determine the inlet friction velocity. For Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ , ranging from 104 to 1012 it is found that the velocity profiles generally follow the log law form rather than the power law. For large Reynolds number asymptotic behavior, LES based on different scaling laws the boundary layer thickness and turbulent intensities do not show much difference. Supported by a KAUST funded project on large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. The IBM Blue Gene P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
MEMS Biomimetic Acoustic Pressure Gradient Sensitive Structure for Sound Source Localization
An, Peng; Yuan, Weizheng; Ren, Sen
2009-01-01
The parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea shows an astonishing localization ability with its tiny hearing organ. A novel MEMS biomimetic acoustic pressure gradient sensitive structure was designed and fabricated by mimicking the mechanically coupled tympana of the fly. Firstly, the analytic representation formulas of the resultant force and resultant moment of the incoming plane wave acting on the structure were derived. After that, structure modal analysis was performed and the results show that the structure has out-of-phase and in-phase vibration modes, and the corresponding eigenfrequency is decided by the stiffness of vertical torsional beam and horizontal beam respectively. Acoustic-structural coupled analysis was performed and the results show that phase difference and amplitude difference between the responses of the two square diaphragms of the sensitive structure are effectively enlarged through mechanical coupling beam. The phase difference and amplitude difference increase with increasing incident angle and can be used to distinguish the direction of sound arrival. At last, the fabrication process and results of the device is also presented. PMID:22346718
Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Motamed, Pouyan K; Maftoon, Nima
2015-03-01
Aortic stenosis (AS), in which the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed, is the most common valvular heart disease. Cardiac catheterization is considered the reference standard for definitive evaluation of AS severity, based on instantaneous systolic value of transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). However, using invasive cardiac catheterization might carry high risks knowing that undergoing multiple cardiac catheterizations for follow-up in patients with AS is common. The objective of this study was to suggest an analytical description of the AS that estimates TPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. For this purpose, Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the elastic-deformation equation was solved analytically. The estimated TPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated against published in vivo and in vitro measurement data. Very good concordances were found between TPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vivo (maximum root mean square error: 3.8 mmHg) and in vitro (maximum root mean square error: 9.4 mmHg). The analytical description can be integrated to non-invasive imaging modalities to estimate AS severity as an alternative to cardiac catheterization to help preventing its risks in patients with AS. PMID:25682932
Staging of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis: The role of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement
Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong Joon
2015-01-01
Liver fibrosis is a common histological change of chronic liver injury and it is closely related with portal hypertension which is hemodynamic complication of chronic liver disease. Currently, liver fibrosis has been known as a reversible dynamic process in previous literatures. Although liver biopsy is a gold standard for assessing the stage of liver fibrosis, it may not completely represent the stage of liver fibrosis because of sampling error or semi-quantative measurement. Recent evidences suggested that histologic, clinical, hemodynamic, and biologic features are closely associated in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement has been known as a modality to evaluate the portal pressure. The HVPG measurement has been used clinically for fibrosis diagnosis, risk stratification, preoperative screening for liver resection, monitoring the efficacy of medical treatments, and assessing the prognosis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, the HVPG measurement can be used to monitor areas the chronic liver disease but also other important areas of chronic liver disease. PMID:25848485
Barenblatt, G. I.; Chorin, A. J.; Prostokishin, V. M.
2000-01-01
In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth flat plate with zero pressure gradient, the intermediate structure between the viscous sublayer and the free stream consists of two layers: one adjacent to the viscous sublayer and one adjacent to the free stream. When the level of turbulence in the free stream is low, the boundary between the two layers is sharp, and both have a self-similar structure described by Reynolds-number-dependent scaling (power) laws. This structure introduces two length scales: one—the wall-region thickness—determined by the sharp boundary between the two intermediate layers and the second determined by the condition that the velocity distribution in the first intermediate layer be the one common to all wall-bounded flows and in particular coincide with the scaling law previously determined for pipe flows. Using recent experimental data, we determine both these length scales and show that they are close. Our results disagree with the classical model of the “wake region.” PMID:10760253
Acoustic scattering by circular cylinders of various aspect ratios. [pressure gradient microphones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maciulaitis, A.
1979-01-01
The effects of acoustic scattering on the useful frequency range of pressure gradient microphones were investigated experimentally between ka values of 0.407 and 4.232 using two circular cylindrical models (L/D = 0.5 and 0.25) having a 25 cm outside diameter. Small condenser microphones, attached to preamplifiers by flexible connectors, were installed from inside the cylindrical bodies, and flush mounted on the exterior surface of the cylinders. A 38 cm diameter woofer in a large speaker enclosure was used as the sound source. Surface pressure augmentation and phase differences were computed from measured data for various sound wave incidence angles. Results are graphically compared with theoretical predictions supplied by NASA for ka = 0.407, 2.288, and 4.232. All other results are tabulated in the appendices. With minor exceptions, the experimentally determined pressure augmentations agreed within 0.75 dB with theoretical predictions. The agreement for relative phase angles was within 5 percent without any exceptions. Scattering parameter variations with ka and L/D ratio, as computed from experimental data, are also presented.
Mislevy, S.P.; Wang, T.
1996-10-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the thermal and momentum characteristics of a heated transitional boundary layer were investigated with free-stream turbulence ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 percent. Boundary layer measurements were conducted for two constant-K cases, K1 = {minus}0.51 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} and K2 = {minus}1.05 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. The fluctuation quantities, u{prime}, v{prime}, t{prime}, the Reynolds shear stress ({ovr uv}), and the Reynolds heat fluxes ({ovr vt} and {ovr ut}) were measured. In general, u{prime}/U{sub {infinity}}, v{prime}/U{sub {infinity}}, and {ovr vt} have higher values across the boundary layer for the adverse pressure-gradient cases than they do for the baseline case (K = 0). The development of v{prime} for the adverse pressure gradients was more actively involved than that of the baseline. In the early transition region, the Reynolds shear stress distribution for the K2 case showed a near-wall shear developed at Y{sup +} = 70. For the baseline case, however, the maximum turbulent shear in the transition region was generated at Y{sup +} = 70, and no near-wall high-shear region was seen. Stronger adverse pressure gradients appear to produce more uniform and higher t{prime} in the near-wall region (Y{sup +} < 20) in both transitional and turbulent boundary layers. The instantaneous velocity signals did not show any clear turbulent/nonturbulent demarcations in the transition region. Increasingly stronger adverse pressure gradients seemed to produce large nonturbulent unsteadiness (or instability waves) at a similar magnitude as the turbulent spots could not be identified visually or through conventional conditional-sampling schemes. In addition, the streamwise evolution of eddy viscosity, turbulent thermal diffusivity, and Pr{sub t} are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, W. C.
1973-01-01
The rms intensities of fluctuating mass flux and total temperature and their correlation coefficients are given for the case of an adiabatic, Mach 4, axisymmetric shock-wave boundary-layer interaction. Data were obtained upstream, within, and downstream of the interaction by the use of constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. Turbulence spectra and quantitative behavior from oscilloscope traces are shown at selected locations. The measurements indicate that certain frequencies of the turbulence are increased as a result of the interaction and that the mass flux and total temperature fluctuations remain highly correlated over most of the boundary layer throughout the interaction. The present data are also transformed to rms intensities of fluctuating static temperature and velocity and compared with existing data obtained in adiabatic flows.
Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas
Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.
2011-08-15
Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW{sup 2} of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW{sup 2}), are discussed in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Hong-Yee
1990-01-01
The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.
Topological Solitons in Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parsa, Zohreh
1979-01-01
A broad definition of solitons and a discussion of their role in physics is given. Vortices and magnetic monopoles which are examples of topological solitons in two and three spatial dimensions are described in some detail. (BB)
Anderson Localization of Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sacha, Krzysztof; Müller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2009-11-01
At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.
Anderson Localization of Solitons
Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Mueller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique
2009-11-20
At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.
Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G.; Sauer, P.; Richter, G.M.
2002-03-15
TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion.
Lorenzoni, A G; Anthony, N B; Wideman, R F
2008-01-01
Previous hemodynamic evaluations demonstrated that pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is higher in broilers that are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) than in broilers that are resistant to PHS. We compared key pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in broilers from PHS-susceptible and PHS-resistant lines (selected for 12 generations under hypobaric hypoxia) and in broilers from a relaxed (control) line. In experiment 1 the PAP was measured in male broilers in which a flow probe positioned on one pulmonary artery permitted the determination of cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The PAP and relative PVR were higher in susceptible broilers than in relaxed and resistant broilers, whereas absolute and relative cardiac output did not differ between lines. In experiment 2 male and female broilers from the 3 lines were catheterized to measure pressures in the wing vein, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary veins (WP, wedge pressure). The transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG) was calculated as (PAP-WP), with PAP quantifying precapillary pressure and WP approximating postcapillary pulmonary venous pressure. When compared with resistant and relaxed broilers, PAP values in susceptible broilers were > or =10 mmHg higher, TPG values were > or =8 mmHg higher, and WP values were < or =2 mmHg higher, regardless of sex. The combined hemodynamic criteria (elevated PAP and PVR combined with a proportionally elevated TPG) demonstrate that susceptibility to PHS can be attributed primarily to pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with increased precapillary (arteriole) resistance rather than to pulmonary venous hypertension caused by elevated postcapillary (venous and left atrial) resistance. PMID:18079461
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rovner, Aleksandr; Smith, Rebecca; Greenberg, Neil L.; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Smedira, Nicholas; Lever, Harry M.; Thomas, James D.; Garcia, Mario J.
2003-01-01
We sought to validate measurement of intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) and analyze their change in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) after ethanol septal reduction (ESR). Quantitative analysis of color M-mode Doppler (CMM) images may be used to estimate diastolic IVPG noninvasively. Noninvasive IVPG measurement was validated in 10 patients undergoing surgical myectomy. Echocardiograms were then analyzed in 19 patients at baseline and after ESR. Pulsed Doppler data through the mitral valve and pulmonary venous flow were obtained. CMM was used to obtain the flow propagation velocity (Vp) and to calculate IVPG off-line. Left atrial pressure was estimated with the use of previously validated Doppler equations. Data were compared before and after ESR. CMM-derived IVPG correlated well with invasive measurements obtained before and after surgical myectomy [r = 0.8, P < 0.01, Delta(CMM - invasive IVPG) = 0.09 +/- 0.45 mmHg]. ESR resulted in a decrease of resting LVOT systolic gradient from 62 +/- 10 to 29 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the Vp and IVPG (from 48 +/- 5to 74 +/- 7 cm/s and from 1.5 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.001 for both). Estimated left atrial pressure decreased from 16.2 +/- 1.1 to 11.5 +/- 0.9 mmHg (P < 0.001). The increase in IVPG correlated with the reduction in the LVOT gradient (r = 0.6, P < 0.01). Reduction of LVOT obstruction after ESR is associated with an improvement in diastolic suction force. Noninvasive measurements of IVPG may be used as an indicator of diastolic function improvement in HOCM.
Eisenbrey, John R.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Merton, Daniel A.; Miller, Cynthia; Gonzalez, José M.; Machado, Priscilla; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Chalek, Carl L.; Kim, Christopher E.; Baliff, Jeffrey P.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Brown, Daniel B.; Navarro, Victor
2013-01-01
Purpose: To compare subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) with pressure catheter–based measurements in human patients with chronic liver disease undergoing transjugular liver biopsy. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study had U.S. Food and Drug Administration and institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-five patients completed this study between December 2010 and December 2011. A clinical ultrasonography (US) scanner was modified to obtain SHAPE data. After transjugular liver biopsy with pressure measurements as part of the standard of care, 45 patients received an infusion of a microbubble US contrast agent and saline. During infusion, SHAPE data were collected from a portal and hepatic vein and were compared with invasive measurements. Correlations between data sets were determined by using the Pearson correlation coefficient, and statistical significance between groups was determined by using the Student t test. Results:- The 45 study patients included 27 men and 18 women (age range, 19–71 years; average age, 55.8 years). The SHAPE gradient between the portal and hepatic veins was in good overall agreement with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) (R = 0.82). Patients at increased risk for variceal hemorrhage (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg) had a significantly higher mean subharmonic gradient than patients with lower HVPGs (1.93 dB ± 0.61 [standard deviation] vs −1.47 dB ± 0.29, P < .001), with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81%, indicating that SHAPE may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of clinically important portal hypertension. Conclusion: Preliminary results show SHAPE to be an accurate noninvasive technique for estimating portal hypertension. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121769/-/DC1 PMID:23525208
Maimistov, Andrei I
2010-11-13
The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)
Perpendicular propagation of electromagnetic solitons in magnetized thermal pair plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verheest, Frank
2016-02-01
The properties of perpendicularly propagating large amplitude electromagnetic solitons are investigated in a thermal, magnetized pair plasma. To obtain a tractable description, these solitons are assumed to be charge neutral and have a linearly polarized magnetic field, and thus represent the nonlinear extension of part of the linear extraordinary mode. From a Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis it transpires that these solitons are compressive and characterized by a wave magnetic field parallel to the static field. The existence domain in compositional parameter space shows pressure-dependent maxima for the soliton velocities, densities and total magnetic field. Physically, an increase in pressure yields a decrease in the acceptable maxima. This is also illustrated on typical pseudopotential and soliton profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersen, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.
1975-01-01
The fluid mechanics of transpired incompressible turbulent boundary layers under zero and adverse pressure gradient conditions is investigated using an open-ended wind tunnel with a porous floor in the test section and a secondary air system for supply and metering of the transpiration air. All velocity profiles and turbulence profiles are obtained by linearized constant-temperature hot-wire anemometry. The wall shear stress is determined by measuring the shear stress away from the wall and extrapolating to the wall by integrating the boundary layer equations for the shear-stress profile. Equilibrium boundary layers are obtained when the transpiration velocity is varied such that the blowing parameter and the Clauser pressure gradient parameter are held constant. The experimental results obtained are presented in tabular and graphical forms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, J. H.
1990-01-01
The evolution of a low Re(sub theta) turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient (APG) is being studied for comparison with direct numerical simulations by Spalart. A short region of favorable pressure gradient (FPG) is applied first to establish a self preserving layer with Re(sub theta) equals approx. 600, which is a suitable initial condition for simulations. The APG is then applied rapidly such that beta equals approx. 2 at Re(sub theta) equals approx. 1500. The streamwise extent of the measurements exceeds the current capabilities of direct simulation so that the results should also serve as a useful data base for Reynolds averaged boundary layer prediction methods and in the future for direct simulation schemes as computer technology evolves.
Lao, L.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Strait, E.J.
1997-06-01
One of the major goals of advanced tokamak research is to develop plasma configurations with good confinement and improved stability at high {beta}. In DIII-D, various high performance configurations with H- and VH-mode edges have been produced. These include discharges with poloidal cross sections in the forms of dee and crecent shapes, single- and double-null divertors, and with various central magnetic shear profiles and current profile peakedness. All these discharges exhibit confinement in the outer plasma region which leads to a large edge pressure gradient and a large edge bootstrap current driven by this steep pressure gradient. These edge conditions often drive an instability near the edge region which can severely degrade the discharge performance. An understanding of this edge instability is essential to sustain an enhance discharge performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, Carlos I.; Corella-Madueño, A.; Reyes, J. Adrián
2008-01-01
We consider a capillary consisting of two coaxial cylinders whose core is filled with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) subjected to the simultaneous action of both a pressure gradient applied parallel to the axis of the cylinders and a radial low frequency electric field. We find the configuration of the director of the nematic, initially with an escaped-like configuration, for the flow aligning LC 4'-n -pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) by assuming hard anchoring hybrid boundary conditions. Also, we obtain the velocity profile parametrized by the electric field and the pressure gradient for nonslip boundary conditions. Finally, we calculate exactly the effective viscosity, the first normal stress difference, and the dragging forces on the cylinders. The results show an important electrorheological effect and a directional non-Newtonian response with regions of flow thinning and thickening.
Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Aram; Chung, Chin-Wook; Moon, Se Youn
2011-02-15
In industrial plasma processes, flow rate has been known to a key to control plasma processing results and has been discussed with reactive radical density, gas residence time, and surface reaction. In this study, it was observed that the increase in the flow rate can also change plasma parameters (electron temperature and plasma density) and electron energy distribution function in plasma processing reactor. Based on the measurement of gas pressure between the discharge region and the pumping port region, the considerable differences in the gas pressure between the two regions were found with increasing flow rate. It was also observed that even in the discharge region, the pressure gradient occurs at the high gas flow rate. This result shows that increasing the flow rate results in the pressure gradient and causes the changes in the plasma parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watmuff, J. H.
1990-02-01
The evolution of a low Re(sub theta) turbulent boundary layer in an adverse pressure gradient (APG) is being studied for comparison with direct numerical simulations by Spalart. A short region of favorable pressure gradient (FPG) is applied first to establish a self preserving layer with Re(sub theta) equals approx. 600, which is a suitable initial condition for simulations. The APG is then applied rapidly such that beta equals approx. 2 at Re(sub theta) equals approx. 1500. The streamwise extent of the measurements exceeds the current capabilities of direct simulation so that the results should also serve as a useful data base for Reynolds averaged boundary layer prediction methods and in the future for direct simulation schemes as computer technology evolves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Hyun-Gyu; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Won-Ho
2015-04-01
Response characteristics of the spectral element hydrostatic dynamical core on the cubed sphere to the global topographic forcing are investigated in terms of pressure gradient error, and it is compared with the spherical harmonics hydrostatic dynamical core. The vertical hybrid-pressure coordinate and finite difference method are introduced to both dynamical cores, and explicit and implicit hyper-diffusion schemes are applied to spectral element dynamical core and spherical harmonics dynamical core, respectively. The model atmosphere at initial time is set to the quiescent environment so that the term affecting on the time tendency of the momentum equation at the first time step is the pressure gradient term only which is influenced by the observed surface topography. During 6 days of time integration, the spurious flow is generated due to inaccurate numerical approximations of pressure gradient term for each dynamical core. High zonal wind speed which can be regarded as numerical error is occurred commonly in two dynamical cores around steep topography (e.g., the Tibetan Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Andes Mountains), but the maximum zonal wind speed at day 6 of spectral element dynamical core is 8-9 times larger than that of spherical harmonics dynamical core. The vertically averaged kinetic energy spectrum at day 6 shows very different trend between two dynamical cores. By performing the experiments with the scale-separated topography, it turns out that these kinetic energy spectrum trends are mainly caused by the small-scale topography. A simple change of pressure gradient term into log-pressure form is found to significantly reduce numerical error (up to 63% of maximum wind speed in case of spectral element dynamical core) and noise-like small-scale phenomena.
A wall-layer model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows with/out pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duprat, C.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Congedo, P. M.; Brugière, O.
2011-01-01
In this work, modeling of the near-wall region in turbulent flows is addressed. A new wall-layer model is proposed with the goal to perform high-Reynolds number large-eddy simulations of wall bounded flows in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model applies both in the viscous sublayer and in the inertial region, without any parameter to switch from one region to the other. An analytical expression for the velocity field as a function of the distance from the wall is derived from the simplified thin-boundary equations and by using a turbulent eddy coefficient with a damping function. This damping function relies on a modified van Driest formula to define the mixing-length taking into account the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient. The model is first validated by a priori comparisons with direct numerical simulation data of various flows with and without streamwise pressure gradient and with eventual flow separation. Large-eddy simulations are then performed using the present wall model as wall boundary condition. A plane channel flow and the flow over a periodic arrangement of hills are successively considered. The present model predictions are compared with those obtained using the wall models previously proposed by Spalding, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech 28, 243 (2008) and Manhart et al., Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 22, 243 (2008). It is shown that the new wall model allows for a good prediction of the mean velocity profile both with and without streamwise pressure gradient. It is shown than, conversely to the previous models, the present model is able to predict flow separation even when a very coarse grid is used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaofeng; Katz, Joseph
2014-11-01
Pressure related turbulence statistics of a 2D open cavity shear layer flow was investigated experimentally in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number of 40,000. Time-resolved PIV sampled at 4500 fps and a field of view of 25 × 25 mm was used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous velocity, material acceleration and pressure distributions. The pressure was obtained by spatially integrating the measured material acceleration. Results based on 150,000 measurement samples enable direct estimates of components of the pressure-rate-of-strain, pressure diffusion and velocity-pressure-gradient tensors. The pressure and streamwise velocity correlation changes its sign from negative values far upstream from the downstream corner to positive values near the corner due to the strong adverse pressure gradient imposed by the corner. Moreover, once its sign changes, the pressure-velocity correlation preserves its positive value for the streamwise correlations, and negative value for the spanwise correlations, even after the shear layer propagates beyond the adverse pressure gradient region along both the vertical and horizontal corner walls. The pressure diffusion term is of the same order as the production rate. In the shear layer, the streamwise pressure-rate-of-strain term, R11, is mostly negative while the perpendicular term, R22, is positive but with a smaller magnitude, implying turbulent energy redistribution from streamwise to lateral directions. Sponsored by ONR and NSF.
Atar, D; Ramanujam, P S; Saunamäki, K; Haunsø, S
1994-01-01
The aim of the study described here was to correlate coronary artery (CA) stenosis pressure gradients calculated by quantitative coronary arteriography (QCA) to invasively measured transstenotic pressure drops in patients with anginal symptoms and with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the known mathematical models are improved by introducing (1) pressure catheter-corrected minimal stenosis area, (2) modification of flow assumptions, and (3) stenosis exit angle. Included in the study were 45 patients with 61 stenoses. The visually estimated CA lesion severity in these non-complex stenoses was in the equivocal range of 40-70%. All measurements were performed after intracoronary administration of nifedipine and nitroglycerin. Stenosis dimensions were assessed from magnified cinefilms, using hand-held calipers. Highly significant overall correlation was found between measured and calculated pressure gradients with correction for the impact of the intracoronary catheter (P < 0.00001, r = 0.84). In particular, a substantial number of stenoses with haemodynamically-insignificant pressure gradients were identified by hydrodynamic calculations. In conclusion, the great majority of the coronary artery stenoses could be classified reliably by QCA as being haemodynamically insignificant or significant, respectively. PMID:8149707
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernholz, H. H.; Vagt, J.-D.
1981-10-01
Turbulence measurements, including the six components of the Reynolds-stress tensor, have been made along three generators of a circular cylinder with an elliptical nose cone. The pressure distribution was axisymmetric upstream and asymmetric downstream. The streamwise adverse pressure gradient led to almost zero skin friction in the direction of the limiting streamline, and the circumferential pressure gradient led to skew angles up to 30 deg in the vicinity of the wall. It is shown that the normal stresses and the shear stress component behave qualitatively much like those in a two-dimensional adverse pressure-gradient boundary layer. Mean velocity profiles obey the linear and logarithmic law of the wall known from two-dimensional boundary layers both along a line of symmetry and in the three-dimensional boundary layer. Finally, it has been found that the skew angle of the Reynolds shear stress vector leads the skew angle of the resultant velocity gradient, both having the opposite sign of the skew angle of the mean velocity vector, except close to the wall.
Preventing Damaging Pressure Gradients at the Walls of an Inflatable Space System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scialdone, John J.
2000-01-01
An inflatable structural system to deploy a space system such as a solar shield, an antenna or another similar instrument, requires a stiffening element after it is extended by the inflated gas pressure. The stiffening element has to be packaged in a folded configuration before the deployment. It must be relatively small, lightweight, non-damaging to the inflated system, and be able to become stiff in a short time. One stiffening method is to use a flexible material inserted in the deployable system, which, upon a temperature curing, can become stiff and is capable to support the entire structure. There are two conditions during the space operations when the inflated volume could be damaged: during the transonic region of the launch phase and when the curing of the rigidizing element occurs. In both cases, an excess of pressure within the volume containing the rigid element could burst the walls of the low-pressure gas inflated portion of the system. This paper investigates those two conditions and indicates the vents, which will prevent those damaging overpressures. Vent openings at the non-inflated volumes have been calculated for the conditions existing during the launch. Those vents allow the initially folded volume to exhaust the trapped atmospheric gas at approximately the same rate as the ambient pressure drops. That will prevent pressure gradients across the container walls which otherwise could be as high as 14.7 psi. The other condition occurring during the curing of the stiffening element has been investigated. This has required the testing of the element to obtain the gas generation during the curing and the transformation from a pliable material to a rigid one. The tested material is a composite graphite/epoxy weave. The outgassing of the uncured sample at 121C was carried with the Cahn Microbalance and with other outgassing facilities including the micro-CVCM ASTM E-595 facility. The tests provided the mass of gas evolved during the test. That data
Preventing Damaging Pressure Gradients at the Walls of an Inflatable Space System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scialdone, John J.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
An inflatable structural system to deploy a space system such as a solar shield, an antenna or another similar instrument requires a stiffening element after it is extended by the inflated gas pressure. The stiffening element has to be packaged in folded configuration before the deployment. It must be relatively small, lightweight, non-damaging to the inflated system and be able to become stiff in a short time. One stiffening method is to use a flexible material inserted in the deployable system, which, upon a temperature curing, can become stiff and is capable of supporting the entire structure. There are two conditions during the space operations when the inflated volume could be damaged: during the transonic region of the launch phase and when the curing of the rigidizing element occurs. In both cases, an excess of pressure within the volume containing the rigid element could burst the walls of the low-pressure gas inflated portion of the system. This paper investigates those two conditions and indicates the vents, which will prevent those damaging overpressures. Vent openings at the non-inflated volumes have been calculated for the conditions existing during the launch. Those vents allow the initially folded volume to exhaust the trapped atmospheric gas at approximately the same rate as the ambient pressure drops. That will prevent pressure gradients across the container walls which otherwise could be as high as 14.7 psi. The other condition occurring during the curing of the stiffening element has been investigated. This has required the testing of the element to obtain the gas generation during the curing and the transformation from a pliable material to a rigid on The tested material is a composite graphite/epoxy weave. The outgassing of the uncured sample at 121 deg Celcius was carried with the Cahn Microbalance and with other outgassing facilities including the micro-CVCM ASTM E-595 facility. The test provided the mass of gas evolved during the test. That
Scaling of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients is related to filling time duration.
Popović, Zoran B; Richards, Kathryn E; Greenberg, Neil L; Rovner, Aleksandr; Drinko, Jeannie; Cheng, Yuanna; Penn, Marc S; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Mal, Niladri; Levine, Benjamin D; Garcia, Mario J; Thomas, James D
2006-08-01
In early diastole, pressure is lower in the apex than in the base of the left ventricle (LV). This early intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) facilitates LV filling. We assessed how LV diastolic IVPD and intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG), defined as IVPD divided by length, scale to the heart size and other physiological variables. We studied 10 mice, 10 rats, 5 rabbits, 12 dogs, and 21 humans by echocardiography. Color Doppler M-mode data were postprocessed to reconstruct IVPD and IVPG. Normalized LV filling time was calculated by dividing filling time by RR interval. The relationship between IVPD, IVPG, normalized LV filling time, and LV end-diastolic volume (or mass) as fit to the general scaling equation Y = kM beta, where M is LV heart size parameter, Y is a dependent variable, k is a constant, and beta is the power of the scaling exponent. LV mass varied from 0.049 to 194 g, whereas end-diastolic volume varied from 0.011 to 149 ml. The beta values relating normalized LV filling time with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were 0.091 (SD 0.011) and 0.083 (SD 0.009), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). The beta values relating IVPD with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were similarly significant at 0.271 (SD 0.039) and 0.243 (SD 0.0361), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). Finally, beta values relating IVPG with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were -0.118 (SD 0.013) and -0.104 (SD 0.011), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). As a result, there was an inverse relationship between IVPG and normalized LV filling time (r = -0.65, P < 0.001). We conclude that IVPD decrease, while IVPG increase with decreasing animal size. High IVPG in small mammals may be an adaptive mechanism to short filling times. PMID:16679403
Dissipative solitons in pair-ion plasmas
Ghosh, Samiran; Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan
2014-01-15
The effects of ion-neutral collisions on the dynamics of the nonlinear ion acoustic wave in pair-ion plasma are investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a Korteweg-de Vries equation with a linear damping term for the dynamics of the finite amplitude wave. The ion-neutral collision induced dissipation is responsible for the linear damping. The analytical solution and numerical simulation reveal that the nonlinear wave propagates in the form of a weakly dissipative compressive solitons. Furthermore, the width of the soliton is proportional to the amplitude of the wave for fixed soliton velocity. Results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.
Statistical foundation of the fluid analogue of the soliton formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
A fully nonlinear analysis is used to develop a general soliton formalism for the description of the nonlinear evolution of soliton fluctuations in both plasmas and classical fluids. From the Navier-Stokes equations for plasmas and compressible fluids of two scales, two equations for the propagation of density waves are derived. A fast soliton field is spontaneously created by rarefaction, and a slow density wave modulates the field intensity as a ponderomotive force. Constitutive properties are demonstrated using a Lagrangian-kinetic formalism of the fluctuation-dissipation theory.
Multiple soliton production and the Korteweg-de Vries equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hershkowitz, N.; Romesser, T.; Montgomery, D.
1972-01-01
Compressive square-wave pulses are launched in a double-plasma device. Their evolution is interpreted according to the Korteweg-de Vries description of Washimi and Taniuti. Square-wave pulses are an excitation for which an explicit solution of the Schrodinger equation permits an analytical prediction of the number and amplitude of emergent solitons. Bursts of energetic particles (pseudowaves) appear above excitation voltages greater than an electron thermal energy, and may be mistaken for solitons.
Accessible solitons of fractional dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi
2016-05-01
We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons.
Quadratic spatial soliton interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankovic, Ladislav
Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO 3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multi-soliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multi-soliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multi-soliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the self-reflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a non-planar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajan, M. S. Mani
2016-08-01
In this manuscript, the ultrashort soliton pulse propagation through nonlinear tunneling in cubic quintic media is investigated. The effect of chirping on propagation characteristics of the soliton pulse is analytically investigated using similarity transformation. In particular, we investigate the propagation dynamics of ultrashort soliton pulse through dispersion barrier for both chirp and chirp-free soliton. By investigating the obtained soliton solution, we found that chirping has strong influence on soliton dynamics such as pulse compression with amplification. These two important dynamics of chirped soliton in cubic quintic media open new possibilities to improve the solitonic communication system. Moreover, we surprisingly observe that a dispersion well is formed for the chirped case whereas a barrier is formed for the chirp-free case, which has certain applications in the construction of logic gate devices to achieve ultrafast switching.
Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; de Sterke, C Martijn; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad
2016-01-01
Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758
Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C.; Sipe, J.E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad
2016-01-01
Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, De Sterke C.; Sipe, J. E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad
2016-01-01
Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers.
A skin friction law for compressible turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, Richard W.; Wahls, Richard A.
1989-01-01
An algebraic skin friction law is derived for adiabatic, compressible, equilibrium, turbulent boundary layer flow. An outer solution in terms of the Clauser defect stream function is matched to an inner empirical expression composed of compressible laws of the wall and wake. The modified Crocco temperature-velocity relationship and the Clauser eddy viscousity model are used in the outer solution. The skin friction law pertains for all pressure gradients in the incompressible through supersonic range and for small pressure gradients in the hypersonic range. Excellent comparisons with experiment are obtained in the appropriate parameter ranges. The application to numerical computation is discussed.
Multipole plasmonic lattice solitons
Kou Yao; Ye Fangwei; Chen Xianfeng
2011-09-15
We theoretically demonstrate a variety of multipole plasmonic lattice solitons, including dipoles, quadrupoles, and necklaces, in two-dimensional metallic nanowire arrays with Kerr-type nonlinearities. Such solitons feature complex internal structures with an ultracompact mode size approaching or smaller than one wavelength. Their mode sizes and the stability characteristics are studied in detail within the framework of coupled mode theory. The conditions to form and stabilize these highly confined solitons are within the experimentally achievable range.
Manciu, M.; Sen, S.; Hurd, A.J.
1999-04-12
The authors consider a chain of elastic (Hertzian) grains that repel upon contact according to the potential V = a{delta}{sup u}, u > 2, where {delta} is the overlap between the grains. They present numerical and analytical results to show that an impulse initiated at an end of a chain of Hertzian grains in contact eventually propagates as a soliton for all n > 2 and that no solitons are possible for n {le} 2. Unlike continuous, they find that colliding solitons in discrete media initiative multiple weak solitons at the point of crossing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Hong-Yee
1990-01-01
The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y. T.
1998-01-01
A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography following coordinates is proposed. It can be used in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily implemented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.
1996-01-01
The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dussauge, J. P.; Debieve, J. F.
1980-01-01
The amplification or reduction of unsteady velocity perturbations under the influence of strong flow acceleration or deceleration was studied. Supersonic flows with large velocity, pressure gradients, and the conditions in which the velocity fluctuations depend on the action of the average gradients of pressure and velocity rather than turbulence, are described. Results are analyzed statistically and interpreted as a return to laminar process. It is shown that this return to laminar implies negative values in the turbulence production terms for kinetic energy. A simple geometrical representation of the Reynolds stress production is given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, Julianne M.; Leonard, B. P.
1994-01-01
The modified mixing length (MML) turbulence model was installed in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code, then modified to make it applicable to a wider range of flows typical of aerospace propulsion applications. The modifications are based on experimental data for three flat-plate flows having zero, mild adverse, and strong adverse pressure gradients. Three transonic diffuser test cases were run with the new version of the model in order to evaluate its performance. All results are compared with experimental data and show improvements over calculations made using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, the standard algebraic model in Proteus.
Semirelativity and Kink Solitons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nowak, Mariusz Karol
2014-01-01
It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codina, Ramon; Blasco, Jordi; Buscaglia, Gustavo C.; Huerta, Antonio
2001-10-01
We discuss in this paper some implementation aspects of a finite element formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which allows the use of equal order velocity-pressure interpolations. The method consists in introducing the projection of the pressure gradient and adding the difference between the pressure Laplacian and the divergence of this new field to the incompressibility equation, both multiplied by suitable algorithmic parameters. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss how to deal with the new variable in the implementation of the algorithm. Obviously, it could be treated as one extra unknown, either explicitly or as a condensed variable. However, we take for granted that the only way for the algorithm to be efficient is to uncouple it from the velocity-pressure calculation in one way or another. Here we discuss some iterative schemes to perform this uncoupling of the pressure gradient projection (PGP) from the calculation of the velocity and the pressure, both for the stationary and the transient Navier-Stokes equations. In the first case, the strategies analyzed refer to the interaction of the linearization loop and the iterative segregation of the PGP, whereas in the second the main dilemma concerns the explicit or implicit treatment of the PGP. Copyright
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margason, Richard J.; Platzer, Max F.; Olson, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
One concept for high lift aerodynamics is the trapped-vortex. Recently it has been suggested that several spoilers located at different chordwise locations on an airfoil could be deployed to form several cavities in the chordwise direction. This may provide a means of increasing upper surface camber and thereby increase wing lift. It is envisioned that the cavities would be located on an airfoil in its pressure recovery region. Investigations of the effect of one or more cavities on the adjacent boundary layer in an adverse boundary layer were not found in a literature survey. Since flow separation can be caused by flow over cavities, boundary layer measurements were made in the vicinity of cavities which were located in an adverse pressure gradient to study the associated flow in an effort to identify any benefits. The experimental data from the present investigation indicate a minimal impact on the boundary layer profiles is caused by the presence of cavities in either a constant pressure freestream or an adverse pressure gradient. The data from the experimental investigation has been obtained and analyzed. The computational investigation using an incompressible Navier-Stokes code show that reasonable results are being obtained when they are compared with the experimental data.
Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.
2011-01-01
The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.
2011-12-01
We present a model that underscores the role played by the porous snow cover in sustaining large, rapid, dilute powder avalanches over weakly cohesive snow. The model attributes massive localized material injection into the avalanche head to synergistic pressure gradients established within the porous cover by the very static pressure field that this influx induces along the pack surface. Treating massive frontal snow entrainment as a source of fluid, we show that static pressure time-histories recorded at the Vallée de la Sionne (Switzerland) conform to the classical two-dimensional Rankine half-body flow field. We calculate pore pressure within the snow cover and, from the resulting pressure gradient, find stresses on a vertical failure plane. After inferring an upper bound for snow cohesion from pressure records, we derive a sufficient condition for steady failure that sets the depth through which the cover changes from porous solid to fluidized suspension. Fluidization of the top surface imposes another relation among maximum density, internal friction and cohesion of the pack, maximum cloud size and minimum avalanche speed. Altogether, these conditions dictate which snow covers can produce powder snow avalanches. We suggest how similar "eruption currents" sustained by massive frontal entrainment may be relevant to other fluid-particle suspensions.
Solitons in optomechanical arrays.
Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying
2016-06-15
We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261
Luo, Rui; Liang, Hanxiao; Lin, Qiang
2016-07-25
We show a new class of complex solitary wave that exists in a nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The cavity soliton consists of multiple soliton-like spectro-temporal components that exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, formed together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor cavity soliton shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which would be very useful for versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy. PMID:27464131
Ion-acoustic dressed solitons in a dusty plasma
Tiwari, R.S.; Mishra, M.K.
2006-06-15
Using the reductive perturbation method, equations for ion-acoustic waves governing the evolution of first- and second-order potentials in a dusty plasma including the dynamics of charged dust grains have been derived. The renormalization procedure of Kodama and Taniuti is used to obtain a steady state nonsecular solution of these equations. The variation of velocity and width of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) as well as dressed solitons with amplitude have been studied for different concentrations and charge multiplicity of dust grains. The higher-order perturbation corrections to the KdV soliton description significantly affect the characteristics of the solitons in dusty plasma. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains the system supports only compressive solitons. However, the plasma with negatively charged dust grains can support compressive solitons only up to a certain concentration of dust. Above this critical concentration of negative charge, the dusty plasma can support rarefactive solitons. An expression for the critical concentration of negatively charged dust in terms of charge and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions is also derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Momin A.; Mishra, M. K.
2016-01-01
The ion-acoustic solitons in collisionless plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, isothermal positrons, and two temperature distribution of electrons have been studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), the modified K-dV (m-KdV), and Gardner equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the Gardner equation is discussed in detail. It is found that for a given set of parameter values, there exists a critical value of β=Tc/Th, (ratio of cold to hot electron temperature) below which only rarefactive KdV solitons exist and above it compressive KdV solitons exist. At the critical value of β, both compressive and rarefactive m-KdV solitons co-exist. We have also investigated the soliton in the parametric regime where the KdV equation is not valid to study soliton solution. In this region, it is found that below the critical concentration the system supports rarefactive Gardner solitons and above it compressive Gardner solitons are found. The effects of temperature ratio of two-electron species, cold electron concentration, positron concentration on the characteristics of solitons are also discussed.
Underwing compression vortex attenuation device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, James C., Jr. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A vortex attenuation device is presented which dissipates a lift-induced vortex generated by a lifting aircraft wing. The device consists of a positive pressure gradient producing means in the form of a compression panel attached to the lower surface of the wing and facing perpendicular to the airflow across the wing. The panel is located between the midpoint of the local wing cord and the trailing edge in the chord-wise direction and at a point which is approximately 55 percent of the wing span as measured from the fuselage center line in the spanwise direction. When deployed in flight, this panel produces a positive pressure gradient aligned with the final roll-up of the total vortex system which interrupts the axial flow in the vortex core and causes the vortex to collapse.
Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma solitons and rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Sun, Ya; Chai, Jun; Jiang, Yan
2016-03-01
Dispersion varying fibres have applications in optical pulse compression techniques. We investigate Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma (KM) solitons and optical rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fibre based on a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Analytical solutions in the forms of Akhmediev breathers, KM solitons and rogue waves up to the second order of that equation are obtained via the generalised Darboux transformation and integrable constraint. The properties of Akhmediev breathers, KM solitons and rogue waves in a dispersion varying optical fibre, e.g. dispersion decreasing fibre (DDF) or a periodically distributed system (PDS), are discussed: in a DDF we observe the compression behaviours of KM solitons and rogue waves on a monotonically increasing background. The amplitude of each peak of the KM soliton increases, while the width of each peak of the KM soliton gradually decreases along the propagation distance; in a PDS, the amplitude of each peak of the KM soliton varies periodically along the propagation distance on a periodic background. Different from the KM soliton, the Akhmediev breather and rogue waves repeat their behaviours along the propagation distance without the compression.
Probe-controlled soliton frequency shift in the regime of optical event horizon.
Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong
2015-08-24
In optical analogy of the event horizon, temporal pulse collision and mutual interactions are mainly between an intense solitary wave (soliton) and a dispersive probe wave. In such a regime, here we numerically investigate the probe-controlled soliton frequency shift as well as the soliton self-compression. In particular, in the dispersion landscape with multiple zero dispersion wavelengths, bi-directional soliton spectral tunneling effects is possible. Moreover, we propose a mid-infrared soliton self-compression to the generation of few-cycle ultrashort pulses, in a bulk of quadratic nonlinear crystals in contrast to optical fibers or cubic nonlinear media, which could contribute to the community with a simple and flexible method to experimental implementations. PMID:26368200
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.; Akhmediev, N.
1996-12-01
The Manakov soliton is a two-component soliton that was first considered by Manakov in the early 1970s.1 Based on the work of Zakharov and Shabat,2 Manakov found that the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (CNSE) equations with special choice of the coefficients in front of nonlinear terms can be solved exactly. This system is integrable and solitons have therefore a number of special properties which might be useful in practice. In particular, for same total power, the soliton of a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Manakov soliton behave similarly. There are certain conditions for the integrability of the CNSE. Namely, for the coupled set of equations with cubic nonlinearity, the ratio between the self-phase modulation (SPM) to the cross-phase modulation coefficients has to be equal to unity, and the SPM coefficients need to be equal for the two polarizations. Moreover, the energy exchange terms or four-wave mixing (FWM) terms must be zero. Physically, the Manakov soliton is a mutually trapped state of two orthogonally polarized beams where each component of the soliton experiences exactly the same index potential which is proportional to the total intensity of the beam. There are no crystal symmetries that a priori lead to a SPM/XPM ratio of unity. Thus, the Manakov soliton has not been observed experimentally prior to the work we reported.3 Based on our previous work, we found that in AlGaAs, for photon energies just below half the band gap, the conditions for integrability can be satisfied. This led to the first experimental observation of spatial Manakov solitons.
The electrical soliton oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricketts, David Shawn
Solitons are a special class of pulse-shaped waves that propagate in nonlinear dispersive media while maintaining their spatial confinement. They are found throughout nature where the proper balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is achieved. Examples of the soliton phenomena include shallow water waves, vibrations in a nonlinear spring-mass lattice, acoustic waves in plasma, and optical pulses in fiber optic cable. In electronics, the nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) serves as a nonlinear dispersive medium that propagates voltage solitons. Electrical solitons on the NLTL have been actively investigated over the last 40 years, particularly in the microwave domain, for sharp pulse generation applications and for high-speed RF and microwave sampling applications. In these past studies the NLTL has been predominantly used as a 2-port system where a high-frequency input is required to generate a sharp soliton output through a transient process. One meaningful extension of the past 2-port NLTL works would be to construct a 1-port self-sustained electrical soliton oscillator by properly combining the NLTL with an amplifier (positive active feedback). Such an oscillator would self-start by growing from ambient noise to produce a train of periodic soliton pulses in steady-state, and hence would make a self-contained soliton generator not requiring an external high-frequency input. While such a circuit may offer a new direction in the field of electrical pulse generation, there has not been a robust electrical soliton oscillator reported to date to the best of our knowledge. In this thesis we introduce the first robust electrical soliton oscillator, which is able to self-generate a stable, periodic train of electrical solitons. This new oscillator is made possible by combining the NLTL with a unique nonlinear amplifier that is able to "tame" the unruly dynamics of the NLTL. The principle contribution of this thesis is the identification of the key instability
Carr, L.D.; Brand, J.
2004-09-01
It is shown that simultaneously changing the scattering length of an elongated, harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate from positive to negative and inverting the axial portion of the trap, so that it becomes expulsive, results in a train of self-coherent solitonic pulses. Each pulse is itself a nondispersive attractive Bose-Einstein condensate that rapidly self-cools. The axial trap functions as a waveguide. The solitons can be made robustly stable with the right choice of trap geometry, number of atoms, and interaction strength. Theoretical and numerical evidence suggests that such a pulsed atomic soliton laser can be made in present experiments.
Solitons and ionospheric modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.
1982-01-01
The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.
Coherent soliton communication lines
Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.
2014-11-15
The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.
Federspiel, L.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.
2009-09-15
The existence of a critical pressure gradient needed to drive the interchange instability is experimentally demonstrated in the simple magnetized torus TORoidal Plasma EXperiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. This gradient is reached during a scan in the neutral gas pressure p{sub n}. Around a critical value for p{sub n}, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the injected rf power, a small increase in the neutral gas pressure triggers a transition in the plasma behavior. The pressure profile is locally flattened, stabilizing the interchange mode observed at lower neutral gas densities. The measured value for the critical gradient is close to the linear theory estimate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houdeville, R.; Cousteix, J.
1979-01-01
The development of a turbulent unsteady boundary layer with a mean pressure gradient strong enough to induce separation, in order to complete the extend results obtained for the flat plate configuration is presented. The longitudinal component of the velocity is measured using constant temperature hot wire anemometer. The region where negative velocities exist is investigated with a laser Doppler velocimeter system with BRAGG cells. The boundary layer responds by forced pulsation to the perturbation of potential flow. The unsteady effects observed are very important. The average location of the zero skin friction point moves periodically at the perturbation frequency. Average velocity profiles from different instants in the cycle are compared. The existence of a logarithmic region enables a simple calculation of the maximum phase shift of the velocity in the boundary layer. An attempt of calculation by an integral method of boundary layer development is presented, up to the point where reverse flow starts appearing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, R. L.
1984-01-01
Experimental data were obtained on blade self-noise generation by strong adverse-pressure-gradient attached boundary layers and by separated turbulent boundary layers that accompany stall. Two microphones were calibrated, placed in plastic housing, and installed in a wind tunnel where observations of acoustic and turbulent signals permitted decomposition of the surface pressure fluctuation signals into the propagated acoustic part and the turbulent-flow generated portion. To determine the convective wave speed of the turbulent contributions, the microphones were spaced a small distance apart in the streamwise direction and correlations were obtained. The turbulent surface pressure spectra upstream of detachment and downstream of the beginning of separation are discussed as well as measurements of turbulent velocity spectra and wavespeeds.
Ryugo, Masahiro; Mouri, Norio; Kurita, Shigeaki; Hara, Kazunobu; Tagaya, Masashi
2015-06-01
A 77-year-old male patient with 2-vessel coronary artery disease and previous myocardial infarction underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Following systemic heparinization, cardiopulmonary bypass using heparin coated circuit was started. Ten minutes after starting the cardiopulmonary bypass, the trans-oxygenerator pressure gradient rapidly increased accompanied by a rapid decrease of platelet counts. Emergency replacement of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with a non-heparin coated one was performed because the development of heparin induced thrombocytepenia (HIT) was strongly suspected. On-pump CABG was accomplished as planned, and the postoperative course was uneventful. HIT might be ruled out as HIT specific antibodies were not detected in the intraoperative serum samples. PMID:26066875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campitelli, Gennaro
The study of transitional flows is considered crucial for many practical engineering applications. In fact, a comprehensive understanding of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon often helps to improve the overall performance of apparatuses such as airfoils, wind turbines, hulls and turbomachinery blades. In addition to understanding and prediction of transitional flows, active research continues in the area of boundary layer control, which includes control of phenomena such as flow separation and transition. For instance, optimum geometrical shaping may be followed by the adoption on the wall-surface of riblets to adjust pressure gradient and reduce drag. Further "flow control" may also be acquired by introducing active devices able to modify the flow field in order to accomplish a desired aerodynamic task. Such flow manipulation is often achieved by using time-dependent forcing mechanisms which promote natural instabilities amplifying the control effectiveness. Localized energy inputs such as Lorentz-force actuator, piezoelectric flaps and synthetic jets all produce a consistent boundary layer mixing enhancement with lift increase and drag abatement. The current numerical study attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of dynamic roughness (DR) on altering separated-reattached transitional flows under adverse pressure gradient. It has already been proven how DR, acting on the boundary sublayer perturbation, is able to suppress (partially or completely) the typical leading edge separation for an airfoil at different angles of attack. This makes DR particularly suitable for separated flow control applications where the shear layer reattaches presenting the characteristic laminar separation bubble. A numerical sensitivity study has been conducted with an efficient orthogonal design taking into account four different control parameters on three levels (actuation frequency, humps height, rows displacement, synchronization) to provide an optimum DR setup which limits
Temporal dark polariton solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.
2016-04-01
We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid dark and anti-dark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while anti-dark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside forbidden frequency gap of the linear system.
Temporal dark polariton solitons.
Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Skryabin, Dmitry V
2016-04-15
We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid-dark and antidark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group-velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while antidark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside the forbidden frequency gap of the linear system. PMID:27082338
Boehm, M.; Mitschke, F.
2007-12-15
We consider the evolution of fiber-optic solitons in the presence of dissipation. Even very low loss ultimately leads to their decay. We derive an explicit expression for the limit of adiabaticity, and discuss the evolution beyond this limit. In determining the soliton content of the optical pulse, we contrast earlier approaches using inverse scattering with a soliton-radiation beat method. It turns out that the evolution beyond adiabaticity is governed by uncertainty, which earlier published studies had missed. Somewhat in analogy to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, we derive a soliton uncertainty relation. We also give simple relations for the evolution of the pulse width which reproduce numerical studies very well.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
Linearized analysis for compressible laminar boundary layers by ECVL technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soong, Chyi-Yeou
1987-04-01
The effective convective velocity linearization (ECVL) technique of Soong (1984) is applied to simplify the equations for steady two-dimensional compressible laminar boundary-layer flow of a perfect gas with constant Prandtl number and specific heat. The derivation of the linearized momentum equation is explained, and numerical results for zero-pressure-gradient and pressure-gradient flows are presented graphically and compared with experimental measurements and analytical results obtained with other approaches. The accuracy and simplicity of the ECVL method are demonstrated, and its practical applicability is indicated.
Ion-acoustic solitons in negative ion plasma with two-electron temperature distributions
Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Chawla, J. K.
2012-06-15
Ion-acoustic solitons in a warm positive and negative ion species with different masses, concentrations, and charge states with two electron temperature distributions are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) and modified-KdV (m-KdV) equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the KdV and m-KdV equations is discussed in detail. It is found that if the ions have finite temperatures, then there exist two types of modes, namely slow and fast ion-acoustic modes. It is also investigated that the parameter determining the nature of soliton (i.e., whether the system will support compressive or rarefactive solitons) is different for slow and fast modes. For the slow mode, the parameter is the relative temperature of the two ion species; whereas for the fast mode, it is the relative concentration of the two ion species. At a critical concentration of negative ions, both compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist. The amplitude and width of the solitons are discussed in detail at critical concentration for m-KdV solitons. The effect of the relative temperature of the two-electron and cold-electron concentration on the characteristics of the solitons are also discussed.
Zhong, Xianqiong; Du, Xiantong; Cheng, Ke
2015-11-16
We numerically simulate the propagation of finite energy Airy pulses in optical fibers with cubic-quintic nonlinearity and analyze the effects of quintic nonlinear parameters and soliton order number on their evolution properties. The soliton pulses are observed, whose peak amplitudes and corresponding temporal positions will vary with the propagation distance. Depending on different quintic nonlinearity parameters and soliton order number, the soliton pulse temporal positions exhibit weak decayed oscillations and then nearly linearly shift to leading or trailing edge of the Airy wavepacket, or tend to fixed positions, and the peak amplitudes also exhibit decayed oscillations but with different oscillation amplitude and central values. For large soliton order number, the soliton pulses are considerably compressed. Other weak dispersive wave pulses will appear near the main soliton pulses and gradually depart from the main soliton pulses. In the case of small soliton order, despite their considerable energy attenuation, the main lobes and even minority of the neighboring side lobes of the Airy pulses can still recover from the energy transfer to the soliton pulses and the dispersive wave pulses and maintain their unique properties of self-healing and self-acceleration in time for a very long distance. In the case of large soliton order, however, the Airy wavepacket only remains its very weak background and even disappears quickly. PMID:26698430
Mathematical frontiers in optical solitons
Bronski, Jared C.; Segev, Mordechai; Weinstein, Michael I.
2001-01-01
Solitons are localized concentrations of field energy, resulting from a balance of dispersive and nonlinear effects. They are ubiquitous in the natural sciences. In recent years optical solitons have arisen in new and exciting contexts that differ in many ways from the original context of coherent propagation in a uniform medium. We review recent developments in incoherent spatial solitons and in gap solitons in periodic structures. PMID:11687646
Noncommuting Momenta of Topological Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Haruki; Murayama, Hitoshi
2014-05-01
We show that momentum operators of a topological soliton may not commute among themselves when the soliton is associated with the second cohomology H2 of the target space. The commutation relation is proportional to the winding number, taking a constant value within each topological sector. The noncommutativity makes it impossible to specify the momentum of a topological soliton, and induces a Magnus force.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim
2013-01-01
Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zängl, G.
2003-01-01
Idealized numerical simulations are performed to investigate dynamical mechanisms affecting the persistence of cold-air pools in basins and valleys. The first orography type considered is a shallow elongated basin located upstream of a mountain ridge. For sensitivity tests, the mountain ridge is removed. The second type is a basin embedded in a plateau-like mountain ridge. In part of the simulations, this basin has an outflow towards the lee-side plain so as to assess the impact of the drainage flow.The large-scale flow is taken to be in geostrophic balance. In the standard setting, it is perpendicular to the basin and the ridge. The main effect of a large-scale pressure gradient is to induce a circulation within a cold-air pool until the upper boundary of the cold pool is inclined such as to compensate for the ambient pressure gradient. The cold air accumulates where the ambient pressure is lowest. For a shallow basin, this means that part of the cold air may be lost due to advection out of the basin. The upstream influence of a mountain ridge in the lee of a shallow basin is found to be twofold. It tends to deflect the low-level flow towards the lower pressure, leading to an additional ridge-parallel force on the cold-air pool. On the other hand, the absolute wind speed is reduced, diminishing the turbulent mixing near the top of the cold pool. The simulations show that the first effect prevails for ridge-normal flow while second effect may dominate for other flow directions. Drainage flow out of a valley is found to be very important as it promotes the penetration of warm air into valleys very effectively. It may cause a cold pool in a deep valley to disappear more quickly than a cold pool in a shallow basin. Sensitivity tests show that the persistence of a cold pool depends on its depth, on its vertically integrated heat deficit, and on the maximum heat deficit at the bottom of the cold pool.
Chua, Gim Chuah; Snowden, Sue; Patel, Uday
2004-11-15
Significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) results in an intraarterial pressure gradient and increasing graft dysfunction correctable by endovascular therapy. Kinks of the transplant artery cause velocity gradients on Doppler ultrasound, but some will have no intraarterial pressure gradient across the kink. It is not known whether these nonflow limiting kinks progress further to threaten graft function and should undergo endovascular correction. This is a longitudinal study of conservatively managed arterial kinks to define their natural history. Fourteen patients who had undergone angiography over a 5-year period for suspected TRAS had kinks of the renal artery. True intraarterial pressures were measured in all cases by slow withdrawal of an end-hole catheter after intraarterial injection of a vasodilator. Those with a significant pressure change ({>=}10% change in peak systolic pressure across the area of suspicion) underwent endovascular treatment. The rest were managed conservatively, with maximal antihypertensive therapy. Outcome of all 14 cases was determined by follow-up of creatinine levels, blood pressure (BP) control and graft outcome over a 3-5-year period (median 4 years). Of the 14 patients with kinks, 10 were male and 4 female; age range 23-67 years (mean 47 years). Eleven had received cadaveric transplants and 3 were allografts; 12 had end-to-side and 2 end-to-end anastomosis, 11/14 cases had an intraarterial pressure ratio of <10% and at median 4 years follow-up on conservative treatment, the serum creatinine of these 11 patients did not differ significantly from those who underwent successful endovascular treatment (mean 118 {mu}mol/l versus 149 {mu}mol/l; p = 0.30, Mann Whitney test). Mean blood pressure was 137/82 mmHg, with a range of 124-155/56-95 mmHg. Only one patient has required an unexplainable increase in antihypertensive medication. Grafts (2/11) were lost and both had chronic rejection on histology. There were no unexplained
Dark solitons at nonlinear interfaces.
Sánchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S
2010-05-01
The refraction of dark solitons at a planar boundary separating two defocusing Kerr media is simulated and analyzed, for the first time (to our knowledge). Analysis is based on the nonlinear Helmholtz equation and is thus valid for any angle of incidence. A new law, governing refraction of black solitons, is combined with one describing bright soliton refraction to yield a generalized Snell's law whose validity is verified numerically. The complexity of gray soliton refraction is also analyzed, and illustrated by a change from external to internal refraction on varying the soliton contrast parameter. PMID:20436564
Timing jitter of Raman solitons.
Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing
2015-11-01
We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichikawa, Yoshi H.
1990-08-01
The present discussion of the structure of soliton equations and dynamics of low-dimensional Hamiltonian nonlinear plasma systems emphasizes the universality of solitonic and chaotic concepts for other branches of physical research and engineering applications. Attention is given to the significance of the inverse-scattering transformation for the KdV equation in soliton-phenomena studies, as well as to the multidimensional behavior of solitons and their Alfvenic and optical-fiber types. An account is given of the development status of computational physics and integrable mapping methodologies applicable to solitonic plasma phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Back, L.; Cuffel, R.
1982-01-01
An experimental study of wall static pressure distributions and mean velocity profiles along a duct and diffuser downstream of wall-jet injection was conducted over a range of diffuser total angles from 15 to 40 deg at injection to core flow mass flux ratios from 0 to 6. Pressure recovery in the diffuser increased with injection ratio and decreased with diffuser total angle. Peak velocities in the wall-jet decayed along the flow and the inner shear layer and outer mixing region grew in thickness along the flow. The inner layer was near similarity condition, but non-similar variations were found in the outer layer. Estimated wall shear stresses depended upon injection mass fluxes, downstream distance and diffuser total angle. Greater decay of peak velocity and larger friction coefficients were found in the diffuser than indicated by correlations from data for a wall-jet without a pressure gradient. At the largest diffuser total angle and the highest injection ratio flow reversal occurred in the core region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, Spahr C.; Barclay, Andrew H.
2016-04-01
Ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data, particularly from sites in shallow water are notoriously noisy. Ocean currents generate forces on an unshielded OBS sensor causing time varying tilt that greatly raises noise levels. Shallow burial can mitigate this source of noise, but is expensive and difficult to accomplish, particularly for large fleets of instruments. Large shields can provide significant reduction in noise levels as demonstrated with Cascadia Array OBS data. A recent test deployment investigated the relative motion of the shield and the sensor within the shield, providing guidance on the effectiveness of shielding. Even with shielding or burial, deformation of the seafloor caused by loading by the ocean waves raises seismic noise levels. We have previously shown the vertical component noise can be reduced using data from pressure sensors to predict the vertical deformation and remove it from the vertical record. We recently deployed a new OBS instrument in shallow water (80m) that measured two horizontal components of pressure gradient and show these data can be used to reduce wave induced deformation noise from horizontal component seismic data.
Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana
2014-01-01
Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension. PMID:24748150
Kornuta, Jeffrey A.; Dixon, J. Brandon
2015-01-01
In addition to external forces, collecting lymphatic vessels intrinsically contract to transport lymph from the extremities to the venous circulation. As a result, the lymphatic endothelium is routinely exposed to a wide range of dynamic mechanical forces, primarily fluid shear stress and circumferential stress, which have both been shown to affect lymphatic pumping activity. Although various ex-vivo perfusion systems exist to study this innate pumping activity in response to mechanical stimuli, none are capable of independently controlling the two primary mechanical forces affecting lymphatic contractility: transaxial pressure gradient, ΔP, which governs fluid shear stress; and average transmural pressure, Pavg, which governs circumferential stress. Hence, the authors describe a novel ex-vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling these two outputs using a linear, explicit model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. The ELPS is capable of reproducing arbitrary waveforms within the frequency range observed in the lymphatics in vivo, including a time-varying ΔP with a constant Pavg, time-varying ΔP and Pavg, and a constant ΔP with a time-varying Pavg. In addition, due to its implementation of syringes to actuate the working fluid, a post-hoc method of estimating both the flow rate through the vessel and fluid wall shear stress over multiple, long (5 sec) time windows is also described. PMID:24809724
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salcedo-Castro, Julio; de Camargo, Ricardo; Marone, Eduardo; Sepúlveda, Héctor H.
2015-09-01
A new methodology is proposed to estimate the strength of the South Atlantic Anticyclone (SAA), using the gridded sea level pressure (SLP) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data. The top quartile (1017.3 hPa) of the SLP data was found a reasonable criterion to delimit the SAA area. Consequently, we defined the SAA area as the quadrangle containing 80% of the observations with pressure >1017.3 hPa. In this quadrangle, an area weighted pressure gradient (AWPG) was computed for the whole area and for the north-south and west-east halves. When compared with maximum pressure, the AWPG showed a better correlation with the significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed (WS) derived from altimetry. The mean value of the AWPG was 8 × 10-4 Pa/m, with representative values of 9.1 × 10-4 Pa/m and 7.4 × 10-4 Pa/m for austral winter and summer, respectively. The phase difference between the monthly AWPG in the north and south sub-quadrangles accounts for the evolution of the spatial pattern of the anticyclone throughout a year. This quantitative approach proved to be a useful estimate of the strength of South Atlantic Anticyclone. Further improvements of this approach are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Bo-Ning; Liu, Qi-Guo
2013-06-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for the analysis of the transient pressure behaviour of a horizontal well in naturally fractured low permeability reservoirs, which takes the threshold pressure gradient (TPG) into consideration. Then, the solution of this model is obtained by using the method of Laplace transform and Fourier cosine transform, and the type curves are plotted by the Stehfest numerical inversion method. Pressure behaviour is analysed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots and the effect of the characteristic parameters. The typical pressure response of this reservoir is presented by the following five flow regimes: (1) wellbore storage and transition flow; (2) early radial flow in the vertical plane; (3) line flow in the horizontal plane; (4) matrix-fracture system transition flow; and (5) later pseudo-radial flow affected by the TPG. At the end, a field application manifests the correctness of the solutions derived in this paper, and the results have both theoretical and practical significance in predicting the production behaviour of carbonate reservoirs and evaluating fluid flow and transport in such a formation.
Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.
2016-01-01
Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process. PMID:27503562
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.
2016-08-01
Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.
Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Terragni, F; Birnir, B
2016-01-01
Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process. PMID:27503562
Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A
2014-01-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645
Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.
2014-01-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645
Classically spinning and isospinning solitons
Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike
2012-09-26
We investigate classically spinning topological solitons in (2+1)- and (3+1)-dimensional models; more explicitely spinning sigma model solitons in 2+1 dimensions and Skyrme solitons in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. For example, such types of solitons can be used to describe quasiparticle excitations in ferromagnetic quantum Hall systems or to model spin and isospin states of nuclei. The standard way to obtain solitons with quantised spin and isospin is the semiclassical quantization procedure: One parametrizes the zero-mode space - the space of energy-degenerate soliton configurations generated from a single soliton by spatial translations and rotations in space and isospace - by collective coordinates which are then taken to be time-dependent. This gives rise to additional dynamical terms in the Hamiltonian which can then be quantized following semiclassical quantization rules. A simplification which is often made in the literature is to apply a simple adiabatic approximation to the (iso)rotational zero modes of the soliton by assuming that the soliton's shape is rotational frequency independent. Our numerical results on classically spinning arbitrarily deforming soliton solutions clearly show that soliton deformation cannot be ignored.
Defect solitons in photonic lattices.
Yang, Jianke; Chen, Zhigang
2006-02-01
Nonlinear defect modes (defect solitons) and their stability in one-dimensional photonic lattices with focusing saturable nonlinearity are investigated. It is shown that defect solitons bifurcate out from every infinitesimal linear defect mode. Low-power defect solitons are linearly stable in lower bandgaps but unstable in higher bandgaps. At higher powers, defect solitons become unstable in attractive defects, but can remain stable in repulsive defects. Furthermore, for high-power solitons in attractive defects, we found a type of Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) instability which is different from the usual VK instability based on the sign of the slope in the power curve. Lastly, we demonstrate that in each bandgap, in addition to defect solitons which bifurcate from linear defect modes, there is also an infinite family of other defect solitons which can be stable in certain parameter regimes. PMID:16605473
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, Sarada Gangadharan
In this dissertation we study the soliton models of baryons originally proposed by Skyrme. Baryons are interpreted in the naive quark model as bound states of three quarks. Here, we interpret them as solitonic bound states of mesons. This is natural in Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. The low energy properties of chromodynamics are well accounted for by the chiral model. The Wess-Zumino anomaly plays a crucial role in this model. A derivation within the canonical formulation of the Wess-Zumino is given. It is shown that the anomaly leads to a modification of the current algebra. An operator that creates solitonic states out of the vacuum is constructed. It is shown that this operator is fermionic if the number of colors is odd. The Wess -Zumino anomaly is shown to be responsible for this fact. The anomaly is studied in detail in the simpler context of a two dimensional theory. The operator creating solitons is constructed and its equations of motion are found. This model has an infinite number of conserved charges satisfying a Kac-Moody algebra. A derivation of the Wess-Zumino anomaly starting from Quantum Chromodynamics is given. Further the Skyrme constant is calculated, within certain approximations. This enables us to calculate the mass of the soliton and it agrees with the baryon mass to 20%. The constants D and F that couple the baryons to mesons are also computed. They also agree to about 20%. Thus the identification of baryons as solitons of the chiral model is established.
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-05-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yangbao; Deng, Shuguang; Tan, Chao; Xiong, Cuixiu; Zhang, Guangfu; Tian, Ye
2016-05-01
When a temporal soliton propagates in the inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with Scarff II parity-time (PT)-symmetric potential, we investigate the propagation characteristics of a temporal soliton based on intensity moments. Under the condition of Scarff II PT-symmetric potential, the propagation characteristics of a temporal soliton are affected by the dispersion coefficient, nonlinear coefficient and chirp. After a detailed analysis of the intensity evolution and the second-order intensity moment parameter, we find that the intensity and pulse width (PW) of a chirped-free temporal soliton are invariant during nonlinear propagation when the dispersion coefficients are the constant, exponential decreasing function and periodic modulated function, respectively. The intensity and PW of a chirped temporal soliton vary periodically when the dispersion coefficient is a periodic modulated function. So the chirp has no effect on propagation behavior of a temporal soliton. When the dispersion coefficients are the constant or exponential decreasing function, the intensity of a chirped temporal soliton is gradually increased, while the PW of a chirped temporal soliton is gradually decreased. Thus the temporal soliton is compressed and the chirp has a great effect on the propagation behavior of a temporal soliton. The results will be helpful to manipulation of nonlinear propagation of the laser pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tichenor, Nathan Ryan
High-speed high Reynolds number boundary layer flows with mechanical non-equilibrium effects have numerous practical applications; examples include access-to-space ascent, re-entry and descent, and military hypersonic systems. However, many of the basic turbulent flow processes in this regime are poorly understood and are beyond the realm of modern direct numerical simulations Previous studies have shown that curvature driven pressure gradients significantly alter the state of the turbulence in high-speed boundary layers; the turbulence levels have been shown to decrease by large amounts (up to 100%) and the Reynolds shear stress has been shown to change sign. However, most of our understanding is based on point measurement techniques such as hot-wire and Laser Doppler anemometry acquired at low to moderate supersonic Mach numbers (i.e., M = 2-3). After reviewing the available literature, the following scientific questions remain unanswered pertaining to the effect of favorable pressure gradients: (1) How is state of the mean flow and turbulence statistics altered? (2) How is the structure of wall turbulence; break-up, stretch or a combination? (3) How are the Reynolds stress component production mechanisms altered? (4) What is the effect of Mach number on the above processes? To answer these questions and to enhance the current database, an experimental analysis was performed to provide high fidelity documentation of the mean and turbulent flow properties using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) along with flow visualizations of a high speed (M = 4.88), high Reynolds number (Retheta ≈ 36,000) supersonic turbulent boundary layer with curvature-driven favorable pressure gradients (a nominally zero, a weak, and a strong favorable pressure gradient). From these data, detailed turbulence analyses were performed including calculating classical mean flow and turbulence statistics, examining turbulent stress production, and performing quadrant
All-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed dissipative soliton nanotube mode-locked laser
Zhang, Z.; Popa, D. Wittwer, V. J.; Milana, S.; Hasan, T.; Jiang, Z.; Ferrari, A. C.; Ilday, F. Ö.
2015-12-14
We report dissipative soliton generation from an Yb-doped all-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed nanotube mode-locked laser. A simple all-fiber ring cavity exploits a photonic crystal fiber for both nonlinearity enhancement and dispersion compensation. The laser generates stable dissipative solitons with large linear chirp in the net normal dispersion regime. Pulses that are 8.7 ps long are externally compressed to 118 fs, outperforming current nanotube-based Yb-doped fiber laser designs.
Price, Jonathan; Belardi, W; Monro, T; Malinowski, A; Piper, A; Richardson, D
2002-04-22
We report linear dispersion compensation, soliton pulse formation, soliton compression, and ultra-broad supercontinuum generation in a holey fiber with anomalous dispersion at wavelengths above 800nm. The holey fiber was seeded with ultrashort pulses from a diode pumped, Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber source operating at 1.06 microm. The results highlight the compatibility of the rapidly developing holey fiber technology with short pulse Yb-doped fiber lasers for wide application. PMID:19436371
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskii, Igor'O.; Sementsov, Dmitrii I.
2009-03-01
Dynamics of soliton-like wave packets in fibres with a travelling refractive-index-change wave is studied. It is shown that both a soliton-like propagation regime of a pulse and a self-compression regime in the region of normal group velocity dispersion are possible. It is also shown that in the case of a copropagating or counterpropagating pulse and optically inhomogeneous wave nonreciprocal effects appear.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1989-01-01
A very low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient is studied. The aim is to obtain highly accurate mean-flow and turbulence measurements under conditions that can be closely related to the numerical simulations of Philippe Spalart for the purposes of CFD validation. Much of the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel was completely rebuilt with a new wider contraction and working section which will improve compatibility with the simulations. A unique sophisticated high-speed computer controlled 3-D probe traversing mechanism was integrated into the test section. Construction of the tunnel and traverse is discussed in some detail. The hardware is now complete, and measurements are in progress. The mean-flow data indicate that a suitably two-dimensional base flow was established. Automation of the probe positioning and data acquistion have led to a decreased running time for total pressure measurements. However, the most significant benefits are expected to occur when using hot-wire probes. Calibrations can be performed automatically and there is no need to handle fragile probes when moving between measuring stations. Techniques are being developed which require sampling of the signals from moving hot-wire probes on the basis of their position in the flow. Measurements can be made in high intensity turbulence by flying probes upstream at high speed so that the relative magnitude of the turbulent velocity fluctuations are reduced. In regions, where the turbulence intensity is not too large, the probe can also be repetitively scanned across very dense spatial grids in other directions. With this technique, a complete profile can be measured in about 1/3 the time and with a spatial density about 50 times that obtainable using a stationary probe.
Bley, Thorsten A.; Johnson, Kevin M.; François, Christopher J.; Reeder, Scott B.; Schiebler, Mark L.; R. Landgraf, Benjamin; Consigny, Daniel; Grist, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
Purpose: To compare noninvasive transstenotic pressure gradient (TSPG) measurements derived from high-spatial- and temporal-resolution four-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) flow measurements with invasive measurements obtained from endovascular pressure wires with digital subtraction angiographic guidance. Materials and Methods: After Animal Care and Use Committee approval, bilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS) was created surgically in 12 swine. Respiratory-gated phase-contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection (VIPR) MR angiography of the renal arteries was performed with a 1.5-T clinical MR system (repetition time, 11.4 msec; echo time [first echo], 3.7 msec; 18 000 projection angles; imaging volume, 260 × 260 × 200 mm; acquired isotropic spatial resolution, 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm; velocity encoding, 150 cm/sec). Velocities measured with phase-contrast VIPR were used to calculate TSPGs by using Navier-Stokes equations. These were compared with endovascular pressure measurements (mean and peak) performed by using fluoroscopic guidance with regression analysis. Results: In 19 renal arteries with an average stenosis of 62% (range, 0%–87%), there was excellent correlation between the noninvasive TSPG measurement with phase-contrast VIPR and invasive TSPG measurement for mean TSPG (R2 = 95.4%) and strong correlation between noninvasive TSPG and invasive TSPG for the peak TSPG measures (R2 = 82.6%). The phase-contrast VIPR–derived TSPG measures were slightly lower than the endovascular measurements. In four arteries with severe stenoses and one occlusion (mean, 86%; range, 75%–100%), the residual lumen within the stenosis was too small to determine TSPG with phase-contrast VIPR. Conclusion: The unenhanced MR angiographic technique with phase-contrast VIPR allows for accurate noninvasive assessment of hemodynamic significance in a porcine model of RAS with highly accurate TSPG measurements. © RSNA, 2011 Supplemental material: http
Haruki, Shintaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa
2015-09-01
It remains unclear whether flecainide, a Class I antiarrhythmic drug, improves left ventricular pressure gradient (LVPG) or symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our study evaluated the long-term efficacy of flecainide, compared to disopyramide, when administered orally, on LVPG and symptoms in obstructive HCM patients. Among 164 obstructive HCM patients, 15 were administered oral flecainide therapy and 33 administered oral disopyramide therapy. LVPG declined from 79.8 ± 36.6 to 39.2 ± 36.7 mmHg (p = 0.003) after flecainide therapy and from 74.5 ± 26.4 to 31.4 ± 24.8 mmHg (p < 0.001) after disopyramide therapy. The percent reduction in LVPG was -47.9 ± 43.2 % in patients treated with flecainide, comparable to the results for those treated with disopyramide (-57.1 ± 33.0 %; p = 0.425). We found no significant differences in improvement in NYHA functional class between patients treated with flecainide and those treated with disopyramide (p = 0.331). Patients treated with flecainide exhibited no significant adverse side effects, and there was no need for myectomy or alcohol septal ablation to reduce LVPG and symptoms. Improvements in LVPG and symptoms were similar in patients treated with flecainide and patients treated with disopyramide, suggesting that flecainide is a potentially useful alternative for symptomatic obstructive HCM patients, particularly those with disopyramide-induced vagolytic side effects, narrow angle glaucoma, or prostatic hyperplasia and pre-existing urination difficulties. Our data must be viewed with caution, however, in view of the small number of study patients. Flecainide therapy will require further proof of safety before it can be routinely recommended in patients with symptomatic obstructive HCM. PMID:24917414
Lin, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Chu, Chi-Ming; Fang, Chi-Yung Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsu, Jen-Te Yang, Teng-Yao; Hang, Chi-Ling Wu, Chiung-Jen
2013-10-15
Purpose: The severity of residual stenosis (RS) sometimes cannot be accurately measured by angiography during central vein intervention. This study evaluated the role of pullback pressure measurement during central vein stenosis (CVS) intervention. Methods: A retrospective review enrolled 94 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent CVS interventions but not stenting procedures. Patients were classified into 2 groups by either angiography or pressure gradient (PG) criteria, respectively. Groups divided by angiographic result were successful group (RS {<=}30 %) and acceptable group (50 % {>=} RS > 30 %), while groups divided by PG were low PG group (PG {<=}5 mmHg) and high PG group (PG >5 mmHg). Baseline characteristics and 12-month patency rates between the groups were analyzed. Results: The angiography results placed 63 patients in the successful group and 31 patients in the acceptable group. The patency rate at 12 month was not statistically different (P = 0.167). When the patients were reclassified by the postintervention pullback PG, the patency rate at 12 months was significant (P = 0.048). Further analysis in groups redivided by different combinations of RS and PG criteria identified significant differences in the group with both RS {<=}30 % and PG {<=}5 mmHg compared with those with either RS >30 % (P = 0.047) or PG >5 mmHg (P = 0.027). In addition, there was a significant difference between those with both RS {<=}30 % and PG {<=}5 mmHg compared with those with both RS >30 % and PG >5 mmHg (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Postintervention PG can better predict long-term outcomes after angioplasty for CVS in nonstented dialysis patients than angiography.
Sierad, Leslie Neil; Shaw, Eliza Laine; Bina, Alexander; Brazile, Bryn; Rierson, Nicholas; Patnaik, Sourav S; Kennamer, Allison; Odum, Rebekah; Cotoi, Ovidiu; Terezia, Preda; Branzaniuc, Klara; Smallwood, Harrison; Deac, Radu; Egyed, Imre; Pavai, Zoltan; Szanto, Annamaria; Harceaga, Lucian; Suciu, Horatiu; Raicea, Victor; Olah, Peter; Simionescu, Agneta; Liao, Jun; Movileanu, Ionela; Harpa, Marius; Simionescu, Dan Teodor
2015-12-01
There is a great need for living valve replacements for patients of all ages. Such constructs could be built by tissue engineering, with perspective of the unique structure and biology of the aortic root. The aortic valve root is composed of several different tissues, and careful structural and functional consideration has to be given to each segment and component. Previous work has shown that immersion techniques are inadequate for whole-root decellularization, with the aortic wall segment being particularly resistant to decellularization. The aim of this study was to develop a differential pressure gradient perfusion system capable of being rigorous enough to decellularize the aortic root wall while gentle enough to preserve the integrity of the cusps. Fresh porcine aortic roots have been subjected to various regimens of perfusion decellularization using detergents and enzymes and results compared to immersion decellularized roots. Success criteria for evaluation of each root segment (cusp, muscle, sinus, wall) for decellularization completeness, tissue integrity, and valve functionality were defined using complementary methods of cell analysis (histology with nuclear and matrix stains and DNA analysis), biomechanics (biaxial and bending tests), and physiologic heart valve bioreactor testing (with advanced image analysis of open-close cycles and geometric orifice area measurement). Fully acellular porcine roots treated with the optimized method exhibited preserved macroscopic structures and microscopic matrix components, which translated into conserved anisotropic mechanical properties, including bending and excellent valve functionality when tested in aortic flow and pressure conditions. This study highlighted the importance of (1) adapting decellularization methods to specific target tissues, (2) combining several methods of cell analysis compared to relying solely on histology, (3) developing relevant valve-specific mechanical tests, and (4) in vitro testing
Solitons in Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ustinov, A. V.
1998-11-01
Magnetic flux quanta in Josephson junctions, often called fluxons, in many cases behave as solitons. A review of recent experiments and modelling of fluxon dynamics in Josephson circuits is presented. Classic quasi-one-dimensional junctions, stacked junctions (Josephson superlattices), and discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) are discussed. Applications of fluxon devices as high-frequency oscillators and digital circuits are also addressed.
Solitons and ionospheric heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.; Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.
1982-01-01
It is noted that for parameters characterizing the Platteville ionospheric heating facility, the Langmuir wave evolution at the exact reflection point of the heater wave involves an oscillating two-stream instability followed by a collisionally damped three-dimensional soliton collapse. The result gives an alternative explanation for certain experimental observations.
Effect of two-temperature trapped electrons to nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic solitons
Moslem, Waleed M.; El-Taibany, W.F.
2005-12-15
Propagation of three-dimensional dust-ion-acoustic solitons is investigated in a dusty plasma consisting of positive ions, negatively variable-charged dust particles, and two-temperature trapped electrons. We use the reductive perturbation theory to reduce the basic set of fluid equations to one evolution equation called damped modified Kadontsev-Petviashivili equation. Exact solution of this equation is not possible, so we obtain the time evolution solitary wave form approximate solution. It is found that only compressive soliton can propagate in this system. We develop a theoretical estimate condition under which the solitons can propagate. It is found that this condition is satisfied for Saturn's F ring. It is found also that low electron temperature has a role on the behavior of the soliton width, i.e., for lower (higher) range of low electron temperature the soliton width decreases (increases). However, high electron temperature decreases the width. The trapped electrons have no effect on the soliton width. The ratio of free low (high) to trapped low (high) electron temperatures increases the soliton amplitude. Also, the amplitude increases with free low and free high electron temperatures. To investigate the stabilty of the waves, we used a method based on energy consideration to obtain a condition for stable solitons. It is found that this condition depends on dust charge variation, streaming velocity, directional cosine of the wave vector k along the x axis, and temperatures of dust particles, ions, and free electrons.
Soliton stability in some knot soliton models
Adam, C.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.
2007-02-15
We study the issue of stability of static solitonlike solutions in some nonlinear field theories which allow for knotted field configurations. Concretely, we investigate the Aratyn-Ferreira-Zimerman model [Phys. Lett. B 456, 162 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1723 (1999)], based on a Lagrangian quartic in first derivatives with infinitely many conserved currents, for which infinitely many soliton solutions are known analytically. For this model we find that sectors with different (integer) topological charges (Hopf index) are not separated by an infinite energy barrier. Further, if variations which change the topological charge are allowed, then the static solutions are not even critical points of the energy functional. We also explain why soliton solutions can exist at all, in spite of these facts. In addition, we briefly discuss the Nicole model [J. Phys. G 4, 1363 (1978)], which is based on a sigma-model-type Lagrangian. For the Nicole model we find that different topological sectors are separated by an infinite energy barrier.
Soliton amplification and reshaping in optical fibers with variable dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, P. L.; Malomed, Boris A.; Peng, G. D.
1996-08-01
We look for a setup providing optimum amplification and reshaping of short solitons in a lossy optical fiber. We consider a reshaper model combining a pointlike amplifier and a segment of a variable-dispersion fiber whose length is comparable with the soliton's dispersion length. The objective is to find reshaping configurations with a minimum length providing for release of a chirpless duly amplified soliton into the bulk fiber. In most cases the input pulse is taken as a soliton with no chirp, but chirped input pulses are tested as well. Two particular types of variable dispersion constant and linear. The main part of the analysis is done semianalytically by means of the variational approximation. Direct numerical simulations are also performed at some values of the parameters to permit us to examine the accuracy of the approximation (which proves to be good). It is found that the amplifier placed at the input edge of the reshaper always gives better results than the one at the output. The minimum necessary length of the variable-dispersion segment proves to be a decreasing function of the amplification factor. It is found that the performance characteristics are only weakly sensitive to a particular choice of the configuration within a given type of variable dispersion, so the actual choice can be determined by convenience of fabrication. The obtained results can be applied as well to optimize compression of solitons (without amplification) by variable-dispersion fibers.
Progressive compression versus graduated compression for the management of venous insufficiency.
Shepherd, Jan
2016-09-01
Venous leg ulceration (VLU) is a chronic condition associated with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), where the most frequent complication is recurrence of ulceration after healing. Traditionally, graduated compression therapy has been shown to increase healing rates and also to reduce recurrence of VLU. Graduated compression occurs because the circumference of the limb is narrower at the ankle, thereby producing a higher pressure than at the calf, which is wider, creating a lower pressure. This phenomenon is explained by the principle known as Laplace's Law. Recently, the view that compression therapy must provide a graduated pressure gradient has been challenged. However, few studies so far have focused on the potential benefits of progressive compression where the pressure profile is inverted. This article will examine the contemporary concept that progressive compression may be as effective as traditional graduated compression therapy for the management of CVI. PMID:27594309
Qualitative theory of bright solitons: the soliton sketch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, A. W.; Mitchell, D. J.; Buryak, A.
1996-06-01
Using intuitive physics, we show how to read the stability and the qualitative characteristics of all self-guided (bounded) beams directly from the graph of refractive index versus intensity that characterizes any nonlinear medium. Our approach predicts new soliton classes. It reveals important differences between solitons of one and two transverse dimensions. It links the physical characteristics of solitons and their possible multistabilities directly with topological features of the material nonlinearity n(I) . The soliton sketch is introduced as a physical alternative to the usual bifurcation diagrams.
Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.
1992-01-01
The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.
Takeda, Masafumi; Mori, Takao; Ohashi, Yoshitaka; Ichikawa, Shinobu; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Ejiri, Junya; Awano, Kojiro
2006-06-01
A 61-year-old man with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was treated twice with percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA). The first procedure improved the left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient (LVOTG) from 148 to 48 mmHg and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class from III to II in a week. However, the LVOTG increased to 197 mmHg and the NYHA class worsened to III within 3 months. In spite of medical treatment with beta-blocker, syncope attack occurred suddenly. Repeated PTSMA was performed. Just after the second procedure, the LVOTG did not decrease. However, the LVOTG decreased to 81 mmHg and the NYHA class improved to II with 3 months. The different response of pressure gradient in the acute and chronic phase with repeated PTSMA was interesting. PMID:16800375
Han, Jiu-Ning Luo, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiu; Li, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Shi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Duan, Wen-Shan; Han, Juan-Fang
2015-06-15
We study the basic physical properties of composite nonlinear structure induced by the head-on collision of magnetosonic solitons. Solitary waves are assumed to propagate in a quantum electron-ion magnetoplasma with spin-1/2 degenerate electrons. The main interest of the present work is to investigate the time evolution of the merged composite structure during a specific time interval of the wave interaction process. We consider three cases of colliding-situation, namely, compressive-rarefactive solitons interaction, compressive-compressive solitons interaction, and rarefactive-rarefactive solitons interaction, respectively. Compared with the last two colliding cases, the changing process of the composite structure is more complex for the first situation. Moreover, it is found that they are obviously different for the last two colliding cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.
1972-01-01
An experimental investigation of transpired turbulent boundary layers in zero and adverse pressure gradients has been carried out. Profiles of: (1) the mean velocity, (2) the three intensities of the turbulent fluctuations, and (3) the Reynolds stress were obtained by hot-wire anemometry. The friction coefficients were measured by using an integrated form of the boundary layer equation to extrapolate the measured shear stress profiles to the wall.
Soliton Theory and Its Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Chaohao
Soliton theory is an important branch of applied mathematics and mathematical physics. An active and productive field of research, it has important applications in fluid mechanics, nonlinear optics, classical and quantum fields theories etc. This book presents a broad view of soliton theory. It gives an expository survey of the most basic ideas and methods, such as physical background, inverse scattering, Backlünd transformations, finite-dimensional completely integrable systems, symmetry, Kac-moody algebra, solitons and differential geometry, numerical analysis for nonlinear waves, and gravitational solitons. Besides the essential points of the theory, several applications are sketched and some recent developments, partly by the authors and their collaborators, are presented.
Quantum theory of Manakov solitons
Rand, Darren; Prucnal, Paul R.; Steiglitz, Ken
2005-05-15
A fully quantum mechanical model of two-component Manakov solitons is developed in both the Heisenberg and Schroedinger representations, followed by an analytical, linearized quantum theory of Manakov solitons in the Heisenberg picture. This theory is used to analyze the vacuum-induced fluctuations of Manakov soliton propagation and collision. The vacuum fluctuations induce phase diffusion and dispersion in Manakov soliton propagation. Calculations of the position, polarization angle, and polarization state fluctuations show an increase in collision-induced noise with a decrease in the relative velocity between the two solitons, as expected because of an increase in the interaction length. Fluctuations in both the polarization angle and state are shown to be independent of propagation distance, opening up possibilities for communications, switching, and logic, exploiting these properties of Manakov solitons. Calculations of the phase noise reveal, surprisingly, that the collision-induced fluctuations can be reduced slightly below the level of fluctuations in the absence of collision, due to cross-correlation effects between the collision-induced phase and amplitude fluctuations of the soliton. The squeezing effect of Manakov solitons is also studied and proven, unexpectedly, to have the same theoretical optimum as scalar solitons.
Dynamics of Dissipative Temporal Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peschel, U.; Michaelis, D.; Bakonyi, Z.; Onishchukov, G.; Lederer, F.
The properties and the dynamics of localized structures, frequently termed solitary waves or solitons, define, to a large extent, the behavior of the relevant nonlinear system [1]. Thus, it is a crucial and fundamental issue of nonlinear dynamics to fully characterize these objects in various conservative and dissipative nonlinear environments. Apart from this fundamental point of view, solitons (henceforth we adopt this term, even for localized solutions of non-integrable systems) exhibit a remarkable potential for applications, particularly if optical systems are considered. Regarding the type of localization, one can distinguish between temporal and spatial solitons. Spatial solitons are self-confined beams, which are shape-invariant upon propagation. (For an overview, see [2, 3]). It can be anticipated that they could play a vital role in all-optical processing and logic, since we can use their complex collision behavior [4]. Temporal solitons, on the other hand, represent shapeinvariant (or breathing) pulses. It is now common belief that robust temporal solitons will play a major role as elementary units (bits) of information in future all-optical networks [5, 6]. Until now, the main emphasis has been on temporal and spatial soliton families in conservative systems, where energy is conserved. Recently, another class of solitons, which are characterized by a permanent energy exchange with their environment, has attracted much attention. These solitons are termed dissipative solitons or auto-solitons. They emerge as a result of a balance between linear (delocalization and losses) and nonlinear (self-phase modulation and gain/loss saturation) effects. Except for very few cases [7], they form zero-parameter families and their features are entirely fixed by the underlying optical system. Cavity solitons form a prominent type. They appear as spatially-localized transverse peaks in transmission or reflection, e.g. from a Fabry-Perot cavity. They rely strongly on the
Quantum Decay of Dark Solitons
Gangardt, D. M.; Kamenev, A.
2010-05-14
Unless protected by the exact integrability, solitons are subject to dissipative forces, originating from a thermally fluctuating background. At low enough temperatures T background fluctuations should be considered as being quantized which enables us to calculate finite lifetime of the solitons {tau}{approx}T{sup -4}. We also find that the coherent nature of the quantum fluctuations leads to long-range interactions between the solitons mediated by the superradiation. Our results are of relevance to current experiments with ultracold atoms, while the approach may be extended to solitons in other media.
Solitonization of a dispersive wave.
Braud, F; Conforti, M; Cassez, A; Mussot, A; Kudlinski, A
2016-04-01
We report the observation of a nonlinear propagation scenario in which a dispersive wave is transformed into a fundamental soliton in an axially varying optical fiber. The dispersive wave is initially emitted in the normal dispersion region and the fiber properties change longitudinally so that the dispersion becomes anomalous at the dispersive wave wavelength, which allows it to be transformed into a soliton. The solitonic nature of the field is demonstrated by solving the direct Zakharov-Shabat scattering problem. Experimental characterization performed in spectral and temporal domains show evidence of the solitonization process in an axially varying photonic crystal fiber. PMID:27192249
Biological soliton in multicellular movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji
2013-07-01
Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.
Miller, Andrew; Villegas, Arturo; Diez, F Javier
2015-03-01
The solution to the startup transient EOF in an arbitrary rectangular microchannel is derived analytically and validated experimentally. This full 2D transient solution describes the evolution of the flow through five distinct periods until reaching a final steady state. The derived analytical velocity solution is validated experimentally for different channel sizes and aspect ratios under time-varying pressure gradients. The experiments used a time resolved micro particle image velocimetry technique to calculate the startup transient velocity profiles. The measurements captured the effect of time-varying pressure gradient fields derived in the analytical solutions. This is tested by using small reservoirs at both ends of the channel which allowed a time-varying pressure gradient to develop with a time scale on the order of the transient EOF. Results showed that under these common conditions, the effect of the pressure build up in the reservoirs on the temporal development of the transient startup EOF in the channels cannot be neglected. The measurements also captured the analytical predictions for channel walls made of different materials (i.e., zeta potentials). This was tested in channels that had three PDMS and one quartz wall, resulting in a flow with an asymmetric velocity profile due to variations in the zeta potential between the walls. PMID:25502599
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Throckmorton, D. A.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was performed to determine the effect of pressure gradient on the heat transfer to space shuttle reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array gaps under thick, turbulent boundary layer conditions. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a curved array of full-scale simulated RSI tiles in a tunnel wall boundary layer at a nominal freestream Mach number of 10.3 and freestream unit Reynolds numbers of 1.6, 3.3, and and 6.1 million per meter. Transverse pressure gradients were induced over the model surface by rotating the curved array with respect to the flow. Definition of the tunnel wall boundary layer flow was obtained by measurement of boundary layer pitot pressure profiles, and flat plate wall pressure and heat transfer. Flat plate wall heat transfer data were correlated and a method was derived for prediction of smooth, curved array heat transfer in the highly three-dimensional tunnel wall boundary layer flow and simulation of full-scale space shuttle vehicle pressure gradient levels was assessed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.
1984-01-01
Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.
Sebastiani, Giada; Alshaalan, Rasha; Wong, Philip; Rubino, Maria; Salman, Ayat; Metrakos, Peter; Deschenes, Marc; Ghali, Peter
2015-01-01
Background & Aims Non-invasive diagnostic methods for liver fibrosis predict clinical outcomes in viral hepatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We specifically evaluated prognostic value of non-invasive fibrosis methods in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) against hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and liver histology. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 148 consecutive patients who met the following criteria: transjugular liver biopsy with HVPG measurement; biopsy-proven NASH; absence of decompensation; AST-to-Platelets Ratio Index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), NAFLD fibrosis score, ultrasound, hepatic steatosis index and Xenon-133 scan available within 6 months from biopsy; a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcomes were defined by death, liver transplantation, cirrhosis complications. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses were employed to estimate incidence and predictors of outcomes, respectively. Prognostic value was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Results During a median follow-up of 5 years (interquartile range 3-8), 16.2% developed outcomes, including 7.4% who died or underwent liver transplantation. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, the following fibrosis tools predicted outcomes: HVPG >10mmHg (HR=9.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.07-30.12), histologic fibrosis F3-F4 (HR=3.14; 1.41-6.95), APRI >1.5 (HR=5.02; 1.6-15.7), FIB-4 >3.25 (HR=6.33; 1.98-20.2), NAFLD fibrosis score >0.676 (HR=11.9; 3.79-37.4). Prognostic value was as follows: histologic fibrosis stage, AUC=0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.93); HVPG, AUC=0.81 (0.70-0.91); APRI, AUC=0.89 (0.82-0.96); FIB-4, AUC=0.89 (0.83-0.95); NAFLD fibrosis score, AUC=0.79 (0.69-0.91). Neither histologic steatosis nor non-invasive steatosis methods predicted outcomes (AUC<0.50). Conclusions Non-invasive methods for liver fibrosis predict outcomes of patients with NASH. They could be used for serial monitoring, risk stratification and targeted interventions. PMID:26083565
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation
Stability of compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1989-01-01
The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.
SOLITONS: Dynamics of strong coupling formation between laser solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosanov, Nikolai N.; Fedorov, S. V.; Shatsev, A. N.
2005-03-01
The dynamics of the strong coupling formation between two solitons with the unit topological charge is studied in detail for a wide-aperture class A laser. The sequence of bifurcations of the vector field of energy fluxes in the transverse plane was demonstrated during the formation of a soliton complex.
Soliton dispersion management in nonlinear optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapathy, R.
2012-12-01
We consider the concept of quasisoliton propagation in a dispersion management fiber and study the soliton dynamics for soliton dispersion management case, soliton energy control case and guiding center soliton case. We also study the interaction scenario in detail for all the cases.
Sparsifying preconditioner for soliton calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing
2016-06-01
We develop a robust and efficient method for soliton calculations for nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The method is based on the recently developed sparsifying preconditioner combined with Newton's iterative method. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical examples of gap solitons in the context of nonlinear optics.
Spatial Solitons in Algaas Waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Jin Ung
In this work, by measuring the two-, three-photon absorption, and the nonlinear refractive index coefficients, a useful bandwidth for an all-optical switching applications in the AlGaAs below half the band gap is identified. Operating in this material system, several types of spatial solitons such as fundamental bright solitons, Vector solitons, and Manakov solitons are experimentally demonstrated. The propagation and the interaction behaviors of these solitons are studied experimentally and numerically. The distinct properties of each soliton are discussed along with some possible applications. Some applications, such as all -optical switching based on spatial soliton dragging and the efficient guiding of orthogonally polarized femtosecond pulses by a bright spatial soliton, are experimentally demonstrated. The signal gain due to an ultrafast polarization coupling, better known as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) is demonstrated in a channel waveguide. The effects of FWM are studied experimentally and numerically. This effect is also used to demonstrate polarization switching. The linear and nonlinear properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides are measured. Anisotropic two photon absorption and nonlinear refractive indices near half the band gap are measured along with the linear birefringence for several different quantum well structures. The usefulness of multiple quantum well structures for an all -optical switching because of anisotropic nature of this material system is discussed.
Primordial origin of nontopological solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frieman, Joshua A.; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.
1988-01-01
The formation of nontopological solitons in a second-order phase transition in the early universe is discussed. Ratios of dimensionless coupling constants in the Lagrangian determine their abundance and mass. For a large range of parameters, nontopological solitons can be cosmologically significant, contributing a significant fraction of the present mass density of the universe.
Thermophoresis of an antiferromagnetic soliton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Se Kwon; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2015-07-01
We study the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic soliton under a temperature gradient. To this end, we start by phenomenologically constructing the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for an antiferromagnet with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We then derive the Langevin equation for the soliton's center of mass by the collective coordinate approach. An antiferromagentic soliton behaves as a classical massive particle immersed in a viscous medium. By considering a thermodynamic ensemble of solitons, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation, from which we extract the average drift velocity of a soliton. The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to a small damping constant α , which can yield a drift velocity of tens of m/s under a temperature gradient of 1 K/mm for a domain wall in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic wire with α ˜10-4 .
Dynamical behavior of the soliton formation and propagation in magnetized plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, G. C.; Sarma, J.; Gao, Yi-Tian; Uberoi, C.
2000-06-01
Despite many theoretical studies on soliton formation and its propagation in plasmas, no study with multicomponent magnetized plasma has derived the special nonlinear wave equation, called the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation [V. E. Zakharov and E. A. Kuznetsov, Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 285 (1974)]. Thus, the main emphasis has been given to employing the hyperbolic-type method for finding the soliton features in relation to laboratory and space plasma environments. Where this method has been unsuccessful, an alternate method has been developed to yield the soliton propagation. The features of the nonlinear plasma-acoustic waves, which depend on the plasma composition, affect the coexistence of compressive and rarefactive solitary waves. Later, allowing for the higher order nonlinearity in the dynamics, one is led to further different solitary waves along with double layers. The main aim of the present study is to use a new formalism for finding the soliton propagation from the nonlinear wave equation with strong, as well as weak, nonlinearity. The coexistence of different nonlinear acoustic modes due to the interaction of multiple charges in plasma is shown. Moreover, the theoretical observations revealed many other soliton-like structures, which could be similar to the dip and hump solitons observed by the Freja Scientific Satellite and the collapsed solitons expected in the propagation of solar flares, as well as in the interplanetary space plasmas.
A study of turbulence on compression ramps with k-epsilon and Reynolds stress models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J.; Taulbee, D. B.; Holden, M. S.
1990-01-01
A theoretical study was conducted to determine the effects of adverse pressure gradient and compressibility in modeling turbulent compressible flows. The kinetic energy/dissipation and Reynolds stress model predictions are presented and compared with experimental data. The effects of compressibility, which include the mass averaged fluctuation term, the pressure dilatation term, and the dilatation dissipation, are important in modeling the turbulent compressible flows. The normal stresses and longitudinal strain rates also have an effect in the prediction of turbulent energy productions on the curved surfaces. A new compressible formulation of the pressure strain term, which includes the dilatation effects, in the Reynolds stress equation is presented.
Gray solitons on the surface of water.
Chabchoub, A; Kimmoun, O; Branger, H; Kharif, C; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N
2014-01-01
The dynamics of surface gravity water waves can be described by the self-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Recent observations of black solitons on the surface of water confirmed its validity for finite, below critical depth. The black soliton is a limiting case of a family of gray soliton solutions with finite amplitude depressions. Here, we report observations of gray solitons in water waves, thus, complementing our previous observations of black solitons. PMID:24580162
Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons
Yang Jianke
2010-11-15
We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.
Gray solitons on the surface of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabchoub, A.; Kimmoun, O.; Branger, H.; Kharif, C.; Hoffmann, N.; Onorato, M.; Akhmediev, N.
2014-01-01
The dynamics of surface gravity water waves can be described by the self-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Recent observations of black solitons on the surface of water confirmed its validity for finite, below critical depth. The black soliton is a limiting case of a family of gray soliton solutions with finite amplitude depressions. Here, we report observations of gray solitons in water waves, thus, complementing our previous observations of black solitons.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optical solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, P. D.; Haelterman, Marc; Vilaseca, R.
2003-06-01
A topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be devoted to recent advances in optical solitons. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletProperties, control and dynamics of temporal solitons bulletProperties, control and dynamics of spatial solitons bulletCavity solitons in passive and active resonators bulletThree-dimensional spatial solitons bulletDark, bright, grey solitons; interface dynamics bulletCompound or vector solitons; incoherent solitons bulletLight and matter solitons in BEC bulletNonlinear localized structures in microstructured and nanostructured materials (photonic crystals, etc) bulletAngular momentum effects associated with localized light structures; vortex solitons bulletQuantum effects associated with localized light structures bulletInteraction of solitons with atoms and other media bulletApplications of optical solitons The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the electronic code) to: Dr Claire Bedrock (Publisher), Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. All
Deceleration of the small solitons in the soliton lattice: KdV-type framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shurgalina, Ekaterina; Gorshkov, Konstantin; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
As it is known the solitary waves (solitons) in the KdV-systems move with speed which exceeds the speed of propagation of long linear waves (sound speed). Due to interaction between them, solitons do not lose their individuality (elastic interaction). Binary interaction of neigborough solitons is the major contribution in the dynamics of soliton gas. Taking into account the integrability of the classic and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations the process of the soliton interaction can be analyzed in the framework of the rigorous analytical two-soliton solutions. Main physical conclusion from this solution is the phase shift which is positive for large solitons and negative for small solitons. This fact influences the average velocity of individual soliton in the soliton lattice or soliton gas. We demonstrate that soliton of relative small amplitude moves in soliton gas in average in opposite (negative) direction, meanwhile a free soliton moves always in the right direction. Approximated analytical theory is created for the soliton motion in the periodic lattice of big solitons of the same amplitudes, and the critical amplitude of the small soliton changed its averaged speed is found. Numerical simulation is conducted for a statistical assembly of solitons with random amplitudes and phases. The application of developed theory to the long surface and internal waves is discussed.
Effect of third-order dispersion on dark solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, Vsevolod V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Menyuk, Curtis R.
1996-12-01
Third-order dispersion has a detrimental effect on dark solitons, leading to resonant generation of growing soliton tails and soliton decay. This effect is shown to be much stronger than that for bright solitons.
Stability and control of compressible flows over a surface with concave-conves curvature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Parikh, P.; Turkel, E.
1986-01-01
The active control of spatially unstable disturbances in a laminar, two-dimensional, compressible boundary layer over a curved surface is numerically simulated. The control is effected by localized time-periodic surface heating. We consider two similar surfaces of different heights with concave-convex curvature. In one, the height is sufficiently large so that the favorable pressure gradient is sufficient to stabilize a particular disturbance. In the other case the pressure gradient induced by the curvature is destabilizing. It is shown that by using active control that the disturbance can be stabilized. The results demonstrate that the curvature induced mean pressure gradient significantly enhances the receptivity of the flow localized time-periodic surface heating and that this is a potentially viable mechanism in air.
Multistable monochromatic laser solitons
Genevet, P.; Columbo, L.; Barland, S.; Giudici, M.; Gil, L.; Tredicce, J. R.
2010-05-15
We study the spectral properties of stationary laser solitons (LSs) generated in two broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers coupled to each other in face-to-face configuration [P. Genevet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 123905 (2008)]. We demonstrate experimentally that LS emission occurs on a single longitudinal mode frequency of the compound cavity. Multistability is reported among differently 'colored' LSs. We also develop a theoretical model beyond the single longitudinal mode approximation whose numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental observations.
Davydov solitons in polypeptides
Scott, A.
1984-10-01
The experimental evidence for self-trapping of amide-I (CO stretching) vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide (a model protein) is reviewed and related to A. S. Davydov's theory of solitons as a mechanism for energy storage and transport in protein. Particular attention is paid to the construction of quantum states that contain N amide-I vibrational quanta. It is noted that the N = 2 state is almost exactly resonant with the free energy that is released upon hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. 30 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.
Davydov Solitons in Polypeptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, A. C.
1985-08-01
The experimental evidence for self-trapping of amide-I (CO stretching) vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide (a model protein) is reviewed and related to A. S. Davydov's theory of solitons as a mechanism for energy storage and transport in protein. Particular attention is paid to the construction of quantum states that contain N amide-I vibrational quanta. It is noted that the `N = 2' state is almost exactly resonant with the free energy that is released upon hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colin, M.; Di Menza, L.; Saut, J. C.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the properties of solitonic structures arising in quadratic media. First, we recall the derivation of systems governing the interaction process for waves propagating in such media and we check the local and global well-posedness of the corresponding Cauchy problem. Then, we look for stationary states in the context of normal or anomalous dispersion regimes, that lead us to either elliptic or non-elliptic systems and we address the problem of orbital stability. Finally, some numerical experiments are carried out in order to compute localized states for several regimes and to study dynamic stability as well as long-time asymptotics.
Shima, N. . College of Engineering)
1993-03-01
The purpose of this two-part paper is to assess the performance of a second-moment closure applicable up to a wall. In the present part, the turbulence model is applied to the boundary layers with periodic pressure gradient, with wall transpiration and with free-stream turbulence. The predictions are shown to be in good agreement with experiments and a direct simulation. In particular, a tendency towards relaminarization and a subsequent retransition in the oscillating boundary layer are faithfully reproduced, and the effect of the length scale of free-stream turbulence is correctly captured.
Nonautonomous matter-wave solitons near the Feshbach resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serkin, V. N.; Hasegawa, Akira; Belyaeva, T. L.
2010-02-01
By means of analytical and numerical methods, we reveal the main features of nonautonomous matter-wave solitons near the Feshbach resonance in a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate confined by a harmonic potential with a varying-in-time longitudinal trapping frequency. Based on the generalized nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii model, we show that solitons in nonautonomous physical systems exist only under certain conditions so that varying-in-time nonlinearity and confining harmonic potential cannot be chosen independently; they satisfy the exact integrability scenarios and complement each other. We focus on the most physically important examples where the applied magnetic field is either a linearly or a periodically varying-in-time function. In the case of periodically varying scattering length, variations of confining harmonic potential are found to be sign-reversible (periodic attractive and repulsive) to support the soliton-management regime. We investigate the losses of validity of one-dimensional (1D) approximation in the cases when, by the joint action of varying-in-time nonlinearity and confining potential, the atom cloud can be compressed from an initially elongated quasi-1D cigar-shaped geometry to a final ball-shaped three-dimensional geometry and the induced soliton collapse may occur.
Gap solitons in a nonlinear quadratic negative-index cavity.
Scalora, Michael; de Ceglia, Domenico; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Akozbek, Neset; Centini, Marco; Bloemer, Mark J
2007-06-01
We predict the existence of gap solitons in a nonlinear, quadratic Fabry-Pérot negative index cavity. A peculiarity of a single negative index layer is that if magnetic and electric plasma frequencies are different it forms a photonic band structure similar to that of a multilayer stack composed of ordinary, positive index materials. This similarity also results in comparable field localization and enhancement properties that under appropriate conditions may be used to either dynamically shift the band edge, or for efficient energy conversion. We thus report that an intense, fundamental pump pulse is able to shift the band edge of a negative index cavity, and make it possible for a weak second harmonic pulse initially tuned inside the gap to be transmitted, giving rise to a gap soliton. The process is due to cascading, a well-known phenomenon that occurs far from phase matching conditions that limits energy conversion rates, it resembles a nonlinear third-order process, and causes pulse compression due to self-phase modulation. The symmetry of the equations of motion under the action of either an electric or a magnetic nonlinearity suggests that both nonlinear polarization and magnetization, or a combination of both, can lead to solitonlike pulses. More specifically, the antisymmetric localization properties of the electric and magnetic fields cause a nonlinear polarization to generate a dark soliton, while a nonlinear magnetization spawns a bright soliton. PMID:17677375
Nonautonomous matter-wave solitons near the Feshbach resonance
Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Hasegawa, Akira
2010-02-15
By means of analytical and numerical methods, we reveal the main features of nonautonomous matter-wave solitons near the Feshbach resonance in a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate confined by a harmonic potential with a varying-in-time longitudinal trapping frequency. Based on the generalized nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii model, we show that solitons in nonautonomous physical systems exist only under certain conditions so that varying-in-time nonlinearity and confining harmonic potential cannot be chosen independently; they satisfy the exact integrability scenarios and complement each other. We focus on the most physically important examples where the applied magnetic field is either a linearly or a periodically varying-in-time function. In the case of periodically varying scattering length, variations of confining harmonic potential are found to be sign-reversible (periodic attractive and repulsive) to support the soliton-management regime. We investigate the losses of validity of one-dimensional (1D) approximation in the cases when, by the joint action of varying-in-time nonlinearity and confining potential, the atom cloud can be compressed from an initially elongated quasi-1D cigar-shaped geometry to a final ball-shaped three-dimensional geometry and the induced soliton collapse may occur.
Helmholtz solitons at nonlinear interfaces.
Sánchez-Curto, J; Chamorro-Posada, P; McDonald, G S
2007-05-01
Reflection and refraction of spatial solitons at dielectric interfaces, accommodating arbitrarily angles of incidence, is studied. Analysis is based on Helmholtz soliton theory, which eliminates the angular restriction associated with the paraxial approximation. A novel generalization of Snell's law is discovered that is valid for collimated light beams and the entire angular domain. Our new theoretical predictions are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. New qualitative features of soliton refraction and limitations of previous paraxial analyses are highlighted. PMID:17410257
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertram, Mitchel H.; Feller, William V.
1959-01-01
A procedure based on the method of similar solutions is presented by which the skin friction, heat transfer, and boundary-layer thickness in a laminar hypersonic flow with pressure gradient may be rapidly evaluated if the pressure distribution is known. This solution, which at present is. restricted to power-law variations of pressure with surface distance, is presented for a wide range of exponents in the power law corresponding to both favorable and adverse pressure gradients. This theory has been compared to results from heat-transfer experiments on blunt-nose flat plates and a hemisphere cylinder at free-stream Mach numbers of 4 and 6.8. The flat-plate experiments included tests made at a Mach number of 6.8 over a range of angle of attack of +/- 10 deg. Reasonable agreement of the experimental and theoretical heat-transfer coefficients has been obtained as well as good correlation of the experimental results over the entire range of angle of attack studied. A similar comparison of theory with experiment was not feasible for boundary-layer-thickness data; however, the hypersonic similarity theory was found to account satisfactorily for the variation in boundary-layer thickness due to local pressure distribution for several sets of measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen-Chao, Liu; Yue-Wu, Liu; Cong-Cong, Niu; Guo-Feng, Han; Yi-Zhao, Wan
2016-02-01
The threshold pressure gradient and formation stress-sensitive effect as the two prominent physical phenomena in the development of a low-permeable reservoir are both considered here for building a new coupled moving boundary model of radial flow in porous medium. Moreover, the wellbore storage and skin effect are both incorporated into the inner boundary conditions in the model. It is known that the new coupled moving boundary model has strong nonlinearity. A coordinate transformation based fully implicit finite difference method is adopted to obtain its numerical solutions. The involved coordinate transformation can equivalently transform the dynamic flow region for the moving boundary model into a fixed region as a unit circle, which is very convenient for the model computation by the finite difference method on fixed spatial grids. By comparing the numerical solution obtained from other different numerical method in the existing literature, its validity can be verified. Eventually, the effects of permeability modulus, threshold pressure gradient, wellbore storage coefficient, and skin factor on the transient wellbore pressure, the derivative, and the formation pressure distribution are analyzed respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51404232), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561074), and the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2011ZX05038003).
Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.; Narushima, Y.
2014-09-15
The aim of this study was to analyze the feedback process between the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradients in Large Helical Device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations as well as its role in the transition between the soft-hard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regimes for instabilities driven by the mode 1/2 in the middle plasma. In the present paper, we summarize the results of two simulations with different Lundquist numbers, S=2.5×10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}, assuming a plasma in the slow reconnection regime. The results for the high Lundquist number simulation show that the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradient in the middle plasma region of LHD are below the critical value to drive the transition to the hard MHD regime, therefore only relaxations in the soft MHD limit are triggered (1/2 sawtooth-like events) [Phys. Plasmas 19, 082512 (2012)]. In the case of the simulation with low Lundquist number, the system reaches the hard MHD limit and a plasma collapse is observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schobeiri, M. T.; Radke, R. E.
1996-01-01
Boundary layer transition and development on a turbomachinery blade is subjected to highly periodic unsteady turbulent flow, pressure gradient in longitudinal as well as lateral direction, and surface curvature. To study the effects of periodic unsteady wakes on the concave surface of a turbine blade, a curved plate was utilized. On the concave surface of this plate, detailed experimental investigations were carried out under zero and negative pressure gradient. The measurements were performed in an unsteady flow research facility using a rotating cascade of rods positioned upstream of the curved plate. Boundary layer measurements using a hot-wire probe were analyzed by the ensemble-averaging technique. The results presented in the temporal-spatial domain display the transition and further development of the boundary layer, specifically the ensemble-averaged velocity and turbulence intensity. As the results show, the turbulent patches generated by the wakes have different leading and trailing edge velocities and merge with the boundary layer resulting in a strong deformation and generation of a high turbulence intensity core. After the turbulent patch has totally penetrated into the boundary layer, pronounced becalmed regions were formed behind the turbulent patch and were extended far beyond the point they would occur in the corresponding undisturbed steady boundary layer.
Bernoulli, Euler, Riccati and Solitons
Rzadkowski, Grzegorz
2009-09-09
In this paper we present a theorem showing the reason of the connection between Bernoulli numbers and solitons, the solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The theorem involves Eulerian numbers and Riccati's differential equation.
Longitudinal solitons in carbon nanotubes
Astakhova, T. Yu.; Gurin, O. D.; Menon, M.; Vinogradov, G. A.
2001-07-15
We present results on soliton excitations in carbon nanotubes (CNT's) using Brenner's many-body potential. Our numerical simulations demonstrate high soliton stability in (10,10) CNT's. The interactions of solitons and solitary excitation with CNT defect are found to be inelastic if the excitations and defects length scales are comparable, resulting in a substantial part of soliton energy being distributed inhomogeneously over the defect bonds. In these solitary-excitation--cap collisions the local energy of a few bonds in the cap can exceed the average energy by an order of magnitude and more. This phenomenon, denoted the ''Tsunami effect,'' can contribute dynamically to the recently proposed ''kinky chemistry.'' We also present results of changes in the local density of states and variations in the atomic partial charges estimated at different time instants of the solitary-excitation Tsunami at the nanotube cap.
Bell's Theorem and Entangled Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybakov, Yu. P.; Kamalov, T. F.
2016-09-01
Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) spin correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles.
Hopf solitons and elastic rods
Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul; Speight, Martin
2011-03-15
Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.
Bell's Theorem and Entangled Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybakov, Yu. P.; Kamalov, T. F.
2016-05-01
Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) spin correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles.
Vortex soliton motion and steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christou, Jason; Tikhonenko, Vladimir; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Luther-Davies, Barry
1996-10-01
Experimental demonstration of the steering of an optical vortex soliton by the superposition of a weak coherent background field is presented. A model to account for vortex motion is derived, and its validity is verified experimentally and numerically.
Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eilbeck, J. C.; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, A. C.
1984-10-01
The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.
Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide
Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.
1984-10-15
The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.
Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output
McEwan, Thomas E.; Dallum, Gregory E.
1998-01-01
An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground.
Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output
McEwan, T.E.; Dallum, G.E.
1998-09-08
An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground. 5 figs.
Vector interactions of steady-state planar solitons in biased photorefractive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. R.; Carvalho, M. I.; Christodoulides, D. N.
1995-11-01
A theory describing the steady-state propagation of orthogonally polarized planar bright beams in biased photorefractive media is developed. Interactions between soliton states of each polarization in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal are then investigated numerically. Our results indicate that such vector interactions can lead to a number of interesting effects such as beam compression and beam steering.
PIC simulation of compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhong-Zheng; Zhang, Heng; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Dong-Ning; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei
2016-08-01
The nonlinear propagations of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated by the particle-in-cell method. By comparing the simulation results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is observed that the rarefactive KdV solitons propagate stably at a low amplitude, and when the amplitude is increased, the prime wave form evolves and then gradually breaks into several small amplitude solitary waves near the tail of soliton structure. The compressive KdV solitons propagate unstably and oscillation arises near the tail of soliton structure. The finite amplitude rarefactive and compressive Gardner solitons seem to propagate stably.
Stretched cavity soliton in dispersion-managed Kerr resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Chengying; Yang, Changxi
2015-08-01
Stretched cavity soliton (SCS) in dispersion-managed nonlinear resonators is numerically investigated. SCS is found to stretch and compress twice during a round-trip propagation inside the dispersion-managed resonator, exhibiting a pulse dynamics similar to dispersion-managed mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Even though the breathing ratio is relatively small, the characteristics of SCS are significantly modified by the pulse stretching dynamics in the resonator. The output pulse will have a flatter spectrum around the center frequency. However, the power for the comb lines at the wing of the spectrum decays faster than the conventional sech-shaped CS, making dispersion wave emission harder to be excited in dispersion-managed resonators. Furthermore, stretching of the pulse lowers the nonlinear phase shift and makes it more resistant towards breather soliton instability. When shortening the cavity length to the microresonator scale, we find that ultrashort pulses can be generated through dispersion management, even in a low Q -factor cavity.
Compact all-fiber laser delivering conventional and dissipative solitons.
Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Han, Dongdong; Lu, Hua
2013-08-15
We report the simultaneous generation of conventional soliton (CS) and dissipative soliton (DS) in a mode-locked fiber laser exploiting chirped fiber Bragg grating and four-port circulator. The bandwidth and duration of the CS are 0.28 nm and 15.1 ps, respectively. However, the giant-chirp DS exhibits a quasi-rectangular spectrum with a bandwidth of 9.5 nm. The duration of the output DS is 7.3 ps and can be compressed to 0.55 ps external to the cavity. Our numerical results agree well with the experimental observations. The flexible all-fiber laser can provide three different pulse sources, which is convenient and attractive for practical applications. PMID:24104684
Bello-Jiménez, M; Kuzin, E A; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Flores-Rosas, A; Durán-Sánchez, M
2010-02-01
We demonstrate the extraction of a single soliton from a bunch of solitons generated by the pulse breakup effect. The bunch of solitons was generated in a 500-m fiber pumped by 25-ps pulses. For the extraction of single soliton from the bunch we use a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). At its output we detected a pulse with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.99 ps whose autocorrelation trace corresponds to that of a soliton. Our results demonstrate that the suggested method can be useful for soliton generation, and also for investigations of the initial stage of the soliton formation process. PMID:20174037
Compressibility Corrections to Closure Approximations for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Cloutman, L D
2003-02-01
We summarize some modifications to the usual closure approximations for statistical models of turbulence that are necessary for use with compressible fluids at all Mach numbers. We concentrate here on the gradient-flu approximation for the turbulent heat flux, on the buoyancy production of turbulence kinetic energy, and on a modification of the Smagorinsky model to include buoyancy. In all cases, there are pressure gradient terms that do not appear in the incompressible models and are usually omitted in compressible-flow models. Omission of these terms allows unphysical rates of entropy change.
Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds
Song, Chong; Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Youde
2013-12-15
It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.
Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chong; Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Youde
2013-12-01
It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.
Alfven solitons in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ovenden, C.; Schwartz, S. J.
1983-01-01
A nonlinear Alfven soliton solution of the MHD equations is presented. This solution represents the final state of modulationally unstable Alfven waves. A model of the expected turbulent spectrum due to a collection of such solitons is briefly described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.
1986-01-01
A brief review of current annular seal theory and a discussion of the predicted effect on stiffness of tapering the seal stator are presented. An outline of Nelson's analytical-computational method for determining rotordynamic coefficients for annular compressible-flow seals is included. Modifications to increase the maximum rotor speed of an existing air-seal test apparatus at Texas A&M University are described. Experimental results, including leakage, entrance-loss coefficients, pressure distributions, and normalized rotordynamic coefficients, are presented for four convergent-tapered, smooth-rotor, smooth-stator seals. A comparison of the test results shows that an inlet-to-exit clearance ratio of 1.5 to 2.0 provides the maximum direct stiffness, a clearance ratio of 2.5 provides the greatest stability, and a clearance ratio of 1.0 provides the least stability. The experimental results are compared to theoretical results from Nelson's analysis with good agreement. Test results for cross-coupled stiffness show less sensitivity of fluid prerotation than predicted.
Kummer solitons in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj
2009-01-01
We solve the three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent strongly nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NNSE) in spherical coordinates, with the help of Kummer's functions. We obtain analytical solitary solutions, which we term the Kummer solitons. We compare analytical solutions with the numerical solutions of NNSE. We discuss higher-order Kummer spatial solitons, which can exist in various forms, such as the 3D vortex solitons and the multipole solitons.
The Soliton-Soliton Interaction in the Chiral Dilaton Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantovani-Sarti, Valentina; Park, Byung-Yoon; Vento, Vicente
2013-10-01
We study the interaction between two B = 1 states in the Chiral Dilaton Model where baryons are described as nontopological solitons arising from the interaction of chiral mesons and quarks. By using the hedgehog solution for B = 1 states we construct, via a product ansatz, three possible B = 2 configurations to analyse the role of the relative orientation of the hedgehog quills in the dynamics of the soliton-soliton interaction and investigate the behavior of these solutions in the range of long/intermediate distance. One of the solutions is quite binding due to the dynamics of the π and σ fields at intermediate distance and should be used for nuclear matter studies. Since the product ansatz break down as the two solitons get close, we explore the short range distance regime with a model that describes the interaction via a six-quark bag ansatz. We calculate the interaction energy as a function of the inter-soliton distance and show that for small separations the six quarks bag, assuming a hedgehog structure, provides a stable bound state that at large separations connects with a special configuration coming from the product ansatz.
Critical density of a soliton gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El, G. A.
2016-02-01
We quantify the notion of a dense soliton gas by establishing an upper bound for the integrated density of states of the quantum-mechanical Schrödinger operator associated with the Korteweg-de Vries soliton gas dynamics. As a by-product of our derivation, we find the speed of sound in the soliton gas with Gaussian spectral distribution function.
Spiraling multivortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.
Buccoliero, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-01-15
We demonstrate the existence of a broad class of higher-order rotating spatial solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We employ the generalized Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian ansatz for constructing multivortex soliton solutions and study numerically their dynamics and stability. We discuss in detail the tripole soliton carrying two spiraling phase dislocations, or self-trapped optical vortices. PMID:18197238
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Catherine; Brzek, Brian; Castillo, Luciano; Turan, Ozden
2004-11-01
The increasingly adverse pressure gradient boundary layer flow of Samuel and Joubert (1974) is compared with a similar flow from the Victoria University wind tunnel. The flow development in these two flows is described with the Zagarola/Smits (1998) scaling. Moreover, the equilibrium pressure parameter of Castillo/George (2001) is used to further quantify the transition from FPG/ZPG to APG flow behavior, as exhibited by the variation of the pressure coefficient, Cp. Although Cp is insufficient to predict outer flow scaling characteristics, it is important in understanding the nature of the flow development. Reynolds stress data from the Victoria University wind tunnel experiment is also presented to show that an equilibrium behavior in the sense of Townsend, is not demonstrated either with the classical or Castillo/George (2001) scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, A. E.; Matveev, A. N.; Nekrich, G. S.; Polikarpov, A. M.
2013-11-01
This work continues a study of the method for constructing the frequency dependence for a projector-receiver pair in a free field by complex moving weighted averaging of the frequency dependence for a pair measured in the field of a reflecting water tank. The method is applied to the free-field calibration of a pressure gradient receiver using a reference hydrophone when radiating a complex linear frequency-modulated (LFM) signal. To improve the estimates of this method, we edited the initial frequency dependences using functions in the form of the product of the complex LFM projector current multiplied by the powerlaw function of the LFM signal frequency. We consider ways to use a priori information both to improve the results obtained by complex moving weighted averaging and to estimate the distortions introduced by this method are considered.
Murata, Naotaka; Aihara, Hideaki; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Tomoi, Yusuke; Hiramori, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yohei; Ichihashi, Kei; Tanaka, Nobuhiro
2015-01-01
Objective To examine the pressure gradient and peripheral fractional flow reserve (pFFR) measured by a pressure wire as indicators of hemodynamic significance in iliofemoral angiographic intermediate stenosis. Background The utility of pressure measurements using a pressure wire with vasodilators is unclear in cases with intermediate iliofemoral stenosis. Methods The mean pressure gradient (MPG) and mean pressure ratio (MPR) were measured at baseline and after injection of isosorbide dinitrate in 23 lesions with angiographically intermediate iliofemoral stenosis. Patients with complex lesions, infrapopliteal artery lesions, chronic total occlusion, and surgical bypass grafts were excluded. Hyperemic MPR was considered equivalent to pFFR. Changes in parameters in response to vasodilators were assessed and correlations of peak systolic velocity ratio (PSVR) with hyperemic MPG and pFFR were examined using duplex ultrasound. Results After injection of isosorbide dinitrate, hyperemic MPG increased significantly (from 9.0±5.7 to 16.3±6.2 mmHg; P<0.05) and hyperemic MPR (pFFR) decreased significantly (from 0.92±0.06 to 0.81±0.07; P<0.05). PSVR was significantly correlated with hyperemic MPG (R=0.52; P<0.05) and pFFR (R=−0.50; P<0.05). The optimal cut-off value of pFFR as an indicator of significant hemodynamic stenosis (PSVR >2.5) was 0.85 (area under the curve 0.72; sensitivity 94%; specificity 50%, P<0.05). Conclusion pFFR measured using a pressure wire is reliable for prediction of hemodynamic significance in iliofemoral intermediate stenosis. PMID:26635488
Bifurcations of solitons and their stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, E. A.; Dias, F.
2011-10-01
In spite of the huge progress in studies on solitary waves in the seventies and eighties of the XX century as well as their practical importance, the theory of solitons is far from being complete. Only in 1989, Longuet-Higgins in his numerical experiments discovered one-dimensional solitons for gravity-capillary waves in deep water. These solitons essentially differed from those in shallow water where the KDV equation could be used. Being localized, these solitons, unlike the KDV solitons, contain many oscillations in their shape. The number of oscillations was found to increase while approaching the maximal phase velocity for linear gravity-capillary waves and simultaneously the soliton amplitude was demonstrated to vanish. In fact, it was the first time ever that the bifurcation of solitons was observed. This review discusses bifurcations of solitons, both supercritical and subcritical, with applications to fluids and nonlinear optics as well. The main attention is paid to the universality of soliton behavior and stability of solitons while approaching supercritical bifurcations. For all physical models considered in this review, solitons are stationary points of the corresponding Hamiltonian for the fixed integrals of motion, i.e., the total momentum, number of quasi-particles, etc. Two approaches are used for the soliton stability analysis. The first method is based on the Lyapunov theory and another one is connected with the linear stability criterion of the Vakhitov-Kolokolov type. The Lyapunov stability proof is maintained by means of application of the integral majorized inequalities being sequences of the Sobolev embedding theorem. This allows one to demonstrate the boundedness of the Hamiltonians and show that solitons, as stationary points, which realize the minimum (or maximum) of the Hamiltonian, are stable in the Lyapunov sense. In the case of unstable solitons, the nonlinear stage of their instability near the bifurcation point results in the
Gravitational radiation from primordial solitons and soliton-star binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gleiser, Marcelo
1989-01-01
The possibility that both the formation of nontopological solitons in a primordial second-order phase transition and binary systems of soliton stars could generate a stochastic gravitational-wave background is examined. The present contribution of gravitational radiation to the energy density of the universe from these processes is estimated for a number of different models. The detectability of such contributions from the timing measurements of the millisecond pulsar and spaceborne laser interferometry is briefly discussed and compared to other cosmological and local sources of background gravitational waves.
Soliton dynamics in modulated Bessel photonic lattices
Ruelas, Adrian; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Gutierrez-Vega, Julio C.
2010-12-15
We address the existence and the controlled stability of two-dimensional solitons in modulated Bessel lattices (MBL) induced by a superposition of nondiffracting Bessel beams. We show that variation of the modulation parameter of the lattice and the initial transverse momentum of the soliton significantly modify the behavior of the solitons. We find that, under suitable and well-identified conditions, solitons propagating in the MBL exhibit six regimes of transverse mobility: stationary, oscillatory, rotating, unbounded or escape, transitional, and unstable. These results report propagating solitons that can develop these dynamics of transverse motion.
Interface solitons in thermal nonlinear media
Ma Xuekai; Yang Zhenjun; Lu Daquan; Hu Wei
2011-05-15
We demonstrate the existence of fundamental and dipole interface solitons in one-dimensional thermal nonlinear media with a step in linear refractive index. Fundamental interface solitons are found to be always stable and the stability of dipole interface solitons depends on the difference in linear refractive index. The mass center of interface solitons always locates in the side with higher refractive index. The two intensity peaks of dipole interface solitons are unequal except under some specific conditions, which is different from their counterparts in uniform thermal nonlinear media.
Internal wave solitons. [in stratified fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meiss, J. D.; Pereira, N. R.
1978-01-01
Attention is given to the Benjamin-Ono equation for waves within a stratified fluid, i.e., internal waves. Numerical computations indicate soliton-like behavior since solitary waves pass through each other upon collision. In addition, two and three Lorentzian solitons are noted to pass through one another. An initial Lorentzian having an amplitude larger than soliton amplitude is observed to decay into solitons. The velocities of these solitons may be predicted by conservation laws. Future work will be directed toward determining exact solutions.
Thermal diffusion of Boussinesq solitons.
Arévalo, Edward; Mertens, Franz G
2007-10-01
We consider the problem of the soliton dynamics in the presence of an external noisy force for the Boussinesq type equations. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of the relevant coordinates of the system is derived. We show that for the improved Boussinesq (IBq) equation the set of ODEs has limiting cases leading to a set of ODEs which can be directly derived either from the ill-posed Boussinesq equation or from the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The case of a soliton propagating in the presence of damping and thermal noise is considered for the IBq equation. A good agreement between theory and simulations is observed showing the strong robustness of these excitations. The results obtained here generalize previous results obtained in the frame of the KdV equation for lattice solitons in the monatomic chain of atoms. PMID:17995127
Solitons and nonlinear wave equations
Dodd, Roger K.; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Gibbon, John D.; Morris, Hedley C.
1982-01-01
A discussion of the theory and applications of classical solitons is presented with a brief treatment of quantum mechanical effects which occur in particle physics and quantum field theory. The subjects addressed include: solitary waves and solitons, scattering transforms, the Schroedinger equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the inverse method for the isospectral Schroedinger equation and the general solution of the solvable nonlinear equations. Also considered are: isolation of the Korteweg-de Vries equation in some physical examples, the Zakharov-Shabat/AKNS inverse method, kinks and the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and wave resonance interactions, amplitude equations in unstable systems, and numerical studies of solitons. 45 references.
Foerner, W.
1996-12-31
The mechanism for energy and signal transport in proteins is suggested by Davydov is discussed. This mechanism is based on a coupling of amide-I oscillators to acoustic phonons in a hydrogen bonded chain. Results as obtained with the usually used ansaetze are discussed. The quality of these states for an approximate solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is investigated. It is found that the semiclassical ansatz is a poor approximation, while the more sophisticated {vert_bar}D{sub 1}> state seems to represent the exact dynamics quite well. Calculations at a temperature of 300K for one chain, as well as for three coupled ones (as they are present in an {alpha}-helix) are presented and discussed. From the calculations it is evident, that Davydov solitons are stable for reasonable parameter values at 300K only for special initial excitation at one terminal site of the chain, which has to be the one having a C=O group not directly coupled to the lattice. Since the model for temperature effects used was critisized from the theoretical point of view, we suggest an improved theory for temperature effects. Recent experimental findings, that also normal modes describing mainly N-H stretching vibrations are their coupling to the hydrogen bonds, instead of amide-I, should be considered are discussed.
Phase structure of soliton molecules
Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Boehm, M.; Mitschke, F.
2007-06-15
Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E-fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.
Phase structure of soliton molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Böhm, M.; Mitschke, F.
2007-06-01
Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E -fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.
Fermionic Quantization of Hopf Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krusch, S.; Speight, J. M.
2006-06-01
In this paper we show how to quantize Hopf solitons using the Finkelstein-Rubinstein approach. Hopf solitons can be quantized as fermions if their Hopf charge is odd. Symmetries of classical minimal energy configurations induce loops in configuration space which give rise to constraints on the wave function. These constraints depend on whether the given loop is contractible. Our method is to exploit the relationship between the configuration spaces of the Faddeev-Hopf and Skyrme models provided by the Hopf fibration. We then use recent results in the Skyrme model to determine whether loops are contractible. We discuss possible quantum ground states up to Hopf charge Q=7.
Negative mass solitons in gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cebeci, Hakan; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür; Tekin, Bayram
2006-03-01
We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Zp spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordström metrics.
Ion temperature gradient mode driven solitons and shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakir, U.; Adnan, Muhammad; Haque, Q.; Qamar, Anisa; Mirza, Arshad M.
2016-04-01
Ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven solitons and shocks are studied in a plasma having gradients in the equilibrium number density and equilibrium ion temperature. In the linear regime, it is found that the ion temperature and the ratio of the gradient scale lengths, ηi=Ln/LT , affect both the real frequency and the growth rate of the ITG driven wave instability. In the nonlinear regime, for the first time we derive a Korteweg de Vries-type equation for the ITG mode, which admits solitary wave solution. It is found that the ITG mode supports only compressive solitons. Further, it is noticed that the soliton amplitude and width are sensitive to the parameter ηi=Ln/LT . Second, in the presence of dissipation in the system, we obtain a Burger type equation, which admits the shock wave solution. This work may be useful to understand the low frequency electrostatic modes in inhomogeneous electron-ion plasma having density and ion temperature gradients. For illustration, the model has been applied to tokamak plasma.
SOLITONS: Stimulated decay of N-soliton pulses and optimal separation of one-soliton components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleshkevich, Viktor A.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Zhukarev, A. S.; Kartashev, Ya V.; Sinilo, P. V.
2003-05-01
The decay of an N-soliton optical pulse in optical fibres induced by the nonlinear interaction with a perturbing pulse is analysed numerically. The main attention is paid to the analysis of conditions under which the separation of soliton components occurs over a minimal distance. The analysis was performed by varying the carrier frequency of the perturbing pulse, its shift in time, and the phase difference. The numerical calculations are confirmed for the zero time shift by analytic calculations performed by the method of inverse scattering problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, QingQing; Chen, Tong; Li, Mingshan; Zhang, Botao; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin P.
2013-07-01
An ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser with large net normal dispersion has been developed to produce dissipative soliton and noise-like outputs at 1.9 μm. The mode-locked operation was enabled by using single-wall carbon nanotubes as saturable absorber for all-fiber configuration. Dissipative soliton in normal dispersion produced by the fiber laser oscillator was centered at 1947 nm with 4.1-nm FWHM bandwidth and 0.45 nJ/pulse. The output dissipative soliton pulses were compressed to 2.3 ps outside the laser cavity.
Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.
1980-01-01
Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.
Vibrational soliton: an experimental overview
Bigio, I.J.
1986-03-08
To date the most convincing evidence of vibrational solitons in biopolymers has been found in two very disparate systems: Davydov-like excitations in hydrogen-bonded linear chains (acetanilide and N-methylacetamide) which are not biopolymers but plausible structural paradigms for biopolymers, and longitudinal accoustic modes of possibly nonlinear character in biologically viable DNA. 17 refs., 4 figs.
Solitons induced by boundary conditions
Zhou, R.L.
1987-01-01
Although soliton phenomena have attracted wide attention since 1965, there are still not enough efforts paid to mixed-boundary - initial-value problems that are important in real physical cases. The main purpose of this thesis is to study carefully the various boundary-induced soliton under different initial conditions. The author states with three sets of nonlinear equations: KdV equations and Boussinesq equations (for water); two-fluid equations for cold-ion plasma. He was interested in four types of problems involved with water solitons: excitation by different time-dependent boundary conditions under different initial conditions; head-on and over-taking collisions; reflection at a wall and the excitation by pure initial conditions. For KdV equations, only cases one and four are conducted. The results from two fully nonlinear KdV and Boussinesq equations are compared, and agree extremely well. The Boussinesq equations permit solition head-on collisions and reflections, studied the first time. The results from take-over collision agree with KdV results. For the ion-acoustic plasma, a set of Boussinesq-type equations was derived from the standard two-fluid equations for the ion-acoustic plasma. It theoretically proves the essential nature of the solitary wave solutions of the cold-ion plasma. The ion acoustic solitons are also obtained by prescribing a potential phi/sub 0/ at one grid point.
Soliton molecules: Experiments and optimization
Mitschke, Fedor
2014-10-06
Stable compound states of several fiber-optic solitons have recently been demonstrated. In the first experiment their shape was approximated, for want of a better description, by a sum of Gaussians. Here we discuss an optimization strategy which helps to find preferable shapes so that the generation of radiative background is reduced.
OPTICAL SOLITONS: Optical solitons appearing during propagation of whispering-gallery waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, S. V.
2003-10-01
The properties of solitons appearing during the propagation of whispering-gallery waves in a homogeneous glass cylinder are considered. It is shown that such solitons can be used for the light frequency conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Wanjun; Li, Xia; Xing, Zhaojun; Zhou, Qinling; Fang, Yongzheng; Gao, Weiqing; Xiong, Liangming; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong
2016-01-01
Wavelength conversion to the wavelength range that is not covered by commercially available lasers could be accomplished through the soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) effect. In this study, the phenomenon of SSFS pumped by a picosecond-order pulse in a tellurite microstructured fiber is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The balance between the dispersion and the nonlinearity achieved by a 1958 nm pump laser induces a distinct SSFS effect. Attributed to the large spectral distance between the pump pulse and the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength, the SSFS is not cancelled due to energy shedding from the soliton to the dispersive wave. Details about the physical mechanisms behind this phenomenon and the variations of the wavelength shift, the conversion efficiency are revealed based on numerical simulations. Owing to the large soliton number N, the pulse width of the first split fundamental soliton is approximately 40 fs, producing a pulse compression factor of ˜38, much higher than that pumped by a femtosecond pulse. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the validity of the simulation results. By varying the pump power, a continuous soliton shift from 1990 nm to 2264 nm was generated. The generation of SSFS in tellurite microstructured fibers with picosecond pump pulse can provide a new approach for wavelength conversion in the mid-infrared range and could be useful in medical and some other areas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rued, Klaus
1987-01-01
The requirements for fundamental experimental studies of the influence of free stream turbulence, pressure gradients and wall cooling are discussed. Under turbine-like free stream conditions, comprehensive tests of transitional boundary layers with laminar, reversing and turbulent flow increments were performed to decouple the effects of the parameters and to determine the effects during mutual interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. Roane; Notestine, Kristopher K.
1990-01-01
Surface and gap pressures and heating-rate distributions were obtained for simulated Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile arrays on the curved surface test apparatus of the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel at Mach 6.6. The results indicated that the chine gap pressures varied inversely with gap width because larger gap widths allowed greater venting from the gap to the lower model side pressures. Lower gap pressures caused greater flow ingress from the surface and increased gap heating. Generally, gap heating was greater in the longitudinal gaps than in the circumferential gaps. Gap heating decreased with increasing gap depth. Circumferential gap heating at the mid-depth was generally less than about 10 percent of the external surface value. Gap heating was most severe at local T-gap junctions and tile-to-tile forward-facing steps that caused the greatest heating from flow impingement. The use of flow stoppers at discrete locations reduced heating from flow impingement. The use of flow stoppers at discrete locations reduced heating in most gaps but increased heating in others. Limited use of flow stoppers or gap filler in longitudinal gaps could reduce gap heating in open circumferential gaps in regions of high surface pressure gradients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Rieke; Mironov, Dmitrii; Raasch, Siegfried
2016-03-01
A detailed analysis of the pressure-scrambling terms (i.e., the pressure-strain and pressure gradient-scalar covariances) in the Reynolds-stress and scalar-flux budgets for cloud-topped boundary layers (CTBLs) is performed using high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES). Two CTBLs are simulated — one with trade wind shallow cumuli, and the other with nocturnal marine stratocumuli. The pressure-scrambling terms are decomposed into contributions due to turbulence-turbulence interactions, mean velocity shear, buoyancy, and Coriolis effects. Commonly used models of these contributions, including a simple linear model most often used in geophysical applications and a more sophisticated two-component-limit (TCL) nonlinear model, are tested against the LES data. The decomposition of the pressure-scrambling terms shows that the turbulence-turbulence and buoyancy contributions are most significant for cloud-topped boundary layers. The Coriolis contribution is negligible. The shear contribution is generally of minor importance inside the cloudy layers, but it is the leading-order contribution near the surface. A comparison of models of the pressure-scrambling terms with the LES data suggests that the more complex TCL model is superior to the simple linear model only for a few contributions. The linear model is able to reproduce the principal features of the pressure-scrambling terms reasonably well. It can be applied in the second-order turbulence modeling of cloud-topped boundary layer flows, provided some uncertainties are tolerated.
Garcia, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.; Calvo, I.
2009-10-15
For the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence model, the transition from laminar regime to fully developed turbulence is not simple and goes through several phases. For low values of the plasma parameter {beta}, a single quasicoherent structure forms. As {beta} increases, several of these structures may emerge and in turn take the dominant role. Finally, at high {beta}, fully developed turbulence with a broad spectrum is established. A suitable characterization of this transition can be given in terms of topological properties of the flow. Here, we analyze these properties that provide an understanding of the turbulence-induced transport and give a measure of the breaking of the homogeneity of the turbulence. To this end, an approach is developed that allows discriminating between topological properties of plasma turbulence flows that are relevant to the transport dynamics and the ones that are not. This is done using computational homology tools and leads to a faster convergence of numerical results for a fixed level of resolution than previously presented in Phys. Rev. E 78, 066402 (2008)
Wegner, Nicholas C; Lai, N Chin; Bull, Kristina B; Graham, Jeffrey B
2012-01-01
Ram ventilation and gill function in a lamnid shark, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were studied to assess how gill structure may affect the lamnid-tuna convergence for high-performance swimming. Despite differences in mako and tuna gill morphology, mouth gape and basal swimming speeds, measurements of mako O(2) utilization at the gills (53.4±4.2%) and the pressure gradient driving branchial flow (96.8±26.1 Pa at a mean swimming speed of 38.8±5.8 cm s(-1)) are similar to values reported for tunas. Also comparable to tunas are estimates of the velocity (0.22±0.03 cm s(-1)) and residence time (0.79±0.14 s) of water though the interlamellar channels of the mako gill. However, mako and tuna gills differ in the sites of primary branchial resistance. In the mako, approximately 80% of the total branchial resistance resides in the septal channels, structures inherent to the elasmobranch gill that are not present in tunas. The added resistance at this location is compensated by a correspondingly lower resistance at the gill lamellae accomplished through wider interlamellar channels. Although greater interlamellar spacing minimizes branchial resistance, it also limits lamellar number and results in a lower total gill surface area for the mako relative to tunas. The morphology of the elasmobranch gill thus appears to constrain gill area and, consequently, limit mako aerobic performance to less than that of tunas. PMID:22162850
Making beam splitters with dark soliton collisions
Steiglitz, Ken
2010-10-15
We show with numerical simulations that for certain simple choices of parameters, the waveguides induced by colliding dark solitons in a Kerr medium yield a complete family of beam splitters for trapped linear waves, ranging from total transmission to total deflection. The way energy is transferred from one waveguide to another is similar to that of a directional coupler, but no special fabrication is required. Dark soliton beam splitters offer potential advantages over their bright soliton counterparts: Their transfer characteristics do not depend on the relative phase or speed of the colliding solitons; dark solitons are generally more robust than bright solitons; and the probe peaks at nulls of the pump, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio for probe detection. The last factor is especially important for possible application to quantum information processing.
"Wandering" soliton in a nonlinear photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lysak, T. M.; Trofimov, V. A.
2015-12-01
On the basis of computer simulation, we demonstrate the possibility of a new type of "wandering" solitons implementation in nonlinear periodic layered structures. "Wandering" soliton moves across the layers, repeatedly changing its direction of motion due to the reflection from the photonic crystal (PC) boundaries with the ambient medium. The initial soliton is located inside a PC and occupies several of its layers. Its profile can be found as the solution of the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem. "Wandering" solitons are formed as a result of a large perturbation of the wave vector, which leads to the soliton motion across photonic crystal layers. In the process of reflection from the boundary with the ambient medium, the soliton partly penetrates into the ambient medium at a depth equal to the width of several PC layers. A slow return of light energy, which previously left the PC, can take place at this moment.
Solitons in the midst of chaos
Seghete, Vlad; Menyuk, Curtis R.; Marks, Brian S.
2007-10-15
A system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations describes pulse propagation in weakly birefringent optical fibers. Soliton solutions of this system are found numerically through the shooting method. We employ Poincare surface of section plots - a standard dynamical systems approach - to analyze the phase space behavior of these solutions and neighboring trajectories. Chaotic behavior around the solitons is apparent and suggests dynamical instability. A Lyapunov stability analysis confirms this result. Thus, solitons exist in the midst of chaos.
Critical density of a soliton gas.
El, G A
2016-02-01
We quantify the notion of a dense soliton gas by establishing an upper bound for the integrated density of states of the quantum-mechanical Schrödinger operator associated with the Korteweg-de Vries soliton gas dynamics. As a by-product of our derivation, we find the speed of sound in the soliton gas with Gaussian spectral distribution function. PMID:26931586
Stationary nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.
1989-01-01
Stationary solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation are discussed and classified by using a pseudopotential formulation. The solutions consist of a rich family of nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons with parallel and oblique propagation directions. Expressions for the envelope and the phase of nonlinear waves with periodic envelope modulation, and 'hyperbolic' and 'algebraic' solitons are given. The propagation angle for the slightly modulated elliptic, periodic waves and for oblique solitons is evaluated.
Observation of noise-like solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping; Tang, M.; Tang, Ding Y.; Lu, C.; Guo, Xin; Qi, Z. W.; Lin, Feng
2004-05-01
Noise-like ultra-short soliton pulses train of 72fs without CW components are observed from Figure-8 passively mode locked fiber laser; noise-like bound states of asymmetrical solitons train with pulse width of 103fs and separation of 585.5fs are also observed. The bound soliton separation and pulsewidth keep unchanged even after 1.2Km Single Mode Fiber transmission.
Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.
2016-08-01
We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schrödinger integrable equations.
Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2011-04-15
Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.
Luminescence-induced photorefractive spatial solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazio, E.; Alonzo, M.; Devaux, F.; Toncelli, A.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Sada, C.; Chauvet, M.
2010-03-01
We report the observation of spatial confinement of a pump beam into a photorefractive solitonic channel induced by luminescence [luminescence induced spatial soliton (LISS)]. Trapped beams have been obtained in erbium doped lithium niobate crystals at concentrations as high as 0.7 mol % of erbium. By pumping at 980 nm, erbium ions emit photons at 550 nm by two-step absorption, wavelength which can be absorbed by lithium niobate and originates the photorefractive effect. The luminescence at 550 nm generates at the same time the solitonic channel and the background illumination reaching a steady-state soliton regime.
Discrete surface solitons in two dimensions
Susanto, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, B. A.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2007-05-15
We investigate fundamental localized modes in two-dimensional lattices with an edge (surface). The interaction with the edge expands the stability area for fundamental solitons, and induces a difference between dipoles oriented perpendicular and parallel to the surface. On the contrary, lattice vortex solitons cannot exist too close to the border. We also show, analytically and numerically, that the edge supports a species of localized patterns, which exists too but is unstable in the uniform lattice, namely, a horseshoe-shaped soliton, whose ''skeleton'' consists of three lattice sites. Unstable horseshoes transform themselves into a pair of ordinary solitons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Daisuke A.
2016-06-01
An integrable model possessing inhomogeneous ground states is proposed as an effective model of nonuniform quantum condensates such as supersolids and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluids. The model is a higher-order analog of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We derive an n -soliton solution via the inverse scattering theory with elliptic-functional background and reveal various kinds of soliton dynamics such as dark soliton billiards, dislocations, gray solitons, and envelope solitons. We also provide the exact bosonic and fermionic quasiparticle eigenstates and show their tunneling phenomena. The solutions are expressed by a determinant of theta functions.
Takahashi, Daisuke A
2016-06-01
An integrable model possessing inhomogeneous ground states is proposed as an effective model of nonuniform quantum condensates such as supersolids and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluids. The model is a higher-order analog of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We derive an n-soliton solution via the inverse scattering theory with elliptic-functional background and reveal various kinds of soliton dynamics such as dark soliton billiards, dislocations, gray solitons, and envelope solitons. We also provide the exact bosonic and fermionic quasiparticle eigenstates and show their tunneling phenomena. The solutions are expressed by a determinant of theta functions. PMID:27415270
Topological solitons in optical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaparov, V. V.; Taranenko, V. B.
2016-07-01
We present an overview of theoretical and experimental works on self-sustaining localized structures—spatial solitons—which can be formed in optical bistable oscillators with laser and/or parametric gain. The main attention is paid to the existence and dynamical properties of spatial solitons containing phase and polarization topological defects including vortices, points of circular polarizations and lines of linear polarization, domain walls and composed domain walls with Néel point topological defects.
Tey, Tze Tong; Gogna, Apoorva; Irani, Farah Gillan; Too, Chow Wei; Lo, Hoau Gong Richard; Tan, Bien Soo; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lui, Hock Foong; Chang, Pik Eu Jason
2016-01-01
INTRODUCTION Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is recommended for prognostic and therapeutic indications in centres with adequate resources and expertise. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of HVPG measurements at our centre before and after introduction of a standardised protocol, and the clinical relevance of the HVPG to variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. METHODS HVPG measurements performed at Singapore General Hospital from 2005–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for quality HVPG readings were triplicate readings, absence of negative pressure values and variability of ≤ 2 mmHg. The rate of variceal bleeding was compared in cirrhotics who achieved a HVPG response to pharmacotherapy (reduction of the HVPG to < 12 mmHg or by ≥ 20% of baseline) and those who did not. RESULTS 126 HVPG measurements were performed in 105 patients (mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 years; 55.2% men). 80% had liver cirrhosis and 20% had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). The mean overall HVPG was 13.5 ± 7.2 mmHg, with a significant difference between the cirrhosis and NCPH groups (p < 0.001). The proportion of quality readings significantly improved after the protocol was introduced. HVPG response was achieved in 28 (33.3%, n = 84) cirrhotics. Nine had variceal bleeding over a median follow-up of 29 months. The rate of variceal bleeding was significantly lower in HVPG responders compared to nonresponders (p = 0.025). CONCLUSION The quality of HVPG measurements in our centre improved after the introduction of a standardised protocol. A HVPG response can prognosticate the risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. PMID:26996384
Tedford, Ryan J.; Beaty, Claude A.; Mathai, Stephen C.; Kolb, Todd M.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.; Leary, Peter J.; Kass, David A.; Shah, Ashish S.
2014-01-01
Background Although the transpulmonary gradient (TPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) are commonly used to differentiate heart failure patients with pulmonary vascular disease from those with passive pulmonary hypertension (PH), elevations in TPG and PVR may not always reflect pre-capillary PH. Recently, it has been suggested an elevated diastolic pulmonary artery pressure to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure gradient (DPG) may be better indicator of pulmonary vascular remodeling, and therefore, may be of added prognostic value in patients with PH being considered for cardiac transplantation. Methods Utilizing the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, we retrospectively reviewed all primary adult (age >17 years) orthotropic heart transplant recipients between 1998–2011. All patients with available pre-transplant hemodynamic data and PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25mmHg were included (n=16,811). We assessed the prognostic value of DPG on post-transplant survival in patients with PH and an elevated TPG and PVR. Results In patients with PH and a TPG > 12mmHg (n=5,827), there was no difference in survival at up to 5 years post-transplant between high (defined as ≥3, ≥5, ≥7, or ≥10mmHg) and low DPG groups (<3, <5, <7, or <10mmHg). Similarly, there was no difference in survival between high and low DPG groups in those with a PVR > 3 wood units (n=6,270). Defining an elevated TPG as > 15mmHg (n=3,065) or an elevated PVR > 5 (n=1783) yielded similar results. Conclusions In the largest analysis to date investigating the prognostic value of DPG, an elevated DPG had no impact on post-transplant survival in patients with PH and an elevated TPG and PVR. PMID:24462554
McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.; Rajah, S. S.
2012-11-15
The theory of fully nonlinear stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is further developed. The existence of two fundamental constants of motion; namely, momentum flux density parallel to the background magnetic field and energy density, facilitates the reduction of the wave structure equation to a first order differential equation. For subsonic waves propagating sufficiently obliquely to the magnetic field, soliton solutions can be constructed. Importantly, analytic expressions for the amplitude of the soliton show that it increases with decreasing wave Mach number and with increasing obliquity to the magnetic field. In the subsonic, quasi-parallel case, periodic waves exist whose compressive and rarefactive amplitudes are asymmetric about the 'initial' point. A critical 'driver' field exists that gives rise to a soliton-like structure which corresponds to infinite wavelength. If the wave speed is supersonic, periodic waves may also be constructed. The aforementioned asymmetry in the waveform arises from the flow being driven towards the local sonic point in the compressive phase and away from it in the rarefactive phase. As the initial driver field approaches the critical value, the end point of the compressive phase becomes sonic and the waveform develops a wedge shape. This feature and the amplitudes of the compressive and rarefactive portions of the periodic waves are illustrated through new analytic expressions that follow from the equilibrium points of a wave structure equation which includes a driver field. These expressions are illustrated with figures that illuminate the nature of the solitons. The presently described wedge-shaped waveforms also occur in water waves, for similar 'transonic' reasons, when a Coriolis force is included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.
2001-11-01
The existence of the Lax representation for a model of soliton management under certain conditions is shown, which proves a complete integrability of the model. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for the problem of the optimal control of parameters of Schrodinger solitons in nonconservative systems with the group velocity dispersion, nonlinear refractive index, and gain (absorption coefficient) varying over the length. The examples demonstrating the non-trivial amplification dynamics of optical solitons, which are important from practical point of view, are considered. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for problems of the optimal amplification of solitons in optical fibres with monotonically decreasing dispersion and of Raman pumping of solitons in fibreoptic communication systems.
The upper-branch stability of compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.; Cole, J. W.
1989-01-01
The upper-branch linear and nonlinear stability of compressible boundary layer flows is studied using the approach of Smith and Bodonyi (1982) for a similar incompressible problem. Both pressure gradient boundary layers and Blasius flow are considered with and without heat transfer, and the neutral eigenrelations incorporating compressibility effects are obtained explicitly. The compressible nonlinear viscous critical layer equations are derived and solved numerically and the results indicate some solutions with positive phase shift across the critical layer. Various limiting cases are investigated including the case of much larger disturbance amplitudes and this indicates the structure for the strongly nonlinear critical layer of the Benney-Bergeon (1969) type. It is also shown how a match with the inviscid neutral inflexional modes arising from the generalized inflexion point criterion, is achieved.
Soliton solutions of coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarty, S.
2016-03-01
In this paper we study the soliton solutions of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations which describe pulse propagation in an active optical medium with coherent three-level atomic transitions and inhomogeneous broadening. The soliton solutions and polarization shifts due to soliton interactions are investigated. An infinite set of conservation laws as well as the soliton trace formulae are derived.
Dispersion-tailored active-fiber solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tartwijk, Guido H. M.; Essiambre, René-Jean; Agrawal, Govind P.
1996-12-01
We show analytically that tailoring the fiber dispersion appropriately can cause optical solitons to propagate unperturbed, without emission of dispersive waves, in a distributed-gain fiber amplifier with a nonuniform gain profile. We apply our scheme to a bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifier and discuss the importance of higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects for short solitons.
Nonplanar solitons collision in ultracold neutral plasmas
El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Metwally, M.; Sabry, R.; El-Labany, S. K.; Schlickeiser, R.
2013-09-15
Collisions between two nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons in strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasmas composed of ion fluid and non-Maxwellian (nonthermal or superthermal) electron distributions are investigated. The extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain coupled nonplanar Kortweg-de Vries equations for describing the system. The nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two solitons are calculated. It is found that the properties of the nonplanar colliding solitons and its corresponding phase shifts are different from those in the planar case. The polarity of the colliding solitons strongly depends on the type of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions. A critical nonthermality parameter β{sub c} is identified. For values of β ≤ β{sub c} solitons with double polarity exist, while this behavior cannot occur for superthermal plasmas. The phase shift for nonthermal plasmas increases below β{sub c} for a positive soliton, but it decreases for β > β{sub c} for a negative soliton. For superthermal plasmas, the phase shift enhances rapidly for low values of spectral index κ and higher values of ions effective temperature ratio σ{sub *}. For 2 ≲ κ<10, the phase shift decreases but does not change for κ > 10. The nonlinear structure, as reported here, is useful for controlling the solitons created in forthcoming ultracold neutral plasma experiments.
Effects of hot electron inertia on electron-acoustic solitons and double layers
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.
2015-07-15
The propagation of arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitons and double layers is investigated in a plasma containing cold positive ions, cool adiabatic and hot isothermal electrons, with the retention of full inertial effects for all species. For analytical tractability, the resulting Sagdeev pseudopotential is expressed in terms of the hot electron density, rather than the electrostatic potential. The existence domains for Mach numbers and hot electron densities clearly show that both rarefactive and compressive solitons can exist. Soliton limitations come from the cool electron sonic point, followed by the hot electron sonic point, until a range of rarefactive double layers occurs. Increasing the relative cool electron density further yields a switch to compressive double layers, which ends when the model assumptions break down. These qualitative results are but little influenced by variations in compositional parameters. A comparison with a Boltzmann distribution for the hot electrons shows that only the cool electron sonic point limit remains, giving higher maximum Mach numbers but similar densities, and a restricted range in relative hot electron density before the model assumptions are exceeded. The Boltzmann distribution can reproduce neither the double layer solutions nor the switch in rarefactive/compressive character or negative/positive polarity.
Small amplitude solitons in a warm plasma with smaller and higher order relativistic effects
Kalita, B. C.; Das, R.
2007-07-15
Solitons have been investigated in a warm plasma through the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, considering a smaller relativistic effect for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and higher relativistic effects for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 4}/c{sup 4}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 4/}c{sup 4}). Compressive fast ion-acoustic solitons are observed to exist in the entire range (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) subject to a suitable mathematical condition satisfied by the initial streaming velocities u{sub 0},v{sub 0} of the electrons and the ions, respectively, electron to ion mass ratio Q(=m{sub e}/m{sub i}) and ion to electron temperature ratio {sigma}(=T{sub i}/T{sub e}). Further, rarefactive solitons of pretty small amplitudes are observed in the small upper range of |u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}| for higher order relativistic effect which are found to change parabolically. It is essentially important to report in our model of plasma, that the higher order relativistic effect slows down the soliton speed to V{<=}0.10 for all temperature ratios {sigma} for small amplitude waves. On the other hand, the smaller order relativistic effect permits the soliton to exist even at a relatively much higher speed V<0.30. Solitons of high (negligible) amplitudes are found to generate at the smaller (greater) difference of initial streamings (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) corresponding to both the relativistic effects.
Solitons supported by complex PT-symmetric Gaussian potentials
Hu Sumei; Ma Xuekai; Lu Daquan; Yang Zhenjun; Zheng Yizhou; Hu Wei
2011-10-15
The existence and stability of fundamental, dipole, and tripole solitons in Kerr nonlinear media with parity-time-symmetric Gaussian complex potentials are reported. Fundamental solitons are stable not only in deep potentials but also in shallow potentials. Dipole and tripole solitons are stable only in deep potentials, and tripole solitons are stable in deeper potentials than for dipole solitons. The stable regions of solitons increase with increasing potential depth. The power of solitons increases with increasing propagation constant or decreasing modulation depth of the potentials.
Solitons supported by complex PT-symmetric Gaussian potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Sumei; Ma, Xuekai; Lu, Daquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zheng, Yizhou; Hu, Wei
2011-10-01
The existence and stability of fundamental, dipole, and tripole solitons in Kerr nonlinear media with parity-time-symmetric Gaussian complex potentials are reported. Fundamental solitons are stable not only in deep potentials but also in shallow potentials. Dipole and tripole solitons are stable only in deep potentials, and tripole solitons are stable in deeper potentials than for dipole solitons. The stable regions of solitons increase with increasing potential depth. The power of solitons increases with increasing propagation constant or decreasing modulation depth of the potentials.
Solitonic optical waveguides in PR crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klotz, Matthew Jason
This dissertation describes a new technique for creating permanent, two-dimensional optical circuitry in bulk ferroelectric photorefractive crystals. This method utilizes steady state photorefractive screening spatial solitons to produce a localized space charge field capable of modulating the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric crystal. This localized change in the spontaneous polarization results in a permanent index change within the material that is capable of guiding optical waves. Individual waveguides were formed in the crystal by fixing single screening solitons. The waveguides were found to be identical in size to the soliton responsible for their formation and were observed to efficiently guide light for periods of continuous illumination in excess of 12 hours without degradation. In addition, arrays of waveguides were formed using binary optics to form several solitons in the material at the same time. It was determined that waveguides formed by extraordinarily polarized solitons were single mode and that those formed by ordinarily polarized solitons were multimode, due to the difference in the magnitude of the nonlinear optical properties of the crystal for the different polarization states. Thus the size and mode guiding properties of the fixed waveguides can be controlled by changing the input solitons properties. In addition to single waveguides formed by a single screening soliton, coherent collisions of two screening solitons were used to form a permanent y-junction in the crystal. The screening soliton collision results in two initially independent solitons fusing into a single soliton. After fixing, the resulting waveguide structure allows signals from two distinct inputs to be combined into a single output. It was demonstrated that this fixed structure was bidirectional, i.e. that light sent into the output would exit the original input branches with an even division of power. Again, the size and mode guiding properties were found to
Theory of the Jahn-Teller Soliton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clougherty, Dennis
2006-03-01
It is demonstrated that under common conditions a molecular solid subject to Jahn-Teller interactions supports stable Q- ball-like non-topological solitons. Such solitons represent a localized lump of excess electric charge in periodic motion accompanied by a time-dependent shape distortion of a set of adjacent molecules. The motion of the distortion can correspond to a true rotation or to a pseudo-rotation about the symmetric shape configuration. These solitons are stable for Jahn-Teller coupling strengths below a critical value; however, as the Jahn- Teller coupling approaches this critical value, the size of the soliton diverges signaling an incipient structural phase transition. The soliton phase mimics features commonly attributed to phase separation in complex solids.
Optical fiber solitons, their properties and uses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, Hermann A.
1993-07-01
The history and mathematical formulation of the solitons are briefly reviewed. Solitons of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are studied in greater detail because they describe nonlinear pulse propagation on dispersive optical fibers. The proposal by A. Hasegawa and the experiments of L.F. Mollenauer on long distance soliton propagation for use in repeaterless transoceanic fiber transmission cables are described. In 1986, limitations on the distance that can be spanned by a repeaterless link for a given bit-rate were shown to exist. It has been shown recently that by proper design these limitations can be overcome, so that newer transoceanic cable designs are likely to utilize solitons. The special properties of solitons make them particularly suited for all optical switching and logic operations. Some recent experiments with such switches are described.
Quantum Bright Soliton in a Disorder Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sacha, K.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.
2009-11-01
At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particular, in the presence of a disordered potential, the quantum motion of the center of mass of a bright soliton may exhibit Anderson localization, on a localization length which may be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.
Interactions of spatial solitons with fused couplers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, Alon; Malomed, Boris A.
2014-04-01
We study dynamical and stationary states of solitons in dual-core waveguides which are locally coupled (fused) at one or several short segments. The model applies to planar optical waveguides, and to Bose-Einstein condensate in dual traps. Collisions of an incident soliton with single and double locally fused couplers are investigated by means of systematic simulations and several analytical methods (quasilinear, fast-soliton, and adiabatic approximations). Excitation dynamics of a soliton trapped by a local coupler is studied by means of the variational approximation, and verified by simulations. Shuttle motion of a soliton trapped in a cavity between two local couplers, and in a finite array of couplers, is studied too.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Sheng-Fong; Wang, Huai-Yung; Su, Yu-Chuan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru
2014-10-01
With the assistance of weak or strong polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in the cavity, nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locking (NPRML) of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated to show transformation on the soliton from a single to multiple bunched state with nearly one order of magnitude variation on pulsewidth. With the bent intracavity fiber providing the weak PDL, the NPRML shortens the pulsewidth from only 5.3 ps to 4.9 ps and correspondingly broadens the spectral linewidth from 0.43 nm to 0.56 nm when enlarging the pump power from 100 mW to 325 mW. With the use of an inserted polarizer providing strong PDL in an EDFL, the fundamental soliton pulsewidth is significantly compressed to 390 fs, with the spectral linewidth as wide as 7.14 nm. In particular, the parameters of the soliton pulses are nearly unchanged at different pump powers; however, the soliton pulses split to form tightly bunched pulses circulating in the EDFL cavity. There are as many as 18 solitons tightly bunched together at the maximum pump power of up to 325 mW. Such a tightly bunched package can be elucidated by soliton energy quantization and long-range soliton interaction according to the perturbation theory in a passively mode-locked EDFL.
Fretz, V.; Binkert, C. A.
2010-10-15
May-Thurner syndrome is known as compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. We describe a case of an atypical compression of the inferior vena cava by the right common iliac artery secondary to a high aortic bifurcation. Despite an extensive collateral network, there was a significant venous gradient between the iliac veins and the inferior vena cava above the compression. After stenting the venous pressure gradient disappeared. Follow-up 4 months later revealed a good clinical response with a patent stent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Achtemeier, G. L.
1986-01-01
Since late 1982 NASA has supported research to develop a numerical variational model for the diagnostic assimilation of conventional and space-based meteorological data. In order to analyze the model components, four variational models are defined dividing the problem naturally according to increasing complexity. The first of these variational models (MODEL I), the subject of this report, contains the two nonlinear horizontal momentum equations, the integrated continuity equation, and the hydrostatic equation. This report summarizes the results of research (1) to improve the way the large nonmeteorological parts of the pressure gradient force are partitioned between the two terms of the pressure gradient force terms of the horizontal momentum equations, (2) to generalize the integrated continuity equation to account for variable pressure thickness over elevated terrain, and (3) to introduce horizontal variation in the precision modulus weights for the observations.
Turbulent shear stresses in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laderman, A. J.; Demetriades, A.
1979-01-01
Hot-wire anemometer measurements of turbulent shear stresses in a Mach 3 compressible boundary layer were performed in order to investigate the effects of heat transfer on turbulence. Measurements were obtained by an x-probe in a flat plate, zero pressure gradient, two dimensional boundary layer in a wind tunnel with wall to freestream temperature ratios of 0.94 and 0.71. The measured shear stress distributions are found to be in good agreement with previous results, supporting the contention that the shear stress distribution is essentially independent of Mach number and heat transfer for Mach numbers from incompressible to hypersonic and wall to freestream temperature ratios of 0.4 to 1.0. It is also found that corrections for frequency response limitations of the electronic equipment are necessary to determine the correct shear stress distribution, particularly at the walls.
Extraction of a single soliton from a bunch of solitons generated by pulse breakup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello-Jimenez, Miguel A.; Kuzin, Evgeny A.; Pottiez, Olivier; Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldemar; Flores-Rosas, Ariel; Duran-Sanchez, Manuel
2010-02-01
Pulses propagating in the fiber with anomalous dispersion are broken up to the bunch of soliton. The extraction of an individual soliton from the bunch can be used for soliton generation and also for investigation of the process of the soliton formation. In this work we experimentally demonstrate that the NOLM allows extraction of an individual soliton. Earlier we have shown numerically that the NOLM has high transmission for the solitons with a range of durations while solitons with shorter and longer durations are rejected. The range of the durations with high transmission depends on the NOLM length and also can be moved by amplification of solitons before entering to the NOLM. In the experiment we launched 25-ps pulses with about 10 W of power to the 500-m single mode fiber with dispersion equal to 20 ps/nm-km. As a result of the pulse breakup, a bunch of solitons is formed at the fiber output. The resulting solitons are launched to the EDFA and then to the NOLM made from the 40-m of the same fiber. The NOLM parameters are adjusted to transmit the highest soliton in the bunch (about 50 W of power and 1 ps of duration according to theoretical estimations). In the experiment we detected at the NOLM output a single pulse with duration of 1.46 ps and autocorrelation function similar to that of the soliton. When a 1-km fiber was attached to the NOLM at the fiber output we detected a soliton with duration of 0.9 ps.
Soliton transmission in optical fibers with loss and saturable nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aicklen, Gregory H.; Tamil, Lakshman S.
1996-09-01
Optical solitons propagating in media exhibiting saturable nonlinearity offer advantages over Kerr-medium solitons for transmission over large distances through optical fibers with loss. Soliton pulses in saturable media offer greater energy for a given peak power, and upper-branch solitons decrease in width with distance traveled. These properties result in pulses that remain distinct and detectable for greater distances than Kerr-medium solitons do with the same peak power. .
Fu, Meicheng; Liao, Jiali; Shao, Zhengzheng; Marko, Matthew; Zhang, Yuanda; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Xiujian
2016-05-10
By orthogonally dual-shifting the air-hole rows in the triangular photonic crystal waveguide, a novel finely engineered slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide is designed for higher-order temporal solitons and ultrashort temporal pulse compression with a large fabrication tolerance. The engineering of dispersion provides the waveguide with a wide wavelength range with only low anomalous dispersion covering, which makes the compression ratio wavelength-independent and stable even under ultralow input pulse energy. The simulation results are based on nonlinear Schrödinger equation modeling, which demonstrates that the input picosecond pulses in the broad wavelength range with ultralow pJ pulse energy can be stably compressed by a factor of 6 to higher-order temporal solitons in a 250 μm short waveguide. PMID:27168285
Soliton turbulence in shallow water ocean surface waves.
Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E
2014-09-01
We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ∼ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ∼ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian. PMID:25238388
Soliton Turbulence in Shallow Water Ocean Surface Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R.; Resio, Donald T.; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivı, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E.
2014-09-01
We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ˜ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ˜ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selleslagh, Jonathan; Lobry, Jérémy; Amara, Rachid; Brylinski, Jean-Michel; Boët, Philippe
2012-10-01
The ecological functioning of various French coastal ecosystems, with special emphasis on the Canche estuary, along an anthropogenic pressure gradient was studied using mass-balanced trophic models in order to test the relevance of functional indices assessing the ecological status of coastal systems. A trophic model of the Canche (eastern English Channel, France) estuarine food web was constructed using an Ecopath approach to determine the structure and functioning of energy flows in the trophic network. The model consisted of 15 compartments, from primary producers (trophic level TL = 1) to the top consumers (fish, TL = 3.8). Input parameters were mainly computed from field studies conducted between 2006 and 2007. Results showed that the majority of flows came from detritus, which is an important energy source in the ecosystem, as indicated by mixed trophic impacts. Keystone index (KSI) revealed that amphipods, copepods, gobies and European eel were identified as key compartments in the Canche estuarine food web, with the first two considered as important vectors for carbon transfer from detritus to top predators. The Canche estuary trophic network has a low recycling level (FCI = 0.8%), a low total system throughput (TST = 1364 gC. m-2. y-1) and a low ascendency (A = 1439 gC. m-2. y-1), but a relatively low connectivity (CI = 0.33), high internal relative ascendency (Ai/Ci = 35.6%) and a high omnivory index (OI = 0.04), indicating that this estuary is immature but relatively organised and complex, with strong production but which little is used as the estuary depends on external exchanges. In addition, the Canche estuary, recognised as a small and low impacted estuarine ecosystem, was compared with six other French coastal systems: the bay of Somme, the Seine estuary, the Mont Saint-Michel bay, the Loire estuary, the Pertuis Charentais and the Gironde estuary, where Ecological Network Analyses (ENA) have been applied using similar methods. Compared with the
Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.
1998-01-01
A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.
Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.
1998-07-07
A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.
Diode-Pumped Soliton and Non-Soliton Mode-Locked Yb:GYSO Lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jin-Ping; Liang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Li-He; Su, Liang-Bi; Xu, Jun
2011-08-01
Diode-pumped soliton and non-soliton mode-locked Yb:(Gd1-x Yx)2SiO5(x = 0.5) lasers are demonstrated. Pulses as short as 1.4 ps are generated for the soliton mode-locked operation, with a pair of SF10 prisms as the negative dispersion elements. The central wavelength is 1056 nm and the repetition rate is 48 MHz. For the non-soliton mode locking, the output power could achieve ~1.2 W, and the pulse width is about 20 ps. The critical pulse energy in the soliton-mode locked operation against the Q-switched mode locking is much lower than the critical pulse energy in the non-soliton mode-locked operation.
Optical solitons in liquid crystals
Yung, Y.S.; Lam, L.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM )
1989-01-01
In this paper, we will discuss theoretically the possible existence of optical solitons in the isotropic liquid and in the nematic phase. For the same compound, when heated, the nematic phase will go through a first order transition at temperature T{sub c} to the isotropic liquid phase. As temperature increases from below T{sub c}, the orientation order parameter, Q, decreases, drops to zero abruptly at T{sub c} and remains zero for T > T{sub c}. 10 refs., 1 fig.
Kumar, Hitender; Malik, Anand; Chand, Fakir
2012-10-15
We obtain exact spatiotemporal periodic traveling wave solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with spatial distributed coefficients. For restrictive parameters, these periodic wave solutions acquire the form of localized spatial solitons. Such solutions exist under certain conditions, and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and gain (or loss). We then demonstrate the nonlinear tunneling effects and controllable compression technique of three-dimensional bright and dark solitons when they pass unchanged through the potential barriers and wells affected by special choices of the diffraction and/or the nonlinearity parameters. Direct numerical simulation has been performed to show the stable propagation of bright soliton with 5% white noise perturbation.
Solitons of axion-dilaton gravity
Bakas, I. |
1996-11-01
We use soliton techniques of the two-dimensional reduced {beta}-function equations to obtain nontrivial string backgrounds from flat space. These solutions are characterized by two integers ({ital n},{ital m}) referring to the soliton numbers of the metric and axion-dilaton sectors, respectively. We show that the Nappi-Witten universe associated with the SL(2){times}SU(2)/SO(1,1){times}U(1) CFT coset arises as a (1,1) soliton in this fashion for certain values of the moduli parameters, while for other values of the soliton moduli we arrive at the SL(2)/SO(1,1){times}SO(1,1){sup 2} background. Ordinary four-dimensional black holes arise as two-dimensional (2,0) solitons, while the Euclidean wormhole background is described as a (0,2) soliton on flat space. The soliton transformations correspond to specific elements of the string Geroch group. These could be used as a starting point for exploring the role of {ital U} dualities in string compactifications to two dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Supersymmetric Structure of two Families of Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim
2012-02-01
Solitons have generated considerable interest in the cold atoms and condensed matter communities. We demonstrate that two families of n-soliton solutions (with n an integer) -- one for the attractive nonlinear Schr"odinger (NLS) equation, and one for the sine-Gordon (sG) equation -- originate from a quantum-mechanical supersymmetric (QM-SUSY) chain connecting a set of reflectionless operators Hn. The families consist of breather-type solitons for NLSootnotetextD. Schrader, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2221 (1995). and multi-(anti)kink solitons with specific velocities for sG. The operators Hn, which we refer to as Akulin`s HamiltoniansootnotetextV. M. Akulin, Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems (Springer, Heidelberg, 2006)., form reflectionless direct-scattering initial conditions for the inverse scattering method. Such a QM-SUSY chain is analogous to the known connection between QM-SUSY chains of P"oschl-Teller potentials and solitons of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equationootnotetextSukumar, J. Phys. A 19, 2297 (1986). The existence of QM-SUSY chains connecting soliton solutions, now for three different integrable nonlinear equations, sheds light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for soliton generation.
Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.
1998-01-01
A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.
Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.
1998-03-10
A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.
SOLITONS AND OPTICAL FIBERS: On the problem of ideal amplification of optical solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melo Melchor, G.; Agüero Granados, M.; Corro, G. H.
2002-11-01
The new possibilities of almost ideal amplification of optical solitons during the incoherent interaction of light pulses with a resonantly amplifying medium are considered. The mechanism of two-photon amplification of optical solitons with an optimal frequency-modulation law is proposed. It is shown that the entirely ideal amplification of solitons cannot be achieved because the law of phase modulation of radiation differs from a parabolic law. The possibility of using the phase cross modulation to produce the required initial phase of amplified solitons is studied.
Rarefaction solitons initiated by sheath instability
Levko, Dmitry
2015-09-15
The instability of the cathode sheath initiated by the cold energetic electron beam is studied by the one-dimensional fluid model. Numerical simulations show the generation of travelling rarefaction solitons at the cathode. It is obtained that the parameters of these solitons strongly depend on the parameters of electron beam. The “stretched” variables are derived using the small-amplitude analysis. These variables are used in order to obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the propagation of the rarefaction solitons through the plasma with cold energetic electron beam.
Solitons for optical time-domain reflectometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levanon, Amikam; Friberg, Stephen R.; Fujii, Yoichi
1996-06-01
We describe the propagation of solitons in an optical time-domain reflectometry geometry. Intense nonsolitons usually broaden nonlinearly as they propagate out to a scatterer and broaden linearly as they return to their origin. In contrast, solitons propagate with a fixed pulse width or narrow on their way out to the scatterer. Returning, they broaden or narrow depending on their chirp at the scattering point. For a fixed return-pulse timing resolution we find 2.6 times or more energy can be launched when solitons are used than for normal dispersion pulses.
The linear perspective to soliton dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Allan W.
1996-12-01
Unlike linear waves, solitons create their own channel as they travel in a uniform medium, remaining localized and preserving their shape.1 Whereas linear waves always pass through one another, solitons can be dramatically altered by collisions. They can annihilate one another, fuse, or create multiple solitons.2 These phenomena turn out to be important to the emerging technology of light guiding light and light written circuitry.3-4 To pursue this technology, we need to understand how such waves interact in an arbitrary nonlinear medium.
Soliton bound states in semiconductor disk laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viktorov, Evgeny A.; Butkus, Mantas; Erneux, Thomas; Hamilton, Craig J.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.; Rafailov, Edik U.
2014-05-01
We report what we believe is the first demonstration of a temporal soliton bound state in semiconductor disk laser. The laser was passively mode-locked using a quantum dot based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (QD-SESAM). Two mode-locking regimes were observed where the laser would emit single or closely spaced double pulses (soliton bound state regime) per cavity round-trip. The pulses in soliton bound state regime were spaced by discrete, fixed time duration. We use a system of delay differential equations to model the dynamics of our device.
Weak and strong interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves.
Oreshnikov, I; Driben, R; Yulin, A V
2015-11-01
The effect of mutual interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The condition of the resonant scattering of dispersive waves on dark solitons is derived and compared against the results of the numerical simulations. It is shown that the interaction with intense dispersive waves affects the dynamics of the solitons by accelerating, decelerating, or destroying them. It is also demonstrated that two dark solitons can form a cavity for dispersive waves bouncing between the two dark solitons. The differences of the resonant scattering of the dispersive waves on dark and bright solitons are discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that two dark solitons and a dispersive wave bouncing in between them create a solitonic cavity with convex "mirrors," unlike the concave "mirror" in the case of bright solitons. PMID:26512471
Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities.
Chana, J K; Sich, M; Fras, F; Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V; Cancellieri, E; Cerda-Méndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N
2015-12-18
We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x) or perpendicular (y) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts. PMID:26722931
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.
2001-11-01
It is shown that optical solitons in nonlinear fibre-optic communication systems and soliton lasers can be represented as nonlinear Bloch waves in periodic structures. The Bloch theorem is proved for solitons of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in systems with the dispersion, the nonlinearity, and the gain (absorption coefficient) periodically changing over the length. The dynamics of formation and interaction, as well as stability of the coupled states of nonlinear Bloch waves are investigated. It is shown that soliton Bloch waves exist only under certain self-matching conditions for the basic parameters of the system and reveal a structural instability with respect to the mismatch between the periods of spatial modulation of the dispersion, nonlinearity or gain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Se Hoon
Compressive holography estimates images from incomplete data by using sparsity priors. Compressive holography combines digital holography and compressive sensing. Digital holography consists of computational image estimation from data captured by an electronic focal plane array. Compressive sensing enables accurate data reconstruction by prior knowledge on desired signal. Computational and optical co-design optimally supports compressive holography in the joint computational and optical domain. This dissertation explores two examples of compressive holography: estimation of 3D tomographic images from 2D data and estimation of images from under sampled apertures. Compressive holography achieves single shot holographic tomography using decompressive inference. In general, 3D image reconstruction suffers from underdetermined measurements with a 2D detector. Specifically, single shot holographic tomography shows the uniqueness problem in the axial direction because the inversion is ill-posed. Compressive sensing alleviates the ill-posed problem by enforcing some sparsity constraints. Holographic tomography is applied for video-rate microscopic imaging and diffuse object imaging. In diffuse object imaging, sparsity priors are not valid in coherent image basis due to speckle. So incoherent image estimation is designed to hold the sparsity in incoherent image basis by support of multiple speckle realizations. High pixel count holography achieves high resolution and wide field-of-view imaging. Coherent aperture synthesis can be one method to increase the aperture size of a detector. Scanning-based synthetic aperture confronts a multivariable global optimization problem due to time-space measurement errors. A hierarchical estimation strategy divides the global problem into multiple local problems with support of computational and optical co-design. Compressive sparse aperture holography can be another method. Compressive sparse sampling collects most of significant field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Xue, Long; Wang, Qi-Min
2016-07-01
Under investigation in this paper is the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which describes the dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Lax pair, conservation laws and Darboux transformation (DT) are constructed. Nonautonomous solitons and breathers are derived based on the DT obtained. A kind of modulation instability process is generated. Nonautonomous rogue waves are obtained via the generalized DT. Influence of the nonlinearity, linear external potential, harmonic external potential, and spectral parameter on the propagation and interaction of the nonautonomous solitons, breathers and rogue waves is also discussed. Amplitude of the first-order nonautonomous soliton is proportional to the imaginary part of the spectral parameter and inversely proportional to the nonlinearity parameter. Linear external potential parameter affects the location of the first-order nonautonomous soliton. Head-on interaction, overtaking interaction and bound-state-like nonautonomous solitons can be formed based on the signs of the real parts of the spectral parameters. Quasi-periodic behaviors are exhibited for the nonautonomous breathers. If the harmonic external potential parameter is negative, quasi-period decreases along the positive time axis, with an increase in the amplitude and a compression in the width. Quasi-period decreases with the increase of the nonlinearity parameter. The second-order nonautonomous rogue wave can split into three first-order ones. Nonlinearity parameter has an effect on the amplitude of the rogue wave. Linear external potential parameter influences the location of the rogue wave, while harmonic external potential parameter affects the curved direction of the background.
Interaction of high-order solitons with external dispersive waves.
Oreshnikov, I; Driben, R; Yulin, A V
2015-12-01
The effect of mutual interaction between second-order soliton and dispersive waves (DWs) is investigated. It is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically that DWs (both transmitted and reflected components) become polychromatic after interaction with the soliton. Collision with DWs of considerable intensity can lead to acceleration/deceleration and central frequency shift of the soliton, while still preserving the soliton's oscillating structure. Two second-order solitons with resonant DWs trapped between them can form an effective solitonic cavity with "flat" or "concave mirrors," depending on the intensity of the input. PMID:26625049
Soliton collisions in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usov, N. A.
2016-05-01
The structure of stable magnetic solitons of various orders in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been studied using numerical simulation. Solitons of even order are immobile in axially applied magnetic field. Odd solitons show decreased mobility with respect to that of head-to head domain wall. Solitons of various orders can participate in nanotube magnetization reversal process. Various coalescence and decomposition processes in soliton assembly are considered. It is shown that the general magnetization state of magnetic nanotube consists of chains of magnetic solitons of various orders.
Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser.
Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping; Yan, Yu-Rong; Hu, Song; Liu, Yi-Chen; Cui, Hu; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng
2016-03-15
Soliton explosions, as one of the most fascinating nonlinear phenomena in dissipative systems, have been investigated in different branches of physics, including the ultrafast laser community. Herein, we reported on the soliton dynamics of an ultrafast fiber laser from steady state to soliton explosions, and to huge explosions by simply adjusting the pump power level. In particular, the huge soliton explosions show that the exploding behavior could operate in a sustained, but periodic, mode from one explosion to another, which we term as "successive soliton explosions." The experimental results will prove to be fruitful to the various communities interested in soliton explosions. PMID:26977664
Dark solitons in laser radiation build-up dynamics.
Woodward, R I; Kelleher, E J R
2016-03-01
We reveal the existence of slowly decaying dark solitons in the radiation build-up dynamics of bright pulses in all-normal dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers, numerically modeled in the framework of a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The evolution of noise perturbations to quasistationary dark solitons is examined, and the significance of background shape and soliton-soliton collisions on the eventual soliton decay is established. We demonstrate the role of a restoring force in extending soliton interactions in conservative systems to include the effects of dissipation, as encountered in laser cavities, and generalize our observations to other nonlinear systems. PMID:27078358
Coexistence of a self-induced transparency soliton and a Bragg soliton.
Tseng, Hong-Yih; Chi, Sien
2002-11-01
We theoretically show that a self-induced transparency (SIT) soliton and a Bragg soliton can coexist in a nonlinear photonic band gap (PBG) medium doped uniformly with inhomogeneous-broadening two-level atoms. The Maxwell-Bloch equations for the pulse propagating through such a uniformly doped PBG structure are derived first and further reduced to an effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This model describes an equivalent physical mechanism for a Bragg-soliton propagation resulting from the effective quadratic dispersion balancing with the effective third-order nonlinearity. Because the resonant atoms are taken into account, the original band gap can be shifted both by the dopants and the instantaneous nonlinearity response originating from an intense optical pulse. As a result, even if a SIT soliton with its central frequency deep inside the original forbidden band, it still can propagate through the resonant PBG medium as long as this SIT soliton satisfies the effective Bragg-soliton propagation. An approximate soliton solution describing such coexistence is found. We also show that the pulse width and group velocity of this soliton solution can be uniquely determined for given material parameters, atomic transition frequency, and input central frequency of the soliton. The numerical examples of the SIT soliton in a one-dimensional As2S3-based PBG structure doped uniformly with Lorentzian line-shape resonant atoms are shown. It is found that a SIT soliton with approximately 100-ps width in such a resonant PBG structure can travel with the velocity being two orders of magnitude slower than the light speed in an unprocessed host medium. PMID:12513622