Effect of disorder on a pressure-induced z =1 magnetic quantum phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannig, A.; Möller, J. S.; Thede, M.; Hüvonen, D.; Lancaster, T.; Xiao, F.; Williams, R. C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Morenzoni, E.; Zheludev, A.
2016-10-01
Pressure-induced ordering close to a z =1 quantum-critical point is studied in the presence of bond disorder in the quantum spin system (C4H12N2) Cu2(Cl1-xBrx) 6 (PHCX) by means of muon-spin rotation and relaxation. As for the pure system (C4H12N2) Cu2Cl6 , pressure allows PHCX with small levels of disorder (x ≤7.5 %) to be driven through a quantum-critical point separating a low-pressure quantum paramagnetic phase from magnetic order at high pressures. However, the pressure-induced ordered state is highly inhomogeneous for disorder concentrations x >1 % . This behavior might be related to the formation of a quantum Griffiths phase above a critical disorder concentration 7.5 %
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterrose, Michael L.
The Invar effect has remained at the forefront of materials research since Charles-Edouard Guillaume discovered the vanishing thermal expansion of Fe-Ni alloys in 1897. More recently, a pressure-induced Invar effect was discovered in Fe-Ni alloys, and the relationship between classical and pressure-induced Invar phenomena has added complexity to the century-old struggle to comprehend the microscopic origins of Invar behavior. In this thesis I present our recent discovery of pressure-induced Invar behavior in Pd3Fe with the ordered L12 structure. Nuclear forward scattering measurements show that the ferromagnetic ground state in Pd3Fe is destabilized with pressure, collapsing around 10GPa (V/V 0=0.96) to a low-spin magnetic state. From high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements we find a large volume collapse at ambient temperature to accompany the collapse of ferromagnetism. After the volume collapse there is a significant increase in the bulk modulus. Using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to study the 57Fe phonon partial density of states (PDOS) at high pressures, we find the pressure-induced magnetic transition to cause an anomalous relative softening of the average phonon frequency. Heating our sample to 650K in a furnace at a pressure of 7GPa, synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements reveal negligible thermal expansion from 300 to 523 K, demonstrating pressure-induced Invar behavior in Pd3Fe. Density functional theory calculations identify a ferromagnetic ground state in Pd3Fe with large moments at the Fe sites. These calculations show that the application of pressure counteracts the band-filling effect of Pd. By tuning the position of the top of the 3d band with respect to the Fermi level, pressure-induced Invar behavior resembles classical Invar behavior that is controlled by chemical composition. This insight marks the first step towards a unification of our understanding of classical and pressure-induced Invar behavior. Pressure
Quantum Oscillation Signatures of Pressure-induced Topological Phase Transition in BiTeI.
Park, Joonbum; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Jo, Y J; Choi, E S; Kang, W; Kampert, E; Rhyee, J-S; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jun Sung
2015-11-02
We report the pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition of BiTeI single crystals using Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of bulk Fermi surfaces. The sizes of the inner and the outer FSs of the Rashba-split bands exhibit opposite pressure dependence up to P = 3.35 GPa, indicating pressure-tunable Rashba effect. Above a critical pressure P ~ 2 GPa, the Shubnikov-de Haas frequency for the inner Fermi surface increases unusually with pressure, and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for the outer Fermi surface shows an abrupt phase shift. In comparison with band structure calculations, we find that these unusual behaviors originate from the Fermi surface shape change due to pressure-induced band inversion. These results clearly demonstrate that the topological quantum phase transition is intimately tied to the shape of bulk Fermi surfaces enclosing the time-reversal invariant momenta with band inversion.
Field-induced quantum critical point in the pressure-induced superconductor CeRhIn5
Bauer, Eric D; Park, Tuson; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Ronning, Filip; Lee, Han O; Movshovich, Roman; Thompson, Joe D
2009-01-01
When subjected to pressure, the prototypical heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn{sub 5} becomes superconducting, forming a broad dome of superconductivity centered around 2.35 GPa (=P2) with maximal T{sub c} of 2.3 K. Above the superconducting dome, the normal state shows strange metallic behaviors, including a divergence in the specific heat and a sub-T-linear electrical resistivity. The discovery of a field-induced magnetic phase that coexists with superconductivity for a range of pressures P {le} P2 has been interpreted as evidence for a quantum phase transition, which could explain the non-Fenni liquid behavior observed in the normal state. Here we report electrical resistivity measurements of CeRhIn{sub 5} under magnetic field at P2, where the resistivity is sub-T-linear for fields less than H{sub c2}(0) and a T{sup 2}-coefficient A found above H{sub c2}(0) diverges as H{sub c2} is approached. These results are similar to the field-induced quantum critical compound Ce-CoIn{sub 5} and confirm the presence of a quantum critical point in the pressure-induced superconductor CeRhIn{sub 5}.
Quantum Oscillation Signatures of Pressure-induced Topological Phase Transition in BiTeI
Park, Joonbum; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Jo, Y. J.; Choi, E. S.; Kang, W.; Kampert, E.; Rhyee, J.-S.; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jun Sung
2015-01-01
We report the pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition of BiTeI single crystals using Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of bulk Fermi surfaces. The sizes of the inner and the outer FSs of the Rashba-split bands exhibit opposite pressure dependence up to P = 3.35 GPa, indicating pressure-tunable Rashba effect. Above a critical pressure P ~ 2 GPa, the Shubnikov-de Haas frequency for the inner Fermi surface increases unusually with pressure, and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for the outer Fermi surface shows an abrupt phase shift. In comparison with band structure calculations, we find that these unusual behaviors originate from the Fermi surface shape change due to pressure-induced band inversion. These results clearly demonstrate that the topological quantum phase transition is intimately tied to the shape of bulk Fermi surfaces enclosing the time-reversal invariant momenta with band inversion. PMID:26522628
Signatures of a pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition in BiTeI.
Xi, Xiaoxiang; Ma, Chunli; Liu, Zhenxian; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ku, Wei; Berger, H; Martin, C; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L
2013-10-11
We report the observation of two signatures of a pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition in the polar semiconductor BiTeI using x-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The x-ray data confirm that BiTeI remains in its ambient-pressure structure up to 8 GPa. The lattice parameter ratio c/a shows a minimum between 2.0-2.9 GPa, indicating an enhanced c-axis bonding through p(z) band crossing as expected during the transition. Over the same pressure range, the infrared spectra reveal a maximum in the optical spectral weight of the charge carriers, reflecting the closing and reopening of the semiconducting band gap. Both of these features are characteristics of a topological quantum phase transition and are consistent with a recent theoretical proposal.
Magnetic Precursor of the Pressure-Induced Superconductivity in Fe-Ladder Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chi, Songxue; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Cao, Huibo; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Kazuki; Aoyama, Takuya; Ohgushi, Kenya
2016-07-01
The pressure effects on the antiferromagentic orders in iron-based ladder compounds CsFe2Se3 and BaFe2S3 have been studied using neutron diffraction. With identical crystal structure and similar magnetic structures, the two compounds exhibit highly contrasting magnetic behaviors under moderate external pressures. In CsFe2Se3 the ladders are brought much closer to each other by pressure, but the stripe-type magnetic order shows no observable change. In contrast, the stripe order in BaFe2S3 undergoes a quantum phase transition where an abrupt increase of Néel temperature by more than 50% occurs at about 1 GPa, accompanied by a jump in the ordered moment. With its spin structure unchanged, BaFe2S3 enters an enhanced magnetic phase that bears the characteristics of an orbital selective Mott phase, which is the true neighbor of superconductivity emerging at higher pressures.
Magnetic Precursor of the Pressure-Induced Superconductivity in Fe-Ladder Compounds.
Chi, Songxue; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Cao, Huibo; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Kazuki; Aoyama, Takuya; Ohgushi, Kenya
2016-07-22
The pressure effects on the antiferromagentic orders in iron-based ladder compounds CsFe_{2}Se_{3} and BaFe_{2}S_{3} have been studied using neutron diffraction. With identical crystal structure and similar magnetic structures, the two compounds exhibit highly contrasting magnetic behaviors under moderate external pressures. In CsFe_{2}Se_{3} the ladders are brought much closer to each other by pressure, but the stripe-type magnetic order shows no observable change. In contrast, the stripe order in BaFe_{2}S_{3} undergoes a quantum phase transition where an abrupt increase of Néel temperature by more than 50% occurs at about 1 GPa, accompanied by a jump in the ordered moment. With its spin structure unchanged, BaFe_{2}S_{3} enters an enhanced magnetic phase that bears the characteristics of an orbital selective Mott phase, which is the true neighbor of superconductivity emerging at higher pressures.
Pressure induced superconductivity on the border of magnetic order in MnP.
Cheng, J-G; Matsubayashi, K; Wu, W; Sun, J P; Lin, F K; Luo, J L; Uwatoko, Y
2015-03-20
We report the discovery of superconductivity on the border of long-range magnetic order in the itinerant-electron helimagnet MnP via the application of high pressure. Superconductivity with T(sc)≈1 K emerges and exists merely near the critical pressure P(c)≈8 GPa, where the long-range magnetic order just vanishes. The present finding makes MnP the first Mn-based superconductor. The close proximity of superconductivity to a magnetic instability suggests an unconventional pairing mechanism. Moreover, the detailed analysis of the normal-state transport properties evidenced non-Fermi-liquid behavior and the dramatic enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass near P(c) associated with the magnetic quantum fluctuations.
Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.
2016-10-01
Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity.
Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds
Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.
2016-01-01
Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity. PMID:27708255
Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds.
Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J-G; Wu, W; Luo, J L; Rosenbaum, T F
2016-10-06
Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity.
Magnetic Precursor of the Pressure-Induced Superconductivity in Fe-Ladder Compounds
Chi, Songxue; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Cao, Huibo; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Kazuki; Aoyama, Takuya; Ohgushi, Kenya
2016-07-21
We studied the pressure effects on the antiferromagentic orders in iron-based ladder compounds CsFe$_2$Se$_3$ and BaFe$_2$S$_3$ using single crytal neutron diffraction technique. With identical crystal structure and similar magnetic structures, the two compounds exhibit highly contrasting magnetic behaviors under moderate external pressures. In CsFe$_2$Se$_3$ the ladders are brought much closer to each other by pressure, but the stripe-type of magnetic order shows no observable change. Furthermore, the stripe order in BaFe$_2$S$_3$, undergoes a quantum phase transition where an abrupt increase of $N\\acute{e}el$ temperature by more than 50$\\%$ occurs at about 1 GPa, accompanied by a jump in ordered moment. Finally, with its spin structure unchanged, BaFe$_2$S$_3$ enters an enhanced magnetic phase that bears the characteristics of an orbital selective Mott phase, which is the true herald for superconductivity emerging at higher pressures.
Magnetic Precursor of the Pressure-Induced Superconductivity in Fe-Ladder Compounds
Chi, Songxue; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Cao, Huibo; ...
2016-07-21
We studied the pressure effects on the antiferromagentic orders in iron-based ladder compounds CsFemore » $$_2$$Se$$_3$$ and BaFe$$_2$$S$$_3$$ using single crytal neutron diffraction technique. With identical crystal structure and similar magnetic structures, the two compounds exhibit highly contrasting magnetic behaviors under moderate external pressures. In CsFe$$_2$$Se$$_3$$ the ladders are brought much closer to each other by pressure, but the stripe-type of magnetic order shows no observable change. Furthermore, the stripe order in BaFe$$_2$$S$$_3$$, undergoes a quantum phase transition where an abrupt increase of $$N\\acute{e}el$$ temperature by more than 50$$\\%$$ occurs at about 1 GPa, accompanied by a jump in ordered moment. Finally, with its spin structure unchanged, BaFe$$_2$$S$$_3$$ enters an enhanced magnetic phase that bears the characteristics of an orbital selective Mott phase, which is the true herald for superconductivity emerging at higher pressures.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilder, S. A.; Egli, R.; Hochleitner, R.; Roud, S. C.; Volk, M. W. R.; Le Goff, M.; de Wit, M.
2012-04-01
Meteorites and diamonds encounter high pressures during their formation or subsequent evolution. These materials sometimes contain magnetic inclusions of pyrrhotite. Because magnetic properties are sensitive to strain, pyrrhotite can potentially record the shock or formation pressures of its host. Moreover, pyrrhotite undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition between 1.6 and 6.2 GPa, but the magnetic signature of this transition is poorly known. Here we report room temperature magnetic measurements on multi- and single domain pyrrhotite under non-hydrostatic pressure up to 4.5 GPa. We find that the ratio of magnetic coercivity and remanence follows a logarithmic law with respect to pressure, which can potentially be used as a geobarometer. Due to the greater thermal expansion of pyrrhotite with respect to diamond, pyrrhotite inclusions in diamond experience a confining pressure at the Earth's surface. Applying our experimentally derived magnetic geobarometer to pyrrhotite-bearing diamonds from Botswana and the Central African Republic suggests the pressures of the pyrrhotite inclusions in the diamonds range from 1.3 to 2.1 GPa. These overpressures constrain the mantle source pressures from 5.4 to 9.5 GPa, depending on which bulk modulus and thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases are used. We are now trying to develop magnetic barometers on other magnetic phases to apply to meteorites, ultimately to constrain the minimum pressure in which the meteorite formed and, hence, information regarding the planetesmal's size, and/or depth, in which the meteorite was derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilder, S. A.; Egli, R.; Hochleitner, R.; Roud, S. C.; Volk, M.; Le Goff, M.; de Wit, M.
2010-12-01
Meteorites and diamonds encounter high-pressures during their geologic histories. These materials commonly contain magnetic inclusions of pyrrhotite, and because magnetic properties are sensitive to strain, pyrrhotite can potentially record the shock or formation pressures of its host. Moreover, pyrrhotite undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition between 1.6 and 6.2 GPa, but the magnetic signature of this transition is poorly known. Here we report magnetic measurements performed at high-pressures on single and multi-domain pyrrhotite. A magnetic hysteresis model based on our observations suggests that multidomain pyrrhotite transforms into single domain-like material, and once in the single domain state, hysteresis loops become progressively squarer and then squatter with increasing pressure, until they ultimately collapse approaching the paramagnetic state at the transition. The ratio of the bulk magnetic coercive force to magnetic remanence for pure pyrrhotite is reversible with pressure and follows a logarithmic law as a function of pressure, which can be used as a magnetic barometer for natural systems.
Spin dynamics in pressure-induced magnetically ordered phases in (C4H12N2)Cu2Cl6
Perren, G.; Möller, J. S.; Hüvonen, D.; ...
2015-08-07
In this paper, we present inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the S=1/2 frustrated gapped quantum magnet piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC) under applied hydrostatic pressure. These results show that at 9 kbar the magnetic triplet excitations in the system are gapless, contrary to what was previously reported. Our results are in agreement with recent muon-spin relaxation experiments which found magnetic order above a quantum-critical point at 4.3 kbar. Finally, we show that the changes in the excitation spectrum can be primarily attributed to the change in a single exchange pathway.
Pressure-induced magnetic transition exceeding 30 K in the Yb-based heavy-fermion β -YbAlB4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Takahiro; Kuga, Kentaro; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2016-12-01
Measurements of the electric resistivity ρ (T ) under pressure up to 8 GPa were performed on high-quality single crystals of the Yb-based heavy-fermion system β -YbAlB4 in the temperature range 2
Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs
Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio
2015-01-01
The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 p 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548
Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.
Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio
2015-09-08
The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~ p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.
Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs
Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio
2015-09-08
We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum T_{c} ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (T_{c}) and of the superfluid density (ρ_{s}). A scaling of ρ_{s} with T_{c}^{3.2} as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.
Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs
Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; ...
2015-09-08
We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreasesmore » upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.« less
Jung, Soon-Gil; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Sangyun; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chareev, Dmitriy A; Vasiliev, Alexander N; Park, Tuson
2015-11-09
We investigate the relation of the critical current density (Jc) and the remarkably increased superconducting transition temperature (Tc) for the FeSe single crystals under pressures up to 2.43 GPa, where the Tc is increased by ~8 K/GPa. The critical current density corresponding to the free flux flow is monotonically enhanced by pressure which is due to the increase in Tc, whereas the depinning critical current density at which the vortex starts to move is more influenced by the pressure-induced magnetic state compared to the increase of Tc. Unlike other high-Tc superconductors, FeSe is not magnetic, but superconducting at ambient pressure. Above a critical pressure where magnetic state is induced and coexists with superconductivity, the depinning Jc abruptly increases even though the increase of the zero-resistivity Tc is negligible, directly indicating that the flux pinning property compared to the Tc enhancement is a more crucial factor for an achievement of a large Jc. In addition, the sharp increase in Jc in the coexisting superconducting phase of FeSe demonstrates that vortices can be effectively trapped by the competing antiferromagnetic order, even though its antagonistic nature against superconductivity is well documented. These results provide new guidance toward technological applications of high-temperature superconductors.
Pressure-Induced Enhanced Magnetic Anisotropy in Mn(N(CN)2)2
Quintero, P. A.; Rajan, D.; Peprah, M. K.; Brinzari, T. V.; Fishman, Randy Scott; Talham, Daniel R.; Meisel, Mark W.
2015-01-01
Using DC and AC magnetometry, the pressure dependence of the magnetization of the threedimensional antiferromagnetic coordination polymer Mn(N(CN)2)2 was studied up to 12 kbar and down to 8 K. The magnetic transition temperature, Tc, increases dramatically with applied pressure (P), where a change from Tc(P = ambient) = 16:0 K to Tc(P = 12:1 kbar) = 23:5 K was observed. In addition, a marked difference in the magnetic behavior is observed above and below 7.1 kbar. Specifically, for P < 7:1 kbar, the differences between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (fc-zfc) magnetizations, the coercive field, and the remanent magnetization decrease with increasing pressure. However, for P > 7:1 kbar, the behavior is inverted. Additionally, for P > 8:6 kbar, minor hysteresis loops are observed. All of these effects are evidence of the increase of the superexchange interaction and the appearance of an enhanced exchange anisotropy with applied pressure.
Hydrostatic-pressure-induced changes of magnetic anisotropy in (Ga, Mn)As thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gryglas-Borysiewicz, Marta; Juszyński, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Adam; Przybytek, Jacek; Sadowski, Janusz; Sawicki, Maciej; Tokarczyk, Mateusz; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Dietl, Tomasz; Wasik, Dariusz
2017-03-01
The impact of hydrostatic pressure on magnetic anisotropy energies in (Ga, Mn)As thin films with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic easy axes predefined by epitaxial strain was investigated. In both types of sample we observed a clear increase in both in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy parameters with pressure. The out-of-plane anisotropy constant is well reproduced by the mean-field p–d Zener model; however, the changes in uniaxial anisotropy are much larger than expected in the Mn–Mn dimer scenario.
Pressure induced enhancement of the magnetic ordering temperature in rhenium(IV) monomers
Woodall, Christopher H.; Craig, Gavin A.; Prescimone, Alessandro; Misek, Martin; Cano, Joan; Faus, Juan; Probert, Michael R.; Parsons, Simon; Moggach, Stephen; Martínez-Lillo, José; Murrie, Mark; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; Brechin, Euan K.
2016-01-01
Materials that demonstrate long-range magnetic order are synonymous with information storage and the electronics industry, with the phenomenon commonly associated with metals, metal alloys or metal oxides and sulfides. A lesser known family of magnetically ordered complexes are the monometallic compounds of highly anisotropic d-block transition metals; the ‘transformation' from isolated zero-dimensional molecule to ordered, spin-canted, three-dimensional lattice being the result of through-space interactions arising from the combination of large magnetic anisotropy and spin-delocalization from metal to ligand which induces important intermolecular contacts. Here we report the effect of pressure on two such mononuclear rhenium(IV) compounds that exhibit long-range magnetic order under ambient conditions via a spin canting mechanism, with Tc controlled by the strength of the intermolecular interactions. As these are determined by intermolecular distance, ‘squeezing' the molecules closer together generates remarkable enhancements in ordering temperatures, with a linear dependence of Tc with pressure. PMID:28000676
Pressure-induced structural and magnetic phase transitions in ordered and disordered equiatomic FeCo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torchio, R.; Kvashnin, Y. O.; Marini, C.; Mathon, O.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.; Wright, J. P.; Bruno, P.; Genovese, L.; Baudelet, F.; Meneghini, C.; Mobilio, S.; Morley, N. A.; Gibbs, M. R. J.; Pascarelli, S.
2013-11-01
The magnetic and structural phase diagram of equiatomic FeCo has been studied up to 45 GPa using K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and supporting density-functional-theory-based calculations. FeCo foils with different degrees of chemical order were obtained by magnetron sputtering. Our results show that Fe0.5Co0.5 undergo the bcc ferromagnetic to hcp nonferromagnetic transition in the 30-45 GPa pressure range. Interestingly, the chemical order, i.e., the relative arrangements of Fe and Co atoms, plays a major role in affecting the high-pressure structural and magnetic phase diagram of these alloys. This result is confirmed by first-principles modeling of different structures of equiatomic FeCo alloy. Moreover, the total-energy analysis reveals a strong competition between different magnetic hcp states upon compression. A possible emergence of antiferromagnetism is emphasized and requires further experimental investigation.
Strong cooperative coupling of pressure-induced magnetic order and nematicity in FeSe
Kothapalli, K.; Bohmer, A. E.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Ueland, B. G.; Das, P.; Sapkota, A.; Taufour, V.; Xiao, Y.; Alp, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.
2016-09-01
A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. However, a universal picture of the normal state properties of these compounds has been confounded by recent investigations of FeSe where the nematic (structural) and magnetic transitions appear to be decoupled. Here, using synchrotron-based high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mossbauer spectroscopy, we show that nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are indeed strongly coupled. Distinct structural and magnetic transitions are observed for pressures between 1.0 and 1.7 GPa and merge into a single first-order transition for pressures ≳1.7 GPa, reminiscent of what has been found for the evolution of these transitions in the prototypical system Ba(Fe_{1–x}Co_{x})_{2}As_{2}. Lastly, our results are consistent with a spin-driven mechanism for nematic order in FeSe and provide an important step towards a universal description of the normal state properties of the iron-based superconductors.
Strong cooperative coupling of pressure-induced magnetic order and nematicity in FeSe
Kothapalli, K.; Bohmer, A. E.; Jayasekara, W. T.; ...
2016-09-01
A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. However, a universal picture of the normal state properties of these compounds has been confounded by recent investigations of FeSe where the nematic (structural) and magnetic transitions appear to be decoupled. Here, using synchrotron-based high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mossbauer spectroscopy, we show that nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are indeed strongly coupled. Distinct structural and magnetic transitions are observed for pressures between 1.0 and 1.7 GPa and merge into a single first-order transition for pressures ≳1.7 GPa, reminiscentmore » of what has been found for the evolution of these transitions in the prototypical system Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2. Lastly, our results are consistent with a spin-driven mechanism for nematic order in FeSe and provide an important step towards a universal description of the normal state properties of the iron-based superconductors.« less
Strong cooperative coupling of pressure-induced magnetic order and nematicity in FeSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothapalli, K.; Böhmer, A. E.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Ueland, B. G.; Das, P.; Sapkota, A.; Taufour, V.; Xiao, Y.; Alp, E.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.
2016-09-01
A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. However, a universal picture of the normal state properties of these compounds has been confounded by recent investigations of FeSe where the nematic (structural) and magnetic transitions appear to be decoupled. Here, using synchrotron-based high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mössbauer spectroscopy, we show that nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are indeed strongly coupled. Distinct structural and magnetic transitions are observed for pressures between 1.0 and 1.7 GPa and merge into a single first-order transition for pressures >~1.7 GPa, reminiscent of what has been found for the evolution of these transitions in the prototypical system Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. Our results are consistent with a spin-driven mechanism for nematic order in FeSe and provide an important step towards a universal description of the normal state properties of the iron-based superconductors.
Strong cooperative coupling of pressure-induced magnetic order and nematicity in FeSe
Kothapalli, K.; Böhmer, A. E.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Ueland, B. G.; Das, P.; Sapkota, A.; Taufour, V.; Xiao, Y.; Alp, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.
2016-01-01
A hallmark of the iron-based superconductors is the strong coupling between magnetic, structural and electronic degrees of freedom. However, a universal picture of the normal state properties of these compounds has been confounded by recent investigations of FeSe where the nematic (structural) and magnetic transitions appear to be decoupled. Here, using synchrotron-based high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-domain Mössbauer spectroscopy, we show that nematicity and magnetism in FeSe under applied pressure are indeed strongly coupled. Distinct structural and magnetic transitions are observed for pressures between 1.0 and 1.7 GPa and merge into a single first-order transition for pressures ≳1.7 GPa, reminiscent of what has been found for the evolution of these transitions in the prototypical system Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2. Our results are consistent with a spin-driven mechanism for nematic order in FeSe and provide an important step towards a universal description of the normal state properties of the iron-based superconductors. PMID:27582003
Pressure-Induced Phase Transition in a Molecule-Based Magnet with Interpenetrating Sublattices
Fishman, Randy Scott; Shum, William W.; Miller, Joel S.
2010-01-01
The molecule-based magnet [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two interpenetrating sublattices with each sublattice moment confined by anisotropy to a cubic diagonal. At ambient pressure, a field of about 850 Oe rotates the antiferromagnetically-coupled sublattice moments towards the field direction, producing a wasp-waisted magnetization curve. Up to 7 kbar, the sublattice moments increase with pressure due to the enhanced exchange coupling between the Cr and Ru2 spins on each sublattice. Above 7 kbar, the sublattice moment drops by about half and the the linear susceptibility of each sublattice along the cubic diagonal increases dramatically. The most likely explanation for this phase transition is that a high- to low-spin transition on each Ru2 complex reverses and lowers the net spin of each sublattice.
Magnetically driven quantum heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, Enrique; Peña, Francisco J.
2014-05-01
We studied the efficiency of two different schemes for a magnetically driven quantum heat engine, by considering as the "working substance" a single nonrelativistic particle trapped in a cylindrical potential well, in the presence of an external magnetic field. The first scheme is a cycle, composed of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic reversible trajectories in configuration space. The trajectories are driven by a quasistatic modulation of the external magnetic-field intensity. The second scheme is a variant of the former, where the isoenergetic trajectories are replaced by isothermal ones, along which the system is in contact with macroscopic thermostats. This second scheme constitutes a quantum analog of the classical Carnot cycle.
Tailoring Magnetism in Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zutic, Igor; Abolfath, Ramin; Hawrylak, Pawel
2007-03-01
We study magnetism in magnetically doped quantum dots as a function of particle numbers, temperature, confining potential, and the strength of Coulomb interaction screening. We show that magnetism can be tailored by controlling the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, even without changing the number of particles. The interplay of strong Coulomb interactions and quantum confinement leads to enhanced inhomogeneous magnetization which persists at substantially higher temperatures than in the non-interacting case or in the bulk-like dilute magnetic semiconductors. We predict a series of electronic spin transitions which arise from the competition between the many-body gap and magnetic thermal fluctuations. Cond-mat/0612489. [1] R. Abolfath, P. Hawrylak, I. Zuti'c, preprint.
Magnetically driven quantum heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz, Enrique; Pena, Francisco
2015-03-01
In analogy with classical thermodynamics, a quantum heat engine generates useful mechanical work from heat, by means of a reversible sequence of transformations (trajectories), where the ``working substance'' is of quantum mechanical nature. Several theoretical implementations for a quantum heat engine have been discussed in the literature, such as entangled states in a qubit, quantum mechanical versions of the Otto cycle, and photocells. In this work, we propose yet a different alternative by introducing the concept of a magnetically driven quantum heat engine. We studied the efficiency of such system, by considering as the ``working substance'' a single nonrelativistic particle trapped in a cylindrical potential well, as a model for a semiconductor quantum dot, in the presence of an external magnetic field. The trajectories are driven by a quasistatic modulation of the external magnetic-field intensity, while the system is in contact with macroscopic thermostats. The external magnetic field modulation allows to modify the effective geometric confinement, in analogy with a piston in a classical gas. E. Munoz acknowledges financial support from Fondecyt under Contract 1141146.
Quantum oscillations without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.
2017-01-01
When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Sudhapriyanga, G.; Cinthia, A. Jemmy; Santhosh, M.; Murugan, A.
2014-04-01
The structural and magnetic properties of magnesium nitrides are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using Vienna ab-initio simulation package. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl to CsCl in MgN, CaF2 to AlB2 in MgN2 and LaF3 to BiF3 phase in MgN3 is observed. At ambient condition MgN and MgN3 are stable in the ferromagnetic state. On further increasing the pressure, a ferromagnetic to non magnetic transition is observed in MgN.
Computational quantum magnetism: Role of noncollinear magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, Arthur J.; Nakamura, Kohji
2009-04-01
We are witnessing today a golden age of innovation with novel magnetic materials and with discoveries important for both basic science and device applications. Computation and simulation have played a key role in the dramatic advances of the past and those we are witnessing today. A goal-driving computational science—simulations of every-increasing complexity of more and more realistic models has been brought into greater focus with greater computing power to run sophisticated and powerful software codes like our highly precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Indeed, significant progress has been achieved from advanced first-principles FLAPW calculations for the predictions of surface/interface magnetism. One recently resolved challenging issue is the role of noncollinear magnetism (NCM) that arises not only through the SOC, but also from the breaking of symmetry at surfaces and interfaces. For this, we will further review some specific advances we are witnessing today, including complex magnetic phenomena from noncollinear magnetism with no shape approximation for the magnetization (perpendicular MCA in transition-metal overlayers and superlattices; unidirectional anisotropy and exchange bias in FM and AFM bilayers; constricted domain walls important in quantum spin interfaces; and curling magnetic nano-scale dots as new candidates for non-volatile memory applications) and most recently providing new predictions and understanding of magnetism in novel materials such as magnetic semiconductors and multi-ferroic systems.
Element-resolved magnetism across the temperature- and pressure-induced spin reorientation in MnBi
Choi, Yongseong; Jiang, Xiujuan; Bi, Wenli; Lapa, Pavel; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Paudyal, D.; Varga, Tamas; Popov, Dmitry; Cui, Jun; Jiang, J. S.
2016-11-28
Rare-earth free permanent magnet MnBi (NiAs-type crystal structure) displays strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy above its ~ 90 K spin reorientation transition (SRT). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Mn K and Bi L_{2,3} edges show induced magnetism in Bi, which is strongly coupled to the magnetism of Mn. Temperature- and pressure-dependent XMCD results reveal that hydrostatic pressure mimics the effect of temperature, driving a transition from uniaxial to in-plane anisotropy. The pressure and temperature transitions are shown to be connected to an anisotropic lattice contraction in NiAs-type structures. Temperature and pressure, hence, induce coupled structural and magnetic responses, highlighting the importance of both anisotropic lattice change and Mn-Bi hybridization in leading to the magnetic anisotropy change across the SRT. Lastly, the dependence of magnetic anisotropy on the anisotropic lattice change is confirmed by density functional theory.
Element-resolved magnetism across the temperature- and pressure-induced spin reorientation in MnBi
Choi, Yongseong; Jiang, Xiujuan; Bi, Wenli; Lapa, Pavel; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Paudyal, D.; Varga, Tamas; Popov, Dmitry; Cui, Jun; Haskel, Daniel; Jiang, J. S.
2016-11-01
Rare-earth free permanent magnet MnBi (NiAs-type crystal structure) displays strong magnetic anisotropy above its 90 K spin reorientation transition (SRT). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) shows induced magnetism in Bi 5d band, which is strongly coupled to the magnetism of Mn. A clear increase in Bi orbital-to-spin moment ratio is observed above the SRT. Hydrostatic pressure mimics the e*ect of temperature on the SRT, and the pressure effect also leads to anisotropic lattice contraction, which is known to be induced by cooling. These results reveal that temperature and pressure can similarly induce the coupled structural and magnetic responses, suggesting the importance of the anisotropic lattice change and Mn-Bi hybridization to the magnetic anisotropy change across the SRT.
Element-resolved magnetism across the temperature- and pressure-induced spin reorientation in MnBi
Choi, Yongseong; Jiang, Xiujuan; Bi, Wenli; ...
2016-11-28
Rare-earth free permanent magnet MnBi (NiAs-type crystal structure) displays strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy above its ~ 90 K spin reorientation transition (SRT). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Mn K and Bi L2,3 edges show induced magnetism in Bi, which is strongly coupled to the magnetism of Mn. Temperature- and pressure-dependent XMCD results reveal that hydrostatic pressure mimics the effect of temperature, driving a transition from uniaxial to in-plane anisotropy. The pressure and temperature transitions are shown to be connected to an anisotropic lattice contraction in NiAs-type structures. Temperature and pressure, hence, induce coupled structural and magnetic responses,more » highlighting the importance of both anisotropic lattice change and Mn-Bi hybridization in leading to the magnetic anisotropy change across the SRT. Lastly, the dependence of magnetic anisotropy on the anisotropic lattice change is confirmed by density functional theory.« less
Investigation of pressure-induced magnetic transitions in CoxFe3-xO4 spinels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subías, G.; Cuartero, V.; García, J.; Blasco, J.; Lafuerza, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Strohm, C.; Nagai, K.; Mito, M.; Garbarino, G.
2013-03-01
Room temperature Fe and Co K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, and magnetization measurements were carried out to investigate the stability of the ferrimagnetic ground state in CoxFe3-xO4 (x=0, 1, 1.5, and 2) ferrites under pressure up to about 30 GPa using diamond anvil cells. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Fe K-edge is observed to decrease continuously up to the highest reached pressure by ˜50% in Fe3O4 (at 25 GPa) and by ˜70% in Co1.5Fe1.5O4 (at 16 GPa) and Co2FeO4 (at 21 GPa). In CoFe2O4, the suppression by ˜80% of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroic signal occurs simultaneously at both Fe and Co K-edges between 24 and 27 GPa. However, a continuous decrease of the dichroic signal with pressure is only observed at the Co K-edge, whereas the Fe K-edge dichroic intensity drops drastically. The synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction measurements indicate the occurrence of structural phase transitions at critical pressures in coincidence with the suppression of ferrimagnetism. In CoFe2O4, bulk magnetization measurements up to 26 GPa confirm the disappearance of ferrimagnetism and indicate an almost linear dependence of the magnetization with the magnetic field in the high pressure phase. We thus conclude that high-pressure CoFe2O4 is either paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic.
Pressure-Induced Magnetic Crossover Driven by Hydrogen Bonding in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine)
O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; Ma, Chunli; Giri, Santanab; Schlueter, John A.; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice L.
2014-01-01
Hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combined with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets. PMID:25116701
Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene.
Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J
2014-01-31
It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.
O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; Ma, Chunli; Giri, Santanab; Schlueter, John A.; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice L.
2014-08-13
Here, hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF_{2}(H_{2}O)_{2}(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combined with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets.
Pressure-induced magnetic crossover driven by hydrogen bonding in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine)
O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; ...
2014-08-13
Here, hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combinedmore » with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets.« less
Quantum oscillations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals.
Ochsenbein, Stefan T; Gamelin, Daniel R
2011-02-01
Progress in the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots has recently provided access to entirely new forms of diluted magnetic semiconductors, some of which may find use in quantum computation. The usefulness of a spin qubit is defined by its Rabi frequency, which determines the operation time, and its coherence time, which sets the error correction window. However, the spin dynamics of magnetic impurity ions in colloidal doped quantum dots remain entirely unexplored. Here, we use pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate long spin coherence times of ∼0.9 µs in colloidal ZnO quantum dots containing the paramagnetic dopant Mn(2+), as well as Rabi oscillations with frequencies ranging between 2 and 20 MHz depending on microwave power. We also observe electron spin echo envelope modulations of the Mn(2+) signal due to hyperfine coupling with protons outside the quantum dots, a situation unique to the colloidal form of quantum dots, and not observed to date.
Quantum entanglement and coherence in molecular magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiddiq, Muhandis
Quantum computers are predicted to outperform classical computers in certain tasks, such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. The construction of a computer whose operation is based on the principles of quantum mechanics appears extremely challenging. Solid state approaches offer the potential to answer this challenge by tailor-making novel nanomaterials for quantum information processing (QIP). Molecular magnets, which are materials whose energy levels and magnetic quantum states are well defined at the molecular level, have been identified as a class of material with properties that make them attractive for quantum computing purpose. In this dissertation, I explore the possibilities and challenges for molecular magnets to be used in quantum computing architecture. The properties of molecular magnets that are critical for applications in quantum computing, i.e., quantum entanglement and coherence, are comprehensively investigated to probe the feasibility of molecular magnets to be used as quantum bits (qubits). Interactions of qubits with photons are at the core of QIP. Photons can be used to detect and manipulate qubits, after which information can then be transferred over long distances. As a potential candidate for qubits, the interactions between Fe8 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and cavity photons were studied. An earlier report described that a cavity mode splitting was observed in a spectrum of a cavity filled with a single-crystal of Fe8 SMMs. This splitting was interpreted as a vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), which is a signature of an entanglement between a large number of SMMs and a cavity photon. However, find that large absorption and dispersion of the magnetic susceptibility are the reasons for this splitting. This finding highlights the fact that an observation of a peak splitting in a cavity transmission spectrum neither represents an unambiguous indication of quantum coherence in a large number of spins, nor a signature of
Quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozadze, David
We study the effects of quenched weak disorder on quantum phase transitions in disordered magnets. The presence of disorder in the system can lead to a variety of exotic phenomena, e.g., the smearing of transitions or quantum Griffiths singularities. Phase transitions are smeared if individual spatial regions can order independently of the bulk system. In paper I, we study smeared quantum phase transitions in binary alloys A1-xBx that are tuned by changing the composition x. We show that in this case the ordered phase is extended over all compositions x < 1. We also study the composition dependence of observables. In paper II, we investigate the influence of spatial disorder correlations on smeared phase transitions. As an experimental example, we demonstrate in paper III, that the composition-driven ferromagnetic-toparamagnetic quantum phase transition in Sr1-xCaxRuO3 is smeared. When individual spatial regions cannot order but fluctuate slowly, the phase transition is characterized by strong singularities in the quantum Griffiths phase. In paper IV, we develop a theory of the quantum Griffiths phases in disordered ferromagnetic metals. We show that the quantum Griffiths singularities are stronger than the usual power-law quantum Griffiths singularities in insulating magnets. In paper V, we present an efficient numerical method for studying quantum phase transitions in disordered systems with O(N) order parameter symmetry in the large-N limit. Our algorithm solves iteratively the large-N self-consistent equations for the renormalized distances from criticality. Paper VI is devoted to the study of transport properties in the quantum Griffiths phase associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition in a metal. We find unusual behavior of transport properties which is in contrast to the normal Fermi-liquid behavior.
Magnetic control of dipolaritons in quantum dots.
Rojas-Arias, J S; Rodríguez, B A; Vinck-Posada, H
2016-12-21
Dipolaritons are quasiparticles that arise in coupled quantum wells embedded in a microcavity, they are a superposition of a photon, a direct exciton and an indirect exciton. We propose the existence of dipolaritons in a system of two coupled quantum dots inside a microcavity in direct analogy with the quantum well case and find that, despite some similarities, dipolaritons in quantum dots have different properties and can lead to true dark polariton states. We use a finite system theory to study the effects of the magnetic field on the system, including the emission, and find that it can be used as a control parameter of the properties of excitons and dipolaritons, and the overall magnetic behaviour of the structure.
Multifunctional magnetic quantum dots for cancer theranostics.
Singh, Surinder P
2011-02-01
The development of an innovative platform for cancer theranostics that will be capable of noninvasive imaging and treatment of cancerous tumors using biocompatible and multifunctional Fe3O4-ZnO core-shell magnetic quantum dots (M-QDs) is being explored. This multi-functional approach will facilitate deep tumor targeting using a combination of a specific cancer marker and an external magnetic field will simultaneously provide therapy that may evolve as a new paradigm in cancer theranostics.
Quantum Criticality in an Organic Magnet
Stone, Matthew B; Broholm, C. L.; Reich, D. H.; Tchemyshyov, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Harrison, N.
2006-01-01
Exchange interactions between S=1/2 sites in piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate produce a frustrated bilayer magnet with a singlet ground state. We have determined the field-temperature phase diagram by high field magnetization and neutron scattering experiments. There are two quantum critical points: H{sub c1}=7.5 T separates a quantum paramagnet phase from a three dimensional, antiferromagnetically ordered state while H{sub c2}=37 T marks the onset of a fully polarized state. The ordered phase, which we describe as a magnon Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), is embedded in a quantum critical regime with short range correlations. A low temperature anomaly in the BEC phase boundary indicates that additional low energy features of the material become important near H{sub c1}.
Classical and quantum magnetism in giant Keplerate magnetic molecules.
Müller, A; Luban, M; Schröder, C; Modler, R; Kögerler, P; Axenovich, M; Schnack, J; Canfield, P; Bud'ko, S; Harrison, N
2001-09-17
Complementary theoretical modeling methods are presented for the classical and quantum Heisenberg model to explain the magnetic properties of nanometer-sized magnetic molecules. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between our experimental data down to 0.1 K and for fields up to 60 Tesla and our theoretical results for the giant Keplerate species {Mo72Fe30}, by far the largest paramagnetic molecule synthesized to date.
Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapf, Vivien; Jaime, Marcelo; Batista, C. D.
2014-04-01
This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets. These magnets are natural realizations of gases of interacting bosons whose relevant parameters such as dimensionality, lattice geometry, amount of disorder, nature of the interactions, and particle concentration can vary widely between different compounds. The particle concentration can be easily tuned by applying an external magnetic field which plays the role of a chemical potential. This rich spectrum of realizations offers a unique possibility for studying the different physical behaviors that emerge in interacting Bose gases from the interplay between their relevant parameters. The plethora of other bosonic phases that can emerge in quantum magnets, of which the Bose-Einstein condensate is the most basic ground state, is reviewed. The compounds discussed in this review have been intensively studied in the last two decades and have led to important contributions in the area of quantum magnetism. In spite of their apparent simplicity, these systems often exhibit surprising behaviors. The possibility of using controlled theoretical approaches has triggered the discovery of unusual effects induced by frustration, dimensionality, or disorder.
Percolation quantum phase transitions in diluted magnets.
Vojta, Thomas; Schmalian, Jörg
2005-12-02
We show that the interplay of geometric criticality and quantum fluctuations leads to a novel universality class for the percolation quantum phase transition in diluted magnets. All critical exponents involving dynamical correlations are different from the classical percolation values, but in two dimensions they can nonetheless be determined exactly. We develop a complete scaling theory of this transition, and we relate it to recent experiments in La2Cu(1-p)(Zn,Mg)(p)O4. Our results are also relevant for disordered interacting boson systems.
Energy levels in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots above the pressure-induced Γ-X crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itskevich, I. E.; Lyapin, S. G.; Troyan, I. A.; Klipstein, P. C.; Eaves, L.; Main, P. C.; Henini, M.
1998-08-01
Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies of InAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQD's) embedded in a GaAs matrix have been performed under hydrostatic pressure P up to 70 kbar. A strong blueshift of the PL line from the SAQD's with P up to 53 kbar changes to a relatively small redshift at higher P. This is the fingerprint of a Γ-X crossover. Above the crossover pressure, we find experimental evidence for type-II band alignment in the InAs SAQD/GaAs heterostructure system. This gives a reference point that allows us to determine independently the energies of the electron and hole levels in the QD.
Topology-driven magnetic quantum phase transition in topological insulators.
Zhang, Jinsong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Tang, Peizhe; Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Kang; Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chaoxing; Duan, Wenhui; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xucun; Wang, Yayu
2013-03-29
The breaking of time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may create previously unknown quantum effects. We observed a magnetic quantum phase transition in Cr-doped Bi2(SexTe1-x)3 topological insulator films grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Across the critical point, a topological quantum phase transition is revealed through both angle-resolved photoemission measurements and density functional theory calculations. We present strong evidence that the bulk band topology is the fundamental driving force for the magnetic quantum phase transition. The tunable topological and magnetic properties in this system are well suited for realizing the exotic topological quantum phenomena in magnetic topological insulators.
Quantum Well States in Magnetic Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Z. Q.
2000-03-01
Quantum Well (QW) states in magnetic nanostructures play an important role in many phenomena such as the oscillatory interlayer coupling in giant magnetoresistance (GMR) multilayers. Photoemission provides the most direct measurement of QW states in k-space. In this talk, I will report our recent results on QW states obtained at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The high brightness and fine spot size of photon beam at beamline 7 of ALS allow the performance of photoemission experiment on double wedged samples. First, the nature of QW states in metallic thin films will be discussed. Using one monolayer Ni as a probe, we show that the amplitude of the QW wavefunction is described by an envelope function. Second, quantum interference between two QWs will be discussed. Finally, we demonstrate the interconnection between the QW states and the oscillatory interlayer coupling in magnetic multilayers.
Planar Dirac electrons in magnetic quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ning; Zhu, Jia-Lin
2012-05-01
In this paper, we explore the size- and mass-dependent energy spectra and the electronic correlation of two- and three-electron graphene magnetic quantum dots. It is found that only the magnetic dots with large size can well confine the electrons. For large graphene magnetic dots with massless (ultra-relativity) electrons, the energy level structures of two Dirac electrons and even the ground state spin and angular momentum of three electrons are quite different from those of the usual semiconductor quantum dots. Also we reveal that such differences are not due to the magnetic confinement but originate from the character of the Coulomb interaction of two-component electronic wavefunctions in graphene. We reveal that the increase of the mass leads to both the crossover of the energy spectrum structures from the ultra-relativity to non-relativity ones and the increasing of the crystallization. The results are helpful for the understanding of the mass and size effects and may be useful in controlling the few-electron states in graphene-based nanodevices.
Quantum processes in strong magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.
1975-01-01
Quantum-mechanical processes that occur in a piece of matter embedded in a magnetic field with a strength of the order of 10 to the 13th power G are described which either are entirely due to the presence of the field or become modified because of it. The conversion of rotational energy into electromagnetic energy in pulsars is analyzed as a mechanism for producing such a field, and it is shown that a strong magnetic field is not sufficient for quantum effects to play a significant role; in addition, the density must be adjusted to be as low as possible. The pressure and energy density of a free electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are evaluated, neutron beta-decay in the presence of a strong field is examined, and the effect of such a field on neutrino reactions is discussed. The thermal history of a neutron star is studied, and it is concluded that a strong magnetic field helps to increase the cooling rate of the star by producing new channels through which neutrinos can carry away energy.
In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing
2013-08-23
The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.
Modified Debye screening potential in a magnetized quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salimullah, M.; Hussain, A.; Sara, I.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H. A.
2009-07-01
The effects of quantum mechanical influence and uniform static magnetic field on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential in an ultracold homogeneous electron-ion Fermi plasma have been examined in detail. It is noticed that the strong quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential and the ion polarization effect can give rise to a new oscillatory behavior of the screening potential beyond the shielding cloud which could explain a new type of possible robust ordered structure formation in the quantum magnetoplasma. However, the magnetic field enhances the Debye length perpendicular to the magnetic field in the weak quantum limit of the quantum plasma.
Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance
Warren, W.S.
1980-11-01
The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.
Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, L.
2016-07-01
Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.
Electron transport through magnetic quantum point contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, Timothy Ellis
Spin-based electronics, or spintronics, has generated a great deal of interest as a possible next-generation integrated circuit technology. Recent experimental and theoretical work has shown that these devices could exhibit increased processing speed, decreased power consumption, and increased integration densities as compared with conventional semiconductor devices. The spintronic device that was designed, fabricated, and tested throughout the course of this work aimed to study the generation of spin-polarized currents in semiconductors using magnetic fringe fields. The device scheme relied on the Zeeman effect in combination with a quantum mechanical barrier to generate spin-polarized currents. The Zeeman effect was used to break the degeneracy of spin-up and spin-down electrons and the quantum mechanical potential to transmit one while rejecting the other. The design was dictated by the drive to maximize the strength of the magnetic fringe field and in turn maximize the energy separation of the two spin species. The device was fabricated using advanced techniques in semiconductor processing including electron beam lithography and DC magnetron sputtering. Measurements were performed in a 3He cryostat equipped with a superconducting magnet at temperatures below 300 mK. Preliminary characterization of the device revealed magnetoconductance oscillations produced by the effect of the transverse confining potential on the density of states and the mobility. Evidence of the effect of the magnetic fringe fields on the transport properties of electrons in the device were observed in multiple device measurements. An abrupt washout of the quantized conductance steps was observed over a minute range of the applied magnetic field. The washout was again observed as electrons were shifted closer to the magnetic gates. In addition, bias spectroscopy demonstrated that the washout occurred despite stronger electron confinement, as compared to a non-magnetic split-gate. Thus, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakanishi, T.; Motoyama, N.; Mitamura, H.; Takeshita, N.; Takahashi, H.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Môri, N.
2005-08-01
We report electrical resistivity on a single crystal of the hole-doped two-leg ladder compound Sr2Ca12Cu24O41 , which becomes superconducting with Tc˜5K only at pressures above ˜3.0GPa . Measurements were performed at nearly hydrostatic pressures up to 5.7GPa and low temperatures down to 100mK under static magnetic fields up to 20T parallel to the a axis (along the ladder rungs) and up to 7T parallel to both the b axis (perpendicular to the ladder plane) and the c axis (along the ladder legs). A clear difference in the resistive upper critical field Hc2(T) is observed among these three directions, confirming that this system has a highly anisotropic superconducting ground state. Also, Hc2(T) parallel to the ladder plane is found to exceed the Pauli limit by a factor of more than 2, suggesting either a strong spin-orbit scattering or spin-triplet pairing. Furthermore, it is implied, from measurements of resistivity versus angle of magnetic field in the bc plane, that another superconducting phase is stable below around 3K only when the magnetic field is applied exactly along a certain direction that is ±35° from the ladder direction.
Liquid quantum droplets of ultracold magnetic atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Kadau, Holger; Pfau, Tilman
2016-11-01
The simultaneous presence of two competing inter-particle interactions can lead to the emergence of new phenomena in a many-body system. Among others, such effects are expected in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, subject to dipole-dipole interaction and short-range repulsion. Magnetic quantum gases and in particular Dysprosium gases, offering a comparable short-range contact and a long-range dipolar interaction energy, remarkably exhibit such emergent phenomena. In addition an effective cancellation of mean-field effects of the two interactions results in a pronounced importance of quantum-mechanical beyond mean-field effects. For a weakly dominant dipolar interaction the striking consequence is the existence of a new state of matter equilibrated by the balance between weak mean-field attraction and beyond mean-field repulsion. Though exemplified here in the case of dipolar Bose gases, this state of matter should appear also with other microscopic interactions types, provided a competition results in an effective cancellation of the total mean-field. The macroscopic state takes the form of so-called quantum droplets. We present the effects of a long-range dipolar interaction between these droplets.
Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma
Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.
2014-07-15
Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Boruo; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng
2012-10-13
Quantum computers have been proved to be able to mimic quantum systems efficiently in polynomial time. Quantum chemistry problems, such as static molecular energy calculations and dynamical chemical reaction simulations, become very intractable on classical computers with scaling up of the system. Therefore, quantum simulation is a feasible and effective approach to tackle quantum chemistry problems. Proof-of-principle experiments have been implemented on the calculation of the hydrogen molecular energies and one-dimensional chemical isomerization reaction dynamics using nuclear magnetic resonance systems. We conclude that quantum simulation will surpass classical computers for quantum chemistry in the near future.
Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux
Jin, L.
2016-07-15
Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.
Pressure induced polymerization of Formates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tschauner, Oliver
2004-03-01
The discovery of pressure induced polymerization of CO2 inspired us to search for C-O based chain structures forming at high pressure. We used salts of carboxylic acids as starting materials and exposed them to pressures between 10 and 30 GPa. Upon heating to temperatures above 1800 K we observed deprotonation and significant changes in the Raman shifts of C-O streching modes. Structure analysis based on powder diffraction patterns collected at sector 16 of the APS showed formation of extended C-O chain structures with the cations of the salts residing in the interchain spaces. These new high pressure polymers are interesting by their mechanical strength and provide basic molecular patterns of organic metallic conductors.
Pressure induced metallization of Germane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Canales, M.; Bergara, A.; Feng, J.; Grochala, W.
2006-09-01
Recently reported superconductivity in lithium under pressure has renewed the interest on hydrogen and hydrogen-rich systems in the long standing quest for room temperature superconductivity. Although the required metallization of pure hydrogen cannot be achieved within correct experimental capabilities, chemical precompression exerted by heavier atoms in compounds with a large hydrogen content is expected to imply that lower pressures might be required to attain the metallic transition in these alloys. In this article, we present an ab initio analysis of pressure induced metallization of germane, as a particular case between group IVa hydrides. According to our calculations, metallization of germane is predicted to occur at an experimentally accessible pressure of around 70 GPa, which corresponds to a compression factor of 3.4.
Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias.
Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian
2015-01-01
Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.
Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian
2015-01-01
Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.
Highly fluorescent magnetic quantum dotprobe with superior colloidal stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basiruddin, Sk; Saha, Arindam; Sarkar, Rupa; Majumder, Moumita; Jana, Nikhil R.
2010-12-01
A magnetic quantum dot (MQD) based cellular nanoprobe, composed of a magnetic oxidenanoparticle component and a quantum dot component, has been synthesized and used for both imaging and separation. The successful synthesis is based on a reverse micelle based polyacrylate coating in the presence of component nanoparticles, followed by their functionalization viaconjugation chemistry.A magnetic quantum dot (MQD) based cellular nanoprobe, composed of a magnetic oxidenanoparticle component and a quantum dot component, has been synthesized and used for both imaging and separation. The successful synthesis is based on a reverse micelle based polyacrylate coating in the presence of component nanoparticles, followed by their functionalization viaconjugation chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedure, MQD characterization via magnetic measurements, EDX, TEM, FTIR, fluorescamine test and control celllabeling data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00501k
Single Cell Magnetic Measurements with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Arps, Jennifer; Dwyer, Bo; Kalisky, Beena; Kirtley, John R.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Qian, Lisa C.; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Rutt, Brian; Tee, Sui Seng; Theis, Eric; Urbach, Elana; Wang, Yihua
2014-03-01
Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in numerous biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and targeted drug delivery. There is a need for tools to characterize individual magnetic nanoparticles and the magnetic properties of individual cells. We use a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to observe the magnetic fields from single mammalian cells loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. We show that the SQUID is a useful tool for imaging biological magnetism and is capable of resolving cell to cell variations in magnetic dipole moments. We hope to correlate these magnetic images with real space imaging techniques such as optical and scanning electron microscopy. The visualization of single cell magnetism can be used to optimize biological magnetic imaging techniques, such as MRI, by quantifying the strength of magnetic dipole moments of in vitro magnetic labeling. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a Gabilan Stanford Graduate Fellowship.
Magnetic quantum tunneling: insights from simple molecule-based magnets.
Hill, Stephen; Datta, Saiti; Liu, Junjie; Inglis, Ross; Milios, Constantinos J; Feng, Patrick L; Henderson, John J; del Barco, Enrique; Brechin, Euan K; Hendrickson, David N
2010-05-28
This perspectives article takes a broad view of the current understanding of magnetic bistability and magnetic quantum tunneling in single-molecule magnets (SMMs), focusing on three families of relatively simple, low-nuclearity transition metal clusters: spin S = 4 Ni(II)(4), Mn(III)(3) (S = 2 and 6) and Mn(III)(6) (S = 4 and 12). The Mn(III) complexes are related by the fact that they contain triangular Mn(III)(3) units in which the exchange may be switched from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic without significantly altering the coordination around the Mn(III) centers, thereby leaving the single-ion physics more-or-less unaltered. This allows for a detailed and systematic study of the way in which the individual-ion anisotropies project onto the molecular spin ground state in otherwise identical low- and high-spin molecules, thus providing unique insights into the key factors that control the quantum dynamics of SMMs, namely: (i) the height of the kinetic barrier to magnetization relaxation; and (ii) the transverse interactions that cause tunneling through this barrier. Numerical calculations are supported by an unprecedented experimental data set (17 different compounds), including very detailed spectroscopic information obtained from high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance and low-temperature hysteresis measurements. Comparisons are made between the giant spin and multi-spin phenomenologies. The giant spin approach assumes the ground state spin, S, to be exact, enabling implementation of simple anisotropy projection techniques. This methodology provides a basic understanding of the concept of anisotropy dilution whereby the cluster anisotropy decreases as the total spin increases, resulting in a barrier that depends weakly on S. This partly explains why the record barrier for a SMM (86 K for Mn(6)) has barely increased in the 15 years since the first studies of Mn(12)-acetate, and why the tiny Mn(3) molecule can have a barrier approaching 60% of this
Engineering multifunctional magnetic-quantum dot barcodes by flow focusing.
Giri, Supratim; Li, Dawei; Chan, Warren C W
2011-04-14
A simple one-step flow focusing method was used to embed both magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots in microbeads in controlled ratios to generate a large library of molecular barcodes for biological applications.
Probing electric and magnetic vacuum fluctuations with quantum dots.
Tighineanu, P; Andersen, M L; Sørensen, A S; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2014-07-25
The electromagnetic-vacuum-field fluctuations are intimately linked to the process of spontaneous emission of light. Atomic emitters cannot probe electric- and magnetic-field fluctuations simultaneously because electric and magnetic transitions correspond to different selection rules. In this Letter we show that semiconductor quantum dots are fundamentally different and are capable of mediating electric-dipole, magnetic-dipole, and electric-quadrupole transitions on a single electronic resonance. As a consequence, quantum dots can probe electric and magnetic fields simultaneously and can thus be applied for sensing the electromagnetic environment of complex photonic nanostructures. Our study opens the prospect of interfacing quantum dots with optical metamaterials for tailoring the electric and magnetic light-matter interaction at the single-emitter level.
Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, N. A.
2011-03-01
The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.
Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon
2016-10-01
We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, E. D.; Kim, Y.; Perry, C. H.; Tozer, S.; Rickel, D. G.
1996-03-01
We report on low-temperature pressure dependent magnetoluminescence measurements of a In_0.2Ga_0.8As/GaAs 80Åwide n-type single-strained-quantum well in cw (max 18T) and pulsed (max 60T) magnetic fields using a miniture diamond anvil cell. Landau level shifts were studied at 4 and 76 K with pressures ranging from ambient to about 40 kbar. The nc = 0 to nv = 0 Landau level transition was linear in magnetic field for all pressures, but there is evidence of a slope change for fields of about 20T. The pressure coefficients of the bandgap energy are the expected 9-10 meV/kbar. Also observed was the Γ-X pressure induced transition between the InGaAs Γ-point and the GaAs barrier X-point at the highest pressures. The pressure dependence of the conduction- and valence-band masses will also be discussed.
Optical and electronic properties of quantum dots with magnetic impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorov, Alexander O.
2008-10-01
The article discusses some of the recent results on semiconductor quantum dots with magnetic impurities. A single Mn impurity incorporated in a quantum dot strongly changes the optical response of a quantum-dot system. A character of Mn-carrier interaction is very different for II-VI and III-V quantum dots (QDs). In the II-VI QDs, a Mn impurity influences mostly the spin-structure of an exciton. In the III-V dots, a spatial localization of hole by a Mn impurity can be very important, and ultimately yields a totally different spin structure. A Mn-doped QD with a variable number of mobile carriers represents an artificial magnetic atom. Due to the Mn-carrier interaction, the order of filling of electronic shells in the magnetic QDs can be very different to the case of the real atoms. The "periodic" table of the artificial magnetic atoms can be realized in voltage-tunable transistor structures. For the electron numbers corresponding to the regime of Hund's rule, the magnetic Mn-carrier coupling is especially strong and the magnetic-polaron states are very robust. Magnetic QD molecules are also very different to the real molecules. QD molecules can demonstrate spontaneous breaking of symmetry and phase transitions. Single QDs and QD molecules can be viewed as voltage-tunable nanoscale memory cells where information is stored in the form of robust magnetic-polaron states. To cite this article: A.O. Govorov, C. R. Physique 9 (2008).
Zitterbewegung and quantum revivals in monolayer graphene quantum dots in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Trinidad; Cordero, Nicolás A.; Romera, Elvira
2014-02-01
The wave-packet evolution in graphene quantum dots in magnetic fields has been theoretically studied. By analyzing an effective Hamiltonian model we show the wave-packet dynamics exhibits three types of periodicities (Zitterbewegung, classical, and revival times). The influence of the size of the quantum dot and the strength of the external magnetic field in these periodicities has been considered. In addition, we have found that valley degeneracy breaking is shown by both classical and revival times.
IR photodetector based on rectangular quantum wire in magnetic field
Jha, Nandan
2014-04-24
In this paper we study rectangular quantum wire based IR detector with magnetic field applied along the wires. The energy spectrum of a particle in rectangular box shows level repulsions and crossings when external magnetic field is applied. Due to this complex level dynamics, we can tune the spacing between any two levels by varying the magnetic field. This method allows user to change the detector parameters according to his/her requirements. In this paper, we numerically calculate the energy sub-band levels of the square quantum wire in constant magnetic field along the wire and quantify the possible operating wavelength range that can be obtained by varying the magnetic field. We also calculate the photon absorption probability at different magnetic fields and give the efficiency for different wavelengths if the transition is assumed between two lowest levels.
Magnetic quantum dots and rings in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Downing, C. A.; Portnoi, M. E.
2016-07-01
We consider the motion of electrons confined to a two-dimensional plane with an externally applied perpendicular inhomogeneous magnetic field, both with and without a Coulomb potential. We find that as long as the magnetic field is slowly decaying, bound states in magnetic quantum dots are indeed possible. Several example cases of such magnetic quantum dots are considered in which one can find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in closed form, including two hitherto unknown quasi-exactly-solvable models treated with confluent and biconfluent Heun polynomials. It is shown how a modulation of the strength of the magnetic field can exclude magnetic vortexlike states, rotating with a certain angular momenta and possessing a definite spin orientation, from forming. This indicates one may induce localization-delocalization transitions and suggests a mechanism for spin separation.
Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots.
Yi, Dong Kee; Selvan, S Tamil; Lee, Su Seong; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C; Kundaliya, Darshan; Ying, Jackie Y
2005-04-13
Quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) are of interest for biological imaging, drug targeting, and bioconjugation because of their unique optoelectronic and magnetic properties, respectively. To provide for water solubility and biocompatibility, QDs and MPs were encapsulated within a silica shell using a reverse microemulsion synthesis. The resulting SiO2/MP-QD nanocomposite particles present a unique combination of magnetic and optical properties. Their nonporous silica shell allows them to be surface modified for bioconjugation in various biomedical applications.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells.
Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Chao-Xing
2014-10-03
The quantum anomalous Hall effect has recently been observed experimentally in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)(2)Te(3) at a low temperature (∼ 30 mK). In this work, we propose realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect in more conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors with magnetically doped InAs/GaSb type-II quantum wells. Based on a four-band model, we find an enhancement of the Curie temperature of ferromagnetism due to band edge singularities in the inverted regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. Below the Curie temperature, the quantum anomalous Hall effect is confirmed by the direct calculation of Hall conductance. The parameter regime for the quantum anomalous Hall phase is identified based on the eight-band Kane model. The high sample quality and strong exchange coupling make magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells good candidates for realizing the quantum anomalous Hall insulator at a high temperature.
Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu
2010-06-01
Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets
Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.
2016-01-01
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications. PMID:27922114
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets.
Parmentier, F D; Cazimajou, T; Sekine, Y; Hibino, H; Irie, H; Glattli, D C; Kumada, N; Roulleau, P
2016-12-06
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.
2016-12-01
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Imaging Micrometer Scale Rock Magnetism Using a Quantum Diamond Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, R. R.; Glenn, D. R.; Le Sage, D.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.; Walsworth, R. L.
2014-12-01
Optically-detected magnetometry using quantum defects in diamond, known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers, is an emerging technology that allows high sensitivity and high resolution mapping of magnetic fields. Recent measurements of live magnetotactic bacteria demonstrate that such a "quantum diamond microscope" can image individual magnetic sources with <500 nm resolution, >1 mm field-of-view, and magnetic moment sensitivity <10-16 A m2 under ambient temperatures and pressures. The unprecedented combination of spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of the quantum diamond microscope permits magnetic analyses of previously inaccessible geologic samples in which the regions of interest are mixed with undesirable magnetic field sources at the <<100 µm scale. Here we apply this technique to chondritic meteorites, primordial aggregates formed during the accretional phase of the solar system. These meteorites consist of fine-grained matrix mixed with chondrules and other inclusions with characteristic sizes of 0.1 - 1 mm. Each chondrule records a unique magnetic history and potentially constrains nebular magnetic fields, which likely played a key role in accretion disk dynamics. The quantum diamond microscope is unique in its ability to resolve the magnetic signal of single inclusions from surrounding material. We applied the quantum diamond microscope to a variety of natural and artificial samples. Magnetic field maps of a single chondrule from the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite (Fig. 1) show that the strongest magnetic sources are located in its 20 μm thick rim. Magnetic field sources in the chondrule interior occur in the mesostasis as isolated 10-100 μm patches that generate magnetic fields ~10 times weaker than the rim. These maps highlight the importance of spatial resolution for paleomagnetic measurements of chondrites; lower resolution measurements would permit the nearby rim material to dominate the magnetic signal, precluding accurate recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Chong; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Jie; Tong, Wei; Cao, Boxiao; Li, Kun; Pan, Bicai; Su, Haibin; Xie, Yi
2012-10-01
Quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTMs), stemming from their importance for understanding materials with unconventional properties, has continued to attract widespread theoretical and experimental attention. However, the observation of QTMs in the most promising candidates of molecular magnets and few iron-based compounds is limited to very low temperature. Herein, we first highlight a simple system, ultrasmall half-metallic V3O4 quantum dots, as a promising candidate for the investigation of QTMs at high temperature. The quantum superparamagnetic state (QSP) as a high temperature signature of QTMs is observed at 16 K, which is beyond absolute zero temperature and much higher than that of conventional iron-based compounds due to the stronger spin-orbital coupling of V3+ ions bringing high anisotropy energy. It is undoubtedly that this ultrasmall quantum dots, V3O4, offers not only a promising candidate for theoretical understanding of QTMs but also a very exciting possibility for computers using mesoscopic magnets.
Crystals for neutron scattering studies of quantum magnetism
Yankova, Tantiana; Hüvonen, Dan; Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Schmidiger, David; Wulf, Erik; Hong, Tao; Garlea, Vasile O; Custelcean, Radu; Ehlers, Georg
2012-01-01
We review a strategy for targeted synthesis of large single crystal samples of prototype quantum magnets for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Four case studies of organic copper halogenide S = 1/2 systems are presented. They are meant to illustrate that exciting experimental results pertaining to the forefront of many-body quantum physics can be obtained on samples grown using very simple techniques, standard laboratory equipment, and almost no experience in advanced crystal growth techniques.
Magnetic torque anomaly in the quantum limit of Weyl semimetals
Moll, Philip J. W.; Potter, Andrew C.; Nair, Nityan L.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Modic, K. A.; Riggs, Scott; Zeng, Bin; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; Bauer, Eric D.; Kealhofer, Robert; Ronning, Filip; Analytis, James G.
2016-01-01
Electrons in materials with linear dispersion behave as massless Weyl- or Dirac-quasiparticles, and continue to intrigue due to their close resemblance to elusive ultra-relativistic particles as well as their potential for future electronics. Yet the experimental signatures of Weyl-fermions are often subtle and indirect, in particular if they coexist with conventional, massive quasiparticles. Here we show a pronounced anomaly in the magnetic torque of the Weyl semimetal NbAs upon entering the quantum limit state in high magnetic fields. The torque changes sign in the quantum limit, signalling a reversal of the magnetic anisotropy that can be directly attributed to the topological nature of the Weyl electrons. Our results establish that anomalous quantum limit torque measurements provide a direct experimental method to identify and distinguish Weyl and Dirac systems. PMID:27545105
Magnetic polyoxometalates: from molecular magnetism to molecular spintronics and quantum computing.
Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro
2012-11-21
In this review we discuss the relevance of polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry to provide model objects in molecular magnetism. We present several potential applications in nanomagnetism, in particular, in molecular spintronics and quantum computing.
Magnetism in closed-shell quantum dots: emergence of magnetic bipolarons.
Oszwałdowski, Rafał; Zutić, Igor; Petukhov, A G
2011-04-29
Similar to atoms and nuclei, semiconductor quantum dots exhibit the formation of shells. Predictions of magnetic behavior of the dots are often based on the shell occupancies. Thus, closed-shell quantum dots are assumed to be inherently nonmagnetic. Here, we propose a possibility of magnetism in such dots doped with magnetic impurities. On the example of the system of two interacting fermions, the simplest embodiment of the closed-shell structure, we demonstrate the emergence of a novel broken-symmetry ground state that is neither spin singlet nor spin triplet. We propose experimental tests of our predictions and the magnetic-dot structures to perform them.
Excitation spectra of disordered dimer magnets near quantum criticality.
Vojta, Matthias
2013-08-30
For coupled-dimer magnets with quenched disorder, we introduce a generalization of the bond-operator method, appropriate to describe both singlet and magnetically ordered phases. This allows for a numerical calculation of the magnetic excitations at all energies across the phase diagram, including the strongly inhomogeneous Griffiths regime near quantum criticality. We apply the method to the bilayer Heisenberg model with bond randomness and characterize both the broadening of excitations and the transfer of spectral weight induced by disorder. Inside the antiferromagnetic phase this model features the remarkable combination of sharp magnetic Bragg peaks and broad magnons, the latter arising from the tendency to localization of low-energy excitations.
Quantum Annealing and Tunable Magnetic Domain Wall Tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbaum, Thomas F.
2001-03-01
Traditional simulated annealing utilizes thermal fluctuations for convergence in optimization problems. Quantum tunneling provides a different mechanism for moving between states, with the potential for reduced time scales. We compare thermal and quantum annealing in a model Ising ferromagnet composed of holmium dipoles in a lithium tetrafluoride matrix. The effects of quantum mechanics can be tuned in the laboratory by varying a magnetic field applied transverse to the Ising axis. This new knob permits us to: (1) tune the crossover between a classical Arrhenius response at high temperatures and an athermal response below 100 mK; (2) quantify the tunneling of magnetic domain walls through potential energy barriers in terms of an effective mass [1]; and (3) hasten convergence to the optimal state [2]. [1] "Tunable Quantum Tunneling of Magnetic Domain Walls," J. Brooke, T.F. Rosenbaum and G. Aeppli, preprint (2000). [2] "Quantum Annealing of a Disordered Magnet," J. Brooke, D. Bitko, T.F. Rosenbaum and G. Aeppli, Science 284, 779 (1999).
Simulations of magnetic field gradients due to micro-magnets on a triple quantum dot circuit
Poulin-Lamarre, G.; Bureau-Oxton, C.; Kam, A.; Zawadzki, P.; Aers, G.; Studenikin, S.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Sachrajda, A. S.
2013-12-04
To quantify the effects of local magnetic fields on triple quantum dots, the Heisenberg Hamiltonian has been diagonalized for three electrons coupled via the exchange interaction. In particular, we have investigated different geometries of micro-magnets located on top of the triple dot in order to optimize the field gradient characteristics. In this paper, we focus on two geometries which are candidates for an addressable EDSR triple quantum dot device.
Intrinsic magnetism of monolayer graphene oxide quantum dots
Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Weili; Tang, Nujiang Du, Youwei
2016-01-18
Monolayer graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) were obtained by oxidative cutting. The magnetic properties of GOQDs were studied. The results show that most of GOQDs are nonmagnetic, and only few of GOQDs are weakly paramagnetic. The ratio of magnetic GOQDs with the average diameter of 4.13, 3.3, and 1.67 nm is 1/14, 1/15, and 1/70, respectively. It is proposed that the edge states magnetism is suppressed by the edge defects and/or the magnetic correlation induced spins cancellation between magnetic fragments of the boundary, and hydroxyl groups on the basal plane are the major magnetic source of magnetic GOQDs.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized viscous plasma
Hoshoudy, G. A.
2011-09-15
Quantum effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability of stratified viscous plasmas layer under the influence of vertical magnetic field are investigated. By linearly solving the viscous QMHD equations into normal mode, a forth-order ordinary differential equation is obtained to describe the velocity perturbation. Then the growth rate is derived for the case where a plasma with exponential density distribution is confined between two rigid planes. The results show that, the presence of vertical magnetic field beside the quantum effect will bring about more stability on the growth rate of unstable configuration for viscous plasma, which is greater than that of inviscous plasma.
Preparation and detection of magnetic quantum phases in optical superlattices.
Rey, A M; Gritsev, V; Bloch, I; Demler, E; Lukin, M D
2007-10-05
We describe a novel approach to prepare, detect, and characterize magnetic quantum phases in ultracold spinor atoms loaded in optical superlattices. Our technique makes use of singlet-triplet spin manipulations in an array of isolated double-well potentials in analogy to recently demonstrated control in quantum dots. We also discuss the many-body singlet-triplet spin dynamics arising from coherent coupling between nearest neighbor double wells and derive an effective description for such systems. We use it to study the generation of complex magnetic states by adiabatic and nonequilibrium dynamics.
Optical, magnetic and electronic properties of graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guclu, A. Devrim
2011-03-01
We present a theory of optical, magnetic and electronic properties of graphene quantum dots. We demonstrate that there exists a class of triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges [1-8] which combines magnetic, optical and transport properties in a single-material structure. These dots exhibit robust magnetic moment and optical transitions simultaneously in the THz, visible and UV spectral ranges due to the existence of a band of degenerate states lying at the Fermi level in the middle of the energy gap [1-6]. The magnetic and optical properties[5,7] are determined by strong electron-electron and excitonic interactions in the degenerate band, treated exactly using numerical techniques combining tight-binding, DFT, Hartree-Fock and configuration interactions methods. We show that the spin polarized degenerate band leads to quenching of the absorption spectrum at half-filling, while addition of a single electron fully depolarizes all electron spins and turns the absorption on. It is thus possible to design gate and size tunable graphene quantum dots with desired optical and magnetic properties for optoelectronic and photo-voltaic applications. Collaborators: P. Potasz, O. Voznyy, M. Korkusinski, and P. Hawrylak. The author thanks NRC-CNRS CRP, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Institute for Microstructural Sciences, and QuantumWorks for support.
Quantum simulation of frustrated classical magnetism in triangular optical lattices.
Struck, J; Ölschläger, C; Le Targat, R; Soltan-Panahi, P; Eckardt, A; Lewenstein, M; Windpassinger, P; Sengstock, K
2011-08-19
Magnetism plays a key role in modern technology and stimulates research in several branches of condensed matter physics. Although the theory of classical magnetism is well developed, the demonstration of a widely tunable experimental system has remained an elusive goal. Here, we present the realization of a large-scale simulator for classical magnetism on a triangular lattice by exploiting the particular properties of a quantum system. We use the motional degrees of freedom of atoms trapped in an optical lattice to simulate a large variety of magnetic phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and even frustrated spin configurations. A rich phase diagram is revealed with different types of phase transitions. Our results provide a route to study highly debated phases like spin-liquids as well as the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.
Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.
2014-03-01
The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins.
Spin–orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid
Park, Sang-Youn; Do, S.-H.; Choi, K.-Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, B.; Brando, Manuel; Kim, B.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Butch, N. P.; Lee, Seongsu; Park, J.-H.; Ji, Sungdae
2016-01-01
Molecular quantum magnetism involving an isolated spin state is of particular interest due to the characteristic quantum phenomena underlying spin qubits or molecular spintronics for quantum information devices, as demonstrated in magnetic metal–organic molecular systems, the so-called molecular magnets. Here we report the molecular quantum magnetism realized in an inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 with spin–orbit coupled pseudospin-½ Yb3+ ions. The magnetization represents the magnetic quantum values of an isolated Yb4 tetrahedron with a total (pseudo)spin 0, 1 and 2. Inelastic neutron scattering results reveal that a large Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction originating from strong spin–orbit coupling of Yb 4f is a key ingredient to explain magnetic excitations of the molecular magnet states. The Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction allows a non-adiabatic quantum transition between avoided crossing energy levels, and also results in unexpected magnetic behaviours in conventional molecular magnets. PMID:27650796
Spin-orbit coupled molecular quantum magnetism realized in inorganic solid.
Park, Sang-Youn; Do, S-H; Choi, K-Y; Kang, J-H; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, B; Brando, Manuel; Kim, B-H; Kim, D-H; Butch, N P; Lee, Seongsu; Park, J-H; Ji, Sungdae
2016-09-21
Molecular quantum magnetism involving an isolated spin state is of particular interest due to the characteristic quantum phenomena underlying spin qubits or molecular spintronics for quantum information devices, as demonstrated in magnetic metal-organic molecular systems, the so-called molecular magnets. Here we report the molecular quantum magnetism realized in an inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 with spin-orbit coupled pseudospin-½ Yb(3+) ions. The magnetization represents the magnetic quantum values of an isolated Yb4 tetrahedron with a total (pseudo)spin 0, 1 and 2. Inelastic neutron scattering results reveal that a large Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction originating from strong spin-orbit coupling of Yb 4f is a key ingredient to explain magnetic excitations of the molecular magnet states. The Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction allows a non-adiabatic quantum transition between avoided crossing energy levels, and also results in unexpected magnetic behaviours in conventional molecular magnets.
Spin-density distribution in the partially magnetized organic quantum magnet F2PNNNO
Zheludev, Andrey I; Garlea, Vasile O; Nishihara, S.; Hosokoshi, Y.; Cousson, Alain; Gukasov, Arsen; Inoue, K.
2007-01-01
Polarized neutron diffraction experiments on an organic magnetic material reveal a highly skewed distribution of spin density within the magnetic molecular unit. The very large magnitude of the observed effect is due to quantum spin fluctuations. The data are in quantitative agreement with direct diagonalization results for a model spin Hamiltonian, and provide insight on the actual microscopic origin of the relevant exchange interactions.
Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet
Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G. Â E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June
2015-11-30
When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu_{2}PO_{6}.
Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet
Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; ...
2015-11-30
When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here,more » we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.« less
Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning
2017-03-01
Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.
Wave functions of elliptical quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Daming; Lorke, Axel
2015-03-01
We use the variational principle to obtain the wave functions of elliptical quantum dots under the influence of an external magnetic field. For the first excited states, whose wave functions have recently been mapped experimentally, we find a simple expression, based on a linear combination of the wave functions in the absence of a magnetic field. The results illustrate how a magnetic field breaks the x-y symmetry and mixes the corresponding eigenstates. The obtained eigenenergies agree well with those obtained by more involved analytical and numerical methods.
Robust quantum memory using magnetic-field-independent atomic qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Jost, J. D.; Demarco, B.; Ben-Kish, A.; Blakestad, B.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Leibfried, D.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schmidt, P.; Wineland, D. J.
2006-03-01
Scalable quantum information processing requires physical systems capable of reliably storing coherent superpositions for times over which quantum error correction can be implemented. We experimentally demonstrate a robust quantum memory using a magnetic-field-independent hyperfine transition in ^9Be^+ atomic ion qubits at a field B = 0.01194 T. Qubit superpositions are created and analyzed with two-photon stimulated-Raman transitions. We observe the single physical qubit memory coherence time to be greater than 10 seconds, an improvement of approximately five orders of magnitude from previous experiments. The probability of memory error for this qubit during the measurement period (the longest timescale in our system) is approximately 1.4 x 10-5 which is below fault-tolerance threshold for common quantum error correcting codes.
Control of quantum magnetic deflagration in Mn12 acetate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Minguez, Alberto; Hernandez, Joan Manel; Macia, Ferran; Garcia-Santiago, Antonio; Tejada, Javier; Santos, Paulo
2006-03-01
Magnetic avalanches in Mn12-ac involve spin tunneling through an energy barrier which is controlled by the applied magnetic field. The reversal proceeds through the propagation of a narrow magnetic reversal front at constant velocity through the crystal [1]. In this contribution, we demonstrate that the ignition of the deflagration can be controlled in a deterministic way using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). For that purpose, the Mn12 crystal was mounted on the surface of a piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate containing an interdigital transducer (IDT) for the excitation of SAWs. In the super-paramagnetic regime (above 3 K), the Mn12 magnetization shows pronounced changes when the IDT is excited at its resonant frequencies, thus proving that the crystals can be used as very sensitive acoustic detectors. At low temperatures (below 3 K), both the ignition rate and the velocity of the deflagration front present peaks for the values of the magnetic fields that bring the spin levels on both sides of the tunneling barrier into resonance, thus demonstrating the occurrence of both quantum magnetic ignition and quantum magnetic deflagration [2]. [1] Y. Suzuki et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005). [2] A. Hern'andez-M'inguez et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217205 (2005).
Quantum entanglement in a two-electron quantum dot in magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Chizhov, A. V.
2012-03-01
The properties of quantum entanglement of the ground state in an exactly solvable model of a two-electron QD have been investigated. It is shown that the degree of entanglement increases with enhancement of interaction between electrons, irrespective of the shape of electron confining potential in a QD. A magnetic field destroys electron entanglement. However, the entanglement in deformed QDs is more stable against magnetic field.
Magnetic quantum dots in biotechnology--synthesis and applications.
Mahajan, Kalpesh D; Fan, Qirui; Dorcéna, Jenny; Ruan, Gang; Winter, Jessica O
2013-12-01
Quantum dots (QDs) have great promise in biological imaging, and as this promise is realized, there has been increasing interest in combining the benefits of QDs with those of other materials to yield composites with multifunctional properties. One of the most common materials combined with QDs is magnetic materials, either as ions (e.g. gadolinium) or as nanoparticles (e.g. superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, SPIONs). The fluorescent property of the QDs permits visualization, whereas the magnetic property of the composite enables imaging, magnetic separation, and may even have therapeutic benefit. In this review, the synthesis of fluorescent-magnetic nanoparticles, including magnetic QDs is explored; and the applications of these materials in imaging, separations, and theranostics are discussed. As the properties of these materials continue to improve, QDs have the potential to greatly impact biological imaging, diagnostics, and treatment.
Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.
Pelekhov, D. V.; Martin, I.; Suter, A.; Reagor, D. W.; Hammel, P. C.
2001-01-01
A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.
Magnetic alteration of entanglement in two-electron quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonović, N. S.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.
2015-11-01
Quantum entanglement is analyzed thoroughly in the case of the ground and lowest states of two-electron axially symmetric quantum dots under a perpendicular magnetic field. The individual-particle and the center-of-mass representations are used to study the entanglement variation at the transition from interacting to noninteracting particle regimes. The mechanism of symmetry breaking due to the interaction, which results in the states with symmetries related to the latter representation only being entangled even at the vanishing interaction, is discussed. The analytical expression for the entanglement measure based on the linear entropy is derived in the limit of noninteracting electrons. It reproduces remarkably well the numerical results for the lowest states with the magnetic quantum number M ≥2 in the interacting regime. It is found that the entanglement of the ground state is a discontinuous function of the field strength. A method to estimate the entanglement of the ground state, characterized by the quantum number M , with the aid of the magnetic-field dependence of the addition energy is proposed.
Ferroelectricity by Bose–Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet
Kimura, S.; Kakihata, K.; Sawada, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Hagiwara, M.; Tanaka, H.
2016-01-01
The Bose–Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose–Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose–Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose–Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose–Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose–Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets. PMID:27666875
Ferroelectricity by Bose-Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet.
Kimura, S; Kakihata, K; Sawada, Y; Watanabe, K; Matsumoto, M; Hagiwara, M; Tanaka, H
2016-09-26
The Bose-Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose-Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose-Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets.
Quantum oscillations in superconductors in magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gvozdikov, Vladimir M.; Gvozdikova, Mariya V.
2000-07-01
The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO) of the free energy, the critical temperature, and the magnetic susceptibility in a stack of hollow mesoscopic cylinders are calculated. It is shown that sinusoidal (in flux) ABO crosses over to the parabolic Little-Parks oscillations (LPO) when the diameter of cylinders exceeds the coherence length. The exponential temperature behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility is like that found in Ag cylinders with thin Nb coating [Czech. J. Physics 46 (1996) 2317]. The formal analogy between oscillations of the free energy in the Aharonov-Bohm system in question and the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations (dHvAO) in layered superconductors is discussed.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng
2015-08-25
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We presentmore » the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazoe, M.; Kato, T.; Suzuki, K.; Adachi, M.; Shibayama, A.; Hoshi, K.; Itou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakurai, H.
2016-11-01
Spin selective magnetic hysteresis (SSMH) curves, orbital selective magnetic hysteresis (OSMH) curves and magnetic quantum number selective SSMH curves are obtained for CoFeB/MgO multilayer films by combining magnetic Compton profile measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer measurements. Although the SQUID magnetometer measurements do not show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the CoFeB/MgO multilayer film, PMA behavior is observed in the OSMH and SSMH curves for the |m| = 2 magnetic quantum number states. These facts indicate that magnetization switching behavior is dominated by the orbital magnetization of the |m| = 2 magnetic quantum number states.
Yamazoe, M; Kato, T; Suzuki, K; Adachi, M; Shibayama, A; Hoshi, K; Itou, M; Tsuji, N; Sakurai, Y; Sakurai, H
2016-11-02
Spin selective magnetic hysteresis (SSMH) curves, orbital selective magnetic hysteresis (OSMH) curves and magnetic quantum number selective SSMH curves are obtained for CoFeB/MgO multilayer films by combining magnetic Compton profile measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer measurements. Although the SQUID magnetometer measurements do not show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the CoFeB/MgO multilayer film, PMA behavior is observed in the OSMH and SSMH curves for the |m| = 2 magnetic quantum number states. These facts indicate that magnetization switching behavior is dominated by the orbital magnetization of the |m| = 2 magnetic quantum number states.
Order and disorder in a model quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitko, David
The classical, thermally-driven order-disorder phase transition in a system of coupled Ising spins can be converted into a quantum transition driven by a transverse field Hsb{t} at T = 0. The transverse field, applied perpendicular to the Ising axis, mixes the spin-up and spin-down states quantum mechanically. This introduces channels for quantum relaxation and depresses the freezing temperature. We have investigated the quantum transitions in the clean, insulating, dipolar-coupled Ising magnet LiHosb{x}Ysb{1-x}Fsb4. The magnetic Hosp{3+} ions and the non-magnetic Ysp{3+} ions compete for the same sites. The compounds we have studied, LiHoFsb4 and LiHosb{0.44}Ysb{0.56}Fsb4, both have thermally-driven ferromagnetic transitions which are mean-field in nature (with weak corrections). In the case of LiHoFsb4, we have demonstrated that the physics of this system in the quantum region can be completely explained in terms of mean field theory. The susceptibility critical exponent has a mean field value, confirming long-standing theory identifying quantum transitions in d dimensions with thermal transitions in d+1 dimensions. Additionally, the entire phase diagram can be explained using a mean field theory with essentially only one free parameter, and the susceptibility in the paramagnetic region can be accurately calculated using the same theory with no free parameters. The behavior of LiHosb{0.44}Ysb{0.56}Fsb4 is more complex. In the quantum region its linear susceptibility does not diverge, and it exhibits glassy dynamics such as a broad relaxation spectrum, a frequency-dependent linear susceptibility, and long-time decays in the susceptibility. While these characteristics are reminiscent of spin glasses, there are also some key differences. In particular, the absence of a measurable susceptibility decay after a "quantum cooling" protocol suggests that entering the glassy state in the presence of channels for quantum relaxation (a finite transverse field) may be a
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Awschalom, D.D.; Crooker, S.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Rickel, D.G.; Samarth, N.
1999-05-24
Magnetic semiconductors offer a unique possibility for strongly tuning the intrinsic alloy disorder potential with applied magnetic field. We report the direct observation of a series of step-like reductions in the magnetic alloy disorder potential in single ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells between O and 60 Tesla. This disorder, measured through the linewidth of low temperature photoluminescence spectra drops abruptly at -19, 36, and 53 Tesla, in concert with observed magnetization steps. Conventional models of alloy disorder (developed for nonmagnetic semiconductors) reproduce the general shape of the data, but markedly underestimate the size of the linewidth reduction.
Pseudo Magnetic Faraday and Quantum Hall Effect In Oscillating Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagat, Anita; Mullen, Kieran
When a graphene layer is stressed, the strain changes the phase between sites in a tight binding model of the system. This phase can be viewed as a pseudo-magnetic vector potential. The corresponding pseudo-magnetic field has been experimentally verified in static cases. We examine the case of oscillating graphene ribbons and explore two new effects. The first is to investigate an oscillating pseudo-magnetic field that produces a quantum Hall effect: we calculate the I-V characteristic of an oscillating graphene nanoribbon as a function of frequency, and amplitude in both the oscillations and the applied driving voltage. Second, the time dependent pseudo-magnetic field should produce a pseudo-Faraday effect driving electrons in different valleys in opposite directions. In both cases, we make explicit calculations for experiment. This project was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1310407.
Magnetically engineered semiconductor quantum dots as multimodal imaging probes.
Jing, Lihong; Ding, Ke; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kempson, Ivan M; Rogach, Andrey L; Gao, Mingyuan
2014-10-08
Light-emitting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) combined with magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents within a single nanoparticle platform are considered to perform as multimodal imaging probes in biomedical research and related clinical applications. The principles of their rational design are outlined and contemporary synthetic strategies are reviewed (heterocrystalline growth; co-encapsulation or assembly of preformed QDs and magnetic nanoparticles; conjugation of magnetic chelates onto QDs; and doping of QDs with transition metal ions), identifying the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. Some of the opportunities and benefits that arise through in vivo imaging using these dual-mode probes are highlighted where tumor location and delineation is demonstrated in both MRI and fluorescence modality. Work on the toxicological assessments of QD/magnetic nanoparticles is also reviewed, along with progress in reducing their toxicological side effects for eventual clinical use. The review concludes with an outlook for future biomedical imaging and the identification of key challenges in reaching clinical applications.
Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.
Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani
2016-07-07
Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.
Quantum fluctuations and disorder in a model magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooke, Justin
2000-08-01
LiHo0.44Y0.56F4 is a dipolar-coupled Ising spin system, with 56% site disorder. Applying a magnetic field Ht transverse to the Ising direction introduces tunneling between the bare Ising eigenstates; for large Ht these fluctuations drive a quantum phase transition in zero temperature. While the 56% disorder has no observable effect on the usual thermal order-disorder transition, the effects on the quantum phase transition include a suppressed phase boundary, reduced susceptibility, history-dependence in the ordered state, and overall glassiness behavior is akin to that which drives Griffiths-McCoy singularities. Spectroscopy inside the ordered state reveals athermal spin-cluster response at the lowest temperatures due to quantum fluctuations. This spin-cluster tunneling in a macroscopic system is tunable with Ht; characterizing the behavior with a phenomenological WKB form permits extraction of the fundamental tunneling energy scale, frequency response, and cluster size.
Quantum Corrections Crossover and Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators
Bao, Lihong; Wang, Weiyi; Meyer, Nicholas; Liu, Yanwen; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Ai, Ping; Xiu, Faxian
2013-01-01
Revelation of emerging exotic states of topological insulators (TIs) for future quantum computing applications relies on breaking time-reversal symmetry and opening a surface energy gap. Here, we report on the transport response of Bi2Te3 TI thin films in the presence of varying Cr dopants. By tracking the magnetoconductance (MC) in a low doping regime we observed a progressive crossover from weak antilocalization (WAL) to weak localization (WL) as the Cr concentration increases. In a high doping regime, however, increasing Cr concentration yields a monotonically enhanced anomalous Hall effect (AHE) accompanied by an increasing carrier density. Our results demonstrate a possibility of manipulating bulk ferromagnetism and quantum transport in magnetic TI, thus providing an alternative way for experimentally realizing exotic quantum states required by spintronic applications. PMID:23928713
Quantum synchrotron spectra from semirelativistic electrons in teragauss magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brainerd, J. J.
1987-01-01
Synchrotron spectra are calculated from quantum electrodynamic transition rates for thermal and power-law electron distributions. It is shown that quantum effects appear in thermal spectra when the photon energy is greater than the electron temperature, and in power-law spectra when the electron energy in units of the electron rest mass times the magnetic field strength in units of the critical field strength is of order unity. These spectra are compared with spectra calculated from the ultrarelativistic approximation for synchrotron emission. It is found that the approximation for the power-law spectra is good, and the approximation for thermal spectra produces the shape of the spectrum accurately but fails to give the correct normalization. Single photon pair creation masks the quantum effects for power-law distributions, so only modifications to thermal spectra are important for gamma-ray bursts.
Far-from-equilibrium quantum magnetism with ultracold polar molecules.
Hazzard, Kaden R A; Manmana, Salvatore R; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria
2013-02-15
Recent theory has indicated how to emulate tunable models of quantum magnetism with ultracold polar molecules. Here we show that present molecule optical lattice experiments can accomplish three crucial goals for quantum emulation, despite currently being well below unit filling and not quantum degenerate. The first is to verify and benchmark the models proposed to describe these systems. The second is to prepare correlated and possibly useful states in well-understood regimes. The third is to explore many-body physics inaccessible to existing theoretical techniques. Our proposal relies on a nonequilibrium protocol that can be viewed either as Ramsey spectroscopy or an interaction quench. The proposal uses only routine experimental tools available in any ultracold molecule experiment. To obtain a global understanding of the behavior, we treat short times pertubatively, develop analytic techniques to treat the Ising interaction limit, and apply a time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to disordered systems with long range interactions.
Quantum transport in magnetic topological insulator thin films.
Lu, Hai-Zhou; Zhao, An; Shen, Shun-Qing
2013-10-04
The experimental observation of the long-sought quantum anomalous Hall effect was recently reported in magnetically doped topological insulator thin films [Chang et al., Science 340, 167 (2013)]. An intriguing observation is a rapid decrease from the quantized plateau in the Hall conductance, accompanied by a peak in the longitudinal conductance as a function of the gate voltage. Here, we present a quantum transport theory with an effective model for magnetic topological insulator thin films. The good agreement between theory and experiment reveals that the measured transport originates from a topologically nontrivial conduction band which, near its band edge, has concentrated Berry curvature and a local maximum in group velocity. The indispensable roles of the broken structure inversion and particle-hole symmetries are also revealed. The results are instructive for future experiments and transport studies based on first-principles calculations.
Design of magnetic coordination complexes for quantum computing.
Aromí, Guillem; Aguilà, David; Gamez, Patrick; Luis, Fernando; Roubeau, Olivier
2012-01-21
A very exciting prospect in coordination chemistry is to manipulate spins within magnetic complexes for the realization of quantum logic operations. An introduction to the requirements for a paramagnetic molecule to act as a 2-qubit quantum gate is provided in this tutorial review. We propose synthetic methods aimed at accessing such type of functional molecules, based on ligand design and inorganic synthesis. Two strategies are presented: (i) the first consists in targeting molecules containing a pair of well-defined and weakly coupled paramagnetic metal aggregates, each acting as a carrier of one potential qubit, (ii) the second is the design of dinuclear complexes of anisotropic metal ions, exhibiting dissimilar environments and feeble magnetic coupling. The first systems obtained from this synthetic program are presented here and their properties are discussed.
Exchange interaction effects on waves in magnetized quantum plasmas
Trukhanova, Mariya Iv. Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-02-15
We have applied the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics that includes the Coulomb exchange interaction to magnetized quantum plasmas. We considered a number of wave phenomena that are affected by the Coulomb exchange interaction. Since the Coulomb exchange interaction affects the longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal waves, we focused our attention on the Langmuir waves, the Trivelpiece-Gould waves, the ion-acoustic waves in non-isothermal magnetized plasmas, the dispersion of the longitudinal low-frequency ion-acoustic waves, and low-frequency electromagnetic waves at T{sub e} ≫ T{sub i}. We have studied the dispersion of these waves and present the numeric simulation of their dispersion properties.
Two-Electron Spherical Quantum Dot in a Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poszwa, A.
2016-12-01
We investigate three-dimensional, two-electron quantum dots in an external magnetic field B. Due to mixed spherical and cylindrical symmetry the Schrödinger equation is not completely separable. Highly accurate numerical solutions, for a wide range of B, have been obtained by the expansion of wavefunctions in double-power series and by imposing on the radial functions appropriate boundary conditions. The asymptotic limit of a very strong magnetic field and the 2D approach have been considered. Ground state properties of the two-electron semiconductor quantum dots are investigated using both the 3D and 2D models. Theoretical calculations have been compared with recent experimental results.
Magnetism in parent iron chalcogenides: quantum fluctuations select plaquette order.
Ducatman, Samuel; Perkins, Natalia B; Chubukov, Andrey
2012-10-12
We analyze magnetic order in Fe chalcogenide Fe(1+y)Te, the parent compound of the high-temperature superconductor Fe(1+y)Te(1-x)Se(x). Experiments show that magnetic order in this material contains components with momentum Q(1)=(π/2,π/2) and Q(2)=(π/2,-π/2) in the Fe only Brillouin zone. The actual spin order depends on the interplay between these two components. Previous works assumed that the ordered state has a single Q (either Q(1) or Q(2)). In such a state, spins form double stripes along one of the diagonals breaking the rotational C(4) symmetry. We show that quantum fluctuations actually select another order-a double Q plaquette state with equal weight of Q(1) and Q(2) components, which preserves C(4) symmetry. We argue that the order in Fe(1+y)Te is determined by the competition between quantum fluctuations and magnetoelastic coupling.
Quantum Mechanics with a Momentum-Space Artificial Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Hannah M.; Ozawa, Tomoki; Carusotto, Iacopo
2014-11-01
The Berry curvature is a geometrical property of an energy band which acts as a momentum space magnetic field in the effective Hamiltonian describing single-particle quantum dynamics. We show how this perspective may be exploited to study systems directly relevant to ultracold gases and photonics. Given the exchanged roles of momentum and position, we demonstrate that the global topology of momentum space is crucially important. We propose an experiment to study the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian with a harmonic trap that will illustrate the advantages of this approach and that will also constitute the first realization of magnetism on a torus.
Quantum ignition of deflagration in the Fe8 molecular magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leviant, Tom; Keren, Amit; Zeldov, Eli; Myasoedov, Yuri
2014-10-01
We report spatially resolved, time-dependent, magnetization reversal measurements of an Fe8 single molecular magnet using a microscopic Hall bar array. We found that a deflagration process, where molecules reverse their spin direction along a moving front, can be ignited quantum mechanically (T →0) at a resonance field, with no phonon pulse. The avalanche front velocity is of the order of 1m/s and is sensitive to field gradients and sweep rates. We also measured the thermal diffusivity κ in Fe8. This allows us to estimate the "flame" temperature.
Neutron stars. [quantum mechanical processes associated with magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.
1978-01-01
Quantum-mechanical processes associated with the presence of high magnetic fields and the effect of such fields on the evolution of neutron stars are reviewed. A technical description of the interior of a neutron star is presented. The neutron star-pulsar relation is reviewed and consideration is given to supernovae explosions, flux conservation in neutron stars, gauge-invariant derivation of the equation of state for a strongly magnetized gas, neutron beta-decay, and the stability condition for a neutron star.
New Approaches to Quantum Computing using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Colvin, M; Krishnan, V V
2003-02-07
The power of a quantum computer (QC) relies on the fundamental concept of the superposition in quantum mechanics and thus allowing an inherent large-scale parallelization of computation. In a QC, binary information embodied in a quantum system, such as spin degrees of freedom of a spin-1/2 particle forms the qubits (quantum mechanical bits), over which appropriate logical gates perform the computation. In classical computers, the basic unit of information is the bit, which can take a value of either 0 or 1. Bits are connected together by logic gates to form logic circuits to implement complex logical operations. The expansion of modern computers has been driven by the developments of faster, smaller and cheaper logic gates. As the size of the logic gates become smaller toward the level of atomic dimensions, the performance of such a system is no longer considered classical but is rather governed by quantum mechanics. Quantum computers offer the potentially superior prospect of solving computational problems that are intractable to classical computers such as efficient database searches and cryptography. A variety of algorithms have been developed recently, most notably Shor's algorithm for factorizing long numbers into prime factors in polynomial time and Grover's quantum search algorithm. The algorithms that were of only theoretical interest as recently, until several methods were proposed to build an experimental QC. These methods include, trapped ions, cavity-QED, coupled quantum dots, Josephson junctions, spin resonance transistors, linear optics and nuclear magnetic resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely capable of constructing small QCs and several algorithms have been implemented successfully. NMR-QC differs from other implementations in one important way that it is not a single QC, but a statistical ensemble of them. Thus, quantum computing based on NMR is considered as ensemble quantum computing. In NMR quantum computing, the spins with
Magnetotransport in Dirac metals: Chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations
Monteiro, Gustavo M.; Abanov, Alexander G.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2015-10-08
Dirac metals are characterized by the linear dispersion of fermionic quasiparticles, with the Dirac point hidden inside a Fermi surface. We study the magnetotransport in these materials using chiral kinetic theory to describe within the same framework both the negative magnetoresistance caused by the chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance due to the existence of the Fermi surface. Lastly, we discuss the relevance of obtained results to recent measurements on Cd3As2.
Magnetotransport in Dirac metals: Chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations
Monteiro, Gustavo M.; Abanov, Alexander G.; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2015-10-08
Dirac metals are characterized by the linear dispersion of fermionic quasiparticles, with the Dirac point hidden inside a Fermi surface. We study the magnetotransport in these materials using chiral kinetic theory to describe within the same framework both the negative magnetoresistance caused by the chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance due to the existence of the Fermi surface. Lastly, we discuss the relevance of obtained results to recent measurements on Cd_{3}As_{2}.
Single-cell magnetic imaging using a quantum diamond microscope.
Glenn, David R; Lee, Kyungheon; Park, Hongkun; Weissleder, Ralph; Yacoby, Amir; Lukin, Mikhail D; Lee, Hakho; Walsworth, Ronald L; Connolly, Colin B
2015-08-01
We apply a quantum diamond microscope for detection and imaging of immunomagnetically labeled cells. This instrument uses nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for correlated magnetic and fluorescence imaging. Our device provides single-cell resolution and a field of view (∼1 mm(2)) two orders of magnitude larger than that of previous NV imaging technologies, enabling practical applications. To illustrate, we quantified cancer biomarkers expressed by rare tumor cells in a large population of healthy cells.
Superconductivity of the magnetized electron gas of a quantum cylinder
Eminov, P. A. Sezonov, Yu. I.
2008-10-15
A microscopic theory of superconductivity is developed for the magnetized electron gas on a cylindrical surface. The Gibbs free energy is calculated for the superconducting system. A gap equation is derived that determines the critical temperature as a function of the quantum-cylinder dimensions and the Aharonov-Bohm parameter. It is shown that the gap not only exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations, but also oscillates with varying curvature of the cylindrical surface.
Quantum coherence in Mn-based single molecule magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abeywardana, C.; Cho, F. H.; Mowson, A.; Christou, G.; Takahashi, S.
2015-03-01
As spin systems in solids, single-molecule magnets (SMMs) form a unique class of materials that have a high-spin, and their spin state and interaction can be easily tuned by changing peripheral organic ligands and solvate molecules. In addition, it has been shown that an individual or a small ensemble of SMMs can be transferred to surface with retention of their magnetic behavior. SMM is therefore a promising system for fundamental quantum science and for applications to dense and efficient quantum memory, computing, and molecular spintronics devices. In spite of diverse interests on quantum properties in SMMs, decoherence properties that ultimately limit such behaviors have not been understood yet. Until now, coherent manipulation of spin states in SMMs has been experimentally demonstrated only in a few SMMs. In this presentation, we investigate quantum coherence in Mn-based SMMs using a high-frequency pulsed EPR technique, which has a significant advantage to quench the spin decoherence due to electron spins.
Spin jam induced by quantum fluctuations in a frustrated magnet
Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana; Dissanayake, Sachith; Ueda, Hiroaki; Klich, Israel; Iida, Kazuki; Pajerowski, Daniel; Butch, Nicholas P.; Huang, Q.; Copley, John R. D.; Lee, Seung-Hun
2015-01-01
Since the discovery of spin glasses in dilute magnetic systems, their study has been largely focused on understanding randomness and defects as the driving mechanism. The same paradigm has also been applied to explain glassy states found in dense frustrated systems. Recently, however, it has been theoretically suggested that different mechanisms, such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, may induce glassy states in defect-free spin systems, far from the conventional dilute limit. Here we report experimental evidence for existence of a glassy state, which we call a spin jam, in the vicinity of the clean limit of a frustrated magnet, which is insensitive to a low concentration of defects. We have studied the effect of impurities on SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr3+ (s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-2D triangular system of bipyramids. Our experimental data show that as the nonmagnetic Ga3+ impurity concentration is changed, there are two distinct phases of glassiness: an exotic glassy state, which we call a spin jam, for the high magnetic concentration region (p>0.8) and a cluster spin glass for lower magnetic concentration (p<0.8). This observation indicates that a spin jam is a unique vantage point from which the class of glassy states of dense frustrated magnets can be understood. PMID:26324917
Spin jam induced by quantum fluctuations in a frustrated magnet.
Yang, Junjie; Samarakoon, Anjana; Dissanayake, Sachith; Ueda, Hiroaki; Klich, Israel; Iida, Kazuki; Pajerowski, Daniel; Butch, Nicholas P; Huang, Q; Copley, John R D; Lee, Seung-Hun
2015-09-15
Since the discovery of spin glasses in dilute magnetic systems, their study has been largely focused on understanding randomness and defects as the driving mechanism. The same paradigm has also been applied to explain glassy states found in dense frustrated systems. Recently, however, it has been theoretically suggested that different mechanisms, such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, may induce glassy states in defect-free spin systems, far from the conventional dilute limit. Here we report experimental evidence for existence of a glassy state, which we call a spin jam, in the vicinity of the clean limit of a frustrated magnet, which is insensitive to a low concentration of defects. We have studied the effect of impurities on SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 [SCGO(p)], a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr(3+) (s = 3/2) ions form a quasi-2D triangular system of bipyramids. Our experimental data show that as the nonmagnetic Ga(3+) impurity concentration is changed, there are two distinct phases of glassiness: an exotic glassy state, which we call a spin jam, for the high magnetic concentration region (p > 0.8) and a cluster spin glass for lower magnetic concentration (p < 0.8). This observation indicates that a spin jam is a unique vantage point from which the class of glassy states of dense frustrated magnets can be understood.
Hall effect of triplons in a dimerized quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romhányi, Judit; Penc, Karlo; Ganesh, R.
2015-04-01
SrCu2(BO3)2 is the archetypal quantum magnet with a gapped dimer-singlet ground state and triplon excitations. It serves as an excellent realization of the Shastry-Sutherland model, up to small anisotropies arising from Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Here we demonstrate that these anisotropies, in fact, give rise to topological character in the triplon band structure. The triplons form a new kind of Dirac cone with three bands touching at a single point, a spin-1 generalization of graphene. An applied magnetic field opens band gaps resulting in topological bands with Chern numbers +/-2. SrCu2(BO3)2 thus provides a magnetic analogue of the integer quantum Hall effect and supports topologically protected edge modes. At a threshold value of the magnetic field set by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, the three triplon bands touch once again in a spin-1 Dirac cone, and lose their topological character. We predict a strong thermal Hall signature in the topological regime.
Hall effect of triplons in a dimerized quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romhanyi, Judit; Penc, Karlo; Ganesh, Ramachandran
2015-03-01
SrCu2(BO3)2 is the archetypal quantum magnet with a gapped dimer-singlet ground state and triplon excitations. It serves as a realization of the Shastry Sutherland model, up to small anisotropies arising from Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions. We demonstrate that the DM couplings give rise to topological character in the triplon band structure. The triplons form a new kind of a Dirac cone with three bands touching at a single point, a spin-1 generalization of graphene. An applied magnetic field opens band gaps and as a result topological bands with Chern numbers +/- 2 develop. Thus SrCu2(BO3)2 is a magnetic analogue of the integer quantum Hall effect and supports topologically protected edge modes. At a critical value of the magnetic field set by the strength of DM interactions, the three triplon bands touch again in a spin-1 Dirac cone, and lose their topological character. We predict thermal Hall signature in the topological regime.
Suzuki, Kosuke Takubo, Shota; Kato, Tadashi; Yamazoe, Masatoshi; Hoshi, Kazushi; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Homma, Yoshiya; Itou, Masayoshi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu
2014-08-18
A spin specific magnetic hysteresis (SSMH) curve and an orbital specific magnetic hysteresis (OSMH) curve are obtained for Fe/Au/Fe/MgO multilayers by magnetic Compton scattering and SQUID magnetometer measurements. The SSMH curve with each contribution of magnetic quantum number |m| = 0, 1, and 2 states is obtained by decomposition analyses of magnetic Compton profiles. Residual magnetization is observed for the SSMH curve with magnetic quantum number |m| = 0, 2 and the OSMH curve. Although the SQUID magnetometer measurements do not show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the present Fe/Au/Fe/MgO multilayer film, the SSMH curve with magnetic quantum number |m| = 0, 2 and OSMH curve show switching behaviors of PMA.
Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-11-01
Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 108 times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.
Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid.
Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-11-10
Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 10(8) times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.
Noninvasive detection of charge rearrangement in a quantum dot in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fricke, C.; Rogge, M. C.; Harke, B.; Reinwald, M.; Wegscheider, W.; Hohls, F.; Haug, R. J.
2005-11-01
We demonstrate electron redistribution caused by magnetic field on a single quantum dot measured by means of a quantum point contact as noninvasive detector. Our device, which is fabricated by local anodic oxidation, allows us to control independently the quantum point contact and all tunneling barriers of the quantum dot. Thus we are able to measure both the change of the quantum dot charge and also changes of the electron configuration at constant number of electrons on the quantum dot. We use these features to exploit the quantum dot in a high magnetic field where transport through the quantum dot displays the effects of Landau shells and spin blockade. We confirm the internal rearrangement of electrons as function of the magnetic field for a fixed number of electrons on the quantum dot.
Magnetic quantum coherence effect in Ni4 molecular transistors.
González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N
2014-07-09
We present a theoretical study of electron transport in Ni4 molecular transistors in the presence of Zeeman spin splitting and magnetic quantum coherence (MQC). The Zeeman interaction is extended along the leads which produces gaps in the energy spectrum which allow electron transport with spin polarized along a certain direction. We show that the coherent states in resonance with the spin up or down states in the leads induces an effective coupling between localized spin states and continuum spin states in the single molecule magnet and leads, respectively. We investigate the conductance at zero temperature as a function of the applied bias and magnetic field by means of the Landauer formula, and show that the MQC is responsible for the appearence of resonances. Accordingly, we name them MQC resonances.
Magnetic quantum oscillations in a monolayer graphene under a perpendicular magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Shu-Shen; Zhang, Ping
2011-05-01
The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations of electronic magnetization in a monolayer graphene with structure-induced spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are studied. The results show that the dHvA oscillating centre in this system deviates from the well known (zero) value in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas. The inclusion of SOI will change the well-defined sawtooth pattern of magnetic quantum oscillations and result in a beating pattern. In addition, the SOI effects on Hall conductance and magnetic susceptibility are also discussed.
Magnetic Relaxation of Superconducting Quantum Dot and Tunneling of Electron in a Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulevich, D. R.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
Quantum tunneling of vortices had been found to be an important novel phenomena for description of low temperature creep in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs). We speculate that quantum tunneling may be also exhibited in mesoscopic superconductors due to vortices trapped by the Bean-Livingston barrier. The London approximation and method of images is used to estimate the shape of the potential well in superconducting HTSC quantum dot. To calculate the escape rate we use the instanton technique. We model the vortex by a quantum particle tunneling from a two-dimensional ground state under magnetic field applied in the transverse direction. The resulting decay rates obtained by the instanton approach and conventional WKB are compared revealing complete coincidence with each other.
Magnetic Relaxation of Superconducting Quantum Dot and Tunneling of Electron in a Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulevich, D. R.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2010-12-01
Quantum tunneling of vortices had been found to be an important novel phenomena for description of low temperature creep in high temperature superconductors (HTSCs). We speculate that quantum tunneling may be also exhibited in mesoscopic superconductors due to vortices trapped by the Bean-Livingston barrier. The London approximation and method of images is used to estimate the shape of the potential well in superconducting HTSC quantum dot. To calculate the escape rate we use the instanton technique. We model the vortex by a quantum particle tunneling from a two-dimensional ground state under magnetic field applied in the transverse direction. The resulting decay rates obtained by the instanton approach and conventional WKB are compared revealing complete coincidence with each other.
Quantum spin ice: a search for gapless quantum spin liquids in pyrochlore magnets.
Gingras, M J P; McClarty, P A
2014-05-01
The spin ice materials, including Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, are rare-earth pyrochlore magnets which, at low temperatures, enter a constrained paramagnetic state with an emergent gauge freedom. Spin ices provide one of very few experimentally realized examples of fractionalization because their elementary excitations can be regarded as magnetic monopoles and, over some temperature range, spin ice materials are best described as liquids of these emergent charges. In the presence of quantum fluctuations, one can obtain, in principle, a quantum spin liquid descended from the classical spin ice state characterized by emergent photon-like excitations. Whereas in classical spin ices the excitations are akin to electrostatic charges with a mutual Coulomb interaction, in the quantum spin liquid these charges interact through a dynamic and emergent electromagnetic field. In this review, we describe the latest developments in the study of such a quantum spin ice, focusing on the spin liquid phenomenology and the kinds of materials where such a phase might be found.
Quantum Simulation of Frustrated Magnetism with Many Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senko, Crystal
2013-05-01
A collection of trapped atomic ions is an excellent system for simulating quantum many-body physics, like magnetism, which may be difficult to access via classical computation or traditional condensed-matter experiments. Our large crystals of 10-20 ions comprise a platform to study a long-range quantum Ising model with tunable couplings in a 1D spin chain. State-dependent optical dipole forces exploit the Coulomb interaction to generate the spin-spin couplings, and fluorescence measurements on a camera are used to read out individual spin states. We investigated the spin order resulting from changing the range of antiferromagnetic interactions or the strength of an axial magnetic field, demonstrating our control over the amount of frustration present. We are turning to the study of dynamics in this system, with the aim of exploring topics including adiabaticity, spectroscopy of the Hamiltonian, the emergence of Kibble-Zurek-like behavior in a finite system, thermalization in an isolated quantum system, and nonequilibrium phase transitions. There is great promise in extending the system to 30+ spins, where computations become classically intractable. Co-authors are R. Islam, P. Richerme, W. C. Campbell, S. Korenblit, J. Smith, A. Lee, E. E. Edwards, C.-C. J. Wang, J. K. Freericks, and C. Monroe. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.
Pressure-induced transformations in molecular crystals
Taylor, R.D.; Hearne, G.R. |; Pasternak, M.P.
1995-09-01
A review is given on the unique features of the Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) which by virtue of the quadrupole interaction and the lattice dynamics allows one to characterize some structural properties in the pressure-induced amorphous state of molecular crystals. Experiments were performed in GeI{sub 4}, SnI{sub 4} and SnBr{sub 4} by means of {sup 119}Sn and {sup 129}I MS with pressures to 35 GPa at cryogenic temperatures using diamond anvil cells.
Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire
Maiti, Santanu K.
2015-01-14
In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.
The quantum needle of the avian magnetic compass
Hiscock, Hamish G.; Worster, Susannah; Kattnig, Daniel R.; Steers, Charlotte; Jin, Ye; Manolopoulos, David E.; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hore, P. J.
2016-01-01
Migratory birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass, the mechanism of which is thought to involve radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. Theoretical descriptions of this compass have thus far been unable to account for the high precision with which birds are able to detect the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Here we use coherent spin dynamics simulations to explore the behavior of realistic models of cryptochrome-based radical pairs. We show that when the spin coherence persists for longer than a few microseconds, the output of the sensor contains a sharp feature, referred to as a spike. The spike arises from avoided crossings of the quantum mechanical spin energy-levels of radicals formed in cryptochromes. Such a feature could deliver a heading precision sufficient to explain the navigational behavior of migratory birds in the wild. Our results (i) afford new insights into radical pair magnetoreception, (ii) suggest ways in which the performance of the compass could have been optimized by evolution, (iii) may provide the beginnings of an explanation for the magnetic disorientation of migratory birds exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, and (iv) suggest that radical pair magnetoreception may be more of a quantum biology phenomenon than previously realized. PMID:27044102
The quantum needle of the avian magnetic compass.
Hiscock, Hamish G; Worster, Susannah; Kattnig, Daniel R; Steers, Charlotte; Jin, Ye; Manolopoulos, David E; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hore, P J
2016-04-26
Migratory birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass, the mechanism of which is thought to involve radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. Theoretical descriptions of this compass have thus far been unable to account for the high precision with which birds are able to detect the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Here we use coherent spin dynamics simulations to explore the behavior of realistic models of cryptochrome-based radical pairs. We show that when the spin coherence persists for longer than a few microseconds, the output of the sensor contains a sharp feature, referred to as a spike. The spike arises from avoided crossings of the quantum mechanical spin energy-levels of radicals formed in cryptochromes. Such a feature could deliver a heading precision sufficient to explain the navigational behavior of migratory birds in the wild. Our results (i) afford new insights into radical pair magnetoreception, (ii) suggest ways in which the performance of the compass could have been optimized by evolution, (iii) may provide the beginnings of an explanation for the magnetic disorientation of migratory birds exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, and (iv) suggest that radical pair magnetoreception may be more of a quantum biology phenomenon than previously realized.
EPR and Ferromagnetism in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Jürgen; MacDonald, Allan H.
2003-08-01
Motivated by recent measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in modulation-doped CdMnTe quantum wells [
Electronic and magnetic structures of magnetic vortex core in an Fe quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori; Freeman, A. J.
2003-03-01
Interest in the magnetism of nano-scale structures have increased in both basic and applied science. In ferromagnetic quantum dot structures, curling magnetic structures are known to form, and the magnetization close to the center of the dot may assume a perpendicular orientation. Although many experimental and theoretical investigations have been performed, little is so far known about the electronic and magnetic structures on an atomic scale. Here, we determine the magnetic vortex core structure, modeled by a rod geometry with 29 Fe atoms, from the first-principles FLAPW method(Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert and Freeman, PRB 24, 864(1981)) including noncollinear magnetism with no shape approximation of the magnetization density.(Nakamura, Freeman, Wang, Zhong, and Fernandez-de-Castro, PRB 65, 12402(2002)) The self-consistent LSDA calculations demonstrate that a swirling magnetic structure is stabilized, in which the spin directions close to the center turn up along the perpendicular orientation with respect to the swirling plane. We find that a swirling intra-atomic noncollinear magnetism is observed near the center, in which the moments continuously orient in circular directions on a smaller length scale inside the atoms and induce orbital moments along the perpendicular direction.
Hidden magnetism and quantum criticality in the heavy fermion superconductor CeRhIn5.
Park, Tuson; Ronning, F; Yuan, H Q; Salamon, M B; Movshovich, R; Sarrao, J L; Thompson, J D
2006-03-02
With only a few exceptions that are well understood, conventional superconductivity does not coexist with long-range magnetic order (for example, ref. 1). Unconventional superconductivity, on the other hand, develops near a phase boundary separating magnetically ordered and magnetically disordered phases. A maximum in the superconducting transition temperature T(c) develops where this boundary extrapolates to zero Kelvin, suggesting that fluctuations associated with this magnetic quantum-critical point are essential for unconventional superconductivity. Invariably, though, unconventional superconductivity masks the magnetic phase boundary when T < T(c), preventing proof of a magnetic quantum-critical point. Here we report specific-heat measurements of the pressure-tuned unconventional superconductor CeRhIn5 in which we find a line of quantum-phase transitions induced inside the superconducting state by an applied magnetic field. This quantum-critical line separates a phase of coexisting antiferromagnetism and superconductivity from a purely unconventional superconducting phase, and terminates at a quantum tetracritical point where the magnetic field completely suppresses superconductivity. The T --> 0 K magnetic field-pressure phase diagram of CeRhIn5 is well described with a theoretical model developed to explain field-induced magnetism in the high-T(c) copper oxides, but in which a clear delineation of quantum-phase boundaries has not been possible. These experiments establish a common relationship among hidden magnetism, quantum criticality and unconventional superconductivity in copper oxides and heavy-electron systems such as CeRhIn5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chun-Feng; Tsai, I.-H.
It is well-established how the quantum interference induces strong localization leading to quantum Hall effect at high enough magnetic fields. Decreasing the magnetic fields, however, the localization strength can be reduced and the semiclassical magneto-oscillations following Shubnikov-de Haas formula appear in most quantum Hall systems. To understand the transport properties as the localization strength becomes weak, our team has investigated the magneto-resistance in some quantum Hall systems at low magnetic fields. Under the semiclassical transport, the crossing points in Hall plateaus showed Landau-band quantization and microwave-induced heating demonstrated the band-edge equivalence important to Landau-level addition transformation. We note that such equivalence is consistent with the edge universality based on the random matrices of Wigner type, and the Landau-band quantization can be explained by considering geometric phase effects. From our study, some quantum Hall features can survive as the semiclassical transport reveals the insufficient localization.
Magnetic field induced minigap in double quantum wells
Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Klem, J.F.; Harff, N.E. |
1994-07-01
We report discovery of a partial energy gap, or minigap, in strongly coupled double quantum wells (QWs), due to an anticrossing of the two QW dispersion curves. The anticrossing and minigap are induced by an in-plane magnetic field B{sub {parallel}}, and give rise to large distortions in the Fermi surface and density of states, including a Van Hove singularity. Sweeping B{sub {parallel}} moves the minigap through the Fermi level, with the upper and lower gap edges producing a sharp maximum and minimum in the low-temperature in-plane conductance, in agreement with theoretical calculations. The gap energy may be directly determined from the data.
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
Farghadan, R. Heidari Semiromi, E.; Saffarzadeh, A.
2013-12-07
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations.
Spinor Bose gases: Symmetries, magnetism, and quantum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.; Ueda, Masahito
2013-07-01
Spinor Bose gases form a family of quantum fluids manifesting both magnetic order and superfluidity. This article reviews experimental and theoretical progress in understanding the static and dynamic properties of these fluids. The connection between system properties and the rotational symmetry properties of the atomic states and their interactions are investigated. Following a review of the experimental techniques used for characterizing spinor gases, their mean-field and many-body ground states, both in isolation and under the application of symmetry-breaking external fields, are discussed. These states serve as the starting point for understanding low-energy dynamics, spin textures, and topological defects, effects of magnetic-dipole interactions, and various nonequilibrium collective spin-mixing phenomena. The paper aims to form connections and establish coherence among the vast range of works on spinor Bose gases, so as to point to open questions and future research opportunities.
Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field.
Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B
2014-01-01
Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.
Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field
Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.
2014-01-01
Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329
Scaling of conductance through quantum dots with magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamad, I. J.; Gazza, C.; Andrade, J. A.; Aligia, A. A.; Cornaglia, P. S.; Roura-Bas, P.
2015-11-01
Using different techniques, and Fermi-liquid relationships, we calculate the variation with the applied magnetic field (up to second order) of the zero-temperature equilibrium conductance through a quantum dot described by the impurity Anderson model. We focus on the strong-coupling limit U ≫Δ , where U is the Coulomb repulsion and Δ is half the resonant-level width, and consider several values of the dot level energy Ed, ranging from the Kondo regime ɛF-Ed≫Δ to the intermediate-valence regime ɛF-Ed˜Δ , where ɛF is the Fermi energy. We have mainly used the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG) combined with renormalized perturbation theory (RPT). Results for the dot occupancy and magnetic susceptibility from the DMRG and NRG +RPT are compared with the corresponding Bethe ansatz results for U →∞ , showing an excellent agreement once Ed is renormalized by a constant Haldane shift. For U <3 Δ a simple perturbative approach in U agrees very well with the other methods. The conductance decreases with the applied magnetic field for dot occupancies nd˜1 and increases for nd˜0.5 or nd˜1.5 regardless of the value of U . We also relate the energy scale for the magnetic-field dependence of the conductance with the width of the low-energy peak in the spectral density of the dot.
Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device
McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John
2004-03-15
We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.
Pressure-induced metallization of silane.
Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Song, Yang; Goncharov, Alexander F; Ahart, Muhtar; Liu, Zhenxian; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J
2008-01-08
There is a great interest in electronic transitions in hydrogen-rich materials under extreme conditions. It has been recently suggested that the group IVa hydrides such as methane (CH(4)), silane (SiH(4)), and germane (GeH(4)) become metallic at far lower pressures than pure hydrogen at equivalent densities because the hydrogen is chemically compressed in group IVa hydride compounds. Here we report measurements of Raman and infrared spectra of silane under pressure. We find that SiH(4) undergoes three phase transitions before becoming opaque at 27-30 GPa. The vibrational spectra indicate the material transforms to a polymeric (framework) structure in this higher pressure range. Room-temperature infrared reflectivity data reveal that the material exhibits Drude-like metallic behavior above 60 GPa, indicating the onset of pressure-induced metallization.
Optically Pumped Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Quantum Hall Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, S. E.; Khandelwal, P.; Kuzma, N. N.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
1997-03-01
Optical pumping enables the direct detection of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal of ^71Ga nuclei located in an electron doped GaAs quantum well.footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1368 (1994) Using this technique, measurements of the Knight shift (K_S)footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995) and spin-lattice relaxation time (T_1)footnote R. Tycko et al., Science 268, 1460 (1995) have been carried out in the Quantum Hall regimes. This talk will focus on our latest measurements of KS and T1 near Landau level filling ν=1, which extend our earlier results to higher magnetic fields (B=12 Tesla) and lower temperatures (T < 1 Kelvin). We will compare these results to the theoretical predictionsfootnote S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994) that the charged excitations of the ν = 1 ground state are novel spin textures called skyrmions. The current status of this picture will be discussed.
A geometrical crossover in excited states of two-electron quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Simonović, N. S.; Plastino, A. R.; Chizhov, A. V.
2012-11-01
We use the entanglement measure to study the evolution of quantum correlations in two-electron axially-symmetric parabolic quantum dots under a perpendicular magnetic field. We found that the entanglement indicates on the shape transition in the density distribution of two electrons in the lowest state with zero angular momentum projection at the specific value of the applied magnetic field.
2015-03-26
SUPERCONDUCTING QUANTUM INTERFERENCE DEVICES FOR THE DETECTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX AND APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECTION FINDING THESIS...SUPERCONDUCTING QUANTUM INTERFERENCE DEVICES FOR THE DETECTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX AND APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECTION FINDING THESIS Presented to the...SUPERCONDUCTING QUANTUM INTERFERENCE DEVICES FOR THE DETECTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX AND APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECTION FINDING THESIS Travis
Magnetic reversal dynamics of a quantum system on a picosecond timescale.
Klenov, Nikolay V; Kuznetsov, Alexey V; Soloviev, Igor I; Bakurskiy, Sergey V; Tikhonova, Olga V
2015-01-01
We present our approach for a consistent, fully quantum mechanical description of the magnetization reversal process in natural and artificial atomic systems by means of short magnetic pulses. In terms of the simplest model of a two-level system with a magnetic moment, we analyze the possibility of a fast magnetization reversal on the picosecond timescale induced by oscillating or short unipolar magnetic pulses. We demonstrate the possibility of selective magnetization reversal of a superconducting flux qubit using a single flux quantum-based pulse and suggest a promising, rapid Λ-scheme for resonant implementation of this process. In addition, the magnetization reversal treatment is fulfilled within the framework of the macroscopic theory of the magnetic moment, which allows for the comparison and explanation of the quantum and classical behavior.
Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; ...
2014-10-22
The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small appliedmore » magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.« less
Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani
2014-10-22
The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small applied magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to Magnetic Molecules
Engelhardt, Larry
2006-01-01
We have calculated the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg spin systems using a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We have used some of these systems as models to describe recently synthesized magnetic molecules, and-upon comparing the results of these calculations with experimental data-have obtained accurate estimates for the basic parameters of these models. We have also performed calculations for other systems that are of more general interest, being relevant both for existing experimental data and for future experiments. Utilizing the concept of importance sampling, these calculations can be carried out in an arbitrarily large quantum Hilbert space, while still avoiding any approximations that would introduce systematic errors. The only errors are statistical in nature, and as such, their magnitudes are accurately estimated during the course of a simulation. Frustrated spin systems present a major challenge to the QMC method, nevertheless, in many instances progress can be made. In this chapter, the field of magnetic molecules is introduced, paying particular attention to the characteristics that distinguish magnetic molecules from other systems that are studied in condensed matter physics. We briefly outline the typical path by which we learn about magnetic molecules, which requires a close relationship between experiments and theoretical calculations. The typical experiments are introduced here, while the theoretical methods are discussed in the next chapter. Each of these theoretical methods has a considerable limitation, also described in Chapter 2, which together serve to motivate the present work. As is shown throughout the later chapters, the present QMC method is often able to provide useful information where other methods fail. In Chapter 3, the use of Monte Carlo methods in statistical physics is reviewed, building up the fundamental ideas that are necessary in order to understand the method that has been used in this work. With these
Quantum Hall states stabilized in semi-magnetic bilayers of topological insulators
Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Takahashi, K. S.; Nagaosa, N.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2015-01-01
By breaking the time-reversal symmetry in three-dimensional topological insulators with the introduction of spontaneous magnetization or application of magnetic field, the surface states become gapped, leading to quantum anomalous Hall effect or quantum Hall effect, when the chemical potential locates inside the gap. Further breaking of inversion symmetry is possible by employing magnetic topological insulator heterostructures that host non-degenerate top and bottom surface states. Here we demonstrate the tailored-material approach for the realization of robust quantum Hall states in the bilayer system, in which the cooperative or cancelling combination of the anomalous and ordinary Hall responses from the respective magnetic and non-magnetic layers is exemplified. The appearance of quantum Hall states at filling factor 0 and +1 can be understood by the relationship of energy band diagrams for the two independent surface states. The designable heterostructures of magnetic topological insulator may explore a new arena for intriguing topological transport and functionality. PMID:26497065
Quantum Hall states stabilized in semi-magnetic bilayers of topological insulators.
Yoshimi, R; Yasuda, K; Tsukazaki, A; Takahashi, K S; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-10-26
By breaking the time-reversal symmetry in three-dimensional topological insulators with the introduction of spontaneous magnetization or application of magnetic field, the surface states become gapped, leading to quantum anomalous Hall effect or quantum Hall effect, when the chemical potential locates inside the gap. Further breaking of inversion symmetry is possible by employing magnetic topological insulator heterostructures that host non-degenerate top and bottom surface states. Here we demonstrate the tailored-material approach for the realization of robust quantum Hall states in the bilayer system, in which the cooperative or cancelling combination of the anomalous and ordinary Hall responses from the respective magnetic and non-magnetic layers is exemplified. The appearance of quantum Hall states at filling factor 0 and +1 can be understood by the relationship of energy band diagrams for the two independent surface states. The designable heterostructures of magnetic topological insulator may explore a new arena for intriguing topological transport and functionality.
AA-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots in magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belouad, Abdelhadi; Zahidi, Youness; Jellal, Ahmed
2016-05-01
By applying the infinite-mass boundary condition, we analytically calculate the confined states and the corresponding wave functions of AA-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field B. It is found that the energy spectrum shows two set of levels, which are the double copies of the energy spectrum for single layer graphene, shifted up-down by +γ and -γ , respectively. However, the obtained spectrum exhibits different symmetries between the electron and hole states as well as the intervalley symmetries. It is noticed that, the applied magnetic field breaks all symmetries, except one related to the intervalley electron-hole symmetry, i.e. {E}{{e}}(τ ,m)=-{E}{{h}}(τ ,m). Two different regimes of confinement are found: the first one is due to the infinite-mass barrier at weak B and the second is dominated by the magnetic field as long as B is large. We numerically investigated the basics features of the energy spectrum to show the main similarities and differences with respect to monolayer graphene, AB-stacked BLG and semiconductor QDs. Dedicated to Professor Dr Hachim A Yamani on the occasion of his 70th birthday.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li-Zhe; Liu, Jian-Jun
2008-11-01
We calculate the energy states and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of an electron in elliptical quantum rings in the presence of a uniform magnetic Geld by using an exact numerical diagonalization. The calculated results show that the elliptical quantum rings are flatter, larger amplitudes and periods of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are observed. In addition, in the limits of a circular quantum ring, the results of our approach are in good agreement with those of earlier theories.
Noncyclic geometric quantum computation in a nuclear-magnetic-resonance system
Wang, Z. S.; Liu, G. Q.; Ji, Y. H.
2009-05-15
A scheme is proposed to include both cyclic and noncyclic geometric quantum computations in nuclear-magnetic-resonance system by the invariant theory. By controlling magnetic field and arbitrary parameters in the invariant operator, the phases accumulated in the entangling quantum gates for single- and two-qubit systems are pure geometric phases. Thus, fault tolerance may occur in some critical magnetic field parameters for either cyclic or noncyclic evolution by differently choosing for gate time.
Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.
Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani
2017-03-28
Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe3O4/CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (HE) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.
Quantum dots incorporated magnetic nanoparticles for imaging colon carcinoma cells
2013-01-01
Background Engineered multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have made a tremendous impact on the biomedical sciences, with advances in imaging, sensing and bioseparation. In particular, the combination of optical and magnetic responses through a single particle system allows us to serve as novel multimodal molecular imaging contrast agents in clinical settings. Despite of essential medical imaging modalities and of significant clinical application, only few nanocomposites have been developed with dual imaging contrast. A new method for preparing quantum dots (QDs) incorporated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly techniques have developed and used for cancer cells imaging. Methods Here, citrate - capped negatively charged Fe3O4 NPs were prepared and coated with positively - charged hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Then, thiol - capped negatively charged CdTe QDs were electrostatically bound with CTAB. Morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMNPs) were characterized. Prepared FMNPs were additionally conjugated with hCC49 antibodies fragment antigen binding (Fab) having binding affinity to sialylated sugar chain of TAG-72 region of LS174T cancer cells, which was prepared silkworm expression system, and then were used for imaging colon carcinoma cells. Results The prepared nanocomposites were magnetically responsive and fluorescent, simultaneously that are useful for efficient cellular imaging, optical sensing and magnetic separation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the particle size is around 50 nm in diameter with inner magnetic core and outer CdTe QDs core-shell structure. Cytotoxicity test of prepared FMNPs indicates high viability in Vero cells. NPs conjugated with anti cancer antibodies were successfully labeled on colon carcinoma cells (LS174) in vitro and showed significant specificity to target cells
Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper-oxide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tranquada, John
2005-03-01
Recent inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the magnetic excitation spectra of two well-studied families of cuprate superconductors are much more similar than previously believed. In particular, I will present results we have obtained on La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) with x = 0.125 [1,2]. Using very large single crystals grown at Brookhaven, we were able to measure the magnetic excitations up to 200 meV using the MAPS time-of-flight spectrometer at the ISIS spallation source. While the lowest energy excitations are split incommensurately, these disperse inwards towards the antiferromagnetic wave vector with increasing energy, merging at ˜50 meV. At higher energies the excitations disperse outwards again. There is a significant enhancement of the Q-integrated magnetic scattering near ˜50 meV compared to lower energies, suggestive of quantum correlations and distinct from spin-wave predictions. Many features of the spectrum are quite similar to those found in YBa2Cu3O6.6 [3]. One can qualitatively characterize the results with a universal excitation spectrum, together with a material-dependent spin gap in the superconducting state. It is important to note that the LBCO sample exhibits static stripe order [2], as this has significant implications for the origin of the magnetic excitations in superconducting cuprates. *J. M. Tranquada, H. Woo, T. G. Perring, H. Goka, G. D. Gu, G. Xu, M. Fujita, and K. Yamada, Nature 429, 534 (2004). *M. Fujita, H. Goka, K. Yamada, J. M. Tranquada, and L.-P. Regnault, Phys. Rev. B 70, 104517 (2004). *S. M. Hayden, H. A. Mook, P. C. Dai, T. G. Perring, and F. Dogan, Nature 429, 531 (2004).
Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet
Banerjee, A.; Bridges, C. A.; Yan, J. -Q.; Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Stone, M. B.; Granroth, G. E.; Lumsden, M. D.; Yiu, Y.; Knolle, J.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Moessner, R.; Tennant, D. A.; Mandrus, D. G.; Nagler, S. E.
2016-04-04
Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. While their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting due to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana Fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We report these here for a ruthenium-based material α-RuCl_{3}, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials inimical to neutron probes) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisite strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly 2D nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl_{3} as prime candidate for realization of fractionalized Kitaev physics.
Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet
Banerjee, A.; Bridges, C. A.; Yan, J. -Q.; ...
2016-04-04
Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. While their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting due to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana Fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We report these here for a ruthenium-based material α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials inimical to neutron probes) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisitemore » strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly 2D nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as prime candidate for realization of fractionalized Kitaev physics.« less
Self-consistent magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic quantum dot driven by a spin bias
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siu, Z. B.; Jalil, M. B. A.; Tan, S. G.
2012-04-01
We present an iterative scheme which combines the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) for evaluating the quantum spin transport in a ferromagnetic quantum dot device and the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equation for modeling the magnetization dynamics of the dot. For a given initial magnetization, the spin polarization of current and the resulting spin torque in the dot are calculated using the NEGF formalism. The torque acts on the magnetic moment of the dot, and the resultant magnetization dynamics is obtained from the LL equation. The new value of the dot's magnetization is then used as an input for the next round of NEGF calculation, and the whole process is repeated iteratively. The spin torque is thus calculated self-consistently with the dynamics of the magnetic moment of the dot. We apply this self-consistent iterative scheme to study the magnetization dynamics in an exemplary quantum dot system with an induced spin bias in the leads under varying damping conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Rong; Miclea, Corneliu F.; Weickert, Franziska; Movshovich, Roman; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Zapf, Vivien S.; Roscilde, Tommaso
2012-10-01
In this paper we investigate the quantum phase transition from magnetic Bose Glass to magnetic Bose-Einstein condensation induced by a magnetic field in NiCl2·4SC(NH2)2 (dichloro-tetrakis-thiourea-nickel, or DTN), doped with Br (Br-DTN) or site diluted. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the quantum phase transition of the model Hamiltonian for Br-DTN, as well as for site-diluted DTN, are consistent with conventional scaling at the quantum critical point and with a critical exponent z verifying the prediction z=d; moreover the correlation length exponent is found to be ν=0.75(10), and the order parameter exponent to be β=0.95(10). We investigate the low-temperature thermodynamics at the quantum critical field of Br-DTN both numerically and experimentally, and extract the power-law behavior of the magnetization and of the specific heat. Our results for the exponents of the power laws, as well as previous results for the scaling of the critical temperature to magnetic ordering with the applied field, are incompatible with the conventional crossover-scaling Ansatz proposed by Fisher [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.40.546 40, 546 (1989)]. However they can all be reconciled within a phenomenological Ansatz in the presence of a dangerously irrelevant operator.
Josephson current through a quantum dot coupled to a molecular magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stadler, P.; Holmqvist, C.; Belzig, W.
2013-09-01
Josephson currents are carried by sharp Andreev states within the superconducting energy gap. We theoretically study the electronic transport of a magnetically tunable nanoscale junction consisting of a quantum dot connected to two superconducting leads and coupled to the spin of a molecular magnet. The exchange interaction between the molecular magnet and the quantum dot modifies the Andreev states due to a spin-dependent renormalization of the quantum dot's energy level and the induction of spin flips. A magnetic field applied to the central region of the quantum dot and the molecular magnet further tunes the Josephson current and starts a precession of the molecular magnet's spin. We use a nonequilibrium Green's function approach to evaluate the transport properties of the junction. Our calculations reveal that the energy level of the dot, the magnetic field, and the exchange interaction between the molecular magnet and the electrons occupying the energy level of the quantum dot can trigger transitions from a 0 to a π state of the Josephson junction. The redistribution of the occupied states induced by the magnetic field strongly modifies the current-phase relation. The critical current exhibits a sharp increase as a function of either the energy level of the dot, the magnetic field, or the exchange interaction.
Yang, Yi-Feng; Urbano, Ricardo; Curro, Nicholas J; Pines, David; Bauer, E D
2009-11-06
We report Knight-shift experiments on the superconducting heavy-electron material CeCoIn5 that allow one to track with some precision the behavior of the heavy-electron Kondo liquid in the superconducting state with results in agreement with BCS theory. An analysis of the 115In nuclear quadrupole resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate T1(-1) measurements under pressure reveals the presence of 2d magnetic quantum critical fluctuations in the heavy-electron component that are a promising candidate for the pairing mechanism in this material. Our results are consistent with an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point located at slightly negative pressure in CeCoIn5 and provide additional evidence for significant similarities between the heavy-electron materials and the high-T(c) cuprates.
Magnetic field dependence of a charge-frustrated state in a triangular triple quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, M.; Chung, Y.
2013-11-01
We studied the magnetic field dependence of a charge-frustrated state formed in a triangular triple quantum dot. Stability diagrams at various magnetic fields were measured by using two-terminal and three-terminal conductance measurement schemes. We found that the frustrated state broke down at an external magnetic field of around 0.1 T. This result is due to the confinement energy shifts in quantum dots under external magnetic fields. A similar breakdown of the frustrated state was observed when the confinement energy of a quantum dot was intentionally shifted by the plunger gate of the dot, which confirm the reason for the breakdown of the frustrated state under on applied magnetic field. Our measured stability diagrams differed depending on the measurement schemes, which could not be explained by the capacitive interaction model based on an independent particle picture. We believe that the discrepancy is related to the closed electron and hole trajectories inside a triple quantum dot.
Proposed Robust Entanglement-Based Magnetic Field Sensor Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Tohru; Knott, Paul; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Dooley, Shane; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro
2015-10-01
Recently, there have been significant developments in entanglement-based quantum metrology. However, entanglement is fragile against experimental imperfections, and quantum sensing to beat the standard quantum limit in scaling has not yet been achieved in realistic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome such restrictions so that one can sense a magnetic field with an accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit even under the effect of decoherence, by using a realistic entangled state that can be easily created even with current technology. Our scheme could pave the way for the realizations of practical entanglement-based magnetic field sensors.
Influence of Temperature and Magnetic Field on the First Excited State of a Quantum Pseudodot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Cui-Lan; Xiao, Jing-Lin
2017-02-01
Investigations on the properties of excited states of complex quantum systems can not only reveal the internal structure and properties of the system but also verify the accuracy of quantum theory. In the case of strong electron-longitudinal optical phonon coupling in a quantum pseudodot with an external magnetic field, the first excited state and transition frequency can be obtained by using the Pekar variational method and quantum statistics theory. Numerical calculations for CsI crystal show that (1) they are increasing functions of the magnetic field, and (2) they will first decrease and then increase as the temperature is increased from a low value.
Proposed Robust Entanglement-Based Magnetic Field Sensor Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit.
Tanaka, Tohru; Knott, Paul; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Dooley, Shane; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Munro, William J; Saito, Shiro
2015-10-23
Recently, there have been significant developments in entanglement-based quantum metrology. However, entanglement is fragile against experimental imperfections, and quantum sensing to beat the standard quantum limit in scaling has not yet been achieved in realistic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome such restrictions so that one can sense a magnetic field with an accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit even under the effect of decoherence, by using a realistic entangled state that can be easily created even with current technology. Our scheme could pave the way for the realizations of practical entanglement-based magnetic field sensors.
Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi
2016-08-01
Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R = Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.
Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides.
Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi
2016-08-01
Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R = Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.
Realizing ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.
Yan, Wensheng; Liu, Qinghua; Wang, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yao, Tao; He, Jingfu; Sun, Zhihu; Pan, Zhiyun; Hu, Fengchun; Wu, Ziyu; Xie, Zhi; Wei, Shiqiang
2014-01-22
Manipulating the ferromagnetic interactions in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (DMSQDs) is a central theme to the development of next-generation spin-based information technologies, but this remains a great challenge because of the intrinsic antiferromagnetic coupling between impurity ions therein. Here, we propose an effective approach capable of activating ferromagnetic exchange in ZnO-based DMSQDs, by virtue of a core/shell structure that engineers the energy level of the magnetic impurity 3d levels relative to the band edge. This idea has been successfully applied to Zn(0.96)Co(0.04)O DMSQDs covered by a shell of ZnS or Ag2S. First-principles calculations further indicate that covering a ZnS shell around the Co-doped ZnO core drives a transition of antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic interaction, which occurs within an effective depth of 1.2 nm underneath the surface in the core. This design opens up new possibility for effective manipulation of exchange interactions in doped oxide nanostructures for future spintronics applications.
Thermoelectric transport through a quantum dot with a magnetic impurity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhen; Guo, Yu; Zheng, Jun; Chi, Feng
2013-11-01
We study the thermoelectric effect in a small quantum dot with a magnetic impurity in the Coulomb blockade regime. The electrical conductance, thermal conductance, thermopower, and the thermoelectrical figure of merit (FOM) are calculated by using Green's function method. It is found that the peaks in the electrical conductance are split by the exchange coupling between the electron entering into the dot and the magnetic impurity inside the dot, accompanied by the decrease in the height of peaks. As a result, the resonances in the thermoelectric quantities, such as the thermal conductance, thermopower, and the FOM, are all split, opening some effective new working regions. Despite of the significant reduction in the height of the electrical conductance peaks induced by the exchange coupling, the values of the FOM and the thermopower can be as large as those in the case of zero exchange coupling. We also find that the thermoelectric efficiency, characterized by the magnitude of the FOM, can be enhanced by adjusting the left—right asymmetry of the electrode-dot coupling or by optimizing the system's temperature.
Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors.
Tranquada, J M; Woo, H; Perring, T G; Goka, H; Gu, G D; Xu, G; Fujita, M; Yamada, K
2004-06-03
In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized--one per copper site--by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile 'holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into 'stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.
Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tranquada, J. M.; Woo, H.; Perring, T. G.; Goka, H.; Gu, G. D.; Xu, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.
2004-06-01
In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized-one per copper site-by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile `holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into `stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.
Illustrating the quantum approach with an Earth magnetic field MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pars Benli, Kami; Dillmann, Baudouin; Louelh, Ryma; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc
2015-05-01
Teaching imaging of magnetic resonance (MR) today is still as challenging as it has always been, because it requires admitting that we cannot express fundamental questions of quantum mechanics with straightforward language or without using extensive theory. Here we allow students to face a real MR setup based on the Earth's magnetic field. We address the applied side of teaching MR using a device that is affordable and that proves to be sufficiently robust, at universities in Orsay, France, and San Sebastian, Spain, in experimental practicals at undergraduate and graduate levels. We specifically present some of the advantages of low field for measuring R2 relaxation rates, reaching a power of separation of 1.5 μmol on Mn(II) ions between two water bottles each of half a liter. Finally we propose key approaches for the lecturers to adopt when they are asked to pass from theoretical knowledge to teachable knowhow. The outcomes are fast calibration and the MR acquisition protocols, demonstrating the reproducibility of energy transfer during the saturation pulses, and the quantitative nature of MR, with water protons and a helium-3 sample.
Quantum aspects of a moving magnetic quadrupole moment interacting with an electric field
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.
2015-06-15
The quantum dynamics of a moving particle with a magnetic quadrupole moment that interacts with electric and magnetic fields is introduced. By dealing with the interaction between an electric field and the magnetic quadrupole moment, it is shown that an analogue of the Coulomb potential can be generated and bound state solutions can be obtained. Besides, the influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator is investigated, where bound state solutions to both repulsive and attractive Coulomb-type potentials are achieved and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of the harmonic oscillator frequency on the quantum numbers of the system is discussed.
Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.
Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim
2010-09-15
A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.
Stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized plasmas
Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Yang, B. L.
2012-07-15
In this research, stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) due to density gradients, magnetic fields, and quantum effects, in an ideal incompressible plasma, is studied analytically and numerically. A second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the RTI including quantum corrections, with a continuous density profile, in a uniform external magnetic field, is obtained. Analytic expressions of the linear growth rate of the RTI, considering modifications of density gradients, magnetic fields, and quantum effects, are presented. Numerical approaches are performed to solve the second-order ODE. The analytical model proposed here agrees with the numerical calculation. It is found that the density gradients, the magnetic fields, and the quantum effects, respectively, have a stabilizing effect on the RTI (reduce the linear growth of the RTI). The RTI can be completely quenched by the magnetic field stabilization and/or the quantum effect stabilization in proper circumstances leading to a cutoff wavelength. The quantum effect stabilization plays a central role in systems with large Atwood number and small normalized density gradient scale length. The presence of external transverse magnetic fields beside the quantum effects will bring about more stability on the RTI. The stabilization of the linear growth of the RTI, for parameters closely related to inertial confinement fusion and white dwarfs, is discussed. Results could potentially be valuable for the RTI treatment to analyze the mixing in supernovas and other RTI-driven objects.
Stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L. F.; Yang, B. L.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.
2012-07-01
In this research, stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) due to density gradients, magnetic fields, and quantum effects, in an ideal incompressible plasma, is studied analytically and numerically. A second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the RTI including quantum corrections, with a continuous density profile, in a uniform external magnetic field, is obtained. Analytic expressions of the linear growth rate of the RTI, considering modifications of density gradients, magnetic fields, and quantum effects, are presented. Numerical approaches are performed to solve the second-order ODE. The analytical model proposed here agrees with the numerical calculation. It is found that the density gradients, the magnetic fields, and the quantum effects, respectively, have a stabilizing effect on the RTI (reduce the linear growth of the RTI). The RTI can be completely quenched by the magnetic field stabilization and/or the quantum effect stabilization in proper circumstances leading to a cutoff wavelength. The quantum effect stabilization plays a central role in systems with large Atwood number and small normalized density gradient scale length. The presence of external transverse magnetic fields beside the quantum effects will bring about more stability on the RTI. The stabilization of the linear growth of the RTI, for parameters closely related to inertial confinement fusion and white dwarfs, is discussed. Results could potentially be valuable for the RTI treatment to analyze the mixing in supernovas and other RTI-driven objects.
Observation of Time-Invariant Coherence in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Simulator.
Silva, Isabela A; Souza, Alexandre M; Bromley, Thomas R; Cianciaruso, Marco; Marx, Raimund; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Lo Franco, Rosario; Glaser, Steffen J; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-10-14
The ability to live in coherent superpositions is a signature trait of quantum systems and constitutes an irreplaceable resource for quantum-enhanced technologies. However, decoherence effects usually destroy quantum superpositions. It was recently predicted that, in a composite quantum system exposed to dephasing noise, quantum coherence in a transversal reference basis can stay protected for an indefinite time. This can occur for a class of quantum states independently of the measure used to quantify coherence, and it requires no control on the system during the dynamics. Here, such an invariant coherence phenomenon is observed experimentally in two different setups based on nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature, realizing an effective quantum simulator of two- and four-qubit spin systems. Our study further reveals a novel interplay between coherence and various forms of correlations, and it highlights the natural resilience of quantum effects in complex systems.
Observation of Time-Invariant Coherence in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Isabela A.; Souza, Alexandre M.; Bromley, Thomas R.; Cianciaruso, Marco; Marx, Raimund; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Lo Franco, Rosario; Glaser, Steffen J.; deAzevedo, Eduardo R.; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-10-01
The ability to live in coherent superpositions is a signature trait of quantum systems and constitutes an irreplaceable resource for quantum-enhanced technologies. However, decoherence effects usually destroy quantum superpositions. It was recently predicted that, in a composite quantum system exposed to dephasing noise, quantum coherence in a transversal reference basis can stay protected for an indefinite time. This can occur for a class of quantum states independently of the measure used to quantify coherence, and it requires no control on the system during the dynamics. Here, such an invariant coherence phenomenon is observed experimentally in two different setups based on nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature, realizing an effective quantum simulator of two- and four-qubit spin systems. Our study further reveals a novel interplay between coherence and various forms of correlations, and it highlights the natural resilience of quantum effects in complex systems.
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2014-03-15
The effect of spin induced magnetization and electrical resistivity incorporating the viscosity of the medium is examined on the Jeans instability of quantum magnetoplasma. Formulation of the system is done by using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The analysis of the problem is carried out by normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is derived from set of perturbed equations to analyse the growth rate and condition of self-gravitational Jeans instability. To discuss the influence of resistivity, magnetization, and viscosity parameters on Jeans instability, the general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the case of transverse propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be affected by the viscosity, magnetization, resistivity, and magnetic field strength whereas Jeans criterion of instability is modified by the magnetization and quantum parameter. In the longitudinal mode of propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be modified due to the viscosity and quantum correction in which the Jeans condition of instability is influenced only by quantum parameter. The other non-gravitating Alfven mode in this direction is affected by finite electrical resistivity, spin induced magnetization, and viscosity. The numerical study for the growth rate of Jeans instability is carried out for both in the transverse and longitudinal direction of propagation to the magnetic field. The effect of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability in quantum plasma is analysed.
Digital quantum simulation of the statistical mechanics of a frustrated magnet.
Zhang, Jingfu; Yung, Man-Hong; Laflamme, Raymond; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baugh, Jonathan
2012-06-06
Many problems of interest in physics, chemistry and computer science are equivalent to problems defined on systems of interacting spins. However, most such problems require computational resources that are out of reach with classical computers. A promising solution to overcome this challenge is quantum simulation. Several 'analogue' quantum simulations of interacting spin systems have been realized experimentally, where ground states were prepared using adiabatic techniques. Here we report a 'digital' quantum simulation of thermal states; a three-spin frustrated magnet was simulated using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor, and we were able to explore the phase diagram of the system at any simulated temperature and external field. These results help to identify the challenges for performing quantum simulations of physical systems at finite temperatures, and suggest methods that may be useful in simulating thermal open quantum systems.
Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; dos Santos, A. M.; Reis, M. S.
2016-03-07
The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. This letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology in this context. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquid nitrogen temperature), additionally. Our results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.
Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; ...
2016-03-07
The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. This letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology in this context. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquidmore » nitrogen temperature), additionally. Our results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; dos Santos, A. M.; Reis, M. S.
2016-02-01
The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. In this context, this letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, in addition, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquid nitrogen temperature). These results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.
Optically Pumped Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Quantum Hall Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Sean E.
1998-03-01
Optical pumping enables the direct detection of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal of ^71Ga nuclei located in an electron doped GaAs quantum well.footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1368 (1994) This OPNMR technique was previously used to measure the Knight shift (K_S)footnote S. E. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995) and spin-lattice relaxation time (T_1)footnote R. Tycko et al., Science 268, 1460 (1995) near Landau level filling ν=1, which provided the first experimental support for the theoretical predictionsfootnote S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16419 (1993); H. A. Fertig et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 11018 (1994) that the charged excitations of the ν = 1 ground state are novel spin textures called skyrmions. We have recently demonstrated that OPNMR is possible in fields up to B=12 Tesla, and temperatures down to T= 0.3 K, making it a viable new probe of the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime. In this talk we will present our latest OPNMR measurements near Landau level filling ν=1/3, which include the first direct measurement of the electron spin polarization at ν=1/3. The spin polarization drops as the filling factor is varied away from ν=1/3, indicating that the quasiparticles and quasiholes are not fully spin-polarized. We will also show how the NMR lineshape away from ν=1/3 changes dramatically at low temperatures, which is due to slowing of the electron dynamics, and a reduction in the motional narrowing of the NMR line. The current understanding of these results will be discussed.
Val’kov, V. V. Shustin, M. S.
2015-11-15
The dispersion equation of a strongly anisotropic one-dimensional magnet catena-[Fe{sup II}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(Fe{sup III}(bpca){sub 2})]ClO{sub 4} containing alternating high-spin (HS) (S = 2) and low-spin (LS) (S = 1/2) iron ions is obtained by the diagram technique for Hubbard operators. The analysis of this equation yields six branches in the excitation spectrum of this magnet. It is important that the crystal field for ions with spin S = 2 is described by the Hamiltonian of single-ion easy-plane anisotropy, whose orientation is changed by 90° when passing from one HS iron ion to another. The U(N) transformation technique in the atomic representation is applied to diagonalize a single-ion Hamiltonian with a large number of levels. It is shown that the modulation of the orientation of easy magnetization planes leads to a model of a ferrimagnet with easy-axis anisotropy and to the formation of energy spectrum with a large gap. For HS iron ions, a decrease in the mean value of the spin projection due to quantum fluctuations is calculated. The analysis of the specific features of the spectrum of elementary excitations allows one to establish a correspondence to a generalized Ising model for which the magnetic susceptibility is calculated in a wide range of temperatures by the transfer-matrix method. The introduction of a statistical ensemble that takes into account the presence of chains of different lengths and the presence of iron ions with different spins allows one to describe the experimentally observed modification of the magnetic susceptibility of the magnet under optical irradiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Val'kov, V. V.; Shustin, M. S.
2015-11-01
The dispersion equation of a strongly anisotropic one-dimensional magnet catena-[FeII(ClO4)2{FeIII(bpca)2}]ClO4 containing alternating high-spin (HS) ( S = 2) and low-spin (LS) ( S = 1/2) iron ions is obtained by the diagram technique for Hubbard operators. The analysis of this equation yields six branches in the excitation spectrum of this magnet. It is important that the crystal field for ions with spin S = 2 is described by the Hamiltonian of single-ion easy-plane anisotropy, whose orientation is changed by 90° when passing from one HS iron ion to another. The U( N) transformation technique in the atomic representation is applied to diagonalize a single-ion Hamiltonian with a large number of levels. It is shown that the modulation of the orientation of easy magnetization planes leads to a model of a ferrimagnet with easy-axis anisotropy and to the formation of energy spectrum with a large gap. For HS iron ions, a decrease in the mean value of the spin projection due to quantum fluctuations is calculated. The analysis of the specific features of the spectrum of elementary excitations allows one to establish a correspondence to a generalized Ising model for which the magnetic susceptibility is calculated in a wide range of temperatures by the transfer-matrix method. The introduction of a statistical ensemble that takes into account the presence of chains of different lengths and the presence of iron ions with different spins allows one to describe the experimentally observed modification of the magnetic susceptibility of the magnet under optical irradiation.
Mass spectrum and correlation functions of non-Abelian quantum magnetic monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, E. C.; Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The method of quantization of magnetic monopoles based on the order-disorder duality existing between the monopole operator and the Lagrangian fields is applied to the description of the quantum magnetic monopoles of 't Hooft and Polyakov in the SO(3) Georgi-Glashow model. The commutator of the monopole operator with the magnetic charge is computed explicitly, indicating that indeed the quantum monopole carries 4π/g units of magnetic charge. An explicit expression for the asymptotic behavior of the monopole correlation function is derived. From this, the mass of the quantum monopole is obtained. The tree-level result for the quantum monopole mass is shown to satisfy the Bogomol'nyi bound (Mmon>=4πM/g2) and to be within the range of values found for the energy of the classical monopole solution.
Alloyed Mn-Cu-In-S nanocrystals: a new type of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qinghui; Deng, Ruiping; Ji, Xiangling; Pan, Daocheng
2012-06-01
A new type of Mn-Cu-In-S diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots was synthesized and reported for the first time. The quantum dots, with no highly toxic elements, not only show the same classic diluted magnetic behavior as Mn-doped CdSe, but also exhibit tunable luminescent properties in a relatively large window from 542 to 648 nm. An absolute photoluminescence quantum yield up to 20% was obtained after the shell growth of ZnS. This kind of magnetic/luminescent bi-functional Mn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dot might serve as promising nanoprobes for use in dual-mode optical and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.
Novel Quantum States with Exotic Spin Properties - Unconventional Generalization of Magnetism
2011-12-30
REPORT Novel quantum states with exotic spin properties- -Unconventional generalization of magnetism 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: My...interference (QPI) spectroscopy of the STM measurement, which is in nice agreement with the 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 30-12...ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 30-Sep-2011 Novel quantum states with exotic spin properties- -Unconventional generalization of magnetism Report Title ABSTRACT My
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelhardt, Larry
2015-12-01
We discuss how computers can be used to solve the ordinary differential equations that provide a quantum mechanical description of magnetic resonance. By varying the parameters in these equations and visually exploring how these parameters affect the results, students can quickly gain insights into the nature of magnetic resonance that go beyond the standard presentation found in quantum mechanics textbooks. The results were generated using an IPython notebook, which we provide as an online supplement with interactive plots and animations.
Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.
Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2016-08-01
The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material.
Aharonov–Anandan quantum phases and Landau quantization associated with a magnetic quadrupole moment
Fonseca, I.C.; Bakke, K.
2015-12-15
The arising of geometric quantum phases in the wave function of a moving particle possessing a magnetic quadrupole moment is investigated. It is shown that an Aharonov–Anandan quantum phase (Aharonov and Anandan, 1987) can be obtained in the quantum dynamics of a moving particle with a magnetic quadrupole moment. In particular, it is obtained as an analogue of the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect for a neutral particle (Anandan, 1989). Besides, by confining the quantum particle to a hard-wall confining potential, the dependence of the energy levels on the geometric quantum phase is discussed and, as a consequence, persistent currents can arise from this dependence. Finally, an analogue of the Landau quantization is discussed. -- Highlights: •Scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect for a particle possessing a magnetic quadrupole moment. •Aharonov–Anandan quantum phase for a particle with a magnetic quadrupole moment. •Dependence of the energy levels on the Aharonov–Anandan quantum phase. •Landau quantization associated with a particle possessing a magnetic quadrupole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mischenko, I.; Chuev, M.
2016-12-01
Principal difference of magnetic nanoparticles from the bulk matter which cannot be ignored when constructing upon them combined metamaterials and modern devices is the essential influence on their behavior thermal fluctuations of the environment. These disturbances lead to specific distributions of the particles characteristics and to stochastic reorientations of their magnetic moments. On the basis of quantum-mechanical representation of the particle possessing intrinsic magnetic anisotropy and being placed onto the external magnetic field we developed general approach to describe equilibrium magnetization curves and relaxation Mössbauer spectra of magnetic nanoparticles for diagnostics of magnetic nanomaterials in the whole temperature or external field ranges. This approach has universal character and may be applied not only to the systems under thermal equilibrium, but may in principle describe macroscopic dynamical phenomena such as magnetization reversal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Shu-Hsien; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er; Yang, S. Y.
2009-02-01
In this paper, we characterize the spin-lattice relaxation T1, spin-spin relaxation T2, and effective relaxation rate ΓMF of magnetic fluids for magnetic resonance imaging using a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in microtesla magnetic fields. When the magnetic susceptibility of the magnetic fluid was increased, a broadening of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and a growing spin-lattice relaxation T1 as well as spin-spin relaxation T2 were observed. The effective relaxation rate ΓMF increased monotonically from 0 to 13 s-1 when the magnetic susceptibility of the magnetic fluids, relative to tap water, was increased from 0 to 0.0015 emu g-1. We demonstrate the magnetic fluid as an image contrast via a high-Tc SQUID in microtesla magnetic fields.
Ground state selection under pressure in the quantum pyrochlore magnet Yb2Ti2O7.
Kermarrec, E; Gaudet, J; Fritsch, K; Khasanov, R; Guguchia, Z; Ritter, C; Ross, K A; Dabkowska, H A; Gaulin, B D
2017-03-15
A quantum spin liquid is a state of matter characterized by quantum entanglement and the absence of any broken symmetry. In condensed matter, the frustrated rare-earth pyrochlore magnets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, so-called spin ices, exhibit a classical spin liquid state with fractionalized thermal excitations (magnetic monopoles). Evidence for a quantum spin ice, in which the magnetic monopoles become long range entangled and an emergent quantum electrodynamics arises, seems within reach. The magnetic properties of the quantum spin ice candidate Yb2Ti2O7 have eluded a global understanding and even the presence or absence of static magnetic order at low temperatures is controversial. Here we show that sensitivity to pressure is the missing key to the low temperature behaviour of Yb2Ti2O7. By combining neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation on a stoichiometric sample under pressure, we evidence a magnetic transition from a disordered, non-magnetic, ground state to a splayed ferromagnetic ground state.
Ground state selection under pressure in the quantum pyrochlore magnet Yb2Ti2O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kermarrec, E.; Gaudet, J.; Fritsch, K.; Khasanov, R.; Guguchia, Z.; Ritter, C.; Ross, K. A.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.
2017-03-01
A quantum spin liquid is a state of matter characterized by quantum entanglement and the absence of any broken symmetry. In condensed matter, the frustrated rare-earth pyrochlore magnets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, so-called spin ices, exhibit a classical spin liquid state with fractionalized thermal excitations (magnetic monopoles). Evidence for a quantum spin ice, in which the magnetic monopoles become long range entangled and an emergent quantum electrodynamics arises, seems within reach. The magnetic properties of the quantum spin ice candidate Yb2Ti2O7 have eluded a global understanding and even the presence or absence of static magnetic order at low temperatures is controversial. Here we show that sensitivity to pressure is the missing key to the low temperature behaviour of Yb2Ti2O7. By combining neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation on a stoichiometric sample under pressure, we evidence a magnetic transition from a disordered, non-magnetic, ground state to a splayed ferromagnetic ground state.
Electron emission from self-assembled quantum dots in strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schramm, A.; Schulz, S.; Schaefer, J.; Zander, T.; Heyn, Ch.; Hansen, W.
2006-05-01
We probe with deep level transient spectroscopy electron states in self-assembled InAs quantum dots. Two pronounced maxima are observed that we associate with emission from different quantum-dot orbital states. Fine structure clearly establishes distinct emission rates for quantum dots with one or two electrons in the s state and up to four electrons in the p-like states. In order to confirm these assignments spectra have been recorded in strong magnetic fields. The observed magnetic field dispersion of the emission energies is described with a harmonic oscillator model using an effective electron mass of m*=0.03me.
Noncollinear Spin-Orbit Magnetic Fields in a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot.
Hels, M C; Braunecker, B; Grove-Rasmussen, K; Nygård, J
2016-12-30
We demonstrate experimentally that noncollinear intrinsic spin-orbit magnetic fields can be realized in a curved carbon nanotube two-segment device. Each segment, analyzed in the quantum dot regime, shows near fourfold degenerate shell structure allowing for identification of the spin-orbit coupling and the angle between the two segments. Furthermore, we determine the four unique spin directions of the quantum states for specific shells and magnetic fields. This class of quantum dot systems is particularly interesting when combined with induced superconducting correlations as it may facilitate unconventional superconductivity and detection of Cooper pair entanglement. Our device comprises the necessary elements.
Holographic model for antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition induced by magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2015-10-01
We propose a gravity dual of antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition induced by magnetic field and study the critical behavior around the quantum critical point. It turns out that the boundary critical theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and that the hyperscaling law is violated and logarithmic corrections appear near the quantum critical point. Some novel scaling relations are predicated, which can be tested by experiment data in the future. We also make some comparison with experimental data on low-dimensional magnets BiCoPO5 and pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2O7 .
Noncollinear Spin-Orbit Magnetic Fields in a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hels, M. C.; Braunecker, B.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygârd, J.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate experimentally that noncollinear intrinsic spin-orbit magnetic fields can be realized in a curved carbon nanotube two-segment device. Each segment, analyzed in the quantum dot regime, shows near fourfold degenerate shell structure allowing for identification of the spin-orbit coupling and the angle between the two segments. Furthermore, we determine the four unique spin directions of the quantum states for specific shells and magnetic fields. This class of quantum dot systems is particularly interesting when combined with induced superconducting correlations as it may facilitate unconventional superconductivity and detection of Cooper pair entanglement. Our device comprises the necessary elements.
Magnetic-field control of the exciton quantum beats phase in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siarry, B.; Eble, B.; Bernardot, F.; Grinberg, P.; Testelin, C.; Chamarro, M.; LemaÃ®tre, A.
2015-10-01
We demonstrate here the phase control of the neutral exciton quantum beats in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots. A longitudinal magnetic field is used as a tuning parameter to change the phase of the oscillations in a deterministic way. This effect arises from the competition between the Zeeman splitting and the electron/hole exchange interaction on the exciton dipole symmetry. To explore this mechanism, we have developed a pump-probe setup based on the optical heterodyne detection of the quantum dots reflectivity allowing one to measure the exciton dynamics from a small quantum dots ensemble (˜300 ). Particular attention is paid to give a detailed theoretical analysis of the measurements. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the model.
Omidi, Mahboubeh Faizabadi, Edris
2015-03-21
Magnetic susceptibility is investigated in a man-made elliptical quantum ring in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interactions and the magnetic flux. It is shown that magnetic susceptibility as a function of magnetic flux changes between negative and positive signs periodically. The periodicity of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations depends on the geometry of the region where magnetic field is applied, the eccentricity, and number of sites in each chain ring (the elliptical ring is composed of chain rings). The magnetic susceptibility sign can be reversed by tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength as well. Both the magnetic susceptibility strength and sign can be controlled via external spin-orbit interactions, which can be exploited in spintronics and nanoelectronics.
Observation of the Quantum Well Interference in Magnetic Nanostructures by Photoemission
Kawakami, R.K.; Escorcia-Aparicio, E.J.; Choi, H.J.; Qiu, Z.Q.; Rotenberg, E.; Smith, N.V.; Cummins, T.R.; Tobin, J.G.
1998-02-01
The Cu/Co/Ni/Co(100) system was investigated by photoemission to study the interference between the Cu quantum well and the Ni layer. By varying their separation, we found that the density of states of the Cu quantum well states were biperiodically modulated. This result provides clear evidence for the quantum interference between two quantum wells in magnetic nanostructures. The biperiodicity was identified to correspond to the two Fermi vectors of the Co minority energy bands. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Influence of the external pressure on the quantum correlations of molecular magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, C.; Alves, Á. S.; dos Santos, R. N.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; de Jesus, J. C. O.; de Almeida, J. S.; Reis, M. S.
2017-01-01
The study of quantum correlations in solid-state systems is a large avenue for research and their detection and manipulation are an actual challenge to overcome. In this context, we show by using first-principles calculations on the prototype material KNaCuSi4O10 that the degree of quantum correlations in this spin cluster system can be managed by external hydrostatic pressure. Our results pave the way for research in detection and manipulation of quantum correlations in magnetic systems with promising applications in quantum information science.
Effect of rotation on Jeans instability of magnetized radiative quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.
2017-03-01
The influence of rotation on the Jeans instability of homogeneous magnetized radiative quantum plasma is investigated. The basic equations of the problem are constructed and linearized by using the Quantum Magnetohydrodynamics (QMHD) model. The general dispersion relation is obtained by using the normal mode analysis technique, which is reduced for both the transverse and the longitudinal mode of propagations and further it is reduced for the axis of rotation parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We found that the stabilizing effects of rotation are decreases for a strong magnetic field which is shown in the graphical representation. We also found that the quantum correction modified the condition of Jeans instability in both modes of propagation. The stabilizing effect of rotation is more increased in the presence of quantum correction.
Linear and nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Wenfang
2013-05-01
We have investigated the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot in a magnetic field. Based on the computed energies and wave functions, the linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes have been examined. The results are presented as a function of the incident photon energy for the different cases of anisotropy, dot size and external magnetic field. The results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic quantum dots are strongly affected by the degree of anisotropy, the dot size, the external magnetic field and the polarized direction of the incident electromagnetic wave. The result also shows that the size effect of anisotropy quantum dots on the optical absorptions is different from that of isotropic quantum dots.
Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise
Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric
2014-08-15
We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.
Using thermal boundary conditions to engineer the quantum state of a bulk magnet
Schmidt, M. A.; Silevitch, D. M.; Aeppli, G.; Rosenbaum, T. F.
2014-01-01
The degree of contact between a system and the external environment can alter dramatically its proclivity to quantum mechanical modes of relaxation. We show that controlling the thermal coupling of cubic-centimeter–sized crystals of the Ising magnet LiHoxY1-xF4 to a heat bath can be used to tune the system between a glassy state dominated by thermal excitations over energy barriers and a state with the hallmarks of a quantum spin liquid. Application of a magnetic field transverse to the Ising axis introduces both random magnetic fields and quantum fluctuations, which can retard and speed the annealing process, respectively, thereby providing a mechanism for continuous tuning between the destination states. The nonlinear response of the system explicitly demonstrates quantum interference between internal and external relaxation pathways. PMID:24567389
Model of tunnelling through periodic array of quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu. Popov, I.; A. Osipov, S.
2012-11-01
A two-dimensional periodic array of quantum dots with two laterally coupled leads in a magnetic field is considered. The model of electron transport through the system based on the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is suggested. We obtain the formula for the transmission coefficient and investigate its dependence on the magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurstbauer, U.; Knott, S.; Westarp, C. G. v.; Mecking, N.; Rachor, K.; Heitmann, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Hansen, W.
2010-02-01
Low-temperature magnetotransport measurements and far-infrared transmission spectroscopy are reported in molecular beam epitaxial grown two-dimensional hole systems confined in strained InAs quantum wells with magnetic impurities in the channel. The interactions of the free holes spin with the magnetic moment of 5/2 provided by manganese features intriguing localization phenomena and anomalies in the Hall and the quantum Hall resistance. In magnetic field-dependent far-infrared spectroscopy measurements well-pronounced cyclotron resonance and an additional resonance are found that indicates an anti-crossing with the cyclotron resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Pradip Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Lahon, Siddhartha; Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man
2014-01-01
Here we have investigated the influence of external magnetic field on the optical absorption and refractive index changes of a parabolically confined quantum dot in the presence of Rashba spin orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum confinement potential, magnetic field, Rashba spin orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate the important influence of magnetic field on the peak positions of absorption coefficient and refractive index changes. The role of confinement strength and spin orbit interaction strength as control parameters on the linear and nonlinear properties have been demonstrated.
Influence of external magnetic field on dynamics of open quantum systems.
Kalandarov, Sh A; Kanokov, Z; Adamian, G G; Antonenko, N V
2007-03-01
The influence of an external magnetic field on the non-Markovian dynamics of an open two-dimensional quantum system is investigated. The fluctuations of collective coordinate and momentum and transport coefficients are studied for a charged harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a neutral bosonic heat bath. It is shown that the dissipation of collective energy slows down with increasing strength of the external magnetic field. The role of magnetic field in the diffusion processes is illustrated by several examples.
Influence of external magnetic field on dynamics of open quantum systems
Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.
2007-03-15
The influence of an external magnetic field on the non-Markovian dynamics of an open two-dimensional quantum system is investigated. The fluctuations of collective coordinate and momentum and transport coefficients are studied for a charged harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a neutral bosonic heat bath. It is shown that the dissipation of collective energy slows down with increasing strength of the external magnetic field. The role of magnetic field in the diffusion processes is illustrated by several examples.
Electric and magnetic optical polaron in quantum dot—Part 1: strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fotue, A. J.; Issofa, N.; Tiotsop, M.; Kenfack, S. C.; Tabue Djemmo, M. P.; Fotsin, H.; Fai, L. C.
2015-07-01
We investigated the influence of electric field and magnetic field on the ground state energy of polaron in spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using a modified Lee Low Pines (LLP) method. The numerical results show the increase of the ground state energy with the increase of the electric field and the decreasing with the magnetic field. The modulation of the electric field, magnetic field and the confinement lengths lead to the control of the decoherence of the system.
Exchange interaction and oscillations of the magnetization of the electron gas in a quantum cylinder
Eminov, P. A. Sezonov, Yu. I.; Al'pern, A. V.; Sal'nikov, N. V.
2006-10-15
The exchange energy of the electron gas on a cylindrical surface in a constant magnetic field has been calculated. Analytical formulas describing the contribution of the exchange interaction into oscillations of the magnetization of the electron gas in a quantum cylinder have been obtained. It is shown that the magnetic response of the system exhibits Aharonov-Bohm oscillations for both degenerate and Boltzmann electron gases.
Karpman-Washimi magnetization with electron-exchange effects in quantum plasmas
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Jung, Young-Dae
2015-07-15
The influence of quantum electron-exchange on the Karpman-Washimi ponderomotive magnetization is investigated in quantum plasmas. The ponderomotive magnetization and the total radiation power due to the non-stationary Karpman-Washimi interaction related to the time-varying field intensity are obtained as functions of the de Broglie wave length, Debye length, and electron-exchange parameter. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the cyclotron frequency due to the ponderomotive interactions in quantum plasmas. It is also shown that the electron-exchange effect on the Karpman-Washimi magnetization increases with increasing wave number. In addition, the Karpman-Washimi magnetization and the total radiation power increase with an increase in the ratio of the Debye length to the de Broglie wave length. In streaming quantum plasmas, it is shown that the electron-exchange effect enhances the ponderomotive magnetization below the resonant wave number and, however, suppresses the ponderomotive magnetization above the resonant wave number. The variation of the Karpman-Washimi magnetization and the radiation power due to the variation of the electron-exchange effect and plasma parameters is also discussed.
Perren, G.; Möller, J. S.; Hüvonen, D.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Zheludev, A.
2015-08-07
In this paper, we present inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the S=1/2 frustrated gapped quantum magnet piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC) under applied hydrostatic pressure. These results show that at 9 kbar the magnetic triplet excitations in the system are gapless, contrary to what was previously reported. Our results are in agreement with recent muon-spin relaxation experiments which found magnetic order above a quantum-critical point at 4.3 kbar. Finally, we show that the changes in the excitation spectrum can be primarily attributed to the change in a single exchange pathway.
Pressure-induced structural distortions in copper pyrazine dinitrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neal, Kenneth; Cherian, Judy; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice
2015-03-01
The vibrational properties of quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet copper pyrazine dinitrate were investigated up to 9 GPa using diamond anvil cell techniques and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Two structural transitions were discovered, at 0.7 GPa and around 5 GPa. The lower pressure transition involves only the nitrate ligands, revealing enhanced interchain interactions. The higher pressure transition includes modes throughout the spectrum. Importantly, the pyrazine ring-related modes show an overall lowering of symmetry through this transition. Ring buckling under pressure likely reduces the exchange along the chains since the exchange pathway becomes distorted. A smaller J may therefore lower the magnetic field of the quantum critical transition. This tunable exchange interaction could be utilized in other pyrazine bridged molecular systems to bring the quantum critical behavior into experimentally realizable fields. We thank the National Science Foundation and the Petroleum Research Fund for support of this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faizabadi, Edris; Eslami, Leila
2012-06-01
The influence of quantum dot magnetization on electronic spin-dependent transport is investigated through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure in which one of the quantum dots is non-magnetic subjected to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the two other ones possess magnetic structure. Evaluated results, based on single particle Green's function formalism, indicate that the presence of magnetic moment on the quantum dots leads to additional spin-dependent phase factor which affects electronic transport through the system. For both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic quantum dots, the system can operate as a spin-splitter but differently; by tuning Rashba spin-orbit strength and in the presence of magnetic flux, respectively. Besides, in the absence of one of the outgoing leads, spin current in the output is calculated and demonstrated that magnetization of quantum dots leads to spin current even in the absence of Rashba spin-orbit effect. Moreover, it is shown that in the presence of Rashba spin orbit interaction, magnetic quantum dots, and magnetic flux, the two terminal system produces a completely tunable spin current.
Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.
Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders
The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.
Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.
Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-27
Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.
Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions In Gadolinium Iron Borate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharlamova, S. A.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Gavriliuk, A. G.; Brown, D.; Toellner, T.; Zhao, J.; Lerche, M.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.
2007-12-01
An understanding of spin crossover (SC) dynamics is relevant to understanding of a role or participation of SC in natural systems including lower Mantle minerals, heme proteins as well as from fundamental science of view. For example, pressure-induced electronic spin transitions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron occur in magnesiowustite, silicate perovskite and post-perovskite which are abundant minerals in the Earth's lower mantle [1-3]. Such a SC phenomenon has recently been observed in a number of magnetic minerals FeBO3 [4, 5], BiFeO3 [6], Fe2O3 [7], and Y3Fe5O12 [8], (La, Pr)FeO3 [9, 10]. In those cases, iron ions are in the trivalent state Fe3+ and the high-spin-low-spin (HS-LS) crossover is manifested as the collapse of the local magnetic moment and as the transition of the antiferromagnet to a paramagnetic state. For example, in FeBO3 at low temperatures a spin-crossover and some magnetic transitions with two triple points were found [4, 5]. Gadolinium iron borate, GdFe3(BO3)4 is also a system with SEC and recently, we have reported on phase transitions induced by high pressures in this material [11, 12]. We studied the structural and magnetic behavior of GdFe573(BO3)4 at high pressures and temperatures using a diamond anvil cell and a Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy technique. The hyperfine parameters and results obtained from the experiments are discussed. Based on our experimental data and theoretical calculation a tentative magnetic P-T phase diagram and an equation of states of GdFe573(BO3)4 are proposed. Important features of the phase diagram are a spin crossover, insulator-semiconductor transition and possible presence of two triple points where magnetic and paramagnetic phases of the high-spin and low-spin states coexist. 1. J. Badro, J.-P. Rueff, G. Vankó, et al., Science 305, 383 (2004). 2. J. M. Jackson, W. Sturhahn, G. Shen, et al., American Mineralogist 90, 199 (2005). 3. J.Li, V.V. Struzhkin, H.-K. Mao, et al., PNAS 101, 14027 (2004). 4. I.A. Troyan
Anomalous optical magnetic shift of self-assembled GaSb/GaAs quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ta-Chun; Li, Liang-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Di; Suen, Yuen-Wuu; Lee, Chien-Ping
2011-07-01
We report the magneto-photoluminescence (PL) measurement results on type-II self-assembled GaSb/GaAs quantum dots with the magnetic field applied in Faraday and Voigt configurations. The emission of the quantum dots exhibited a typical diamagnetic blueshift when the magnetic field was applied in a Faraday configuration. However, when the magnetic field was in the Voigt configuration, an unusual redshift in the emission peak accompanied with a rapid increase of the PL intensity was observed. Guided by numerical calculations, the magnetic field applied in the Voigt configuration is found to provide an additional vertical confinement to electrons, and therefore, substantially enhance the radiative electron-hole recombination. The resulting decrease of the steady-state hole concentration gives rise to the observed anomalous magnetic redshift.
Zero-energy states of graphene triangular quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güçlü, A. D.; Potasz, P.; Hawrylak, P.
2013-10-01
We present a tight-binding theory of triangular graphene quantum dots (TGQD) with zigzag edge and broken sublattice symmetry in an external magnetic field. The lateral size quantization opens an energy gap, and broken sublattice symmetry results in a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level. We derive a semianalytical form for zero-energy states in a magnetic field and show that the shell remains degenerate in a magnetic field, in analogy to the zeroth Landau level of bulk graphene. The magnetic field closes the energy gap and leads to the crossing of valence and conduction states with the zero-energy states, modulating the degeneracy of the shell. The closing of the gap with increasing magnetic field is present in all graphene quantum dot structures investigated irrespective of shape and edge termination.
Thermodynamic behaviour of Rashba quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukirti, Gumber; Manoj, Kumar; Pradip, Kumar Jha; Man, Mohan
2016-05-01
The thermodynamic properties of an InSb quantum dot have been investigated in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and a static magnetic field. The energy spectrum and wave-functions for the system are obtained by solving the Schrodinger wave-equation analytically. These energy levels are employed to calculate the specific heat, entropy, magnetization and susceptibility of the quantum dot system using canonical formalism. It is observed that the system is susceptible to maximum heat absorption at a particular value of magnetic field which depends on the Rashba coupling parameter as well as the temperature. The variation of specific heat shows a Schottky-like anomaly in the low temperature limit and rapidly converges to the value of 2k B with the further increase in temperature. The entropy of the quantum dot is found to be inversely proportional to the magnetic field but has a direct variation with temperature. The substantial effect of Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the magnetic properties of quantum dot is observed at low values of magnetic field and temperature. Project support by the University Grants Commission, India, the Department of Science and Technology, and the University Grants Commission-Basic Science Research (UGC-BSR).
Magnetic field induced optical gain in a dilute nitride quaternary semiconductor quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mageshwari, P. Uma; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo
2016-10-01
Effects of magnetic field strength on the electronic and optical properties are brought out in a Ga0.661In0.339N0.0554As0.9446/GaAs quantum dot for the applications of desired wavelength in opto-electronic devices. The band alignment is obtained using band anticrossing model and the model solid theory. The magnetic field dependent electron-heavy hole transition energies with the dot radius in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are investigated. The magnetic field induced oscillator strength as a function of dot radius is studied. The resonant peak values of optical absorption coefficients and the changes of refractive index with the application of magnetic field strength in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot are obtained. The magnetic field induced threshold current density and the maximum optical gain are found in a GaInNAs/GaAs quantum dot. The results show that the optimum wavelength for fibre optical communication networks can be obtained with the variation of applied magnetic field strength and the outcomes may be useful for the design of efficient lasers based on the group III-N-V semiconductors.
Min, Hyegeun; Jo, Seong-Min; Kim, Hak-Sung
2015-06-03
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are valuable biomarkers for monitoring the status of cancer patients and drug efficacy. However, the number of CTCs in the blood is extremely low, and the isolation and detection of CTCs with high efficiency and sensitivity remain a challenge. Here, we present an approach to the efficient capturing and simple quantification of CTCs using quantum dots and magnetic beads. Anti-EpCAM antibody-conjugated quantum dots are used for the targeting and quantification of CTCs, and quantum-dot-attached CTCs are isolated using anti-IgG-modified magnetic beads. Our approach is shown to result in a capture efficiency of about 70%-80%, enabling the simple quantification of captured CTCs based on the fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots. The present method can be used effectively in the capturing and simple quantification of CTCs with high efficiency for cancer diagnosis and monitoring.
Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation
Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.
2015-07-31
The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.
Rauf Abdullah, Nzar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2016-09-21
We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the electron transport through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the transport characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, [Formula: see text], between the photon energy, [Formula: see text], and the cyclotron energy, [Formula: see text]. Enhancement in the electron transport with increasing electron-photon coupling is observed when [Formula: see text]. In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the electron charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the electron transport is found when [Formula: see text], as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot.
Dual-channel spontaneous emission of quantum dots in magnetic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decker, Manuel; Staude, Isabelle; Shishkin, Ivan I.; Samusev, Kirill B.; Parkinson, Patrick; Sreenivasan, Varun K. A.; Minovich, Alexander; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Zvyagin, Andrei; Jagadish, Chennupati; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2013-12-01
Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media realized by subwavelength nano-structuring, have become a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space, allowing for independent control of both electric and magnetic responses of the material. Whereas most metamaterials studied so far are limited to passive structures, the need for active metamaterials is rapidly growing. However, the fundamental question on how the energy of emitters is distributed between both (electric and magnetic) interaction channels of the metamaterial still remains open. Here we study simultaneous spontaneous emission of quantum dots into both of these channels and define the control parameters for tailoring the quantum-dot coupling to metamaterials. By superimposing two orthogonal modes of equal strength at the wavelength of quantum-dot photoluminescence, we demonstrate a sharp difference in their interaction with the magnetic and electric metamaterial modes. Our observations reveal the importance of mode engineering for spontaneous emission control in metamaterials, paving a way towards loss-compensated metamaterials and metamaterial nanolasers.
Transport through a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in perpendicular magnetic field
2011-01-01
We present transport measurements on a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field. The device consists of an etched single-layer graphene flake with two narrow constrictions separating a 140 nm diameter island from source and drain graphene contacts. Lateral graphene gates are used to electrostatically tune the device. Measurements of Coulomb resonances, including constriction resonances and Coulomb diamonds prove the functionality of the graphene quantum dot with a charging energy of approximately 4.5 meV. We show the evolution of Coulomb resonances as a function of perpendicular magnetic field, which provides indications of the formation of the graphene specific 0th Landau level. Finally, we demonstrate that the complex pattern superimposing the quantum dot energy spectra is due to the formation of additional localized states with increasing magnetic field. PMID:21711781
Quantum dynamics of a macroscopic magnet operating as an environment of a mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foti, C.; Cuccoli, A.; Verrucchi, P.
2016-12-01
We study the dynamics of a bipartite quantum system in a way such that its formal description keeps holding even if one of its parts becomes macroscopic; the problem is related to the analysis of the quantum-to-classical crossover, but our approach implies that the whole system stays genuinely quantum. The aim of the work is to understand (1) if, (2) to what extent, and possibly (3) how the evolution of a macroscopic environment testifies to the coupling with its microscopic quantum companion. To this purpose we consider a magnetic environment made of a large number of spin-1/2 particles, coupled with a quantum mechanical oscillator, possibly in the presence of an external magnetic field. We take the value of the total environmental spin S constant and large, which allows us to consider the environment as one single macroscopic system, and further deal with the hurdles of the spin-algebra via approximations that are valid in the large-S limit. We find an insightful expression for the propagator of the whole system, where we identify an effective "back-action" term, i.e., an operator acting on the magnetic environment only, and yet missing in the absence of the quantum principal system. This operator emerges as a time-dependent magnetic anisotropy whose character, whether uniaxial or planar, also depends on the detuning between the frequency of the oscillator and the level splitting in the spectrum of the free magnetic system, induced by the possible presence of the external field. The time dependence of the anisotropy is analyzed, and its effects on the dynamics of the magnet, as well as its relation to the entangling evolution of the overall system, are discussed.
Murguia, Gabriela; Moreno, Matias; Torres, Manuel
2009-04-20
A well known example in quantum electrodynamics (QED) shows that Coulomb scattering of unpolarized electrons, calculated to lowest order in perturbation theory, yields a results that exactly coincides (in the non-relativistic limit) with the Rutherford formula. We examine an analogous example, the classical and perturbative quantum scattering of an electron by a magnetic field confined in an infinite solenoid of finite radius. The results obtained for the classical and the quantum differential cross sections display marked differences. While this may not be a complete surprise, one should expect to recover the classical expression by applying the classical limit to the quantum result. This turn not to be the case. Surprisingly enough, it is shown that the classical result can not be recuperated even if higher order corrections are included. To recover the classic correspondence of the quantum scattering problem a suitable non-perturbative methodology should be applied.
Magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality in a planar ferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.
2014-08-01
We analyze the effects induced by single-ion anisotropy on quantum criticality in a d-dimensional spin-3/2 planar ferromagnet. To tackle this problem we employ the two-time Green's function method, using the Tyablikov decoupling for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis the role of non-thermal control parameter which drives the quantum phase transition is played by a longitudinal external magnetic field. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has substantial effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point.
Nonequilibrium Kondo transport through a quantum dot in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, Sergey; Grifoni, Milena
2013-07-01
We analyze the universal transport properties of a strongly interacting quantum dot in the Kondo regime when the quantum dot is placed in an external magnetic field. The quantum dot is described by the asymmetric Anderson model with the spin degeneracy removed by the magnetic field resulting in Zeeman splitting. Using an analytical expression for the tunneling density of states found from a Keldysh effective field theory, we obtain in the whole energy range the universal differential conductance and analytically demonstrate its Fermi-liquid and logarithmic behavior at low and high energies, respectively, as a function of the magnetic field. We also show results on the zero-temperature differential conductance as a function of the bias voltage at different magnetic fields as well as results on finite-temperature effects out of equilibrium and at a finite magnetic field. The modern nonequilibrium experimental issues of the critical magnetic field, at which the zero bias maximum of the differential conductance starts to split into two maxima, as well as the distance between these maxima as a function of the magnetic field, are also addressed.
Bifurcations of dust ion acoustic travelling waves in a magnetized quantum dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Utpal Kumar; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2013-10-01
Bifurcation behavior of nonlinear dust ion acoustic travelling waves in a magnetized quantum dusty plasma has been studied. Applying the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), we have derived a Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) equation for dust ion acoustic waves (DIAWs) in a magnetized quantum dusty plasma. By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to the KP equation, we have proved that our model has solitary wave solutions and periodic travelling wave solutions. We have derived two exact explicit solutions of the above travelling waves depending on different parameters.
Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro
2015-08-15
Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.
Field-induced magnetic instability and quantum criticality in the antiferromagnet CeCu2Ge2.
Liu, Yi; Xie, Donghua; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhu, Kangwei; Yang, Ruilong
2016-01-13
The magnetic quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems has been considered to be closely related with the occurrence of unconventional superconductivity. Control parameters such as magnetic field, pressure or chemical doping are frequently used to externally tune the quantum phase transition for a deeper understanding. Here we report the research of a field-induced quantum phase transition using conventional bulk physical property measurements in the archetypal antiferromagnet CeCu2Ge2, which becomes superconductive under a pressure of about 10 GPa with Tc ~ 0.64 K. We offer strong evidence that short-range dynamic correlations start appearing above a magnetic field of about 5 T. Our demonstrations of the magnetic instability and the field-induced quantum phase transition are crucial for the quantum criticality, which may open a new route in experimental investigations of the quantum phase transition in heavy-fermion systems.
Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical behavior of itinerant electronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sknepnek, Rastko
Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature as a function of some non-thermal parameter, e.g., pressure or chemical composition. In addition to being of fundamental interest, quantum phase transitions are important because they are believed to underlie a number of interesting low temperature phenomena. Quantum phase transitions differ from the classical phase transitions in many important aspects, two of them being (i) the mode-coupling effects and (ii) the behavior in the presence of disorder. We devote two projects of this dissertation to each of the two. First, we investigate the quantum phase transition of itinerant electrons from a paramagnet to a state which displays long-period helical structures due to a Dzyaloshinskii instability of the ferromagnetic state. In particular, we study how the self generated effective long-range interaction recently identified in itinerant quantum ferromagnets is cut-off by the helical ordering. Second, we discuss a quantum phase transition between a disordered metal and an exotic (non-s-wave) superconductor. Like in the case of ferromagnetic quantum phase transition mode coupling effects lead to an effective long-range interaction between the anomalous density fluctuations. We find that the asymptotic critical region is characterized by run-away flow to large disorder. However, for weak coupling, this region is very narrow, and it is preempted by a wide crossover regime with mean-field critical behavior. Then, we present results of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for a 3d Ising model with short range interactions and planar defects. We show that the phase transition in this system is smeared, i.e., there is no single critical temperature, but different parts of the system order at different temperatures. Our Monte-Carlo results are in good agreement with a recent theory. Finally, we present large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations of a 2d bilayer quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet with random dimer dilution. In contrast
Pressure-Induced Metallization of the Mott Insulator MnO
Patterson, J R; Aracne, C M; Jackson, D D; Weir, S T; Malba, V; Baker, P A; Vohra, Y K
2004-01-12
High-pressure electrical conductivity experiments have been performed on the Mott insulator MnO to a maximum pressure of 106 GPa. We observe a steady decrease in resistivity to 90 GPa, followed by a large, rapid decrease by a factor of 10{sup 5} between 90 and 106 GPa. Temperature cycling the sample at 87 and 106 GPa shows insulating and metallic behavior at these pressures, respectively. Our observations provide strong evidence for a pressure-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition with an accompanying magnetic collapse beginning at 90 GPa.
Pressure-induced isostructural transition in a distorted perovskite via octahedron reconfiguration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Fang; Yue, Binbin; Hirao, Naohisa; Ren, Guohao; Chen, Bin; Mao, Ho-Kwang
2016-12-01
Perovskite material studies encompass many fields such as energy harvesting, superconductivity, magnetism, and beyond. Thus, it is very important to investigate their structural varieties in external environments. Here, the pressure-induced structure change of a distorted perovskite, Y0.7Lu0.3AlO3, was examined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Upon compression, it underwent an isostructural transition near 22 GPa. The quenchable high-pressure phase had a much higher bulk modulus than the low-pressure phase. This work shows the flexibility of perovskite distortion and will help to understand the property anomalies in prevailing perovskite ABO3 systems and design more functional materials.
Jahan K, Luhluh Boda, Aalu; Chatterjee, Ashok
2015-05-15
The problem of an exciton trapped in a three dimensional Gaussian quantum dot is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. A variational method is employed to obtain the ground state energy of the exciton as a function of the quantum dot size, the confinement strength and the magnetic field. It is also shown that the variation of the size of the exciton with the radius of the quantum dot.
Low temperature nano-spin filtering using a diluted magnetic semiconductor core-shell quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Saikat; Sen, Pratima; Andrews, Joshep Thomas; Sen, Pranay Kumar
2014-07-01
The spin polarized electron transport properties and spin polarized tunneling current have been investigated analytically in a diluted magnetic semiconductor core-shell quantum dot in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields. Assuming the electron wave function to satisfy WKB approximation, the electron energy eigenvalues have been calculated. The spin polarized tunneling current and the spin dependent tunneling coefficient are obtained by taking into account the exchange interaction and Zeeman splitting. Numerical estimates made for a specific diluted magnetic semiconductor, viz., Zn1-xMnxSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot establishes the possibility of a nano-spin filter for a particular biasing voltage and applied magnetic field. Influence of applied voltage on spin polarized electron transport has been investigated in a CSQD.
Experimental quantum simulation of Avian Compass in a nuclear magnetic resonance system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, Jason; Feng, GuanRu; Zheng, Chao; Long, GuiLu
2016-12-01
Avian magnetoreception is the capacity for avians to sense the direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Discovered more than forty years ago, it has attracted intensive studies over the years. One promising model for describing this capacity in avians is the widely used reference-and-probe model where radical pairs within the eyes of bird combines to form singlet and triplet quantum states. The yield depends on the angle between the Earth's magnetic field and the molecules' axis, hence the relative value of yield of the singlet state or triplet state enables avians to sense the direction. Here we report the experimental demonstration of avian magnetoreception in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. It is shown clearly from the experiment that the yield of the singlet state attains maximum when it is normal to the Earth's magnetic field, and the experimental results agree with theory very well.
Excitonic spin-splitting in quantum wells with a tilted magnetic field.
dos Santos, L Fernandes; Castelano, L K; Padilha, J X; Pusep, Y; Marques, G E; Smirnov, D; Bakarov, A K; Toropov, A I; Lopez-Richard, V
2016-02-10
This work aims to investigate the effects of magnetic field strength and direction on the electronic properties and optical response of GaAs/AlGaAs-based heterostructures. An investigation of the excitonic spin-splitting of a disordered multiple quantum well embedded in a wide parabolic quantum well is presented. The results for polarization-resolved photoluminescence show that the magnetic field dependencies of the excitonic spin-splitting and photoluminescence linewidth are crucially sensitive to magnetic field orientation. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated Zeeman splitting obtained by the Luttinger model, which predicts a hybridization of the spin character of states in the valence band under tilted magnetic fields.
Quantum Chemical Characterization of Single Molecule Magnets Based on Uranium.
Spivak, Mariano; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Cramer, Christopher J; Graaf, Coen de; Gagliardi, Laura
2017-03-02
Multiconfigurational electronic structure theory calculations including spin-orbit coupling effects were performed on four uranium-based single-molecule-magnets. Several quartet and doublet states were computed and the energy gaps between spin-orbit states were then used to determine magnetic susceptibility curves. Trends in experimental magnetic susceptibility curves were well reproduced by the calculations, and key factors affecting performance were identified.
Solving Quantum Ground-State Problems with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Li, Zhaokai; Yung, Man-Hong; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D.; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems for general many-body Hamiltonians; there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10−5 decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wave functions than classical computers PMID:22355607
Wave packet revivals in a graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field
Torres, J. J.
2010-10-15
We study the time evolution of localized wave packets in graphene quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field, focusing on the quasiclassical and revival periodicities, for different values of the magnetic field intensities in a theoretical framework. We have considered contributions of the two inequivalent points in the Brillouin zone. The revival time has been found as an observable that shows the break valley degeneracy.
Silica-coated quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging applications (Mini-Review).
Selvan, Subramanian Tamil
2010-09-01
Fluorescent quantum dots (e.g., CdSe-ZnS) and magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) are two important candidate systems that have been emerging as potential probes for bioimaging applications. This review focuses on the development of silica-coated inorganic probes (optical and magnetic) that are originated mainly from the author's laboratory for bioimaging applications. The recent developments in the synthesis of rare earth nanoparticles for multimodality imaging are also delineated.
Intrinsic high magnetism in SnO{sub 2} quantum dots
Venkataramana, Bonu Das, A. Dhara, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sardar, Manas
2014-04-24
High magnetic moment was observed in SnO{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) which were prepared by a soft chemical method. SnO{sub 2} QDs were characterized for morphological, structural and optical properties using high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. Magnetism occurred in QDs SnO{sub 2} due to dominant oxygen defects, were studied using PL measurements.
Individual Mammalian Cell Magnetic Measurements with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Brewer, Kimberly; Tee, Sui Seng; Theis, Eric; Rutt, Brian; Moler, Kathryn A.
2015-03-01
Magnetism can be introduced into otherwise nonmagnetic cells by the uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. SPIO nanoparticles are used in numerous biomedical applications including cellular therapies and targeted drug delivery. Currently there are few tools capable of characterizing individual magnetic nanoparticles and the magnetic properties of individual mammalian cells loaded with SPIO. Our scanning superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are good candidates for these measurements due to their high sensitivity to magnetic dipole moments (approx. 200 μb/ √Hz) In this study, we use a scanning SQUID to image the magnetic flux from SPIO loaded H1299 lung cancer cells. We find that the magnetic moment spatially varies inside the cell with each cell having a unique distribution of moments. We also correlate these magnetic images with optical and scanning electron microscope images. These results show that the SQUID is a useful tool for imaging biological magnetism. The visualization of single cell magnetism and the quantification of magnetic dipole moments in magnetically labeled cells can be used to optimize conventional biological magnetic imaging techniques, such as MRI.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Low-buckled Honeycomb Lattice with In-plane Magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yafei; Pan, Hui; Yang, Fei; Li, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Zhenhua Qiao's Group Team; Hui Pan's Group Team
With out-of-plane magnetization, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has been extensively studied in quantum wells and two-dimensional atomic crystal layers. Here, we investigate the possibility of realizing quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in honeycomb lattices with in-plane magnetization. We show that the QAHE can only occur in low-buckled honeycomb lattice where both intrinsic and intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling appear spontaneously. The extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling is detrimental to this phase. In contrast to the out-of-plane magnetization induced QAHE, the QAHE from in-plane magnetization is achieved in the vicinity of the time reversal symmetric momenta at M points rather than Dirac points. In monolayer case, the QAHE can be characterized by Chern number = +/- 1 whereas additional phases with Chern number = +/- 2 appear in chiral stacked bilayer system. The Chern number strongly depends on the orientation of the magnetization. The bilayer system also provides additional tunability via out-of-plane electric field, which can reduce the critical magnetization strength required to induce QAHE. It can also lead to topological phase transitions from = +/- 2 to +/- 1 and finally to 0 Equal contribution from Yafei Ren and Hui Pan.
Quantum oscillations of magnetization in tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishigi, Keita; Hasegawa, Yasumasa
2014-08-01
We show that quantum oscillations of the magnetization can occur when the Fermi surface consists of points (massless Dirac points) or even when the chemical potential is in an energy gap by studying tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice in a uniform magnetic field. The quantum oscillations of the magnetization as a function of the inverse magnetic field are known as de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations and the frequency is proportional to the area of the Fermi surface. The dominant period of the oscillations shown in this paper corresponds to the area of the first Brillouin zone and its phase is zero. The origin of these quantum oscillations is the characteristic magnetic field dependence of the energy known as the Hofstadter butterfly and the Harper broadening of Landau levels. These oscillations are not caused by the crossing of the chemical potential and Landau levels, which is the case in dHvA oscillations. These oscillations can be observed experimentally in systems with a large supercell such as a graphene antidot lattice or ultracold atoms in an optical lattice at an external magnetic field of a few Tesla when the area of the supercell is 104 times larger than that of graphene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2014-07-01
The effect of Hall current on Jeans self-gravitational instability is examined for finitely conducting dense quantum viscous plasma in the presence of spin generated magnetization. The basic equations of the problem are constructed using quantum magneto hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The Hall and resistivity terms are incorporated in the idealized Ohm's law and spin induced magnetization and viscosity terms are incorporated to the momentum equations. The general dispersion relation is found to be modified due to the presence of Hall current, electrical resistivity and viscosity parameter along with the spin induced magnetization. The dispersion relation is further reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the transverse mode of propagation the Jeans condition of instability is modified due to Alfven velocity, magnetization parameter and quantum corrections, and the growth rate of instability is found to be modified due to the electrical resistivity, viscosity, magnetization parameter and quantum corrections but remains unaffected by the presence of Hall current. In longitudinal direction of propagation the gravitational mode is affected due to the viscosity and quantum parameter while the Jeans condition of instability depends only upon the quantum correction. The Alfven mode in longitudinal direction gets modified due to the electrical resistivity, Hall current, viscosity and magnetization parameter however, it is found to be independent of quantum corrections. The numerical observations are also presented to show the effect of electrical resistivity, magnetization and quantum corrections on the growth rate of instability.
Quantum rings of non-uniform thickness in magnetic field
Rodríguez-Prada, F. A.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.
2014-05-15
We consider a model of crater-shaped quantum dot in form of a thin layer whose thickness linearly increases with the distance from the axis. We show that one-particle wave equation for the electron confined in such structure can be completely separated in the adiabatic limit when the quantum dot thickness is much smaller than its lateral dimension. Analytical solutions found for this model has been used as base functions for analysing the effect of non-homogeneity on the electronic spectrum in the framework of the exact diagonalization method.
Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan
2017-04-01
We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).
Modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a magnetized electron-positron quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, M. R.
2015-09-01
Amplitude modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron pair plasma is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the external strong magnetic field, Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure, particle exchange potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to collision of the charged carriers. A modified-nonlinear Schödinger equation is developed for the compressional magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The linear and nonlinear dispersions of the electromagnetic wave are discussed in detail. For some parameter ranges, relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the outer layers of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and magnetars, etc., it is found that the compressional electromagnetic wave is modulationally unstable and propagates as a dissipated electromagnetic wave. It is also found that the quantum effects due to the particle exchange potential and the Bohm potential are negligibly small in comparison to the effects of the Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure. The numerical results on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.
Manifestation of magnetic quantum fluctuations in the dielectric properties of a multiferroic.
Kim, Jae Wook; Khim, Seunghyun; Chun, Sae Hwan; Jo, Y; Balicas, L; Yi, H T; Cheong, S-W; Harrison, N; Batista, C D; Han, Jung Hoon; Kim, Kee Hoon
2014-07-29
Insulating magnets can display novel signatures of quantum fluctuations as similar to the case of metallic magnets. However, their weak spin-lattice coupling has made such observations challenging. Here we find that antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum fluctuations manifest in the dielectric properties of multiferroic Ba2CoGe2O7, where a ferroelectric polarization develops concomitant to an AF ordering. Upon application of a magnetic field (H), dielectric constant shows a characteristic power-law dependence near absolute zero temperature and close to the critical field Hc=37.1 T due to enhanced AF quantum fluctuations. When H>Hc, the dielectric constant shows the temperature-dependent anomalies that reflect a crossover from a field-tuned quantum critical to a gapped spin-polarized state. We uncover theoretically that a linear relation between AF susceptibility and dielectric constant stems from the generic magnetoelectric coupling and directly explains the experimental findings, opening a new pathway for studying quantum criticality in condensed matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xin; Pan, Hui; Xu, Huai-Zhe
2010-12-01
We have theoretically analyzed the quasibound states in a graphene quantum dot (GQD) with a magnetic flux Φ in the centre. It is shown that the two-fold time reversal degeneracy is broken and the quasibound states of GQD with positive/negative angular momentum shifted upwards / downwards with increasing the magnetic flux. The variation of the quasibound energy depends linearly on the magnetic flux, which is quite different from the parabolic relationship for Schrödinger electrons. The GQD's quasibound states spectrum shows an obvious Aharonov—Bohm (AB) oscillations with the magnetic flux. It is also shown that the quasibound state with energy equal to the barrier height becomes a bound state completely confined in GQD.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of fidelity at magnetic quantum phase transitions.
Schwandt, David; Alet, Fabien; Capponi, Sylvain
2009-10-23
When a system undergoes a quantum phase transition, the ground-state wave function shows a change of nature, which can be monitored using the fidelity concept. We introduce two quantum Monte Carlo schemes that allow the computation of fidelity and its susceptibility for large interacting many-body systems. These methods are illustrated on a two-dimensional Heisenberg model, where fidelity estimators show marked behavior at two successive quantum phase transitions. We also develop a scaling theory which relates the divergence of the fidelity susceptibility to the critical exponent of the correlation length. A good agreement is found with the numerical results.
Giant anisotropic interactions in frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plumb, Kemp
2015-03-01
I will discuss a series of comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements which uncover the full magnetic excitation spectrum in the valence bond ordered compound BiCu2PO6. Owing to its frustrated geometry and potential to realize unique quantum phase transitions in high magnetic fields, BiCu2PO6 has received significant attention in recent literature. However, the true nature of the magnetic Hamiltonian responsible for the high field phenomena has not been known until now. I will present measurements of the spin excitation spectrum in BiCu2PO6 from which the magnetic Hamiltonian is elucidated. The spectrum is unique to the frustrated two-leg ladder geometry in BiCu2PO6 and we have been able to correctly describe the lowest energy excitations within the framework of a bond-operator theory, incorporating anisotropic magnetic exchange interactions which are comparable to the Heisenberg exchange terms. The anisotropic exchange interactions originate from spin orbit coupling and are of an unexpectedly large magnitude for a Cu based magnetic compound, potentially indicating the relevance of Bismuth in the superexchange pathway. BiCu2PO6 is a complex and unique quantum magnet combining frustration and anisotropic exchange; the discovery of such large anisotropic interactions in BiCu2PO6 hints at new routes for incorporating spin anisotropies in 3d transition metal based magnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Ju; Yu, Hua-Ling; Wang, Xia-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Gao
2009-12-01
Using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the Kondo effect in the quantum dot with perpendicular magnetic fields, in which one is the Zeeman splitting lies in the z-direction and the other is the spin flip points at the x-direction. It is found whatever one or two magnetic fields are applied, the local density of states (LDOS) will split into two peaks. The positions of two Kondo resonance peaks are determined by Zeeman energy Δ when J = 0, and by when J ≠ 0.
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Zapf, Vivien
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Quantum integrable systems in three-dimensional magnetic fields: the Cartesian case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhalij, Alexander
2015-06-01
In this paper we construct integrable three-dimensional quantum-mechanical systems with magnetic fields, admitting pairs of commuting second-order integrals of motion. The case of Cartesian coordinates is considered. Most of the systems obtained are new and not related to the separation of variables in the corresponding Schrödinger equation.
Structural analysis of strained quantum dots using nuclear magnetic resonance.
Chekhovich, E A; Kavokin, K V; Puebla, J; Krysa, A B; Hopkinson, M; Andreev, A D; Sanchez, A M; Beanland, R; Skolnick, M S; Tartakovskii, A I
2012-10-01
Strained semiconductor nanostructures can be used to make single-photon sources, detectors and photovoltaic devices, and could potentially be used to create quantum logic devices. The development of such applications requires techniques capable of nanoscale structural analysis, but the microscopy methods typically used to analyse these materials are destructive. NMR techniques can provide non-invasive structural analysis, but have been restricted to strain-free semiconductor nanostructures because of the significant strain-induced quadrupole broadening of the NMR spectra. Here, we show that optically detected NMR spectroscopy can be used to analyse individual strained quantum dots. Our approach uses continuous-wave broadband radiofrequency excitation with a specially designed spectral pattern and can probe individual strained nanostructures containing only 1 × 10(5) quadrupole nuclear spins. With this technique, we are able to measure the strain distribution and chemical composition of quantum dots in the volume occupied by the single confined electron. The approach could also be used to address problems in quantum information processing such as the precise control of nuclear spins in the presence of strong quadrupole effects.
Magnetic-field-induced charge redistribution in disordered graphene double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, K. L.; Connolly, M. R.; Cresti, A.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Smith, C. G.
2015-10-01
We have studied the transport properties of a large graphene double quantum dot under the influence of a background disorder potential and a magnetic field. At low temperatures, the evolution of the charge-stability diagram as a function of the B field is investigated up to 10 T. Our results indicate that the charging energy of the quantum dot is reduced, and hence the effective size of the dot increases at a high magnetic field. We provide an explanation of our results using a tight-binding model, which describes the charge redistribution in a disordered graphene quantum dot via the formation of Landau levels and edge states. Our model suggests that the tunnel barriers separating different electron/hole puddles in a dot become transparent at high B fields, resulting in the charge delocalization and reduced charging energy observed experimentally.
Electric-field control of magnetism in graphene quantum dots: Ab initio calculations
Agapito, Luis A.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2011-01-01
Employing ab initio calculations we predict that the magnetic states of hydrogenated diamond-shaped zigzag graphene quantum dots (GQDs), each exhibiting unique electronic structure, can be selectively tuned with gate voltage, through Stark or hybridization electric-field modulation of the spatial distribution and energy of the spin-polarized molecular orbitals, leading to transitions between these states. Electrical read-out of the GQD magnetic state can be accomplished by exploiting the distinctive electrical properties of the various magnetic configurations. PMID:21765631
Quantum theory of the dielectric constant of a magnetized plasma and astrophysical applications. I.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.; Ventura, J.
1972-01-01
A quantum mechanical treatment of an electron plasma in a constant and homogeneous magnetic field is considered, with the aim of (1) defining the range of validity of the magnetoionic theory (2) studying the deviations from this theory, in applications involving high densities, and intense magnetic field. While treating the magnetic field exactly, a perturbation approach in the photon field is used to derive general expressions for the dielectric tensor. Numerical estimates on the range of applicability of the magnetoionic theory are given for the case of the 'one-dimensional' electron gas, where only the lowest Landau level is occupied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras
2016-10-01
Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.
Fritsch, Katharina; Ehlers, G.; Rule, K. C.; ...
2015-11-05
We study the application of a magnetic field transverse to the easy axis, Ising direction in the quasi-two-dimensional kagome staircase magnet, Co3V2O8, induces three quantum phase transitions at low temperatures, ultimately producing a novel high field polarized state, with two distinct sublattices. New time-of-flight neutron scattering techniques, accompanied by large angular access, high magnetic field infrastructure allow the mapping of a sequence of ferromagnetic and incommensurate phases and their accompanying spin excitations. Also, at least one of the transitions to incommensurate phases at μ0Hc1~6.25 T and μ0Hc2~7 T is discontinuous, while the final quantum critical point at μ0Hc3~13 T ismore » continuous.« less
Magnetism on a Mesoscopic Scale: Molecular Nanomagnets Bridging Quantum and Classical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstantinidis, Nikolaos P.; Sundt, Alexander; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Machens, Anna; Waldmann, Oliver
2011-07-01
In recent years polynuclear transition metal molecules have been synthesized and proposed for example as magnetic storage units or qubits in quantum computers. They are known as molecular nanomagnets and belong in the class of mesoscopic systems, which are large enough to display many-body effects but small enough to be away from the finite-size scaling regime. It is a challenge for physicists to understand their magnetic properties, and for synthetic chemists to efficiently tailor them by assembling fundamental units. They are complementary to artificially engineered spin systems for surface deposition, as they support a wider variety of complex states in their low energy spectrum. Here a few characteristic examples of molecular nanomagnets showcasing unusual many-body effects are presented. Antiferromagnetic wheels and chains can be described in classical terms for small sizes and large spins to a great extent, even though their wavefunctions do not significantly overlap with semiclassical configurations. Hence, surprisingly, for them the transition from the classical to the quantum regime is blurred. A specific example is the Fe18 wheel, which displays quantum phase interference by allowing Néel vector tunneling in a magnetic field. Finally, the Co5Cl single-molecule magnet is shown to have an unusual anisotropic response to a magnetic field.
Negatively charged donors in parabolic quantum-well wires under magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Li-Xue; Liu, Jian-Jun
2007-09-01
The ground state of a negatively charged donor (D-) in a parabolic GaAs quantum-well wire in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated using the finite difference method within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model. The magnetic effects on the binding energies of the ground state of a D- center are calculated for various parabolic potentials. The distance between the electrons and the donor ion and the distance between the two electrons are also calculated, respectively, as a function of the strength of the parabolic potential and the magnetic field. We find that the interplay of the spatial confinement and the magnetic confinement of electrons in quantum-well wires leads to complicated behavior of the binding energies of the D- center and that the increase of the electron-donor ion attraction dominates the increase of the electron-electron repulsion as the spatial and magnetic confinement increases for the ground state of a D- center in a parabolic quantum-well wire.
Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance.
Vandersypen, L M; Steffen, M; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Sherwood, M H; Chuang, I L
The number of steps any classical computer requires in order to find the prime factors of an l-digit integer N increases exponentially with l, at least using algorithms known at present. Factoring large integers is therefore conjectured to be intractable classically, an observation underlying the security of widely used cryptographic codes. Quantum computers, however, could factor integers in only polynomial time, using Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. Although important for the study of quantum computers, experimental demonstration of this algorithm has proved elusive. Here we report an implementation of the simplest instance of Shor's algorithm: factorization of N = 15 (whose prime factors are 3 and 5). We use seven spin-1/2 nuclei in a molecule as quantum bits, which can be manipulated with room temperature liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This method of using nuclei to store quantum information is in principle scalable to systems containing many quantum bits, but such scalability is not implied by the present work. The significance of our work lies in the demonstration of experimental and theoretical techniques for precise control and modelling of complex quantum computers. In particular, we present a simple, parameter-free but predictive model of decoherence effects in our system.
Nuclear magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of single proteins using quantum logic.
Lovchinsky, I; Sushkov, A O; Urbach, E; de Leon, N P; Choi, S; De Greve, K; Evans, R; Gertner, R; Bersin, E; Müller, C; McGuinness, L; Jelezko, F; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2016-02-19
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the structural analysis of organic compounds and biomolecules but typically requires macroscopic sample quantities. We use a sensor, which consists of two quantum bits corresponding to an electronic spin and an ancillary nuclear spin, to demonstrate room temperature magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of multiple nuclear species within individual ubiquitin proteins attached to the diamond surface. Using quantum logic to improve readout fidelity and a surface-treatment technique to extend the spin coherence time of shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers, we demonstrate magnetic field sensitivity sufficient to detect individual proton spins within 1 second of integration. This gain in sensitivity enables high-confidence detection of individual proteins and allows us to observe spectral features that reveal information about their chemical composition.
Noiseless manipulation of helical edge state transport by a quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestrov, P. G.; Recher, P.; Brouwer, P. W.
2016-05-01
The current through a helical edge state of a quantum spin Hall insulator may be fully transmitted through a magnetically gapped region due to a combination of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping [Meng et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 205403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205403]. Using a scattering approach, we here argue that in such a system the current is effectively carried by electrons with energies below the magnet-induced gap and well below the Fermi energy. This has striking consequences, such as the absence of shot noise, an exponential suppression of thermal noise, and an obstruction of thermal transport. For two helical edges covered by the same quantum magnet, the device can act as a robust noiseless current splitter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhi-De; Liang, J.-Q.; Shen, Shun-Qing
2002-09-01
Renormalized tunnel splitting with a finite distribution in the biaxial spin model for molecular magnets is obtained by taking into account the dipolar interaction of enviromental spins. Oscillation of the resonant tunnel splitting with a transverse magnetic field along the hard axis is smeared by the finite distribution, which subsequently affects the quantum steps of the hysteresis curve evaluated in terms of the modified Landau-Zener model of spin flipping induced by the sweeping field. We conclude that the dipolar-dipolar interaction drives decoherence of quantum tunneling in the molecular magnet Fe8, which explains why the quenching points of tunnel splitting between odd and even resonant tunneling predicted theoretically were not observed experimentally.
A type of novel fluorescent magnetic carbon quantum dots for cells imaging and detection.
Su, Xi; Xu, Yi; Che, Yulan; Liao, Xin; Jiang, Yan
2015-12-01
A new type of multifunctional fluorescent magnetic carbon quantum dots SPIO@CQDs(n) ([superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), carbon quantum dots, (CQDs)]) with magnetic and fluorescence properties was designed and prepared through layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The as-synthesized SPIO@CQDs(n) exhibited different emission colors including blue, green, and red when they were excited at different excitation wavelengths, and its fluorescent intensity increased as the increase of CQD layer (n). SPIO@CQDs(n) with quite low toxicity could mark cytoplasm with fluorescence by means of nonimmune markers. The mixture sample of liver cells L02 and hepatoma carcinoma cells HepG2 was taken as an example, and HepG2 cells were successfully separated and detected effectively by SPIO@CQDs(n), with a separation rate of 90.31%. Importantly, the designed and prepared SPIO@CQDs( n ) are certified to be wonderful biological imaging and magnetic separation regents.
Magnetic bead-quantum dot assay for detection of a biomarker for traumatic brain injury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chloe; Searson, Peter C.
2015-10-01
Current diagnostic methods for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for 15% of all emergency room visits, are limited to neuroimaging modalities. The challenges of accurate diagnosis and monitoring of TBI have created the need for a simple and sensitive blood test to detect brain-specific biomarkers. Here we report on an assay for detection of S100B, a putative biomarker for TBI, using antibody-conjugated magnetic beads for capture of the protein, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. From Western Blot, we show efficient antigen capture and concentration by the magnetic beads. Using magnetic bead capture and quantum dot detection in serum samples, we show a wide detection range and detection limit below the clinical cut-off level.Current diagnostic methods for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for 15% of all emergency room visits, are limited to neuroimaging modalities. The challenges of accurate diagnosis and monitoring of TBI have created the need for a simple and sensitive blood test to detect brain-specific biomarkers. Here we report on an assay for detection of S100B, a putative biomarker for TBI, using antibody-conjugated magnetic beads for capture of the protein, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. From Western Blot, we show efficient antigen capture and concentration by the magnetic beads. Using magnetic bead capture and quantum dot detection in serum samples, we show a wide detection range and detection limit below the clinical cut-off level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05608j
Camjayi, Alberto; Arrachea, Liliana
2014-01-22
We study the transport behavior induced by a small bias voltage through a quantum dot connected to one-channel finite-size wires. We describe the quantum dot using the Hubbard-Anderson impurity model and we obtain solutions by means of a quantum Monte Carlo method. We investigate the effect of a magnetic field applied at the quantum dot in the Kondo regime. We identify mesoscopic oscillations in the conductance, which are introduced by the magnetic field. This behavior is analogous to that observed as a function of the temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanuelidu, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania
The nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for high resolution magnetic imaging based on its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities afforded by long spin coherence times. Although the NV center has been successfully implemented as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at room temperature, it has remained an outstanding challenge to extend this capability to cryogenic temperatures, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. In this talk, we present NV magnetic imaging at T = 6 K, first benchmarking the technique with a magnetic hard disk sample, then utilizing the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with Tc = 30 K. In addition, we discuss other candidate solid-state systems that can benefit from the high spatial resolution and field sensitivity of the scanning NV magnetometer.
Magnetic enhancement of photoluminescence from blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qi; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Chunfeng; Pu, Songyang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xue, Fei; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min
2016-02-01
Graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) have been predicted and demonstrated with fascinating optical and magnetic properties. However, the magnetic effect on the optical properties remains experimentally unexplored. Here, we conduct a magneto-photoluminescence study on the blue-luminescence GQDs at cryogenic temperatures with magnetic field up to 10 T. When the magnetic field is applied, a remarkable enhancement of photoluminescence emission has been observed together with an insignificant change in circular polarization. The results have been well explained by the scenario of magnetic-field-controlled singlet-triplet mixing in GQDs owing to the Zeeman splitting of triplet states, which is further verified by temperature-dependent experiments. This work uncovers the pivotal role of intersystem crossing in GQDs, which is instrumental for their potential applications such as light-emitting diodes, photodynamic therapy, and spintronic devices.
The quantum equations of state of plasma under the influence of a weak magnetic field
Hussein, N. A.; Eisa, D. A.; Eldin, M. G.
2012-05-15
The aim of this paper is to calculate the magnetic quantum equations of state of plasma, the calculation is based on the magnetic binary Slater sum in the case of low density. We consider only the thermal equilibrium plasma in the case of n{lambda}{sub ab}{sup 3} Much-Less-Than 1, where {lambda}{sub ab}{sup 2}=( Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}/m{sub ab}KT) is the thermal De Broglie wave length between two particles. The formulas contain the contributions of the magnetic field effects. Using these results we compute the magnetization and the magnetic susceptibility. Our equation of state is compared with others.
Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics
Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; ...
2014-12-16
We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and 3He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to mπ ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of 3He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures itsmore » dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ3H ~ μp. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Yue; Chen, Xi; Li, Chun-Fang
2007-04-01
We investigate the controllable negative and positive group delay in transmission through a single quantum well at the finite longitudinal magnetic fields. It is shown that the magneto-coupling effect between the longitudinal motion component and the transverse Landau orbits plays an important role in the group delay. The group delay depends not only on the width of potential well and the incident energy, but also on the magnetic-field strengthen and the Landau quantum number. The results show that the group delay can be changed from positive to negative by the modulation of the magnetic field. These interesting phenomena may lead to the tunable quantum mechanical delay line.
Properties of strong-coupling magneto-bipolaron qubit in quantum dot under magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu-Fang, Bai; Ying, Zhang; Wuyunqimuge; Eerdunchaolu
2016-07-01
Based on the variational method of Pekar type, we study the energies and the wave-functions of the ground and the first-excited states of magneto-bipolaron, which is strongly coupled to the LO phonon in a parabolic potential quantum dot under an applied magnetic field, thus built up a quantum dot magneto-bipolaron qubit. The results show that the oscillation period of the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit decreases with increasing electron-phonon coupling strength α, resonant frequency of the magnetic field ω c, confinement strength of the quantum dot ω 0, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit oscillates periodically with increasing time t, angular coordinate φ 2, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability of electron appearing near the center of the quantum dot is larger, and the probability of electron appearing away from the center of the quantum dot is much smaller. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2013407119) and the Items of Institution of Higher Education Scientific Research of Hebei Province and Inner Mongolia, China (Grant Nos. ZD20131008, Z2015149, Z2015219, and NJZY14189).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peter, A. John; Zheng, Jin-Liang
2010-04-01
Theoretical investigations of spin polaron in a quantum well in the spin doping superlattice systems Cd1 - xin Mn1 - xout Te/Cd1 - xout Mnxout Te are presented in this paper. A variational procedure within the effective mass approximation is employed in the presence of magnetic held to calculate the donor ionization energy. Spin polaronic shifts are estimated using a mean held theory. The results show that the donor binding energy (i) Increases with the reduction in well sizes (ii) Decreases with the magnetic held is increased for a given well width (iii) Increases to a maximum value at 90 Å and then decreases as the size of the well increases beyond 90 Å and (iv) Spin polaronic shifts to the donor binding energy not only decrease in a magnetic held but also with the well width. The results are compared with the existing available literature.
Excimer laser induced diffusion in magnetic semiconductor quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howari, H.; Sands, D.; Nicholls, J. E.; Hogg, J. H. C.; Stirner, T.; Hagston, W. E.
2000-08-01
Studies of pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of CdTe/CdMnTe quantum well structures are made in order to examine depth dependent effects in laser irradiated semiconductors. Since diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on the temperature, depth resolution is achieved because the diffusion of Mn from the barriers into the quantum wells is depth dependent. Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures of CdTe/CdMnTe were annealed with single pulses from an XeCl laser at 308 nm. At a threshold of 90 mJ cm-2 two new emission bands are observed that are attributed to the diffusion of Mn from barrier layers to QWs. The diffusion associated with these bands, measured as the integrated product of the diffusion constant and time, is found to be 300 and 30 Å2. Calculations of the temperature, reached within the surface following PLA, using an analytical solution of the heat diffusion equation coupled with known high temperature diffusion coefficients predict the diffusion to decrease by one order of magnitude within one period at the top of the MQW stack. It is suggested that at the threshold surface melting occurs and that these emission bands arise from the QWs immediately beneath the melt front. The diffusion of Mn ions into the QWs is confirmed by magneto-optical data. A further emission band occurs at this same threshold with a Mn concentration above that of the concentration in the barrier layers of the MQW stack. This emission is attributed tentatively to the segregation of the Mn ion within the molten region following recrystallization.
Electron motion induced by magnetic pulse in a bilayer quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chwiej, T.
2016-06-01
We consider theoretical stimulation of electron motion in a quantum wire by means of ultrashort magnetic pulses of time duration between several and a few tens of picoseconds. In our considerations, an electron is confined in a nanowire which consists of two vertically stacked tunnel-coupled layers. If a magnetic pulse pierces this nanowire and its direction is parallel to the plane established by the layers, and additionally, it is perpendicular to the wire's axis, then the eigenstates of a single electron energy operator for vertical direction are hybridized by the off-diagonal terms of the full Hamiltonian. These terms depend linearly on the momentum operator, which means that such magnetically forced hybridization may induce electron motion in a nanowire. The classical counterpart of this quantum-mechanical picture is a situation in which the rotational electric field generated by a time-varying magnetic field pushes the charge densities localized in the upper and lower layers in opposite directions. We have found, however, that for an asymmetric vertical confinement in a bilayer nanowire, the major part of the single electron density starts to move in the direction of the local electric field in its layer forcing the minority part to move in this direction as well. It results in coherent motion of both densities in a particular direction. We analyze the dynamics of such motion in dependence on the time characteristics of a magnetic pulse and discuss potential applications of this effect in the construction of a magnetic valve.
Mogi, M. Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Takahashi, K. S.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2015-11-02
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction.
Giant suppression of phononic heat transport in a quantum magnet BiCu2PO6
Jeon, Byung-Gu; Koteswararao, B.; Park, C. B.; Shu, G. J.; Riggs, S. C.; Moon, E. G.; Chung, S. B.; Chou, F. C.; Kim, Kee Hoon
2016-01-01
Thermal transport of quantum magnets has elucidated the nature of low energy elementary excitations and complex interplay between those excited states via strong scattering of thermal carriers. BiCu2PO6 is a unique frustrated spin-ladder compound exhibiting highly anisotropic spin excitations that contain both itinerant and localized dispersion characters along the b- and a-axes respectively. Here, we investigate thermal conductivity κ of BiCu2PO6 under high magnetic fields (H) of up to 30 tesla. A dip-feature in κ, located at ~15 K at zero-H along all crystallographic directions, moves gradually toward lower temperature (T) with increasing H, thus resulting in giant suppression by a factor of ~30 near the critical magnetic field of Hc ≅ 23.5 tesla. The giant H- and T-dependent suppression of κ can be explained by the combined result of resonant scattering of phononic heat carriers with magnetic energy levels and increased phonon scattering due to enhanced spin fluctuation at Hc, unequivocally revealing the existence of strong spin-phonon coupling. Moreover, we find an experimental indication that the remaining magnetic heat transport along the b-axis becomes almost gapless at the magnetic quantum critical point realized at Hc. PMID:27845377
Giant suppression of phononic heat transport in a quantum magnet BiCu2PO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Byung-Gu; Koteswararao, B.; Park, C. B.; Shu, G. J.; Riggs, S. C.; Moon, E. G.; Chung, S. B.; Chou, F. C.; Kim, Kee Hoon
2016-11-01
Thermal transport of quantum magnets has elucidated the nature of low energy elementary excitations and complex interplay between those excited states via strong scattering of thermal carriers. BiCu2PO6 is a unique frustrated spin-ladder compound exhibiting highly anisotropic spin excitations that contain both itinerant and localized dispersion characters along the b- and a-axes respectively. Here, we investigate thermal conductivity κ of BiCu2PO6 under high magnetic fields (H) of up to 30 tesla. A dip-feature in κ, located at ~15 K at zero-H along all crystallographic directions, moves gradually toward lower temperature (T) with increasing H, thus resulting in giant suppression by a factor of ~30 near the critical magnetic field of Hc ≅ 23.5 tesla. The giant H- and T-dependent suppression of κ can be explained by the combined result of resonant scattering of phononic heat carriers with magnetic energy levels and increased phonon scattering due to enhanced spin fluctuation at Hc, unequivocally revealing the existence of strong spin-phonon coupling. Moreover, we find an experimental indication that the remaining magnetic heat transport along the b-axis becomes almost gapless at the magnetic quantum critical point realized at Hc.
Manipulation of a single electron spin in a quantum dot without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bednarek, S.; Pawłowski, J.; Skubis, A.
2012-05-01
In this paper, we propose the construction of a nanodevice performing the spin rotations of an electron confined in an electrostatic quantum dot without the use of a magnetic field. Sinusoidally varying voltage applied in different phases to four gates causes the electron to move along a two-dimensional closed path. The spin-orbit interaction that is present in the structure induces spin rotations. For a properly adjusted AC signal duration, the logical NOT operation or the Hadamard quantum gate can be performed on the electron spin. We perform a simulation of the nanodevice's time evolution.
Pure quantum states of a neutrino with rotating spin in dense magnetized matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbuzova, E. V.; Lobanov, A. E.; Murchikova, E. M.
2010-02-01
The problem of neutrino spin rotation in dense matter and in strong electromagnetic fields is solved in accordance with the basic principles of quantum mechanics. We obtain a complete system of wave functions for a massive Dirac neutrino with an anomalous magnetic moment which are the eigenfunctions of the kinetic momentum operator and have the form of nonspreading wave packets. These wave functions enable one to consider the states of neutrino with rotating spin as pure quantum states and can be used for calculating probabilities of various processes with the neutrino in the framework of the Furry picture.
Generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in magnetic double-well systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M. Chudnovsky, Eugene
2004-05-01
Fundamental conservation laws mandate parameter-free generic mechanisms of decoherence of quantum oscillations in double-well systems. We consider two examples: tunneling of the magnetic moment in nanomagnets and tunneling between macroscopic current states in SQUIDs. In both cases the decoherence occurs via emission of phonons and photons at the oscillation frequency. We also show that in a system of identical qubits the decoherence greatly increases due to the superradiance of electromagnetic and sound waves. Our findings have important implications for building elements of quantum computers based upon nanomagnets and SQUIDs.
Measurement of the Magnetic Flux Noise Spectrum in Superconducting Xmon Transmon Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaro, Ben; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Z.; Campbell, B.; Dunsworth, A.; O'Malley, P.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Migrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Roushan, P.; White, T.; Martinis, J. M.
Dephasing induced by magnetic flux noise limits the performance of modern superconducting quantum processors. We measure the flux noise power spectrum in planar, frequency-tunable, Xmon transmon quantum bits (qubits), with several SQUID loop geometries. We extend the Ramsey Tomography Oscilloscope (RTO) technique by rapid sampling up to 1 MHz, without state reset, to measure the flux noise power spectrum between 10-2 and 105 Hz. The RTO measurements are combined with idle gate randomized benchmarking and Ramsey decay to give a more complete picture of dephasing in SQUID-based devices.
Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan
2016-01-01
Single-molecule magnets represent a promising route to achieve potential applications such as high-density information storage and spintronics devices. Among others, 4d/5d elements such as Re(IV) ion are found to exhibit very large magnetic anisotropy, and inclusion of this ion-aggregated clusters yields several attractive molecular magnets. Here, using ab intio calculations, we unravel the source of giant magnetic anisotropy associated with the Re(IV) ions by studying a series of mononuclear Re(IV) six coordinate complexes. The low-lying doublet states are found to be responsible for large magnetic anisotropy and the sign of the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D) can be categorically predicted based on the position of the ligand coordination. Large transverse anisotropy along with large hyperfine interactions opens up multiple relaxation channels leading to a fast quantum tunnelling of the magnetization (QTM) process. Enhancing the Re-ligand covalency is found to significantly quench the QTM process. PMID:26883278
Magnetic Excitations in the Stacked Quantum Magnets NaNiO2 and LiNiO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Ross, K. A.; van Gastel, G. J.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.
2009-03-01
NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 are isostructural stacked triangular lattice quantum magnets, in which magnetism is conventionally thought to arise due to spin 1/2 moments carried by Ni^3+ ions. Surprisingly, while NaNiO2 undergoes a cooperative Jahn-Teller transition at 480K and magnetically orders below TN ˜ 23K, LiNiO2 undergoes a glass transition at Tg ˜ 9K and remains disordered down to the lowest measured temperatures. The absence of long-range magnetic order in LiNiO2 has been attributed to either geometric frustration caused by mixing of the Li and Ni sublattices, or orbital degeneracy due to the absence of a coherent Jahn-Teller distortion. We have performed time of flight neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 using the wide Angular-Range Chopper Spectrometer (ARCS) at the SNS. Our measurements reveal previously unobserved magnetic excitations at relatively high energy transfers, which we associate with ferromagnetic spin waves mediated by in-plane interactions. We also find evidence of critical scattering in NaNiO2 near the magnetic phase transition at TN. These results will be compared with previous measurements collected using the DCS at NIST.
Magnetic field induced mixed level Kondo effect in two-level quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Arturo; Ngo, Anh; Ulloa, Sergio
2012-02-01
Semiconductor quantum dots provide an easily tunable environment in which to investigate the Kondo effect. As it is known, Kondo correlations are suppressed by magnetic fields, showing e.g. a drop in the conductance of a quantum dot device. However, certain systems may exhibit an increasing conductance as a function of an applied magnetic field [1]. In this work we use the numerical renormalization group method to study a two-level quantum dot system with on-level and interlevel Coulomb repulsion, coupled to a single channel. When there is a finite detuning between levels, and a local singlet develops in one of them, the linear conductance of the device shows a maximum structure as a function of an in-plane magnetic field, which depends on the temperature of the system. This maximum occurs at a magnetic field strength such that the spin up state of one of the levels and spin down of the other are degenerate, allowing a ``mixed level'' Kondo effect. The respective spectral functions feature a resonance at the Fermi energy, commensurate with the Kondo physics. We discuss the properties of this mixed level Kondo state in terms of the detuning and the other parameters of the system. [4pt] [1] R. Sakano and N. Kawakami, PRB 73, 155332 (2006)
Fe Doped CdTeS Magnetic Quantum Dots for Bioimaging†
Saha, Ajoy K.; Sharma, Parvesh; Sohn, Han-Byul; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Das, Ritesh. K.; Hebard, Arthur F.; Zeng, Huadong; Baligand, Celine; Walter, Glenn A.
2013-01-01
A facile synthesis of 3-6 nm, water dispersible, near-infrared (NIR) emitting, quantum dots (QDs) magnetically doped with Fe is presented. Doping of alloyed CdTeS nanocrystals with Fe was achieved in situ using a simple hydrothermal method. The magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) were capped with NAcetyl-Cysteine (NAC) ligands, containing thiol and carboxylic acid functional groups to provide stable aqueous dispersion. The optical and magnetic properties of the Fe doped MQDs were characterized using several techniques. The synthesized MQDs are tuned to emit in the Vis-NIR (530-738 nm) wavelength regime and have high quantum yields (67.5-10%). NIR emitting (738 nm) MQDs having 5.6 atomic% Fe content exhibited saturation magnetization of 85 emu/gm[Fe] at room temperature. Proton transverse relaxivity of the Fe doped MQDs (738 nm) at 4.7 T was determined to be 3.6 mM−1s−1. The functional evaluation of NIR MQDs has been demonstrated using phantom and in vitro studies. These water dispersible, NIR emitting and MR contrast producing Fe doped CdTeS MQDs, in unagglomerated form, have the potential to act as multimodal contrast agents for tracking live cells. PMID:24634776
Phase diagram of a semimetal in the magnetic ultra-quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isidori, Aldo; Arnold, Frank; Kampert, Erik; Yager, Ben; Eschrig, Matthias; Saunders, John
2015-03-01
Semimetals like graphite have recently received compelling interest as they not only are able to host topologically non-trivial phases but also can be driven into the ultra-quantum limit by magnetic fields now achievable in modern-day laboratories. Thus, they provide insight into quantum-Hall physics and the physics of massless Dirac fermions in three dimensions. They also represent ideal model systems for studying magnetic-field driven density wave instabilities, as the onset field for such collective excitations is suppressed in semimetals. Using pulsed high-magnetic fields up to 60 T applied to a single crystal of natural Tanzanian graphite, we find a series of field-induced phase transitions into collinear charge-density wave states resulting from enhanced interactions between the lowest four Landau levels. By analysing magneto-transport data and calculating the renormalized Landau level structure at high fields, we establish the phase diagram of graphite in its ultra-quantum limit. Our results imply the existence of a topologically-protected chiral edge state at high fields supporting both charge and spin currents. We acknowledge the support of the HLD-HZDR, member of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL), the Hubbard Theory Consortium, and the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC Grant Nos. EP/H048375/1 and EP/J010618/1)
Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity
Corbitt, Thomas; Ottaway, David; Innerhofer, Edith; Pelc, Jason; Mavalvala, Nergis
2006-08-15
We report on experimental observation of radiation-pressure induced effects in a high-power optical cavity. These effects play an important role in next-generation gravitational wave detectors, as well as in quantum nondemolition interferometers. We measure the properties of an optical spring, created by coupling of an intense laser field to the pendulum mode of a suspended mirror, and also the parametric instability (PI) that arises from the coupling between acoustic modes of the cavity mirrors and the cavity optical mode. We measure an unprecedented optical rigidity of K=(3.08{+-}0.09)x10{sup 4} N/m, corresponding to an optical rigidity that is 6000 times stiffer than the mechanical stiffness, and PI strength R{approx_equal}3. We measure the unstable nature of the optical spring resonance, and demonstrate that the PI can be stabilized by feedback to the frequency of the laser source.
An architecture for quantum computation with magnetically trapped Holmium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saffman, Mark; Hostetter, James; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey
2016-05-01
Outstanding challenges for scalable neutral atom quantum computation include correction of atom loss due to collisions with untrapped background gas, reduction of crosstalk during state preparation and measurement due to scattering of near resonant light, and the need to improve quantum gate fidelity. We present a scalable architecture based on loading single Holmium atoms into an array of Ioffe-Pritchard traps. The traps are formed by grids of superconducting wires giving a trap array with 40 μm period, suitable for entanglement via long range Rydberg gates. The states | F = 5 , M = 5 > and | F = 7 , M = 7 > provide a magic trapping condition at a low field of 3.5 G for long coherence time qubit encoding. The F = 11 level will be used for state preparation and measurement. The availability of different states for encoding, gate operations, and measurement, spectroscopically isolates the different operations and will prevent crosstalk to neighboring qubits. Operation in a cryogenic environment with ultra low pressure will increase atom lifetime and Rydberg gate fidelity by reduction of blackbody induced Rydberg decay. We will present a complete description of the architecture including estimates of achievable performance metrics. Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics
Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H. W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M. J.; Tiburzi, B. C.
2014-12-16
We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and ^{3}He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to m_{π} ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of ^{3}He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures its dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ_{3H} ~ μ_{p}. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binz, Ernst; Schempp, Walter
2001-06-01
Quantum holography is a well established theory of mathematical physics based on harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg Lie group G. The geometric quantization is performed by projectivization of the complexified coadjoint orbit picture of the unitary dual Ĝ of G in order to achieve a geometric adjustment of the quantum scenario to special relativity theory. It admits applications to various imaging modalities such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the microwave range, and, most importantly for the field of non-invasive medical diagnosis, to the clinical imaging modality of magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in the radio frequency range. Quantum holography explains the quantum teleportation phenomemon through Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) channels which is a consequence of the non-locality of phase coherent quantum field theory, the concept of absolute simultaneity of special relativity theory which provides the Einstein equivalence of energy and Fitzgerald-Lorentz dilated mass, and the perfect quantum holographic replication process of molecular genetic information processing. It specifically reveals what was before unobservable in quantum optics, namely the interference phenomena of matter wavelets of Bose-Einstein condensates, and what was before unobservable in special relativity, namely the light in flight (LIF) recording processing by ultrafast laser pulse trains. Finally, it provides a Lie group theoretical approach to the Kruskal coordinatized Schwarzschild manifold of relativistic cosmology with large scale applications to general relativity theory such as gravitational instanton symmetries and the theory of black holes. The direct spinorial detection of gravitational wavelets emitted by the binary radio pulsar PSR 1913+16 and known only by anticipatory system computation so far will also be based on the principles of quantum holography applied to very large array (VLA) radio interferometers. .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boda, Aalu; Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok
2016-11-01
The problem of a parabolically confined two-dimensional semiconductor GaAs quantum dot with two interacting electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field and the spin-Zeeman interaction is studied using a method of numerical diagonalization. The energy spectrum is calculated as a function of the magnetic field. The magnetic moment (M) and the magnetic susceptibility (χ) show zero temperature diamagnetic peaks due to the exchange induced singlet-triplet transitions. The position and the number of these peaks depend both on the confinement strength of the quantum dot and the strength of the electron-electron interaction (β) .
Shot noise in magnetic tunneling structures with two-level quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.
2016-12-01
We analyze shot noise in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-level quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's levels to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot noise we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot noise, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.
Voltage control of magnetic anisotropy in Fe films with quantum well states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Uwe; Przybylski, Marek; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2014-05-01
The influence of a gate voltage on magnetic anisotropy is investigated in a thin Fe film epitaxially grown on a Ag(1,1,10) substrate and covered by MgO. Oscillations in step-induced magnetic anisotropy due to quantum well states (QWS) confined in the Fe film are observed and shown to persist up to room temperature at low Fe thicknesses. By systematically examining the voltage and thickness dependence of the magnetic hysteresis loop characteristics, we identify two distinct effects by which an applied voltage modifies the magnetic anisotropy. The first effect is due to voltage-induced changes to interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy which, due to the vicinal geometry, leads to changes in the effective in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. A second effect is observed at lower film thicknesses and shows nonmonotonic voltage-induced effects on magnetic anisotropy. This nonmonotonic behavior coincides with the onset of significant QWS-induced effects on magnetic anisotropy and suggests a link between QWS- and voltage-induced anisotropy changes.
Gambarota, Giulio
2016-09-03
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a well established modality for investigating tissue metabolism in vivo. In recent years, many efforts by the scientific community have been directed towards the improvement of metabolite detection and quantitation. Quantum mechanics simulations allow for investigations of the MR signal behaviour of metabolites; thus, they provide an essential tool in the optimization of metabolite detection. In this review, we will examine quantum mechanics simulations based on the density matrix formalism. The density matrix was introduced by von Neumann in 1927 to take into account statistical effects within the theory of quantum mechanics. We will discuss the main steps of the density matrix simulation of an arbitrary spin system and show some examples for the strongly coupled two spin system.
Liu, Y.; Haviland, D.B.; Glazman, L.I.; Goldman, A.M. )
1992-10-01
Flux creep in disordered superconductors may be governed by quantum tunneling of Abrikosov vortices rather than by thermal activation processes. The expectation is that in the quantum tunneling regime the creep rate would be temperature independent. This assumes that the parameters describing the pinning potential and other aspects of the superconducting films are temperature independent. In the case of extremely thin superconducting films the coherence length retains its temperature dependence well into the quantum tunneling regime, leading to an unusual temperature dependence of the electrical resistance in this regime. This was observed in ultrathin superconducting films of Pb, Al, and Bi. In low magnetic fields, at low temperatures, sheet resistances vary with temperature as R [approx] R[sub 0] exp(T/T[sub 0]), where T[sub 0] and R[sub 0] are constants.
Quantum and Classical Description of H Atom Under Magnetic Field and Quadrupole Trap Potential
Mahecha, J.; Salas, J. P.
2006-12-01
A discussion regarding the energy levels spectrum of quantum systems whose classical analogous has states of chaotic motion is presented. The chaotic dynamics of the classical underlying system has its manifestation in the wave functions (in the form of 'scars') and in the energy levels (in the form of 'statistical repulsion' of the energy levels). The above mentioned signatures are named 'quantum chaos'. A typical study of quantum chaos requires finding accurate energy eigenvalues of highly excited states, to calculate the nearest neighbors spacing between levels, to perform the 'unfolding' of the spectrum in order to separate the fluctuations, and finally to find the probability distribution of the unfolded spectrum. This is exemplified by the hydrogen atom under uniform magnetic field and a quadrupole electric field.
Electric field control of spin splitting in III-V semiconductor quantum dots without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick
2015-10-01
We provide an alternative means of electric field control for spin manipulation in the absence of magnetic fields by transporting quantum dots adiabatically in the plane of two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the spin splitting energy of moving quantum dots is possible due to the presence of quasi-Hamiltonian that might be implemented to make the next generation spintronic devices of post CMOS technology. Such spin splitting energy is highly dependent on the material properties of semiconductor. It turns out that this energy is in the range of meV and can be further enhanced with increasing pulse frequency. In particular, we show that quantum oscillations in phonon mediated spin-flip behaviors can be observed. We also confirm that no oscillations in spin-flip behaviors can be observed for the pure Rashba or pure Dresselhaus cases.
Screening of the Coulomb field in a magnetized electron gas of a quantum cylinder
Eminov, P. A.
2009-05-15
The quantum theory is constructed for screening of the Coulomb field of a point charge in a magnetized electron gas of a quantum cylinder. The asymptotics of the screened potential are calculated for both degenerate and Boltzmann electron gases. It is demonstrated that, in the degenerate case, apart from the known quasi-classical monotonic part, the result contains the quantum oscillating part, which corresponds to Friedel oscillations. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the screened Coulomb interaction of electrons on a cylindrical surface are described analytically. It is shown that the Friedel oscillations can be represented as a superposition of oscillations with different frequencies which are determined by the macroscopic properties of the nanotube.
Quantum critical dynamics of a magnetic impurity in a semiconducting host
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasari, Nagamalleswararao; Acharya, Swagata; Taraphder, A.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; N. S. Vidhyadhiraja Collaboration, Prof.; Mark Jarrell Collaboration, Prof.; A. Taraphder Collaboration, Prof.
We have investigated the finite temperature dynamics of the singlet to doublet continuous quantum phase transition in the gapped Anderson impurity model using hybridization expansion continuous time quantum Monte Carlo. Using the self-energy and the longitudinal static susceptibility, we obtain a phase diagram in the temperature-gap plane. The separatrix between the low-temperature local moment phase and the high temperature generalized Fermi liquid phase is shown to be the lower bound of the critical scaling region of the zero gap interacting quantum critical point. We have computed the nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation rate, the Knight shift, and the Korringa ratio, which show strong deviations for any non-zero gap from the corresponding quantities in the gapless Kondo screened impurity case. This work is supported by NSF DMR-1237565 and NSF EPSCoR Cooperative Agreement EPS-1003897 with additional support from the Louisiana Board of Regents, and by CSIR and DST, India.
Electrically detected nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum point contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keane, Zachary; Godfrey, Matthew; Burke, Adam; Chen, Jason; Fricke, Sebastian; Klochan, Oleh; Micolich, Adam; Beere, Harvey; Ritchie, Dave; Trunov, Kirill; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas; Hamilton, Alex
2011-03-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-known technique with widespread applications in physics, chemistry and medicine. Conventional NMR studies use inductive coils to detect the magnetic field produced by precessing nuclear spins; this approach requires on the order of 1012 spins for detection. Recently, resistive detection of NMR through the hyperfine interaction has been demonstrated with electrons in mesoscopic 2- and 1-dimensional devices based on high-quality GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. These studies are typically sensitive to 108 spins, enabling NMR on much smaller sample volumes. Holes are predicted to have much weaker nuclear spin coupling than electrons, which could be relevant to the emerging fields of spintronics and quantum information processing. We present a preliminary comparison between the magnitude of the NMR signal in electron and hole quantum point contacts.
Magnetic breakdown and Landau level spectra of a tunable double-quantum-well Fermi surface
Simmons, J.A.; Harff, N.E.; Lyo, S.K.; Klem, J.F.; Boebinger, G.S.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.
1997-12-31
By measuring longitudinal resistance, the authors map the Landau level spectra of double quantum wells as a function of both parallel (B{sub {parallel}}) and perpendicular (B{sub {perpendicular}}) magnetic fields. In this continuously tunable highly non-parabolic system, the cyclotron masses of the two Fermi surface orbits change in opposite directions with B{sub {parallel}}. This causes the two corresponding ladders of Landau levels formed at finite B{sub {perpendicular}} to exhibit multiple crossings. They also observe a third set of landau levels, independent of B{sub {parallel}}, which arise from magnetic breakdown of the Fermi surface. Both semiclassical and full quantum mechanical calculations show good agreement with the data.
Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange
Nenashev, A. V. Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Zinovieva, A. F.; Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S.
2015-03-21
We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. L.; Moldovan, D.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.
2017-02-01
Recently, black phosphorus quantum dots were fabricated experimentally. Motivated by these experiments, we theoretically investigate the electronic and optical properties of rectangular phosphorene quantum dots (RPQDs) in the presence of an in-plane electric field and a perpendicular magnetic field. The energy spectra and wave functions of RPQDs are obtained numerically using the tight-binding approach. We find edge states within the band gap of the RPQD which are well separated from the bulk states. In an undoped RPQD and for in-plane polarized light, due to the presence of well-defined edge states, we find three types of optical transitions which are between the bulk states, between the edge and bulk states, and between the edge states. The electric and magnetic fields influence the bulk-to-bulk, edge-to-bulk, and edge-to-edge transitions differently due to the different responses of bulk and edge states to these fields.
Li, L L; Moldovan, D; Xu, W; Peeters, F M
2017-02-24
Recently, black phosphorus quantum dots were fabricated experimentally. Motivated by these experiments, we theoretically investigate the electronic and optical properties of rectangular phosphorene quantum dots (RPQDs) in the presence of an in-plane electric field and a perpendicular magnetic field. The energy spectra and wave functions of RPQDs are obtained numerically using the tight-binding approach. We find edge states within the band gap of the RPQD which are well separated from the bulk states. In an undoped RPQD and for in-plane polarized light, due to the presence of well-defined edge states, we find three types of optical transitions which are between the bulk states, between the edge and bulk states, and between the edge states. The electric and magnetic fields influence the bulk-to-bulk, edge-to-bulk, and edge-to-edge transitions differently due to the different responses of bulk and edge states to these fields.
Analogue of the quantum Hall effect for neutral particles with magnetic dipole moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, L. R.; Passos, E.; Furtado, C.; Sergeenkov, S.
2017-03-01
In this paper we investigate a possibility for the existence of an analog of the Quantum Hall Effect for neutral particles with a permanent magnetic moment μ in the presence of crossed inhomogeneous magnetic and electric fields. We predict the appearance of Hall conductivity σH = (e2 / h) ν (μ) with the Landau filling factor ν (μ) ∝μ2. The estimates of the model parameters suggest quite an optimistic possibility to experimentally verify this prediction in optically trapped clouds of atomic BEC.
Field-dependent superradiant quantum phase transition of molecular magnets in microwave cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanenko, Dimitrije; Trif, Mircea; Tsyplyatyev, Oleksandr; Loss, Daniel
2016-09-01
We study a superradiant quantum phase transition in the model of triangular molecular magnets coupled to the electric component of a microwave cavity field. The transition occurs when the coupling strength exceeds a critical value, d c, which, in sharp contrast to the standard two-level emitters, can be tuned by an external magnetic field. In addition to emitted radiation, the molecules develop an in-plane electric dipole moment at the transition. We estimate that the transition can be detected in state-of-the-art microwave cavities if their electric field couples to a crystal containing a sufficient number of oriented molecules.
Influences of the Temperature on the Parabolic Quantum Dot Qubit in the Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ying-Jie; Xiao, Jing-Lin
2017-02-01
Using the variational method of the Pekar type, we study the influences of the temperature on the parabolic quantum dot qubit in the magnetic field under the condition of electric-LO-phonon strong coupling. Then we derive the numerical results and formulate the derivative relationships of the oscillation period of the electron in the superposition state of the ground state and the first-excited state with the magnetic field, the electron-LO-phonon coupling constant and the confinement length at different temperatures, respectively.
Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot
Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, Jasper D.
2015-06-24
The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.
Magnetic Flux Effect on a Kondo-Induced Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2014-08-01
A magnetic flux effect is studied theoretically on an electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead. This electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating through the triangular loop. The numerical renormalization group analysis reveals how the oscillation pattern depends on the Kondo coupling of a local spin with lead electrons, which is sensitive to the point contact with the lead. It provides an experimental implication that the Kondo effect is the origin of the emergent electric polarization.
Shape transitions in excited states of two-electron quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Simonović, N. S.; Plastino, A. R.; Chizhov, A. V.
2012-10-01
We use entanglement to study shape transitions in two-electron axially symmetric parabolic quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field. At a specific magnetic field value the dot attains a spherical symmetry. The transition from the axial to the spherical symmetry manifests itself as a drastic change of the entanglement of the lowest state with zero angular momentum projection. While the electrons in such a state are always localized in the plane (x - y) before the transition point, after this point they become localized in the vertical direction.
Effect of laser radiation on optical properties of disk shaped quantum dot in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Vinod; Silotia, Poonam
2011-10-01
The optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs, disk shaped quantum dots (DSQD) with simultaneously applied laser and magnetic field are studied in detail. The use of the density matrix formalism is made to study the variations in linear and non-linear polarizability with the frequency of the electric field. It is found that the absorption coefficient and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave but also on the strength of the static magnetic field.
Magnetically tunable Kondo-Aharonov-Bohm effect in a triangular quantum dot.
Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y
2006-02-03
The role of discrete orbital symmetry in mesoscopic physics is manifested in a system consisting of three identical quantum dots forming an equilateral triangle. Under a perpendicular magnetic field, this system demonstrates a unique combination of Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm features due to an interplay between continuous [spin-rotation SU(2)] and discrete (permutation C3v) symmetries, as well as U(1) gauge invariance. The conductance as a function of magnetic flux displays sharp enhancement or complete suppression depending on contact setups.
Magnetic Field Induced Circular Photogalvanic Effect in InAs Quantum Wells
2001-06-01
St Petersburg, Russia We report on the first observation of a magnetic field induced circular photogalvanic effect ( CPGE ) in quantum wells (QWs). The...the magnetic field. For the sake of brevity we refer to the effect under consideration as to the magneto- CPGE . For bulk materials this effect was...theoretically treated in [2, 3] and observed in p-GaAs [4]. Phenomenologically, the magneto- CPGE is described by a third-rank tensor as J, = itaiýyBj•i (E x
Electron Energy Levels in a Quantum Well within an In-Plane Magnetic Field
1989-06-01
papers in theory [6-91 as well as in experiment[10-12] which study the effect of in-plane magnetic fields on two-dimensional systems. Recently Klama(8... Field by0) O H. R. Lee, H. G. Oh, Thomas F. George and C. I. Um N S Prepared for Publication O in S Journal of Applied Physics Departments of Chemistry...Arlington, Virginia 22217 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Electron Energy Levels in a Quantum Well Within an In-Plane Magnetic Field 12
Magnetic-field-tuned quantum criticality of the heavy-fermion system YbPtBi
Mun, E. D.; Budko, Serguei L.; Martin, Catalin; Kim, Hyong June; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Park, J.-H.; Murphy, T.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Dilley, N.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Canfield, Paul C.
2013-02-15
In this paper, we present systematic measurements of the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the Yb-based heavy fermion YbPtBi for temperatures down to 0.02 K with magnetic fields up to 140 kOe to address the possible existence of a field-tuned quantum critical point. Measurements of magnetic-field- and temperature-dependent resistivity, specific heat, thermal expansion, Hall effect, and thermoelectric power indicate that the AFM order can be suppressed by an applied magnetic field of Hc~4 kOe. In the H-T phase diagram of YbPtBi, three regimes of its low-temperature states emerge: (I) AFM state, characterized by a spin density wave-like feature, which can be suppressed to T=0 by the relatively small magnetic field of Hc~4 kOe; (II) field-induced anomalous state in which the electrical resistivity follows Δρ(T)∝T1.5 between Hc and ~8 kOe; and (III) Fermi liquid (FL) state in which Δρ(T)∝T2 for H≥8 kOe. Regions I and II are separated at T=0 by what appears to be a quantum critical point. Whereas region III appears to be a FL associated with the hybridized 4f states of Yb, region II may be a manifestation of a spin liquid state.
Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno E-mail: bruno.ullrich@yahoo.com
2014-12-15
We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno
2014-12-01
We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.
Emergence and Frustration of Magnetism with Variable-Range Interactions in a Quantum Simulator
2013-05-03
results in a more equitable balance of com- peting interactions and a suppression of magnetic order. The quantum coherence in the system is...characterized by reversing the transverse field back to its initial value and comparing the result - ing state with the initial state. These experiments present...to populate the lowest coupled excited states. The observed spin order depends on the resulting degree of excitation and hence on the level of
Transport signatures of Kondo physics and quantum criticality in graphene with magnetic impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Tijerina, David A.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.
2017-03-01
Localized magnetic moments have been predicted to develop in graphene samples with vacancies or adsorbates. The interplay between such magnetic impurities and graphene's Dirac quasiparticles leads to remarkable many-body phenomena, which have, so far, proved elusive to experimental efforts. In this article we study the thermodynamic, spectral, and transport signatures of quantum criticality and Kondo physics of a dilute ensemble of atomic impurities in graphene. We consider vacancies and adatoms that either break or preserve graphene's C3 v and inversion symmetries. In a neutral graphene sample, all cases display symmetry-dependent quantum criticality, leading to enhanced impurity scattering for asymmetric impurities, in a manner analogous to bound-state formation by nonmagnetic resonant scatterers. Kondo correlations emerge only in the presence of a back gate, with estimated Kondo temperatures well within the experimentally accessible domain for all impurity types. For symmetry-breaking impurities at charge neutrality, quantum criticality is signaled by T-2 resistivity scaling, leading to full insulating behavior at low temperatures, while low-temperature resistivity plateaus appear both in the noncritical and Kondo regimes. By contrast, the resistivity contribution from symmetric vacancies and hollow-site adsorbates vanishes at charge neutrality and for arbitrary back-gate voltages, respectively. This implies that local probing methods are required for the detection of both Kondo and quantum critical signatures in these symmetry-preserving cases.
Quantum vs Classical Magnetization Plateaus of S=1/2 Frustrated Heisenberg Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Kazuo; Affleck, Ian
2005-06-01
The competition between quantum and classical magnetization plateaus of S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chains with modified exchange couplings is investigated. The conventional S=1/2 frustrated Heisenberg chain is known to exhibit a 3-fold degenerate \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type classical plateau at 1/3 of the saturation magnetization accompanied by the spontaneous Z3 translational symmetry breakdown. The stability of this plateau phase against period 3 exchange modulation which favors the \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state (\\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet = singlet dimer) is studied by bosonization, renormalization group and numerical diagonalization methods. The ground state phase diagram and the spin configuration in each phase are numerically determined. The translationally invariant Valence Bond Solid-type model with 4-spin and third neighbor interactions, which has the exact \\bullet\\hskip -1pt-\\hskip -1pt\\bullet \\uparrow-type quantum plateau state, is also presented. The phase transition to the classical \\uparrow\\downarrow\\uparrow-type ground state is also observed by varying the strength of 4-spin and third neighbor interactions. The relation between these two types of models with quantum plateau states is discussed.
Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei
2015-01-16
Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states.
Quantum Solids of Two Dimensional Electrons in Magnetic Fields
2005-11-01
seemingly infinite supply of knowledge in experimental physics accessible to me even in the most weird hours, and burnt many late nights’ oil helping edit...the user magnets with technical assistance from many scientists and engineers in the NHMFL operations department. I particularly thank Eric Palm , Tim...factor (|ψ(r)|2) as a “ kernel ” (Fogler and Huse, 2000). If lB<ξ0, the averaging results in a Veff(r) that is essentially still the same 13 as V0(r
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkinson, James H.; Bhaskaran, Lakshmi; Hill, Stephen; Myasoedov, Yuri; Zeldov, Eli; Del Barco, Enrique; Friedman, Jonathan; Fournet, Adeline; Christou, George
2015-03-01
The single-molecule magnet [Mn12O12(O2CCH3)16(CH3OH)4]CH3OH (``Mn12-MeOH'') is a high-symmetry sibling of the Mn12-Acetate SMM that offers a prime opportunity to explore the consequences of molecular symmetry. A previous study has shown that applied pressure induced changes in the Mn12-Acetate's anisotropy parameters. Here we present the results of a study in which uniaxial pressure was applied to a crystalline sample of Mn12-MeOH in order to examine how the pressure affects the quantum tunneling of magnetization at low temperature. We find that the pressure induces an increase in the resonant tunneling rate manifested as a change in the height of the tunneling steps in the magnetic hysteresis. These results suggest that pressure is altering symmetry-breaking terms in the molecule's spin Hamiltonian, giving rise to increased tunneling.
A quantum description of radiation damping and the free induction signal in magnetic resonance
Tropp, James
2013-07-07
We apply the methods of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), to obtain a microscopic and fully quantum-mechanical picture of radiation damping in magnetic resonance, and the nascent formation of the free induction signal. Numerical solution of the Tavis-Cummings model - i.e., multiple spins 1/2 coupled to a lossless single-mode cavity - shows in fine detail the transfer of Zeeman energy, via spin coherence, to excite the cavity - represented here by a quantized LC resonator. The case of a single spin is also solved analytically. Although the motion of the Bloch vector is non-classical, we nonetheless show that the quantum mechanical Rabi nutation frequency (as enhanced by cavity coupling and stimulated emission) gives realistic estimates of macroscopic signal strength and the radiation damping constant in nuclear magnetic resonance. We also show how to introduce dissipation: cavity losses by means of a master equation, and relaxation by the phenomenological method of Bloch. The failure to obtain the full Bloch equations (unless semi-classical conditions are imposed on the cavity) is discussed in light of similar issues arising in CQED (and in earlier work in magnetic resonance as well), as are certain problems relative to quantization of the electromagnetic near-field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najarbashi, G.; Seifi, B.
2017-02-01
In this paper, we generalize the results of Oh (Phys Lett A 373:644-647, 2009) to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya model under non-uniform external magnetic field to investigate the relation between entanglement, geometric phase (or Berry phase) and quantum phase transition. We use quaternionic representation to relate the geometric phase to the quantum phase transition. For small values of DM parameter, the Berry phase is more appropriate than the concurrence measure, while for large values, the concurrence is a good indicator to show the phase transition. On the other hand, by increasing the DM interaction the phase transition occurs for large values of anisotropy parameter. In addition, for small values of magnetic field the concurrence measure is appropriate indicator for quantum phase transition, but for large values of magnetic field the Berry phase shows a sharp changes in the phase transition points. The results show that the Berry phase and concurrence form a complementary system from phase transition point of view.
Magnetic-Field-Assisted Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Operating up to 225 K
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wade, A.; Fedorov, G.; Smirnov, D.; Kumar, S.; Williams, B. S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.
2008-01-01
Advances in semiconductor bandgap engineering have resulted in the recent development of the terahertz quantum cascade laser1. These compact optoelectronic devices now operate in the frequency range 1.2-5 THz, although cryogenic cooling is still required2.3. Further progress towards the realization of devices operating at higher temperatures and emitting at longer wavelengths (sub-terahertz quantum cascade lasers) is difficult because it requires maintaining a population inversion between closely spaced electronic sub-bands (1 THz approx. equals 4 meV). Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field-assisted quantum cascade laser based on the resonant-phonon design. By applying appropriate electrical bias and strong magnetic fields above 16 T, it is possible to achieve laser emission from a single device over a wide range of frequencies (0.68-3.33 THz). Owing to the suppression of inter-landau-level non-radiative scattering, the device shows magnetic field assisted laser action at 1 THz at temperatures up to 215 K, and 3 THz lasing up to 225 K.
Quantum speed limit for a relativistic electron in a uniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villamizar, D. V.; Duzzioni, E. I.
2015-10-01
We analyze the influence of relativistic effects on the minimum evolution time between two orthogonal states of a quantum system. Defining the initial state as a homogeneous superposition between two Hamiltonian eigenstates of an electron in a uniform magnetic field, we obtain a relation between the minimum evolution time and the displacement of the mean radial position of the electron wave packet. The quantum speed limit time is calculated for an electron dynamics described by Dirac and Schrödinger-Pauli equations considering different parameters, such as the strength of magnetic field and the linear momentum of the electron in the axial direction. We highlight that when the electron undergoes a region with extremely strong magnetic field the relativistic and nonrelativistic dynamics differ substantially, so that the description given by the Schrödinger-Pauli equation enables the electron to travel faster than c , which is prohibited by Einstein's theory of relativity. This approach allows a connection between the abstract Hilbert space and the space-time coordinates, besides the identification of the most appropriate quantum dynamics used to describe the electron motion.
A quantum description of radiation damping and the free induction signal in magnetic resonance.
Tropp, James
2013-07-07
We apply the methods of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), to obtain a microscopic and fully quantum-mechanical picture of radiation damping in magnetic resonance, and the nascent formation of the free induction signal. Numerical solution of the Tavis-Cummings model - i.e., multiple spins 1∕2 coupled to a lossless single-mode cavity - shows in fine detail the transfer of Zeeman energy, via spin coherence, to excite the cavity - represented here by a quantized LC resonator. The case of a single spin is also solved analytically. Although the motion of the Bloch vector is non-classical, we nonetheless show that the quantum mechanical Rabi nutation frequency (as enhanced by cavity coupling and stimulated emission) gives realistic estimates of macroscopic signal strength and the radiation damping constant in nuclear magnetic resonance. We also show how to introduce dissipation: cavity losses by means of a master equation, and relaxation by the phenomenological method of Bloch. The failure to obtain the full Bloch equations (unless semi-classical conditions are imposed on the cavity) is discussed in light of similar issues arising in CQED (and in earlier work in magnetic resonance as well), as are certain problems relative to quantization of the electromagnetic near-field.
Electric-field controlled ferromagnetism in MnGe magnetic quantum dots.
Xiu, Faxian; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L
2011-01-01
Electric-field control of ferromagnetism in magnetic semiconductors at room temperature has been actively pursued as one of the important approaches to realize practical spintronics and non-volatile logic devices. While Mn-doped III-V semiconductors were considered as potential candidates for achieving this controllability, the search for an ideal material with high Curie temperature (T(c)>300 K) and controllable ferromagnetism at room temperature has continued for nearly a decade. Among various dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), materials derived from group IV elements such as Si and Ge are the ideal candidates for such materials due to their excellent compatibility with the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here, we review recent reports on the development of high-Curie temperature Mn(0.05)Ge(0.95) quantum dots (QDs) and successfully demonstrate electric-field control of ferromagnetism in the Mn(0.05)Ge(0.95) quantum dots up to 300 K. Upon the application of gate-bias to a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor, the ferromagnetism of the channel layer (i.e. the Mn(0.05)Ge(0.95) quantum dots) was modulated as a function of the hole concentration. Finally, a theoretical model based upon the formation of magnetic polarons has been proposed to explain the observed field controlled ferromagnetism.
Triple-quantum-filtered sodium magnetic resonance imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hancu, Ileana
2001-11-01
In this thesis, a method to selectively detect sodium ions in slow motion, the triple-quantum (TQ) filtering technique, was implemented for the first time in a whole- body, clinical MR scanner. The method was used for collecting images from in vivo normal and neoplastic human brain tissues, and cartilage tissue. It was confirmed that the TQ filter rejects signals from liquid-like environments, and it became apparent that this method might become useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of brain neoplasms. Additional issues related to implementing a TQ filter in clinical scanners were considered. The effect of B1 and B0 imperfections was analyzed for the three- and four-pulse TQ filters. It was concluded that the signal loss due to B1 inhomogeneities in the four-pulse filter could be overwhelmingly high if flip angles are not perfect. The three-pulse filter leads to much smaller signal losses, and has the advantage that signal biases can be corrected for by post-processing. The effect of relaxation during the application of RF pulses was also considered. Since pulse-widths normally used for hard 90-degree pulses in clinical scanners are comparable to the relaxation times of sodium ions, the amount of TQ-filtered signal loss due to this effect was checked, theoretically and experimentally. By increasing the pulse width of the hard 90-degree RF pulses from 100μs to 500μs in a cartilage sample, about 15% of the TQ-signal is lost, therefore shorter pulses will not dramatically increase the TQ-filtered signal strength. A new method to selectively detect sodium ions in anisotropic environments was also developed. Following the application of a hard 90-degree pulse, quadrupolar polarization is created during the application of a spin- lock (SL) field only in the presence of residual quadrupolar couplings (if B1 is on the same order of magnitude with these couplings). This coherence is then converted into observable signal by a coherence- transfer pulse. The SL-filter has
Quantum tunneling of two coupled single-molecular magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jianming; Chen, Zhide; Shen, Shunqing
2003-03-01
Jian-Ming Hu, Zhi-De Chen and Shun-Qing Shen Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong December 02, 2002 Very recently a supramolecular dimer of two single-molecule magnets (SMM) was reported to be synthesized successfully. Two single-molecule magnets are coupled antiferromagnetically to form a supramolecule dimer. We study the coupling effect and tunneling process by the numerical exact diagonalization method. The sweeping rate effect in the derivatives of hysteresis loops has been quantitatively investigated using the modified Landau-Zener model. In addiction we find that exchange coupling between the two SMMs provides a biased field to expel the tunneling between SMMs to two new resonant points via an intermediate state, and direct tunneling is prohibited. The model parameters are calculated for the dimer based on the tunneling process. The outcome indicates that the coupling effect will not change the parameters of each SMM too much at all. This work is supported by a CRCG grant of The University of Hong Kong.
Search for pressure-induced superconductivity in CeFeAsO and CeFePO iron pnictides
Zocco, D. A.; Baumbach, R. E.; Hamlin, J. J.; Janoschek, M.; Lum, I. K.; McGuire, Michael A; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Sales, Brian C; Jin, Rongying; Mandrus, David; Jeffries, J. R.; Weir, S. T.; Vohra, Y. K.; Maple, M. B.
2011-01-01
The CeFeAsO and CeFePO iron pnictide compounds were studied via electrical transport measurements under high pressure. In CeFeAsO polycrystals, the magnetic phases involving the Fe and Ce ions coexist for hydrostatically applied pressures up to 15 GPa, and with no signs of pressure-induced superconductivity up to 50 GPa for the less hydrostatic pressure techniques. For the CeFePO single crystals, pressure further stabilizes the Kondo screening of the Ce 4f-electron magnetic moments.
Quantum paraelectricity in copper-titanates: Magnetic-order driven vitrification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A. M.
2015-07-01
Quantum-paraelectric (QP) family character is emergent from shared low-temperature characteristics of SrCu3Ti4O12 (SCTO), CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), and Ca0.9Li0.1Cu3Ti4O12 (CLCTO) A1/4A'3/4BO3 structures featuring antiferro-tilted Ti-O6 octahedra. Above their magnetic ordering temperatures TN, permittivity of SCTO and CLCTO follow typical Barrett form, whereas in CCTO, quantum paraelectricity is masked by the huge ɛ'-step. Hidden QP in CCTO gets revealed by Li-doping at the Ca-site, which considerably up-shifts the temperature scale (from ˜100 K to ˜250 K) of the dielectric step-anomaly in CLCTO. Competing magneto-electricity and quantum fluctuations result in glassy-arrest of the QP degrees of freedom near TN; manifest as dispersive-deviation of the permittivity (in SCTO and CLCTO) from the low-temperature Barrett saturation. However, quantum criticality (QC) regime being well above TN registers its presence nevertheless, as the ˜T2 behaviour of their inverse dielectric susceptibility. Non-compliance to the usual behaviours of dispersive-response vs. bias-field and temperature unambiguously rule out a relaxor origin of the glassy state. We determine a dimensionless thermal window (0.3 ≤ T/T1 ≤ 0.6) of QC signature, covering typical quantum-paraelectrics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. L.; Zarenia, M.; Xu, W.; Dong, H. M.; Peeters, F. M.
2017-01-01
The magnetic-field dependence of the energy spectrum, wave function, binding energy, and oscillator strength of exciton states confined in a circular graphene quantum dot (CGQD) is obtained within the configuration interaction method. We predict that (i) excitonic effects are very significant in the CGQD as a consequence of a combination of geometric confinement, magnetic confinement, and reduced screening; (ii) two types of excitons (intravalley and intervalley) are present in the CGQD because of the valley degree of freedom in graphene; (iii) the intravalley and intervalley exciton states display different magnetic-field dependencies due to the different electron-hole symmetries of the single-particle energy spectra; (iv) with increasing magnetic field, the exciton ground state in the CGQD undergoes an intravalley to intervalley transition accompanied by a change of angular momentum; (v) the exciton binding energy does not increase monotonically with the magnetic field due to the competition between geometric and magnetic confinements; and (vi) the optical transitions of the intervalley and intravalley excitons can be tuned by the magnetic field, and valley-dependent excitonic transitions can be realized in a CGQD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetisyan, Siranush; Chakraborty, Tapash; Pietiläinen, Pekka
2016-07-01
Magnetization of anisotropic quantum dots in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been studied for three and four interacting electrons in the dot for non-zero values of the applied magnetic field. We observe unique behaviors of magnetization that are direct reflections of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction parameters independently or concurrently. In particular, there are saw-tooth structures in the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization, as caused by the electron-electron interaction, that are strongly modified in the presence of large anisotropy and high strength of the spin-orbit interactions. We also report the temperature dependence of magnetization that indicates the temperature beyond which these structures due to the interactions disappear. Additionally, we found the emergence of a weak sawtooth structure in magnetization for three electrons in the high anisotropy and large spin-orbit interaction limit that was explained as a result of merging of two low-energy curves when the level spacings evolve with increasing values of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction strength.
Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond
Barry, John F.; Turner, Matthew J.; Schloss, Jennifer M.; Glenn, David R.; Song, Yuyu; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Walsworth, Ronald L.
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields from neuronal action potentials (APs) pass largely unperturbed through biological tissue, allowing magnetic measurements of AP dynamics to be performed extracellularly or even outside intact organisms. To date, however, magnetic techniques for sensing neuronal activity have either operated at the macroscale with coarse spatial and/or temporal resolution—e.g., magnetic resonance imaging methods and magnetoencephalography—or been restricted to biophysics studies of excised neurons probed with cryogenic or bulky detectors that do not provide single-neuron spatial resolution and are not scalable to functional networks or intact organisms. Here, we show that AP magnetic sensing can be realized with both single-neuron sensitivity and intact organism applicability using optically probed nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond, operated under ambient conditions and with the NV diamond sensor in close proximity (∼10 µm) to the biological sample. We demonstrate this method for excised single neurons from marine worm and squid, and then exterior to intact, optically opaque marine worms for extended periods and with no observed adverse effect on the animal. NV diamond magnetometry is noninvasive and label-free and does not cause photodamage. The method provides precise measurement of AP waveforms from individual neurons, as well as magnetic field correlates of the AP conduction velocity, and directly determines the AP propagation direction through the inherent sensitivity of NVs to the associated AP magnetic field vector. PMID:27911765
Excitations in a perfect magnetized quantum spin ladder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheludev, Andrey; Schmidiger, David; Muehlbauer, Sebastian; Severian, Gvasaliya; Bouillot, Pierre; Kollath, Corinna; Giamarchi, Thierry; Guidi, Tatiana; Bewley, Robert; Ehlers, Georg
2013-03-01
The strong-leg S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg spin ladder system C7(D10N)2CuBr4 is investigated in applied magnetic fields using inelastic neutron scattering anf DMRG calculations. The spectrum in the high-field Tomonaga-Luttinger spin liquid phase is found to be qualitatively different from that in the low-field spin gap phase. In the former, numerous spectral featrures, including incommensurate excitations and multi-spinon continua are identified. In contrast, the latter is dominated by long-lived magnon excitations and two-magnon bound states. An unprecedented quantitive agreement between experiment and numerical claculations is achieved. Supported by the Swiss National Fund through MANEP.
Shchurova, L Yu; Kulbachinskii, V A
2011-03-01
We investigate energy levels, thermodynamic, transport and magnetotransport properties of holes in GaAs structure with quantum well InGaAs delta-doped by C and Mn. We present self-consistent calculations for energy levels in the quantum well for different degrees of ionization of Mn impurity. The magnetoresistance of holes in the quantum well is calculated. We explain observed negative magnetoresistance by the reduction of spin-flip scattering on magnetic ions due to aligning of spins with magnetic field.
Magnetic Texture & Frustration in Quantum Magnets via Strain Measurements to 100 Tesla
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaime, Marcelo
2014-03-01
Strong geometrical frustration in magnets leads to exotic states, such as spin liquids, spin supersolids, magnetic solitons, and complex magnetic textures. SrCu2(BO3)2 , a spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the archetypical Shastry-Sutherland lattice, exhibits a rich spectrum of magnetization plateaus and stripe-like magnetic textures in applied fields. We observed new magnetic textures via optical FBG magnetostriction and magnetocaloric measurements in fields up to 100.75 Tesla at 73.6 T and at 82 T which we attribute, using a controlled density matrix renormalization group approach, to a 2/5 plateau and to the long-predicted 1/2-saturation plateau. The plateau predicted at 2/5 saturation is particularly interesting since strain appears to be the only experimental probe with enough sensitivity to reveal it as magnetization probes see a much more gradual change in the same field range. BiCu2PO6 is a frustrated two-leg spin ladder compound with a spin gap that can be closed with a magnetic field of approximately 20T to induce a soliton lattice. Time permitting, I will also discuss magnetization, magnetostriction and specific heat vs magnetic fields to 65 T used to obtain the anisotropic (H,T) phase diagram in BiCu2PO6 single crystal samples. Work at the NHMFL was supported by the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science through the project ``Science at 100 Tesla,'' and the State of Florida.
Irreversibility of Pressure Induced Boron Speciation Change in Glass
Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Youngman, Randall E.; Striepe, Simon; Potuzak, Marcel; Bauer, Ute; Deubener, Joachim; Behrens, Harald; Mauro, John C.; Yue, Yuanzheng
2014-01-01
It is known that the coordination number (CN) of atoms or ions in many materials increases through application of sufficiently high pressure. This also applies to glassy materials. In boron-containing glasses, trigonal BO3 units can be transformed into tetrahedral BO4 under pressure. However, one of the key questions is whether the pressure-quenched CN change in glass is reversible upon annealing below the ambient glass transition temperature (Tg). Here we address this issue by performing 11B NMR measurements on a soda lime borate glass that has been pressure-quenched at ~0.6 GPa near Tg. The results show a remarkable phenomenon, i.e., upon annealing at 0.9Tg the pressure-induced change in CN remains unchanged, while the pressurised values of macroscopic properties such as density, refractive index, and hardness are relaxing. This suggests that the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties of soda lime borate glasses compressed up to ~0.6 GPa are not attributed to changes in the short-range order in the glass, but rather to changes in overall atomic packing density and medium-range structures. PMID:24442182
Quantum confinement of Bi2S3 in glass with magnetic behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panmand, Rajendra P.; Kulkarni, Milind V.; Valant, Matjaz; Gosavi, Suresh W.; Kale, Bharat B.
2013-02-01
The novel Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs) glass nanosystems with unique magnetic properties have been investigated. The monodispersed QDs of size in the range of 3 to 15 nm were grown in the glass matrix. The optical study of these nanosystems clearly demonstrated the size quantization effect resulting in a pronounced band gap variation with QD size. The magnetic properties of the pristine glass and the Bi2S3 QD glass nanosystems were investigated by VSM and SQUID magnetometer. The pristine glass did not show any ferromagnetism while the Bi2S3 glass nanosystems showed significant and reproducible ferromagnetism. We also investigated the effect of the size of Bi2S3 QDs on the magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization for the 15 nm QD glass-nanosystem (124 memu/g) was observed to be higher as compared to the 3nm QD glass nanosystem (58.2 memu/g). The SQUID measurement gave the excellent hysteresis up to 300K. Surprisingly, the bulk Bi2S3 powder is diamagnetic in nature but Bi2S3 quantum dots glass nanosystem showed the ferromagnetic behavior for the first time. The investigated novel QD glass-nanosystem may have a potential application in spintronic devices and most importantly, this nanosystem can be fabricated in any usable shape as per the device requirement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asari, Yusuke; Takeda, Kyozaburo; Tamura, Hiroyuki
2005-04-01
We theoretically studied the electronic structure of the three-dimensional spherical parabolic quantum dot (3D-SPQD) under a magnetic field. We obtained the quantum dot orbitals (QDOs) and determined the ground state by using the extended UHF approach where the expectation values of the z component of the total orbital angular momentum <\\hat{L}z> are conserved during the scf-procedure. The single-electron treatment predicts that the applied magnetic field (B) creates k-th new shells at the magnetic field of Bk=k(k+2)/(k+1)ω0 with the shell-energy interval of \\hbarω0/(k+1), where ω0(=\\hbar/m*l02) is the characteristic frequency originating from the spherical parabolic confinement potential. These shells are formed by the level crossing among multiple QDOs. The interelectron interaction breaks the simple level crossing but causes complicated dependences among the total energy, the chemical potential and their differences (magic numbers) with the magnetic field or the number of confinement electrons. The ground state having a higher spin multiplicity is theoretically predicted on the basis of the \\textit{quasi}-degeneracies of the QDOs around these shells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Men'shov, V. N.; Tugushev, V. V.; Chulkov, E. V.
2016-10-01
We theoretically study how magnetic modulation can be used to manipulate the transport properties of heterostructures formed by a thin film of a three-dimensional topological insulator sandwiched between slabs of a normal insulator. Employing the k • p scheme, in the framework of a continual approach, we argue that electron states of the system are spin-polarized when ultrathin magnetic insertions are incorporated into the film. We demonstrate that (i) the spin-polarization magnitude depends strongly on the magnetic insertion position in the film and (ii) there is the optimal insertion position to realize quantum anomalous Hall effect, which is a function of the material parameters, the film thickness and the topological insulator/normal insulator interface potential. For the heterostructure with a pair of symmetrically placed magnetic insertions, we calculate a phase diagram that shows a series of transitions between distinct quantum regimes of transverse conductivity. We provide consistent interpretation of recent experimental findings in the context of our results.
Violation of Bell’s inequality in a spin 1/2 quantum magnet
Chakraborty, Tanmoy Singh, Harkirat Mitra, Chiranjib
2014-04-24
Violation of Bell’s inequality test has been established as an efficient tool to determine the presence of entanglement in quantum spin 1/2 magnets. Herein, macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, namely, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat have been employed to perform Bell’s inequality test for [NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O], a spin 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest neighbor interactions. The mean value of the Bell operator is quantified and plotted as a function of temperature. The threshold temperature is determined above which the Bell’s inequality is not violated and a good consistency is found between the analyses done on magnetic and thermal data.
Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings
Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.
2014-02-28
Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.
Vinante, A. Falferi, P.; Mezzena, R.
2014-10-15
Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometers have been widely used to study magnetic properties of materials at microscale. As intrinsically balanced devices, they could also be exploited for direct SQUID-detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from micron sized samples, or for SQUID readout of mechanically detected NMR from submicron sized samples. Here, we demonstrate a double balancing technique that enables achievement of very low residual imbalance of a SQUID microsusceptometer over a wide bandwidth. In particular, we can generate ac magnetic fields within the SQUID loop as large as 1 mT, for frequencies ranging from dc up to a few MHz. As an application, we demonstrate direct detection of NMR from {sup 1}H spins in a glycerol droplet placed directly on top of the 20 μm SQUID loops.
Electro-magnetic weak coupling optical polaron and temperature effect in quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiotsop, M.; Fotue, A. J.; Kenfack, S. C.; Issofa, N.; Wirngo, A. V.; Tabue Djemmo, M. P.; Fotsin, H.; Fai, L. C.
2015-10-01
We investigate the influence of the electric field and magnetic fields on the ground state energy of a polaron in a spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using the modified Lee Low Pines (LLP) method. The numerical results show the increase of the ground state energy with the increase of the electric field and the electron-phonon coupling constant, and the decrease with the magnetic field and the longitudinal confinement length. It is also seen that the temperature is an increasing function of the cyclotron frequency and the coupling constant whereas it decreases with the electric field strength. The modulation of the electric field, the magnetic field and the confinement length leads to the control of decoherence in the system.
Strain and localization effects in InGaAs(N) quantum wells: Tuning the magnetic response
Lopes-Oliveira, V. Herval, L. K. S.; Orsi Gordo, V.; Cesar, D. F.; Godoy, M. P. F. de; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Henini, M.; Khatab, A.; Sadeghi, M.; Wang, S.; Schmidbauer, M.
2014-12-21
We investigated effects of localization and strain on the optical and magneto-optical properties of diluted nitrogen III–V quantum wells theoretically and experimentally. High-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and magneto-PL measurements under high magnetic fields up to 15 T were performed at low temperatures. Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian formalism was used to study the influence of strain, confinement, and localization effects. The circularly polarized magneto-PL was interpreted considering localization aspects in the valence band ground state. An anomalous behavior of the electron-hole pair magnetic shift was observed at low magnetic fields, ascribed to the increase in the exciton reduced mass due to the negative effective mass of the valence band ground state.
Quantum transport in carbon nanotube field effect transistors in high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephens, Jeffrey Dale
The dissertation is a study of data taken from carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFET). The data presented was taken at two locations, University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA and at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, PA. The samples are exposed to very low temperature using dilution refrigerator techniques and placed in high magnetic fields using a superconducting magnet. One of the main focuses will be on the effect an external magnetic field can produce on the transport properties of a CNTFET. Particular attention will be paid to the Kondo effect and Coulomb blockade phenomena. Comparisons are drawn between the observed behavior of the samples studied and with published works on carbon nanotube electronics and traditional semiconductor quantum dots.
Magnetic flux superperiods in fractional quantum Hall interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camino, F. E.; Lin, P. V.; Goldman, V. J.
2010-03-01
Superperiodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in conductance of e/3 quasiparticles have been reported in three Fabry-Perot interferometer devices. Superperiods are observed in the FQH regime, when filling 1/3 edge channel encircles an island of 2/5 FQH fluid. Etch trenches define the devices, which consist of a 2D electron island connected to the 2DES bulk via two wide constrictions. An oscillatory signal in the conductance is observed when tunneling occurs in the constrictions. The width of the 1/3 edge channel weakly depends on the size of the device, on the other hand, the enclosed 2/5 island area varies by a factor of 4. We compare the magnetic field periods in the different size devices and review the evidence that the flux period is 5h/e. [1] The FQH edge channel structure essentially depends on the 2D electron density profile. We discuss the self- consistent density profile in the device defined by the etch trenches. We also discuss electron depletion due to electric field of front gates, which is not screened efficiently by 2D electrons and thus leads to a smaller gradient of the confining potential than the mesa etch. [1] F. E. Camino et al., PRB 72, 075342 (2005); W. Zhou et al., PRB 73, 245322 (2006); P. V. Lin et al., PRB (in press, 2009).
Femtosecond switching of magnetism via strongly correlated spin-charge quantum excitations.
Li, Tianqi; Patz, Aaron; Mouchliadis, Leonidas; Yan, Jiaqiang; Lograsso, Thomas A; Perakis, Ilias E; Wang, Jigang
2013-04-04
The technological demand to push the gigahertz (10(9) hertz) switching speed limit of today's magnetic memory and logic devices into the terahertz (10(12) hertz) regime underlies the entire field of spin-electronics and integrated multi-functional devices. This challenge is met by all-optical magnetic switching based on coherent spin manipulation. By analogy to femtosecond chemistry and photosynthetic dynamics--in which photoproducts of chemical and biochemical reactions can be influenced by creating suitable superpositions of molecular states--femtosecond-laser-excited coherence between electronic states can switch magnetic order by 'suddenly' breaking the delicate balance between competing phases of correlated materials: for example, manganites exhibiting colossal magneto-resistance suitable for applications. Here we show femtosecond (10(-15) seconds) photo-induced switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, by observing the establishment (within about 120 femtoseconds) of a huge temperature-dependent magnetization with photo-excitation threshold behaviour absent in the optical reflectivity. The development of ferromagnetic correlations during the femtosecond laser pulse reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, distinguished from the picosecond (10(-12) seconds) lattice-heating regime characterized by phase separation without threshold behaviour. Our simulations reproduce the nonlinear femtosecond spin generation and underpin fast quantum spin-flip fluctuations correlated with coherent superpositions of electronic states to initiate local ferromagnetic correlations. These results merge two fields, femtosecond magnetism in metals and band insulators, and non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons, in which local interactions exceeding the kinetic energy produce a complex balance of competing orders.
Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics
Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei
2017-01-01
A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy. PMID:28255343
Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanouilidou, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C
2016-08-01
High-spatial-resolution magnetic imaging has driven important developments in fields ranging from materials science to biology. However, to uncover finer details approaching the nanoscale with greater sensitivity requires the development of a radically new sensor technology. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for such a sensor on the basis of its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities. It has remained an outstanding challenge to implement the NV centre as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at cryogenic temperatures, however, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. Here, we present NV magnetic imaging down to 6 K with 3 μT Hz(-1/2) field sensitivity, and use the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with critical temperature Tc = 30 K. The expansion of NV-based magnetic imaging to cryogenic temperatures will enable future studies of previously inaccessible nanoscale magnetism in condensed-matter systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, D.; Hebenstreit, F.; Jiang, F.-J.; Wiese, U.-J.
2015-09-01
Using quantum Monte Carlo, we study the nonequilibrium transport of magnetization in large open strongly correlated quantum spin-1/2 systems driven by purely dissipative processes that conserve the uniform or staggered magnetization, disregarding unitary Hamiltonian dynamics. We prepare both a low-temperature Heisenberg ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet in two parts of the system that are initially isolated from each other. We then bring the two subsystems in contact and study their real-time dissipative dynamics for different geometries. The flow of the uniform or staggered magnetization from one part of the system to the other is described by a diffusion equation that can be derived analytically.
Magnetic interlayer coupling between Co films across Cu/Ni30Cu70/Cu(100) double quantum wells
Zhang, Z.D.; Choi, H.J.; Kawakami, R.K.; Escorcia-Aparicio, E.J.; Bowen, M.O.; Rotenberg, E.; Smith, N.V.; Qiu, Z.Q.
1999-05-18
Magnetic interlayer coupling between two Co layers across Cu/Ni 30 Cu 70 /Cu(100) was investigated by the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect. The Ni 30 Cu 70 layer at the center of the Cu layer was shown to shift the peak positions, rather than to change the strength, of the magnetic interlayer coupling. The density of states near the Fermi level was investigated by photoemission spectroscopy. We show that the peak-position shift in the magnetic interlayer coupling is associated with the quantum-well behavior in a symmetric double-quantum-well system. The phase accumulation model was applied to explain the results quantitatively.
Magnetic Field Tuning and Quantum Interference in a Cooper Pair Splitter.
Fülöp, G; Domínguez, F; d'Hollosy, S; Baumgartner, A; Makk, P; Madsen, M H; Guzenko, V A; Nygård, J; Schönenberger, C; Levy Yeyati, A; Csonka, S
2015-11-27
Cooper pair splitting (CPS) is a process in which the electrons of the naturally occurring spin-singlet pairs in a superconductor are spatially separated using two quantum dots. Here, we investigate the evolution of the conductance correlations in an InAs CPS device in the presence of an external magnetic field. In our experiments the gate dependence of the signal that depends on both quantum dots continuously evolves from a slightly asymmetric Lorentzian to a strongly asymmetric Fano-type resonance with increasing field. These experiments can be understood in a simple three-site model, which shows that the nonlocal CPS leads to symmetric line shapes, while the local transport processes can exhibit an asymmetric shape due to quantum interference. These findings demonstrate that the electrons from a Cooper pair splitter can propagate coherently after their emission from the superconductor and how a magnetic field can be used to optimize the performance of a CPS device. In addition, the model calculations suggest that the estimate of the CPS efficiency in the experiments is a lower bound for the actual efficiency.
Pressure-induced gelatinization of starch in excess water.
Vallons, Katleen J R; Ryan, Liam A M; Arendt, Elke K
2014-01-01
High pressure processing is a promising non-thermal technology for the development of fresh-like, shelf-stable foods. The effect of high pressure on starch has been explored by many researchers using a wide range of techniques. In general, heat and pressure have similar effects: if sufficiently high, they both induce gelatinization of starch in excess water, resulting in a transition of the native granular structure to a starch paste or gel. However, there are significant differences in the structural and rheological properties between heated and pressurized starches. These differences offer benefits with respect to new product development. However, in order to implement high-pressure technology to starch and starch-containing products, a good understanding of the mechanism of pressure-induced gelatinization is necessary. Studies that are published in this area are reviewed, and the similarities and differences between starches gelatinized by pressure and by temperature are summarized.
Atomistic pathways of the pressure-induced densification of quartz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yunfeng; Miranda, Caetano R.; Scandolo, Sandro
2015-10-01
When quartz is compressed at room temperature it retains its crystal structure at pressures well above its stability domain (0-2 GPa), and collapses into denser structures only when pressure reaches 20 GPa. Depending on the experimental conditions, pressure-induced densification can be accompanied by amorphization; by the formation of crystalline, metastable polymorphs; and can be preceded by the appearance of an intermediate phase, quartz II, with unknown structure. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, we show that this rich phenomenology can be rationalized through a unified theoretical framework of the atomistic pathways leading to densification. The model emphasizes the role played by the oxygen sublattice, which transforms from a bcc-like order in quartz into close-packed arrangements in the denser structures, through a ferroelastic instability of martensitic nature.
Radiation pressure induced difference-sideband generation beyond linearized description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Hao; Fan, Yu-Wan; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying
2016-08-01
We investigate radiation-pressure induced generation of the frequency components at the difference-sideband in an optomechanical system, which beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interactions between cavity fields and the mechanical oscillation. We analytically calculate amplitudes of these signals, and identify a simple square-root law for both the upper and lower difference-sideband generation which can describe the dependence of the intensities of these signals on the pump power. Further calculation shows that difference-sideband generation can be greatly enhanced via achieving the matching conditions. The effect of difference-sideband generation, which may have potential application for manipulation of light, is especially suited for on-chip optomechanical devices, where nonlinear optomechanical interaction in the weak coupling regime is within current experimental reach.
Thermal Quantum Discord in Pure Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya Model with Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Da-Chuang; Li, Xiao-Man; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-06-01
We investigate the effects of the directions of Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) interaction vector and magnetic field on the quantum discord in the pure DM model. For different directions of DM vector, we find that there are different optimal parameter components of magnetic field. Moreover, we find that the optimal parameter components rules are the same for the Hamiltonian H1 and H2. According to the rules, for a certain axial DM vector, we can get the maximal quantum discord by adjusting the direction of the external magnetic field, which is feasible under the current experimental technology. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204061, 11374085, 11104057, and 11204002, the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 1408085MA16, the Anhui Provincial Candidates for Academic and Technical Leaders Foundation under Grant No. 2015H052, the discipline top-notch talents Foundation and the Excellent Young Talents Support Plan of Anhui Provincial Universities. Ming Yang is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11274010, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20113401110002, the 211 Project of Anhui University, and the Personnel Department of Anhui Province
Magnetic field effects in few-level quantum dots: Theory and application to experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Christopher J.; Galpin, Martin R.; Logan, David E.
2011-09-01
We examine several effects of an applied magnetic field on Anderson-type models for both single- and two-level quantum dots, and we make direct comparison between numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations and recent conductance measurements. On the theoretical side, the focus is on magnetization, single-particle dynamics, and zero-bias conductance, with emphasis on the universality arising in strongly correlated regimes, including a method to obtain the scaling behavior of field-induced Kondo resonance shifts over a very wide field range. NRG is also used to interpret recent experiments on spin-(1)/(2) and spin-1 quantum dots in a magnetic field, which we argue do not wholly probe universal regimes of behavior, and the calculations are shown to yield good qualitative agreement with essentially all features seen in experiment. The results capture in particular the observed field dependence of the Kondo conductance peak in a spin-(1)/(2) dot, with quantitative deviations from experiment occurring at fields in excess of ˜5T, indicating the eventual inadequacy of using the equilibrium single-particle spectrum to calculate the conductance at finite bias.
Scattering-induced quantum correlation in electronic waveguides with static magnetic impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbari-Adivi, E.; Soltani, M.; Alami, Z.; Sheikhali, M.
2016-10-01
Entanglement generation due to low-energy scattering of the transporting electrons in an electronic waveguide by a quantum dot magnetic impurity is theoretically investigated. The transverse confining potential of the waveguide is considered as a two-dimensional harmonic potential, and the interaction of the electron with the impurity is described by a zero-range pseudopotential modulated by an Ising or a Heisenberg spin interaction. Our calculation shows that the scattering process leads to creation of a considerable amount of entanglement in the state of the reflected and transmitted electrons. The situation is extended to the scattering of the electrons by two well-separated magnetic impurities localized on the nanowire axis. It is shown that the scattering process causes the magnetic impurities embedded in the nanowire to share their quantum information; subsequently, they can be entangled by spin interaction with the injected electron. The created entanglement between the impurities is calculated and discussed. It is shown that the exact three-dimensional problem can be approximated as a one-dimensional problem under certain circumstances. The approximate results are compared to exact calculations and discussed.
Kaiju, H. Kasa, H.; Mori, S.; Misawa, T.; Abe, T.; Nishii, J.; Komine, T.
2015-05-07
We investigate the Co thickness dependence of the structural and magnetic properties of Co thin-film electrodes sandwiched between borate glasses in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices that utilize stray magnetic fields. We also calculate the Co thickness dependence of the stray field between the two edges of Co thin-film electrodes in SQC devices using micromagnetic simulation. The surface roughness of Co thin films with a thickness of less than 20 nm on borate glasses is shown to be as small as 0.18 nm, at the same scanning scale as the Co film thickness, and the squareness of the hysteresis loop is shown to be as large as 0.96–1.0. As a result of the establishment of polishing techniques for Co thin-film electrodes sandwiched between borate glasses, we successfully demonstrate the formation of smooth Co edges and the generation of stray magnetic fields from Co edges. Theoretical calculation reveals that a strong stray field beyond 6 kOe is generated when the Co thickness is greater than 10 nm at a junction gap distance of 5 nm. From these experimental and calculation results, it can be concluded that SQC devices with a Co thickness of 10–20 nm can be expected to function as spin-filter devices.
The quantum magnetism of individual manganese-12-acetate molecular magnets anchored at surfaces.
Kahle, Steffen; Deng, Zhitao; Malinowski, Nikola; Tonnoir, Charlène; Forment-Aliaga, Alicia; Thontasen, Nicha; Rinke, Gordon; Le, Duy; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus
2012-01-11
The high intrinsic spin and long spin relaxation time of manganese-12-acetate (Mn(12)) makes it an archetypical single molecular magnet. While these characteristics have been measured on bulk samples, questions remain whether the magnetic properties replicate themselves in surface supported isolated molecules, a prerequisite for any application. Here we demonstrate that electrospray ion beam deposition facilitates grafting of intact Mn(12) molecules on metal as well as ultrathin insulating surfaces enabling submolecular resolution imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we detect spin excitations from the magnetic ground state of the molecule at an ultrathin boron nitride decoupling layer. Our results are supported by density functional theory based calculations and establish that individual Mn(12) molecules retain their intrinsic spin on a well chosen solid support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil
2004-10-01
Quantum information processing has been effectively demonstrated on a small number of qubits by nuclear magnetic resonance. An important subroutine in any computing is the readout of the output. "Spectral implementation" originally suggested by Z. L. Madi, R. Bruschweiler, and R. R. Ernst [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10603 (1999)], provides an elegant method of readout with the use of an extra "observer" qubit. At the end of computation, detection of the observer qubit provides the output via the multiplet structure of its spectrum. In spectral implementation by two-dimensional experiment the observer qubit retains the memory of input state during computation, thereby providing correlated information on input and output, in the same spectrum. Spectral implementation of Grover's search algorithm, approximate quantum counting, a modified version of Berstein-Vazirani problem, and Hogg's algorithm are demonstrated here in three- and four-qubit systems.
Magnetic field dependence of energy levels in biased bilayer graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.
2016-02-01
Using the tight-binding approach, we study the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the energy levels of hexagonal, triangular, and circular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We obtain the energy levels for AB (Bernal)-stacked BLG QDs in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). We find different regions in the spectrum of biased QDs with respect to the crossing point between the lowest-electron and -hole Landau levels of a biased BLG sheet. Those different regions correspond to electron states that are localized at the center, edge, or corner of the BLG QD. Quantum Hall corner states are found to be absent in circular BLG QDs. The spatial symmetry of the carrier density distribution is related to the symmetry of the confinement potential, the position of zigzag edges, and the presence or absence of interlayer inversion symmetry.
Non-Hermitian approach of edge states and quantum transport in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostahie, B.; NiÅ£a, M.; Aldea, A.
2016-11-01
We develop a manifest non-Hermitian approach of spectral and transport properties of two-dimensional mesoscopic systems in a strong magnetic field. The finite system to which several terminals are attached constitutes an open system that can be described by an effective Hamiltonian. The lifetime of the quantum states expressed by the energy imaginary part depends specifically on the lead-system coupling and makes the difference among three regimes: resonant, integer quantum Hall effect, and superradiant. The discussion is carried on in terms of edge state lifetime in different gaps, channel formation, role of hybridization, and transmission coefficients quantization. A toy model helps in understanding non-Hermitian aspects in open systems.
Hybrid quantum magnetism in circuit QED: from spin-photon waves to many-body spectroscopy.
Kurcz, Andreas; Bermudez, Alejandro; García-Ripoll, Juan José
2014-05-09
We introduce a model of quantum magnetism induced by the nonperturbative exchange of microwave photons between distant superconducting qubits. By interconnecting qubits and cavities, we obtain a spin-boson lattice model that exhibits a quantum phase transition where both qubits and cavities spontaneously polarize. We present a many-body ansatz that captures this phenomenon all the way, from a the perturbative dispersive regime where photons can be traced out, to the nonperturbative ultrastrong coupling regime where photons must be treated on the same footing as qubits. Our ansatz also reproduces the low-energy excitations, which are described by hybridized spin-photon quasiparticles, and can be probed spectroscopically from transmission experiments in circuit QED, as shown by simulating a possible experiment by matrix-product-state methods.
Klich, I; Lee, S-H; Iida, K
2014-04-01
When spins are arranged in a lattice of triangular motif, the phenomenon of frustration leads to numerous energetically equivalent ground states, and results in exotic states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Here we report an alternative situation: a system, classically a liquid, freezes in the clean limit into a glassy state induced by quantum fluctuations. We call such glassy state a spin jam. The case in point is a frustrated magnet, where spins are arranged in a triangular network of bipyramids. Quantum corrections break the classical degeneracy into a set of aperiodic spin configurations forming local minima in a rugged energy landscape. This is established by mapping the problem into tiling with hexagonal tiles. The number of tessellations scales with the boundary length rather than its volume, showing the absence of local zero-energy modes. Low-temperature thermodynamics is discussed to compare it with other glassy materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hong-Chang; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Horng, Herng-Er; Kuo, Shing-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Yang, S. Y.
2006-06-01
We applied prepolarization field and high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detector to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance signal in a microtesla magnetic field. The minimum measuring magnetic field is 8.9μT at which the proton resonance frequency is 380Hz. The specificity instrumentation and the difficulty of using a high-Tc SQUID with prepolarization field were investigated. We applied gradient field to perform one-dimensional proton imaging in a microtesla magnetic field. Additionally, low field high-Tc SQUID-based NMR systems are promising in biomagnetic research due to its use, for example, in imaging with hyperpolarized noble gas.
Magnetization studies of II-VI semiconductor columnar quantum dots with type-II band alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eginligil, M.; Sellers, I. R.; McCombe, B. D.; Chou, W.-C.; Kuskovsky, I. L.
2009-03-01
We report SQUID magnetization measurements of MBE-grown type-II, II-VI semiconductor quantum dot (QD) samples, with and without Mn incorporation. In all samples, the easy axis is out-of-plane, possibly due to columnar QD formation that arises from strain interaction between adjacent thin dot-containing layers. In addition, both types of QDs display a non-zero spontaneous magnetic ordering at 300 K. One set of samples consists of five-layers of (Zn,Mn)Te/ZnSe with a nominal (Zn,Mn)Te thickness of 3 nm, and ZnSe spacer thickness of 5 nm and 20 nm. These magnetic QD samples show magnetization vs. temperature behavior that can be interpreted in terms of two independent FM phases characterized by transition temperatures TC1 < TC2. A sample containing no Mn consists of 130 ZnTe/ZnSe layers, which forms Zn(Se,Te) QD layers separated by ZnSe spacers. Evidence of ferromagnetism is also seen in this structure, but the spontaneous magnetization is much weaker. For this sample only one phase is seen with TC above 300 K. Results will be discussed in terms of magneto-polaronic effects and defect-level induced ferromagnetism.
Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan
2014-10-06
In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.
Magnetic-Field Dependence of Tunnel Couplings in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Grap, S.; Paaske, J.; Flensberg, K.; Andergassen, S.; Meden, V.; Jørgensen, H. I.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.
2012-04-01
By means of sequential and cotunneling spectroscopy, we study the tunnel couplings between metallic leads and individual levels in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. The levels are ordered in shells consisting of two doublets with strong- and weak-tunnel couplings, leading to gate-dependent level renormalization. By comparison to a one- and two-shell model, this is shown to be a consequence of disorder-induced valley mixing in the nanotube. Moreover, a parallel magnetic field is shown to reduce this mixing and thus suppress the effects of tunnel renormalization.
Approximate solutions to the quantum problem of two opposite charges in a constant magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardenghi, J. S.; Gadella, M.; Negro, J.
2016-05-01
We consider two particles of equal mass and opposite charge in a plane subject to a perpendicular constant magnetic field. This system is integrable but not superintegrable. From the quantum point of view, the solution is given by two fourth degree Hill differential equations which involve the energy as well as a second constant of motion. There are two solvable approximations in relation to the value of a parameter. Starting from each of these approximations, a consistent perturbation theory can be applied to get approximate values of the energy levels and of the second constant of motion.
First-principles theory of quantum well resonance in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions.
Wang, Yan; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, X-G; Han, X F
2006-08-25
Quantum well (QW) resonances in Fe(001)/MgO/Fe/MgO/Fe double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions are calculated from first principles. By including the Coulomb blockade energy due to the finite size islands of the middle Fe film, we confirm that the oscillatory differential resistance observed in a recent experiment [T. Nozaki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 027208 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.027208] originates from the QW resonances from the Delta1 band of the Fe majority-spin channel. The primary source of smearing at low temperatures is shown to be the variation of the Coulomb blockade energy.
Weakly relativistic quantum kinetic theory for electrostatic wave modes in magnetized plasmas
Hussain, Azhar; Stefan, Martin; Brodin, Gert
2014-03-15
We have derived the electrostatic dispersion relation in a magnetized plasma using a recently developed quantum kinetic model based on the Dirac equation. The model contains weakly relativistic spin effects such as Thomas precession, the polarization currents associated with the spin and the spin-orbit coupling. It turns out that for strictly electrostatic perturbations the non-relativistic spin effects vanish, and the modification of the classical dispersion relation is solely associated with the relativistic terms. Several new wave modes appear due the electron spin effects, and an example for astrophysical plasmas are given.
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2014-12-15
Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2014-12-01
Semiconducting quantum dots - more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms - are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement - or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) - in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen
Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.
Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wölbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter
2013-01-22
Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(μ)(1/2) = 62 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.
2013-08-01
The effects of single-ion anisotropy on quantum criticality in a d-dimensional spin- S planar ferromagnet is explored by means of the two-time Green's function method. We work at the Tyablikov decoupling level for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling level for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis a longitudinal external magnetic field is used as the non-thermal control parameter and the phase diagram and the quantum critical properties are established for suitable values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter D. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has sensible effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point. However, for values of the uniaxial crystal-field parameter below a positive threshold, the conventional magnetic-field-induced quantum critical scenario remains unchanged.
Tunneling through stacked InAs/InGaAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, A. G.; Lopez, F. E.; Guimarães, P. S. S.; Pires, M. P.; Souza, P. L.; Landi, S. M.; Villas-Bôas, J. M.; Vieira, G. S.; Vinck-Posada, H.; Rodriguez, B. A.
2011-10-01
We report results of an investigation of vertical transport in stacked InAs/InGaAs/InP self-assembled quantum dot multi-layers and show evidence of tunneling between quantum dot states in adjacent layers. In the presence of magnetic fields up to 12 T applied parallel to the current, tunneling through Zeeman-split quasi-zero dimensional states is observed. The difference in the g factor of two quantum dots in adjacent layers, which is due to the difference in confinement, is estimated from the data. The experimental value obtained for the difference in g factor is in good agreement with that obtained from a calculation of the quantum dots' energy levels in the presence of the magnetic field.
Ivanov, B. A. Kireev, V. E.
2008-09-15
The coherent quantum tunneling effects in antiferromagnets in the presence of a strong external magnetic field parallel to the easy axis have been investigated using the instanton formalism. In a wide field range including the region of the phase spin-flop transition, the tunneling is described by 180{sup o} instantons for which the Euclidean action is real and destructive interference is absent. At the transition point, 90{sup o} instantons describing the tunneling between the collinear and spin-flop states appear. The Euclidean action decreases, whereas the tunneling probability and tunneling level splitting in both phases increase significantly in the immediate vicinity of the spin-flop transition point. The possibility of observing the coherent tunneling effects for artificial small particles (magnetic dots) made of antiferromagnets is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Maoquan; Song, Xin; Cheng, Duo; Liu, Shupeng; Zhu, Jian
2006-07-01
CdTe-coated magnetic polystyrene nanospheres (MPN) were prepared via a stepwise electrostatic self-assembly approach, and the conjugation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the MPN/CdTe core-shell nanocomposites was prepared by using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylamino propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as a cross-linking reagent. The MPN/CdTe and their bioconjugates yielded not only emitted bright fluorescence, but also exhibited superparamagnetism. The human breast cancer MDA-MB-435S cells could be labelled and rapidly separated by the MPN/CdTe-EGF bioconjugates. These magnetofluorescent nanospheres, consisting of magnetic spheres and quantum dots (QDs), may be of special interest for many biomedical applications.
Lasing and magnetic microbeads loaded with colloidal quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals.
Li, Minxu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Andrew Y; Hu, Wenjia; Wang, Jingkang; Sun, Fengqing; Zhu, Yiming; Henderson, Ron; Xu, Jian
2013-10-21
This study investigates the feasibility of loading nanostructured lasing medium and magnetic nanocrystals in the same microbead for potential applications in bio- and chemical sensing. A sequential infiltration process is proposed and tested for the preparation of magnetic and lasing microbeads by incorporating, respectively, iron oxide nanocrystals in the inner cores and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in the periphery regions of mesoporous silica microbeads. The co-doped bead structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The lasing action of the CQD gain medium in the mesoporous beads was characterized with micro-photoluminescence, revealing sharp whispering gallery mode lasing signatures, whereas the distinguishing superparamagnetic property was measured from the co-doped microbeads with vibrating sample magnetometry.
Finite-frequency-dependent noise of a quantum dot in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moca, C. P.; Simon, P.; Chung, Chung-Hou; Zaránd, G.
2014-04-01
We present a detailed study for the finite-frequency current noise of a Kondo quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field by using a recently developed real-time functional renormalization group approach [C. P. Moca, P. Simon, C. H. Chung, and G. Zaránd, Phys. Rev. B 83, 201303(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.201303]. The scaling equations are modified in an external magnetic field; the couplings and nonlocal current vertices become strongly anisotropic, and develop new singularities. Consequently, in addition to the natural emission threshold frequency, ℏω =|eV|, a corresponding singular behavior is found to emerge in the noise spectrum at frequencies ℏω ≈|eV±B|. The predicted singularities are measurable with present-day experimental techniques.
Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob
2014-09-15
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.
Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob
2014-09-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in atomic crystal layers from in-plane magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yafei; Zeng, Junjie; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Fei; Pan, Hui; Qiao, Zhenhua
2016-08-01
We theoretically demonstrate that with in-plane magnetization, the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) can be realized in two-dimensional atomic crystal layers with preserved inversion symmetry but broken out-of-plane mirror reflection symmetry. By taking the honeycomb lattice system as an example, we find that the low-buckled structure satisfying the symmetry criteria is crucial to induce QAHE. The topologically nontrivial bulk gap carrying a Chern number of C =±1 opens in the vicinity of the saddle points M , where the band dispersion exhibits strong anisotropy. We further show that the QAHE with electrically tunable Chern number can be achieved in Bernal-stacked multilayer systems, and the applied interlayer potential differences can dramatically decrease the critical magnetization to make the QAHE experimentally feasible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chwiej, T.
2016-10-01
We theoretically study the single electron magnetotransport in GaAs and InGaAs vertically stacked bilayer nanowires. In considered geometry, the tilted magnetic field is always perpendicular to the main (transport) axis of the quantum wire and, therefore its transverse and vertical components allow separately for changing the magnitude of intralayer and interlayer subbands mixing. We study the changes introduced to energy dispersion relation E(k) by tilted magnetic field of strength up to several tesla and analyze their origins for symmetric as well as asymmetric confining potentials in the growth direction. Calculated energy dispersion relations are thereafter used to show that the value of a conductance of the bilayer nanowire may abruptly rise as well as fall by few conductance quanta when the Fermi energy in nanosystem is changed. It is also shown that such conductance oscillations, in conjunction with spin Zeeman effect, may give a moderately spin polarized current in the bilayer nanowire.
Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields
Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao
2014-09-07
We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So
2016-05-01
Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Khasanov, Rustem; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Guguchia, Zurab; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Bonfà, Pietro; De Renzi, Roberto; Lin, Xiao; Kim, Stella K.; Mun, Eun Deok; Kim, Hyunsoo; Furukawa, Yuji; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.
2016-07-01
The temperature-pressure phase diagram of the ferromagnet LaCrGe3 is determined for the first time from a combination of magnetization, muon-spin-rotation, and electrical resistivity measurements. The ferromagnetic phase is suppressed near 2.1 GPa, but quantum criticality is avoided by the appearance of a magnetic phase, likely modulated, AFMQ . Our density functional theory total energy calculations suggest a near degeneracy of antiferromagnetic states with small magnetic wave vectors Q allowing for the potential of an ordering wave vector evolving from Q =0 to finite Q , as expected from the most recent theories on ferromagnetic quantum criticality. Our findings show that LaCrGe3 is a very simple example to study this scenario of avoided ferromagnetic quantum criticality and will inspire further study on this material and other itinerant ferromagnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man
2016-10-01
We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.
Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Khasanov, Rustem; ...
2016-07-13
Here, the temperature-pressure phase diagram of the ferromagnet LaCrGe3 is determined for the first time from a combination of magnetization, muon-spin-rotation, and electrical resistivity measurements. The ferromagnetic phase is suppressed near 2.1 GPa, but quantum criticality is avoided by the appearance of a magnetic phase, likely modulated, AFMQ. Our density functional theory total energy calculations suggest a near degeneracy of antiferromagnetic states with small magnetic wave vectors Q allowing for the potential of an ordering wave vector evolving from Q=0 to finite Q, as expected from the most recent theories on ferromagnetic quantum criticality. Our findings show that LaCrGe3 ismore » a very simple example to study this scenario of avoided ferromagnetic quantum criticality and will inspire further study on this material and other itinerant ferromagnets.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chao; Yao, Hui; Nie, Yi-Hang; Liang, J.-Q.
2016-11-01
We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum transport through a single-molecule magnet embedded in a tunnel junction with ferromagnetic electrodes, which generate spin-polarized electrons. The lead magnetization direction is non-collinear with the uniaxial anisotropy easy-axis of molecule-magnet. Based on the Pauli rate-equation approach we demonstrate the magnetization reversion of molecule-magnet induced by the back action of spin-polarized current in the sequential tunnel regime. The asymptotic magnetization of molecular magnet and spin-polarization of transport current are obtained as functions of time by means of time-dependent solution of the rate equation. It is found that the antiparallel configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes and molecular anisotropy easy-axis is an effective structure to reverse both the magnetization of molecule-magnet and spin-polarization of the transport current. Particularly the non-collinear angle dependence provides useful knowledge for the quantum manipulation of molecule-magnet and spin polarized electron-transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krizanac, M.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.
2017-01-01
We present a perturbative approach for the resonant tunnel splittings of an arbitrary effective single spin system. The Hamiltonian of such a system contains a uniaxial anisotropy, a transversal magnetic field and a second-order transversal anisotropy. Further, we investigate the influence of the transversal magnetic field on the energy splittings for higher integer quantum spins and we introduce an exact formula, which defines values of the transversal magnetic field, the transversal anisotropy and the uniaxial anisotropy where the contribution of the transversal magnetic field to the energy splitting is at least equal to the contribution of the transversal anisotropy.
Formation of quantum magnetization plateaux in mixed-spin Ising chains with single-ion anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solano-Carrillo, E.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.
2010-12-01
We investigate the physical processes which give rise to a multi-plateau ground-state magnetization curve in ferrimagnetic Ising chains with alternating spins ( S, s) and different single-ion anisotropies on each sublattice of the system under an applied magnetic field, by using an elaboration of the molecular-field theory. Our analysis is started with the system ( S,{1}/{2}) for which we use the transfer-matrix technique for comparison. In this system, we find a double-plateau structure (initial and saturation) in the magnetization curve for all values of S>{1}/{2}, independent of anisotropies. Then we study two more elaborate systems, comparing the results with density-matrix renormalization group calculations, and finally generalize our argument to the general case. We find that for a specified range of the anisotropy parameters, the system exhibits 2 s+1 plateaux, including the two classical and all those allowed for general quantum spin chains. This follows a similar rule as that known for spin- S(S≥1) Ising chains with single-ion anisotropy, for which 2 S+1 plateaux appear in the ground-state magnetization curve, surviving even at low temperatures.
Fan, Hai-Ming; Olivo, Malini; Shuter, Borys; Yi, Jia-Bao; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Tan, Hui-Ru; Xing, Gui-Chuan; Ng, Cheng-Teng; Liu, Lei; Lucky, Sasidharan S; Bay, Boon-Huat; Ding, Jun
2010-10-27
In the present study, quantum dot (QD) capped magnetite nanorings (NRs) with a high luminescence and magnetic vortex core have been successfully developed as a new class of magnetic-fluorescent nanoprobe. Through electrostatic interaction, cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) capped QD have been firmly graft into negatively charged magnetite NRs modified with citric acid on the surface. The obtained biocompatible multicolor QD capped magnetite NRs exhibit a much stronger magnetic resonance (MR) T2* effect where the r2* relaxivity and r2*/r1 ratio are 4 times and 110 times respectively larger than those of a commercial superparamagnetic iron oxide. The multiphoton fluorescence imaging and cell uptake of QD capped magnetite NRs are also demonstrated using MGH bladder cancer cells. In particular, these QD capped magnetite NRs can escape from endosomes and be released into the cytoplasm. The obtained results from these exploratory experiments suggest that the cell-penetrating QD capped magnetite NRs could be an excellent dual-modality nanoprobe for intracellular imaging and therapeutic applications. This work has shown great potential of the magnetic vortex core based multifunctional nanoparticle as a high performance nanoprobe for biomedical applications.
Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok
2016-06-01
Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.
Wu, Wei
2014-07-23
The magnetic properties of a theoretically designed molecular chain structure CuCoPc2, in which copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc) alternate, have been investigated across a range of chain structures. The computed exchange interaction for the α-phase CuCoPc2 is ∼ 5 K (ferromagnetic), in strong contrast to the anti-ferromagnetic interaction recently observed in CuPc and CoPc. The computed exchange interactions are strongly dependent on the stacking angle but weakly on the sliding angle, and peak at 20 K (ferromagnetic). These ferromagnetic interactions are expected to arise from direct exchange with the strong suppression of super-exchange interaction. These first-principles calculations show that π-conjugated molecules, such as phthalocyanine, could be used as building blocks for the design of magnetic materials. This therefore extends the concept of quantum metamaterials further into magnetism. The resulting new magnetic materials could find applications in the studies such as organic spintronics.
Photoluminescence studies of modulation doped coupled double quantum wells in magnetic fields
Kim, Y.; Perry, C.H. |; Simmons, J.A.; Klem, J.F.; Jones, E.D.; Rickel, D.G.
1996-09-01
We have studied the photoluminescence spectra of a series of mudulation doped couple double quantum well structures in parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields to 62 tesla at 4K and 77K, for B{parallel}a, the spectra display distinct Landau level transitions which show anti-crossing with the e1-hh1 exciton. At high fields, the lowest conduction band-valence exciton approaches the extrapolated 0- 0 Landau level. About 25 Tesla, there is valence band mixing of the e1-lh1, e1-hh2, e1-hh1 transitions. The spectral peaks display a diamagnetic shift in low in-plane magnetic fields which become linear in high fields. At magnetic fields beyond 40T, spin splitting is observed for both B{parallel}z and B{perpendicular} geometries. The partial energy gap discovered in conductance measurements in in-plane fields was not conclusively observed using photoluminescence spectroscopy, although anomalies in the energy dependence of the lowest level with magnetic field were evident at similar field values.
Quantum spin ices and magnetic states from dipolar-octupolar doublets on the pyrochlore lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gang
We consider a class of electron systems in which dipolar-octupolar Kramers doublets arise on the pyrochlore lattice. In the localized limit, the Kramers doublets are described by the effective spin 1/2 pseudospins. The most general nearest-neighbor exchange model between these pseudospins is the XYZ model. In additional to dipolar ordered and octupolar ordered magnetic states, we show that this XYZ model exhibits two distinct quantum spin ice (QSI) phases, that we dub dipolar QSI and octupolar QSI. These two QSIs are distinct symmetry enriched U(1) quantum spin liquids, enriched by the lattice symmetry. Moreover, the XYZ model is absent from the notorious sign problem for a quantum Monte Carlo simulation in a large parameter space. We discuss the potential relevance to real material systems such as Dy2Ti2O7, Nd2Zr2O7, Nd2Hf2O7, Nd2Ir2O7, Nd2Sn2O7 and Ce2Sn2O7. chggst@gmail.com, Refs: Y-P Huang, G Chen, M Hermele, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 167203 (2014).
Quantum phase transitions in the Heisenberg J1-J2 triangular antiferromagnet in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Mengxing; Chubukov, Andrey V.
2017-01-01
We present the zero-temperature phase diagram of a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a frustrated triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions, in a magnetic field. We show that the classical model has an accidental degeneracy for all J2/J1 and all fields, but the degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations. We show that at large spin S , for J2/J1<1 /8 , quantum fluctuations select the same sequence of three sublattice co-planar states in a field as for J2=0 , and for 1 /8
Experimental exploration over a quantum control landscape through nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qiuyang; Pelczer, István; Riviello, Gregory; Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel
2014-03-01
The growing successes in performing quantum control experiments motivated the development of control landscape analysis as a basis to explain these findings. When a quantum system is controlled by an electromagnetic field, the observable as a functional of the control field forms a landscape. Theoretical analyses have revealed many properties of control landscapes, especially regarding their slopes, curvatures, and topologies. A full experimental assessment of the landscape predictions is important for future consideration of controlling quantum phenomena. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is exploited here as an ideal laboratory setting for quantitative testing of the landscape principles. The experiments are performed on a simple two-level proton system in a H2O-D2O sample. We report a variety of NMR experiments roving over the control landscape based on estimation of the gradient and Hessian, including ascent or descent of the landscape, level set exploration, and an assessment of the theoretical predictions on the structure of the Hessian. The experimental results are fully consistent with the theoretical predictions. The procedures employed in this study provide the basis for future multispin control landscape exploration where additional features are predicted to exist.
Carrier relaxation in (In,Ga)As quantum dots with magnetic field-induced anharmonic level structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtze, H.; Bayer, M.
2016-07-01
Sophisticated models have been worked out to explain the fast relaxation of carriers into quantum dot ground states after non-resonant excitation, overcoming the originally proposed phonon bottleneck. We apply a magnetic field along the quantum dot heterostructure growth direction to transform the confined level structure, which can be approximated by a Fock-Darwin spectrum, from a nearly equidistant level spacing at zero field to strong anharmonicity in finite fields. This changeover leaves the ground state carrier population rise time unchanged suggesting that fast relaxation is maintained upon considerable changes of the level spacing. This corroborates recent models explaining the relaxation by polaron formation in combination with quantum kinetic effects.
Simulating quantum spin models using Rydberg-excited atomic ensembles in magnetic microtrap arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitlock, Shannon; Glaetzle, Alexander W.; Hannaford, Peter
2017-04-01
We propose a scheme to simulate lattice spin models based on strong, long-range interacting Rydberg atoms stored in a large-spacing array of magnetic microtraps. Each spin is encoded in a collective spin state involving a single nS or (n+1)S Rydberg atom excited from an ensemble of ground-state alkali atoms prepared via Rydberg blockade. After the excitation laser is switched off, the Rydberg spin states on neighbouring lattice sites interact via general XXZ spin–spin interactions. To read out the collective spin states we propose a single Rydberg atom triggered avalanche scheme in which the presence of a single Rydberg atom conditionally transfers a large number of ground-state atoms in the trap to an untrapped state which can be readily detected by site-resolved absorption imaging. Such a quantum simulator should allow the study of quantum spin systems in almost arbitrary one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations. This paves the way towards engineering exotic spin models, such as spin models based on triangular-symmetry lattices which can give rise to frustrated-spin magnetism.
Tycko, Robert
2014-07-01
Knowledge of sample temperatures during nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements is important for acquisition of optimal NMR data and proper interpretation of the data. Sample temperatures can be difficult to measure accurately for a variety of reasons, especially because it is generally not possible to make direct contact to the NMR sample during the measurements. Here I show that sample temperatures during magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR measurements can be determined from temperature-dependent photoluminescence signals of semiconductor quantum dots that are deposited in a thin film on the outer surface of the MAS rotor, using a simple optical fiber-based setup to excite and collect photoluminescence. The accuracy and precision of such temperature measurements can be better than ±5K over a temperature range that extends from approximately 50K (-223°C) to well above 310K (37°C). Importantly, quantum dot photoluminescence can be monitored continuously while NMR measurements are in progress. While this technique is likely to be particularly valuable in low-temperature MAS NMR experiments, including experiments involving dynamic nuclear polarization, it may also be useful in high-temperature MAS NMR and other forms of magnetic resonance.
Anomalous Dynamical Line Shapes in a Quantum Magnet at Finite Temperature
Tennant D. A.; James A.; Lake, B.; Essler, F.H.L.; Notbohm, S.; Mikeska, H.-J.; Fielden, J.; Kogerler,, P.; Canfield, P.C.; Telling, M.T.F.
2012-01-04
The effect of thermal fluctuations on the dynamics of a gapped quantum magnet is studied using inelastic neutron scattering on copper nitrate, a model material for the spin-1/2, one-dimensional (1D) bond alternating Heisenberg chain. A large, highly deuterated, single-crystal sample of copper nitrate is produced using a solution growth method and measurements are made using the high-resolution backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS at the ISIS Facility. Theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are combined to interpret the physical origin of the thermal effects observed in the magnetic spectra. The primary observations are (1) a thermally induced central peak due to intraband scattering, which is similar to Villain scattering familiar from soliton systems in 1D, and (2) the one-magnon quasiparticle pole is seen to develop with temperature into an asymmetric continuum of scattering. We relate this asymmetric line broadening to a thermal strongly correlated state caused by hard-core constraints and quasiparticle interactions. These findings are a counter example to recent assertions of the universality of line broadening in 1D systems and are applicable to a broad range of quantum systems.
Tycko, Robert
2014-01-01
Knowledge of sample temperatures during nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements is important for acquisition of optimal NMR data and proper interpretation of the data. Sample temperatures can be difficult to measure accurately for a variety of reasons, especially because it is generally not possible to make direct contact to the NMR sample during the measurements. Here I show that sample temperatures during magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR measurements can be determined from temperature-dependent photoluminescence signals of semiconductor quantum dots that are deposited in a thin film on the outer surface of the MAS rotor, using a simple optical fiber-based setup to excite and collect photoluminescence. The accuracy and precision of such temperature measurements can be better than ±5 K over a temperature range that extends from approximately 50 K (−223° C) to well above 310 K (37° C). Importantly, quantum dot photoluminescence can be monitored continuously while NMR measurements are in progress. While this technique is likely to be particularly valuable in low-temperature MAS NMR experiments, including experiments involving dynamic nuclear polarization, it may also be useful in high-temperature MAS NMR and other forms of magnetic resonance. PMID:24859817
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostahie, B.; Aldea, A.
2016-02-01
Spectral and transport properties of electrons in confined phosphorene systems are investigated in a five hopping parameter tight-binding model, using analytical and numerical techniques. The main emphasis is on the properties of the topological edge states accommodated by the quasiflat band that characterizes the phosphorene energy spectrum. We show, in the particular case of phosphorene, how the breaking of the bipartite lattice structure gives rise to the electron-hole asymmetry of the energy spectrum. The properties of the topological edge states in the zigzag nanoribbons are analyzed under different aspects: degeneracy, localization, extension in the Brillouin zone, dispersion of the quasiflat band in magnetic field. The finite-size phosphorene plaquette exhibits a Hofstadter-type spectrum made up of two unequal butterflies separated by a gap, where a quasiflat band composed of zigzag edge states is located. The transport properties are investigated by simulating a four-lead Hall device (importantly, all leads are attached on the same zigzag side), and using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. We find out that the chiral edge states due to the magnetic field yield quantum Hall plateaus, but the topological edge states in the gap do not support the quantum Hall effect and prove a dissipative behavior. By calculating the complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian that describes the open system (plaquette+leads), we prove the superradiance effect in the energy range of the quasiflat band, with consequences for the density of states and electron transmission properties.
Size dependent magnetic and optical properties in diamond shaped graphene quantum dots: A DFT study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Ritwika; Dhar, Namrata; Bandyopadhyay, Arka; Jana, Debnarayan
2016-12-01
The magnetic and optical properties of diamond shaped graphene quantum dots (DSGQDs) have been investigated by varying their sizes with the help of density functional theory (DFT). The study of density of states (DOS) has revealed that the Fermi energy decreases with increase in sizes (number of carbon atoms). The intermediate structure with 30 carbon atoms shows the highest magnetic moment (8 μB, μB being the Bohr magneton). The shifting of optical transitions to higher energy in smallest DSGQD (16 carbon atoms) bears the signature of stronger quantum confinement. However, for the largest structure (48 carbon atoms) multiple broad peaks appear in case of parallel polarization and in this case electron energy loss spectra (EELS) peak (in the energy range 0-5 eV) is sharp in nature (compared to high energy peak). This may be attributed to π plasmon and the broad peak (in the range 10-16 eV) corresponds to π + σ plasmon. A detail calculation of the Raman spectra has indicated some prominent mode of vibrations which can be used to characterize these structures (with hydrogen terminated dangling bonds). We think that these theoretical observations can be utilized for novel device designs involving DSGQDs.
Local dissipation effects in two-dimensional quantum Josephson junction arrays with a magnetic field
Polak, T.P.; Kopec, T.K.
2005-07-01
We study the quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson-couples junctions with short range Josephson couplings (given by the Josephson energy E{sub J}) and the charging energy E{sub C}. We map the problem onto the solvable quantum generalization of the spherical model that improves over the mean-field theory method. The arrays are placed on the top of a two-dimensional electron gas separated by an insulator. We include effects of the local dissipation in the presence of an external magnetic flux f={phi}/{phi}{sub 0} in square lattice for several rational fluxes f=0,(1/2),(1/3),(1/4), and (1/6). We also have examined the T=0 superconducting-insulator phase boundary as a function of a dissipation {alpha}{sub 0} for two different geometry of the lattice: square and triangular. We have found a critical value of the dissipation parameter independent on geometry of the lattice and presence magnetic field.
2008-08-01
FINAL REPORT Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System...Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System for Detection, Characterization and Mapping of Unexploded...Demonstration of the difference between a single component total field magnetometer and intrinsic gradiometer . (From Clarke, 1994). 4 Figure 3
Effect of disorder on the pressure-induced superconducting state of CeAu 2Si 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Z.; Giriat, G.; Scheerer, G. W.; Lapertot, G.; Jaccard, D.
2015-03-01
CeAu2Si2 is a newly discovered pressure-induced heavy fermion superconductor, which shows very unusual interplay between superconductivity and magnetism under pressure. Here we compare the results of high-pressure measurements on single-crystalline CeAu2Si2 samples with different levels of disorder. It is found that while the magnetic properties are essentially sample independent, superconductivity is rapidly suppressed when the residual resistivity of the sample increases. We show that the depression of bulk Tc can be well understood in terms of pair breaking by nonmagnetic disorder, which strongly suggests an unconventional pairing state in pressurized CeAu2Si2 . Furthermore, increasing the level of disorder leads to the emergence of another phase transition at T* within the magnetic phase, which might be in competition with superconductivity.
Mattila, Aleksi; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Badro, James; Vankó, György; Shukla, Abhay
2007-05-11
We investigate the magnetic properties of archetypal transition-metal oxides MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO under very high pressure by x-ray emission spectroscopy at the Kbeta line. We observe a strong modification of the magnetism in the megabar range in all the samples except NiO. The results are analyzed within a multiplet approach including charge-transfer effects. The spectral changes are well accounted for by changes of the ligand field acting on the d electrons and allows us to extract the d-hybridization strength, O-2p bandwidth and ionic crystal field across the magnetic transition. This approach allows first-hand insight into the mechanism of the pressure-induced spin transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchison, Robert B.; Huntley, James J. A.; Jin, Haoran; Shapiro, Joseph I.
1992-12-01
An investigation into the signal suppression behavior of the paramagnetic shift and relaxation reagents, Dy(P3O10)27- and Gd(P3O10)27-, with regard to their use in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of sodium has been performed. Measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of sodium in normal saline, Krebs-Henseleit buffer, and human blood serum, as a function of concentration of these reagents showed that, although closely coupled in the saline and K-H buffer environments, in plasma T1 and T2 become decoupled, transverse relaxation dominating in comparison to longitudinal relaxation. Linewidth measurements further suggest that relaxation in the plasma milieu is controlled primarily by inherent T2 relaxation, rather than by field inhomogeneity or diffusion effects. Quantitative single-quantum (1Q) and double-quantum (2Q) intensity measurements, biexponential T2 relaxation measurements, and parametric studies of the preparation time of the 2Q pulse sequence, were obtained in suspensions of bovine serum albumin and human erythrocytes. The observed suppression of sodium 2Q coherence by paramagnetic shift and relaxation reagents was found to exhibit a complex behavior in albumin solutions, involving the biexponential T2 decay to be expected during the preparation time of the 2Q filter pulse sequence, as well as the optimum preparation time for production of the double-quantum coherence itself. The controlling factor for both of these effects is the biexponential amplitude function in the expression for the transverse magnetization observed following application of the 2Q pulse sequence. This in turn is determined entirely by the values for the slow and fast components of biexponential relaxation in sodium, which themselves depend upon the concentration of the macromolecular binding sites for quadrupolar interaction. A similar behavior has been observed in suspensions of human erythrocytes.
Formation of silicon nanoparticles by a pressure induced nucleation mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Myung-Koo; Kim, Si Joon; Kim, Hyun Jae
2013-03-01
Formation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was achieved using excimer laser crystallization of an amorphous Si (a-Si) thin film using a SiO2 capping layer (C/L) with improved thin-film transistor (TFT) performance due to the enlarged grain size of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si). After laser irradiation of an a-Si thin film covered with C/L, fluctuation in the surface morphology of the C/L was observed above the critical laser energy density (Ecr) with the formation of SiNPs. The grain size of the poly-Si layer after crystallization increased abruptly at the same time. A non-uniform pressure distribution beneath the SiO2 C/L was proposed for the initiation of nucleation, which is named pressure induced nucleation (PIN) mechanism. Following nucleation, the release of latent heat made it difficult for the remnant liquid Si to solidify and the volume increased due to the density difference between the liquid and solid Si. Consequently, the pressure on the liquid Si caused SiNPs to sprout through the SiO2 C/L as grains grew from the low temperature to high temperature point. This study offers not only a simple method to fabricate SiNPs with controllable size/density but also larger grain size with lower laser energy density, which leads to higher TFT performance.
Transdermal deferoxamine prevents pressure-induced diabetic ulcers.
Duscher, Dominik; Neofytou, Evgenios; Wong, Victor W; Maan, Zeshaan N; Rennert, Robert C; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Januszyk, Michael; Rodrigues, Melanie; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Whitmore, Arnetha J; Walmsley, Graham G; Galvez, Michael G; Whittam, Alexander J; Brownlee, Michael; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gurtner, Geoffrey C
2015-01-06
There is a high mortality in patients with diabetes and severe pressure ulcers. For example, chronic pressure sores of the heels often lead to limb loss in diabetic patients. A major factor underlying this is reduced neovascularization caused by impaired activity of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In diabetes, HIF-1α function is compromised by a high glucose-induced and reactive oxygen species-mediated modification of its coactivator p300, leading to impaired HIF-1α transactivation. We examined whether local enhancement of HIF-1α activity would improve diabetic wound healing and minimize the severity of diabetic ulcers. To improve HIF-1α activity we designed a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) containing the FDA-approved small molecule deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator that increases HIF-1α transactivation in diabetes by preventing iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen stress. Applying this TDDS to a pressure-induced ulcer model in diabetic mice, we found that transdermal delivery of DFO significantly improved wound healing. Unexpectedly, prophylactic application of this transdermal delivery system also prevented diabetic ulcer formation. DFO-treated wounds demonstrated increased collagen density, improved neovascularization, and reduction of free radical formation, leading to decreased cell death. These findings suggest that transdermal delivery of DFO provides a targeted means to both prevent ulcer formation and accelerate diabetic wound healing with the potential for rapid clinical translation.
Transdermal deferoxamine prevents pressure-induced diabetic ulcers
Duscher, Dominik; Neofytou, Evgenios; Wong, Victor W.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Rennert, Robert C.; Januszyk, Michael; Rodrigues, Melanie; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Whitmore, Arnetha J.; Galvez, Michael G.; Whittam, Alexander J.; Brownlee, Michael; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.
2015-01-01
There is a high mortality in patients with diabetes and severe pressure ulcers. For example, chronic pressure sores of the heels often lead to limb loss in diabetic patients. A major factor underlying this is reduced neovascularization caused by impaired activity of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In diabetes, HIF-1α function is compromised by a high glucose-induced and reactive oxygen species-mediated modification of its coactivator p300, leading to impaired HIF-1α transactivation. We examined whether local enhancement of HIF-1α activity would improve diabetic wound healing and minimize the severity of diabetic ulcers. To improve HIF-1α activity we designed a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) containing the FDA-approved small molecule deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator that increases HIF-1α transactivation in diabetes by preventing iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen stress. Applying this TDDS to a pressure-induced ulcer model in diabetic mice, we found that transdermal delivery of DFO significantly improved wound healing. Unexpectedly, prophylactic application of this transdermal delivery system also prevented diabetic ulcer formation. DFO-treated wounds demonstrated increased collagen density, improved neovascularization, and reduction of free radical formation, leading to decreased cell death. These findings suggest that transdermal delivery of DFO provides a targeted means to both prevent ulcer formation and accelerate diabetic wound healing with the potential for rapid clinical translation. PMID:25535360
Pressure-induced series of phase transitions in sodium azide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hongyang; Zhang, Fuxiang; Ji, Cheng; Hou, Dongbin; Wu, Jianzhe; Hannon, Trevor; Ma, Yangzhang
2013-01-01
The phase analysis of sodium azide (NaN3) has been investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements in a diamond anvil cell up to 52.0 GPa at room temperature. Three pressure-induced phase transitions were observed. The phase transition pressures were determined to be 0.3, 17.3, and 28.7 GPa verified by three different pressure transmitting media. The first high pressure phase, α-NaN3 (0.3 ˜ 17.3 GPa), was identified to be monoclinic with a C2/m space group. The β-NaN3 to α-NaN3 transition is a second-order phase transition, accompanied by the shearing of the Na-layers and the tilting of the azide chains. The second high pressure phase, γ-NaN3 (18.4 ˜ 28.7 GPa), has a lower symmetry than the α-NaN3. A further phase transition of γ-NaN3 to δ-NaN3 at 28.7 GPa was observed.
Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases
Moon, Ju-hyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.
2011-06-15
The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.
Tokiwa, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Udagawa, M.; Kittaka, S.; Sakakibara, T; Terazawa, D.; Shimoyama, Y.; Terashima, T.; Yasui, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.
2016-01-01
The low-energy elementary excitations in frustrated quantum magnets have fascinated researchers for decades. In frustrated Ising magnets on a pyrochlore lattice possessing macroscopically degenerate spin-ice ground states, the excitations have been discussed in terms of classical magnetic monopoles, which do not contain quantum fluctuations. Here we report unusual behaviours of magneto-thermal conductivity in the disordered spin-liquid regime of pyrochlore Yb2Ti2O7, which hosts frustrated spin-ice correlations with large quantum fluctuations owing to pseudospin-1/2 of Yb ions. The analysis of the temperature and magnetic field dependencies shows the presence of gapped elementary excitations. We find that the gap energy is largely suppressed from that expected in classical monopoles. Moreover, these excitations propagate a long distance without being scattered, in contrast to the diffusive nature of classical monopoles. These results suggests the emergence of highly itinerant quantum magnetic monopole, which is a heavy quasiparticle that propagates coherently in three-dimensional spin liquids. PMID:26912080
Ding, Ke; Jing, Lihong; Liu, Chunyan; Hou, Yi; Gao, Mingyuan
2014-02-01
Magnetically engineered Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn quantum dots (QDs) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential dual-modality probes for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors in vivo. The synthesis of Mn-doped core-shell structured CuInS2@ZnS mainly comprised three steps, i.e., the preparation of fluorescent CuInS2 seeds, the particle surface coating of ZnS, and the Mn-doping of the ZnS shells. Systematic spectroscopy studies were carried out to illustrate the impacts of ZnS coating and the following Mn-doping on the optical properties of the QDs. In combination with conventional fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, the structure of CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs prepared under optimized conditions presented a Zn gradient CuInS2 core and a ZnS outer shell, while Mn ions were mainly located in the ZnS shell, which well balanced the optical and magnetic properties of the resultant QDs. For the following in vivo imaging experiments, the hydrophobic CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs were transferred into water upon ligand exchange reactions by replacing the 1-dodecanethiol ligand with dihydrolipoic acid-poly(ethylene glycol) (DHLA-PEG) ligand. The MTT assays based on HeLa cells were carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the current Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs for comparing with that of water soluble CdTe QDs. Further in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging experiments suggested that the PEGylated CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs could well target both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors in vivo.
Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro
2016-01-01
For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm(2)/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials.
Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro
2016-01-01
For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm2/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials. PMID:27152326
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mischenko, I.; Chuev, M.
2016-12-01
A standard multi-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics of single-domain particles together with recently developed quantum-mechanical and continual models of specific thermo- and magnetic dynamics of antiferromagnetic particles were applied to analyse temperature series of Mössbauer spectra of Fe2O3 based nanoparticles. Advantages of these models, their comparison and further generalizations are discussed on the example of the particular experimental data.
Wang, H L; Yu, X Z; Wang, S L; Chen, L; Zhao, J H
2013-08-01
We have developed a sample rod which makes the conventional superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer capable of performing magnetization and electrical transport measurements simultaneously. The sample holder attached to the end of a 140 cm long sample rod is a nonmagnetic drinking straw or a 1.5 mm wide silicon strip with small magnetic background signal. Ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As films are used to test the new sample rod, and the results are in good agreement with previous report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H. L.; Yu, X. Z.; Wang, S. L.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J. H.
2013-08-01
We have developed a sample rod which makes the conventional superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer capable of performing magnetization and electrical transport measurements simultaneously. The sample holder attached to the end of a 140 cm long sample rod is a nonmagnetic drinking straw or a 1.5 mm wide silicon strip with small magnetic background signal. Ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As films are used to test the new sample rod, and the results are in good agreement with previous report.
Zhang, Kaixuan; Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Feng, Qiyuan; Zhang, Nan; Cheng, Long; Fan, Xiaodong; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zeng, Changgan
2017-03-08
One-dimensional (1D) confinement has been revealed to effectively tune the properties of materials in homogeneous states. The 1D physics can be further enriched by electronic inhomogeneity, which unfortunately remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the ultrahigh sensitivity to magnetic fluctuations and the tunability of phase stability in the electronic transport properties of self-assembled electronically phase-separated manganite nanowires with extreme aspect ratio. The onset of magnetic nanodroplet state, a precursor to the ferromagnetic metallic state, is unambiguously revealed, which is attributed to the small lateral size of the nanowires that is comparable to the droplet size. Moreover, the quasi-1D anisotropy stabilizes thin insulating domains to form intrinsic tunneling junctions in the low temperature range, which is robust even under magnetic field up to 14 T and thus essentially modifies the classic 1D percolation picture to stabilize a novel quantum percolation state. A new phase diagram is therefore established for the manganite system under quasi-1D confinement for the first time. Our findings offer new insight into understanding and manipulating the colorful properties of the electronically phase-separated systems via dimensionality engineering.
Specific detection of DNA using quantum dots and magnetic beads for large volume samples
Kim, Yeon S.; Kim, Byoung CHAN; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jungbae; Gu, Man Bock
2006-10-01
Here we present a sensitive DNA detection protocol using quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic beads (MBs) for large volume samples. In this study, QDs, conjugated with streptavidin, were used to produce fluorescent signals while magnetic beads (MBs) were used to isolate and concentrate the signals. The presence of target DNAs lead to the sandwich hybridization between the functionalized QDs, the target DNAs and the MBs. In fact, the QDs-MBs complex, which is bound using the target DNA, can be isolated and then concentrated. The binding of the QDs to the surface of the MBs was confirmed by confocal microscopy and Cd elemental analysis. It was found that the fluorescent intensity was proportional to concentration of the target DNA, while the presence of noncomplementary DNA produced no significant fluorescent signal. In addition, the presence of low copies of target DNAs such as 0.5 pM in large volume samples up to 40 ml were successfully detected by using a magnet-assisted concentration protocol which consequently results in the enhancement of the sensitivity more than 100-fold.
The Interplay of Electronic Properties and Magnetic Anisotropy in Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zutic, Igor; Lee, Jeongsu; Vyborny, Karel; Han, Jong; Petukhov, Andre
2012-02-01
Tunability of magnetic anisotropy (MA) in nanostructures is a fascinating topic, for both fundamental understanding of nanomagnetism and possible spintronic applications. While there have been preceding efforts to systematically study the MA in bulk [1], we still lack a fundamental understanding of that in magnetic quantum dots (QDs). We first explore electronic properties of nonmagnetic QDs that can be significantly altered from the bulk-state depending upon the material and geometry. Focusing on II-VI materials forming both cubic and non-cubic QDs, we confirm qualitatively different energy spectra between different materials [2]. These findings can guide the control of MA in magnetic QDs. Supported by DOE-BES, NSF-DMR, AFOSR-DCT, U.S. ONR, and NSF-ECCS. [4pt] [1] X. Liu, Y. Sasaki and J. K. Furdyna, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205204 (2004). [0pt] [2] K. V'yborn'y, J.E. Han, R. Oszwadowski, I. Zuti'c, and A. G. Petukhov, preprint (2011).
Modeling of magnetic polaron properties in (Zn,Mn)Te quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pientka, James; Barman, B.; Schweidenback, L.; Russ, A. H.; Tsai, Y.; Murphy, J. R.; Cartwright, A. N.; Zutic, I.; McCombe, B. D.; Petrou, A.; Chou, W.-C.; Fan, W. C.; Sellers, I. R.; Petukhov, A. G.; Oszwaldowski, R.
Magnetic polarons in (Zn,Mn)Te quantum dots (QD) show unconventional behavior. These structures exhibit a small red shift of the photoluminescence peak energy in the presence of a magnetic field B and they also have a weak dependence of the polaron energy EMP on temperature T and B. We attribute these properties to a large molecular field Bm that is proportional to the heavy holes spin density. We have calculated Bm using the QD diameter and height as adjustable parameters. Assuming hole localization, this calculation yields values of Bm >20 T. The assumption that the hole localization diameter can be smaller than the QD diameter is justified due to alloy and spin disorder scattering. Using the magnetic polaron free energy, we calculate EMP as function of T and B for a variety of Bm values. To get a weak dependence of EMP on T and Bwe must assume that the polaron temperature is higher than T. This work was supported by U.S. DOE BES, Award DE-SC0004890, NSF DMR-1305770 and U.S. ONR N000141310754.
Urdampilleta, Matias; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc(2) (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (T(B) ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc(2) SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs.
Urdampilleta, Matias; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (TB ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc2 SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs. PMID:22072910
Magnetic polarons in type-II (Zn,Mn)Se/ZnTe quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, J. R.; Barman, B.; Tsai, Y.; Scrace, T.; Pientka, J. M.; Zutic, I.; McCombe, B. D.; Petrou, A.; Cartwright, A. N.; Chou, W. C.; Tsou, M. H.; Yang, C. S.; Sellers, I. R.; Oszwaldowski, R.; Petukhov, A. G.
2014-03-01
We have studied magnetic polaron formation dynamics in (Zn,Mn)Se/ZnTe quantum dots2 (QDs) using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The emitted light was spectrally and temporally analyzed; the emission spectra were recorded as function of time delay (Δt) from the exciting laser pulse. The recombination time at T = 10 K in our samples is 2.3 ns. The peak energy of the emission red shifts with increasing Δt due to the lowering of the hole-Mn spin complex (magnetic polaron) energy. From this shift we determined the magnetic polaron formation energy (EMP) at T = 10 K to be 20 meV, which is half the value observed in the ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te system studied previously.3EMP decreases with increasing temperature, in contrast to the behavior of the ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te system3 in which EMP is temperature independent. These results are discussed in terms of a theoretical model. This work is supported by DOE-BES, ONR and NSF.
Effects of strong interactions in a half-metallic magnet: A determinant quantum Monte Carlo study
Jiang, M.; Pickett, W. E.; Scalettar, R. T.
2013-04-03
Understanding the effects of electron-electron interactions in half-metallic magnets (HMs), which have band structures with one gapped spin channel and one metallic channel, poses fundamental theoretical issues as well as having importance for their potential applications. Here we use determinant quantum Monte Carlo to study the impacts of an on-site Hubbard interaction U, finite temperature, and an external (Zeeman) magnetic field on a bilayer tight-binding model which is a half-metal in the absence of interactions, by calculating the spectral density, conductivity, spin polarization of carriers, and local magnetic properties. We quantify the effect of U on the degree of thermal depolarization, and follow relative band shifts and monitor when significant gap states appear, each of which can degrade the HM character. For this model, Zeeman coupling induces, at fixed particle number, two successive transitions: compensated half-metal with spin-down band gap → metallic ferromagnet → saturated ferromagnetic insulator. However, over much of the more relevant parameter regime, the half-metallic properties are rather robust to U.
Effects of strong interactions in a half-metallic magnet: A determinant quantum Monte Carlo study
Jiang, M.; Pickett, W. E.; Scalettar, R. T.
2013-04-03
Understanding the effects of electron-electron interactions in half-metallic magnets (HMs), which have band structures with one gapped spin channel and one metallic channel, poses fundamental theoretical issues as well as having importance for their potential applications. Here we use determinant quantum Monte Carlo to study the impacts of an on-site Hubbard interaction U, finite temperature, and an external (Zeeman) magnetic field on a bilayer tight-binding model which is a half-metal in the absence of interactions, by calculating the spectral density, conductivity, spin polarization of carriers, and local magnetic properties. We quantify the effect of U on the degree of thermalmore » depolarization, and follow relative band shifts and monitor when significant gap states appear, each of which can degrade the HM character. For this model, Zeeman coupling induces, at fixed particle number, two successive transitions: compensated half-metal with spin-down band gap → metallic ferromagnet → saturated ferromagnetic insulator. However, over much of the more relevant parameter regime, the half-metallic properties are rather robust to U.« less
Gupta, Shamik; Bandyopadhyay, Malay
2011-10-01
We obtain the quantum Langevin equation (QLE) of a charged quantum particle moving in a harmonic potential in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field and linearly coupled to a quantum heat bath through momentum variables. The bath is modeled as a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators. The QLE involves a random force which does not depend on the magnetic field, and a quantum-generalized classical Lorentz force. These features are also present in the QLE for the case of particle-bath coupling through coordinate variables. However, significant differences are also observed. For example, the mean force in the QLE is characterized by a memory function that depends explicitly on the magnetic field. The random force has a modified form with correlation and commutator different from those in the case of coordinate-coordinate coupling. Moreover, the coupling constants, in addition to appearing in the random force and in the mean force, also renormalize the inertial term and the harmonic potential term in the QLE.
Pressure-induced referred pain is expanded by persistent soreness.
Doménech-García, V; Palsson, T S; Herrero, P; Graven-Nielsen, T
2016-05-01
Several chronic pain conditions are accompanied with enlarged referred pain areas. This study investigated a novel method for assessing referred pain. In 20 healthy subjects, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded and pressure stimuli (120% PPT) were applied bilaterally for 5 and 60 seconds at the infraspinatus muscle to induce local and referred pain. Moreover, PPTs were measured bilaterally at the shoulder, neck, and leg before, during, and after hypertonic saline-induced referred pain in the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The pressure and saline-induced pain areas were assessed on drawings. Subsequently, delayed onset muscle soreness was induced using eccentric exercise of the dominant infraspinatus muscle. The day-1 assessments were repeated the following day (day 2). Suprathreshold pressure stimulations and saline injections into the infraspinatus muscle caused referred pain to the frontal aspect of the shoulder/arm in all subjects. The 60-second pressure stimulation caused larger referred pain areas compared with the 5-second stimulation (P < 0.01). Compared with pressure stimulation, the saline-induced referred pain area was larger (P < 0.02). After saline-induced pain, the PPTs at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced (P < 0.05), and the 5-second pressure-induced referred pain area was larger than baseline. Pressure pain thresholds at the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles were reduced at day 2 in the delayed onset muscle soreness side (P < 0.05). Compared with day 1, larger pressure and saline-induced referred pain areas were observed on day 2 (P < 0.05). Referred pain to the shoulder/arm was consistently induced and enlarged after 1 day of muscle soreness, indicating that the referred pain area may be a sensitive biomarker for sensitization of the pain system.
Pressure-induced phase transition and polymerization of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomasino, Dane; Chen, Jing-Yin; Kim, Minesob; Yoo, Choong-Shik
2013-03-01
We have studied the pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE or C6N4) in diamond anvil cells using micro-Raman spectroscopy, laser-heating, emission spectroscopy, and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that TCNE in a quasi-hydrostatic condition undergoes a shear-induced phase transition at 10 GPa and then a chemical change to two-dimensional (2D) C=N polymers above 14 GPa. These phase and chemical transformations depend strongly on the state of stress in the sample and occur sluggishly in non-hydrostatic conditions over a large pressure range between 7 and 14 GPa. The x-ray diffraction data indicate that the phase transition occurs isostructurally within the monoclinic structure (P21/c) without any apparent volume discontinuity and the C=N polymer is highly disordered but remains stable to 60 GPa—the maximum pressure studied. On the other hand, laser-heating of the C=N polymer above 25 GPa further converts to a theoretically predicted 3D C-N network structure, evident from an emergence of new Raman νs(C-N) at 1404 cm-1 at 25 GPa and the visual appearance of translucent solid. The C-N product is, however, unstable upon pressure unloading below 10 GPa, resulting in a grayish powder that can be considered as nano-diamonds with high-nitrogen content at ambient pressure. The C-N product shows a strong emission line centered at 640 nm at 30 GPa, which linearly shifts toward shorter wavelength at the rate of -1.38 nm/GPa. We conjecture that the observed red shift upon unloading pressure is due to increase of defects in the C-N product and thereby weakening of C-N bonds.
Pressure-induced change of the electronic state in the tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Yui; Ikeda, Shugo; Kuse, Tetsuji; Kobayashi, Hisao
2014-07-01
We have investigated the electronic states of single-crystal CaFe2As2 under hydrostatic pressure using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The center shift and the quadrupole splitting were refined from observed 57Fe Mössbauer spectra using the single-crystalline sample under pressure at room temperature. A discontinuous decrease in the pressure dependence of the refined center shift was observed at 0.33 GPa without any anomaly in the pressure dependence of the refined quadrupole splitting, indicating a purely electronic state change in CaFe2As2 with a tetragonal structure. Such a change is shown to be reflected in the peak-like anomalies observed in the pressure dependences of the magnetic susceptibility at 0.26 GPa above 150 K. Our results reveal that this pressure-induced electronic state change suppresses the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition accompanied by an antiferromagnetic ordering. We further observed superconductivity in CaFe2As2 below ˜8 K around 0.33 GPa although our sample was not in a single phase at this pressure. These findings suggest that the electronic state change observed in CaFe2As2 with the tetragonal structure is relevant to the appearance of the pressure-induced superconductivity in AFe2As2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Simonović, N. S.
2013-04-01
We found that a downwardly concave entanglement evolution of the ground state of a two-electron axially symmetric quantum dot testifies that a shape transition from a lateral to a vertical localization of two electrons under a perpendicular magnetic field takes place. Although affected, the two-electron probability density does not exhibit any prominent change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trojnar, Anna H.; Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Korkusiński, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel
2011-12-01
A theory of the fine structure of correlated exciton states in self-assembled parabolic semiconductor quantum dots in a magnetic field perpendicular to the quantum dot plane is presented. The correlated exciton wave function is expanded in configurations consisting of products of electron and heavy-hole 2D harmonic oscillator states (HO) in a magnetic field and the electron spin Sz=±1/2 and a heavy-hole spin τz=±3/2 states. Analytical expressions for the short- and long-range electron-hole exchange Coulomb interaction matrix elements are derived in the HO and spin basis for arbitrary magnetic field. This allows the incorporation of short- and long-range electron-hole exchange, direct electron-hole interaction, and quantum dot anisotropy in the exact diagonalization of the exciton Hamiltonian. The fine structure of ground and excited correlated exciton states as a function of a number of confined shells, quantum dot anisotropy, and magnetic field is obtained using exact diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. The effects of correlations are shown to significantly affect the energy splitting of the two bright exciton states.