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Sample records for prestorage leukocyte filtration

  1. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood... blood establishments with recommendations for pre-storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  2. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood...

  3. Experimental prestorage filtration removes antibodies and decreases lipids in RBC supernatants mitigating TRALI in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kelher, Marguerite R.; Khan, Samina Y.; LaSarre, Monica; West, F. Bernadette; Land, Kevin J.; Mish, Barbara; Ceriano, Linda; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a significant cause of transfusion-related mortality with red cell transfusion. We hypothesize that prestorage filtration may reduce proinflammatory activity in the red blood cell (RBC) supernatant and prevent TRALI. Filters were manufactured for both small volumes and RBC units. Plasma containing antibodies to human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 or human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a was filtered, and immunoglobulins and specific HNA-3a and HLA-2a neutrophil (PMN) priming activity were measured. Antibodies to OX27 were added to plasma, and filtration was evaluated in a 2-event animal model of TRALI. RBC units from 31 donors known to have antibodies against HLA antigens and from 16 antibody-negative controls were filtered. Furthermore, 4 RBC units were drawn and underwent standard leukoreduction. Immunoglobulins, HLA antibodies, PMN priming activity, and the ability to induce TRALI in an animal model were measured. Small-volume filtration of plasma removed >96% of IgG, antibodies to HLA-A2 and HNA-3a, and their respective priming activity, as well as mitigating antibody-mediated in vivo TRALI. In RBC units, experimental filtration removed antibodies to HLA antigens and inhibited the accumulation of lipid priming activity and lipid-mediated TRALI. We conclude that filtration removes proinflammatory activity and the ability to induce TRALI from RBCs and may represent a TRALI mitigation step. PMID:24747436

  4. Experimental prestorage filtration removes antibodies and decreases lipids in RBC supernatants mitigating TRALI in vivo.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Christopher C; Kelher, Marguerite R; Khan, Samina Y; LaSarre, Monica; West, F Bernadette; Land, Kevin J; Mish, Barbara; Ceriano, Linda; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a significant cause of transfusion-related mortality with red cell transfusion. We hypothesize that prestorage filtration may reduce proinflammatory activity in the red blood cell (RBC) supernatant and prevent TRALI. Filters were manufactured for both small volumes and RBC units. Plasma containing antibodies to human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 or human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a was filtered, and immunoglobulins and specific HNA-3a and HLA-2a neutrophil (PMN) priming activity were measured. Antibodies to OX27 were added to plasma, and filtration was evaluated in a 2-event animal model of TRALI. RBC units from 31 donors known to have antibodies against HLA antigens and from 16 antibody-negative controls were filtered. Furthermore, 4 RBC units were drawn and underwent standard leukoreduction. Immunoglobulins, HLA antibodies, PMN priming activity, and the ability to induce TRALI in an animal model were measured. Small-volume filtration of plasma removed >96% of IgG, antibodies to HLA-A2 and HNA-3a, and their respective priming activity, as well as mitigating antibody-mediated in vivo TRALI. In RBC units, experimental filtration removed antibodies to HLA antigens and inhibited the accumulation of lipid priming activity and lipid-mediated TRALI. We conclude that filtration removes proinflammatory activity and the ability to induce TRALI from RBCs and may represent a TRALI mitigation step.

  5. Fatal TRALI associated with neutrophil antibodies in a recipient of pre-storage leukocyte-reduced blood components.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Kadota, Eiji; Shimizu, Michiomi; Nomura, Shosaku

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old man developed possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) after red cell component transfusion. The patient developed autoimmune neutropenia with the expression of neutrophil antibodies. Neutrophil aggregation, endothelial damage, and development of a large thrombus containing platelets were observed post mortem in his pulmonary vessels. The patient also had subacute organizing pneumonia. He received blood components treated with universal pre-storage leuko-reduction. Even though leukocytes in the blood components are reduced to a few million by this process, TRALI can be fatal, as was the case for this recipient, who had subacute organizing pneumonia in conjunction with immune-mediated neutropenia.

  6. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors.

  7. Effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin expression of apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z T; Chen, C; Zhang, S H; Yang, H M; Tao, Z H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte filtration on the P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression of apheresis platelets during the retention period. Ten bags of apheresis platelets stored for 1 day (0-24 h) and 10 bags of apheresis platelets stored for 2 days (24-48 h) were used for leukocyte filtration (experimental group). Ten bags of apheresis platelets with the corresponding retention periods but without filtration were used as a negative control (control group). Thereafter, 100 μL of platelet suspensions from apheresis platelets with or without leukocyte filtration were sampled before and after leukocyte filtration for the detection of CD62P surface expression by flow cytometry. No statistical difference in the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets was observed before and after leukocyte filtration (P > 0.05), neither did the CD62P surface expression exhibit any change among the different retention periods. Leukocyte filtration does not affect the CD62P surface expression of apheresis platelets stored for up to 2 days, which indicates that leukocyte filtration does not damage the activation of apheresis platelets within the retention period.

  8. [The effect of leukocyte depletion by filtration on the quality of apheresis platelets].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Chun-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Ge, Guo-Feng; Lin, Zi-Lin; Pan, Ji-Chun; Wang, De-Qing; Luo, Qun; Tian, Ya-Ping

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of leukocyte depletion by filtration on the quality of apheresis platelets. 20 units of donor apheresis platelets were randomly selected and were preserved with agitation at 20 - 24 degrees C for 24 - 96 hours, then were filtered on polyester flatbed filters. The platelet concentration, mean platelet volume (MPV), volume of apheresis platelets, leukocyte count, pH value, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, K(+) concentration and CD62p expression level on surface of platelet membrane, were detected before and after filtration, as well as the rate of leukocyte depletion and platelet loss were calculated. The results showed that the leukocyte count after filtration was remarkably lower than that before filtration (p < 0.001), and the rate of leukocyte depletion was 99.97%. Platelet loss was approximately 8%, and obviously lower than that of the national standard (p < 0.001). MPV, pH value, K(+) and LDH concentration were not significantly different before and after filtration. Compared with platelets before filtration, CD62p expression level after filtration slightly decreased (p > 0.05). CD62p expression on surface of platelet membrane in perfusion fluid obtained from filter plate was obviously higher than that before filtration (p < 0.05). MA of platelet after filtration slightly decreased (p > 0.05). It is concluded that leukocyte and partial activated platelets can be removed efficiently by using polyester flatbed filters, and platelet loss is very low. Filtration does not adversely affect coagulation activity of the platelets in vitro. Apheresis platelets after filtration can fulfil quality requirements to prevent infection of cytomegalovirus and HLA alloimmunization.

  9. Leukocyte filtration mechanisms. Factors influencing the removal of infectious agents from red cell concentrates.

    PubMed

    Steneker, I; Pietersz, R N; Reesink, H W

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present overview was to determine the factors influencing the removal of infectious agents from red cell concentrates by filtration. In general, the efficacy of the filtration method depends on the physical as well as the functional properties of blood cells. These properties are highly influenced by the changes exerted on the blood cells during blood collection, processing and storage and the filtration method itself. In particular, the removal of infectious agents of red cell concentrates by filtration will be determined by the type of virus and therewith the binding towards leukocytes, the type of bacteria and holding period before filtration, the deformability of infected cells and the disintegration of cells in the filter.

  10. [Clinical effects of the transfusion of leukocytes isolated by filtration from continuous flux].

    PubMed

    Malinvaud, G; Gailiard, S; Gualde, N

    1977-09-01

    The present work studies clinical effects of leukocyte transfusions to patients with medular aplasis. Leukocytes were collected by filtration on a continuous flow, according to the technique earlier described in this review [9]. Two major points are stressed on tolerance by the patients of the injected products and clinical efficiency. Seventy eight suspensions were prepared and transfused to 30 patients in the course of 36 incidents of myeloid insufficiency. All patients but two evidenced by the time of transfusion a number of polynuclears inferior to 500 per cubic millimeter. The infection was quite serious with increased gravity despite the antibiotherapy. Intolerance was noticeable in about one third of the cases, half of which consisted only in chillis by the end or after transfusion. Only one accident consisting in acute respiration troubles and shock was observed. This however does not occur by chance. It involves sensitization which may be related to HLA system but may also be of different nature, although not clearly identified. Nevertheless is efficiency of the injected products demonstrated by recirculation of the transfused leukocytes. This was noticed within an hour following transfusion for more than 50 percent of the cases. Furthermore it lasted for 16 hours in more than one fourth of the patients. In addition following results are in favour of real clinical efficiency. Certainly in the course of 16 aplasic incidents, no improvement was observed. For most patients however transfusions were late and not renewed or the patients were highly immunized. Conversely the infection state did improve in 8 patients, the disease responsible for aplasia running its course on its own. Lastly in the course of 12 aplasic incidents, infection and acute aplasia did cure. All these observations should lead one to study with great care the immunological state of the recipient. Instructions being known, the number of transfused leukocytes should be sufficient and

  11. Diabetes mellitus: polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) filtration parameters and PMN membrane fluidity after chemotactic activation.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, R; Montana, M; Canino, B; Ventimiglia, G; Catania, A; Caimi, G

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine leukocyte rheology at baseline and after chemotactic activation in type I and type II diabetics. In 19 normal subjects, 21 type I diabetics, and 16 type II diabetics at baseline and after in vitro chemotactic activation (prolonged for 5 and 15 minutes) with two stimulating agents (4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA] and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP]), we evaluated polymorphonuclear (PMN) filtration parameters (using a St. George filtrometer [Carri-Med, Dorking, UK] and considering the initial relative flow rate [IRFR] and the concentration of clogging particles [CP]) and PMN membrane fluidity (obtained by marking PMNs with the fluorescent probe 1-(4-[trimethylamino]phenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH). At baseline, there was a difference between normals and type I and II diabetics for PMN membrane fluidity only. After activation in normals and diabetics of both types, a significant variation was present in PMN filtration parameters (IRFR and CP) at both 5 and 15 minutes. In normals, no variation was present in PMN membrane fluidity after activation with PMA or fMLP. After PMN activation, only in type I diabetics was a significant decrease in PMN membrane fluidity present at both 5 and 15 minutes. After PMN activation with either PMA or fMLP in comparison to basal values, only the mean variation (delta%) of the IRFR was significantly different between normals, type I diabetics, and type II diabetics at both 5 and 15 minutes. From the data obtained, it is evident that after activation, the PMN filtration pattern shows a specific behavior in diabetics of both types, while PMN membrane fluidity changes only in type I diabetics. The latter finding may be the basis of a metabolic pattern present in PMNs of this type, revealed after in vitro activation.

  12. Leukocyte filtration and miniature perfusion during arrested heart CABG on a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Steven W; Duncan, Michael A; Chase, Virginia A; Cheung, Edson H; Hamman, B L

    2004-11-01

    transition to an on-pump procedure and (2) use of larger surface area with conventional systems that impose a greater hemodilutional effect. Leukocyte filtration was employed as the patient had a significant past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We herein report our clinical experience with this method of treatment on a patient who refused the use of blood products in his surgical treatment. It is our belief that the multiple modalities utilized in combination during this procedure resulted in positive clinical outcomes as demonstrated by an intubation time of 8 hours 35 min with a discharge on the fifth postoperative day.

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on the preparation of leukocyte-poor red cell concentrates by filtration: the filtration process on cellulose acetate fibers.

    PubMed

    Steneker, I; Biewenga, J

    1990-01-01

    A histological and immunohistochemical investigation of slices from the Cellselect leukocyte filter showed that the capture of lymphocytes within these filters depended on trapping of the cells in the cellulose acetate fiber network more than on adherence. Probably, additional mechanisms played a role in granulocyte removal. Microaggregates of granulocytes and platelets were found at the top of the Cellselect leukocyte filter. Therefore, it is likely that granulocyte and platelet removal, at least in part, is due to the formation of cell clusters on the surface of the fibers. Although a part of the original, nonfiltered, leukocytes already showed morphologic characteristics of cell necrosis, more necrotic leukocytes were detected within the filter.

  14. [Consequences for labile blood products of leukocyte depletion by whole blood filtration using the Leucoflex LST1 in-line filter. Evaluation of the Leucoflex LST1 filter].

    PubMed

    Janus, G; Samson, T; Faudon, R; Renaudeau, C; Joussemet, M; Fabre, G

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of whole blood filtration after a storage time of 20-24 hours at laboratory temperature using the in line filter Leucoflex LST1. The study concerns 49 blood donations in which we studied leukocyte depletion, proteins (IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C3, C4), coagulation factors (fibrinogen, factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, V, proteins S and C, plasminogen, tPA, D-Dimers, PDF) at day 1, the parameters of conservation (ATP, 2-3 DPG, extra cellular potassium, haemolysis, pH) of red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) and bacteriological sterility at day 1 and 42. Despite a correct leukocyte depletion (mean depletion of 3.96 log), a 10 fold higher mean level of residual leukocytes/unit than with buffy coat poor RCC filtration (0.514.10(6) vs 0.051.10(6)) is observed. Moreover a lot of concentrates are not in accordance with French regulations (7/42 with more than 1.10(6) leukocytes/unit). The variation of the rates of IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C4 and protein C is not significant. For the others there is a slight decrease with a mean level remaining in a physiological range. No sign of activation is noted. The sterility assays remain negative and the RCC conservation is not altered. In conclusion, even if the quality of the leukocyte depletion is not satisfactory in our study and has to be stated more precisely by multicenter studies, the whole blood filtration does not alter the quality of the derived components and allows us obtain RCC in a bigger volume and containing more haemoglobin than with the classical procedure after removing the buffy-coat [10].

  15. Type II diabetics with macrovascular complications: polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) filtration, PMN membrane fluidity and cytosolic Ca2+ content after activation.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Lo Presti, R; Montana, M; Ferrara, F; Ventimiglia, G; Meli, F; Catania, A; Canino, B

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated polymorphonuclear (PMN) filtration parameters, membrane fluidity and cytosolic Ca2+ content in 21 normal subjects and in 18 type II diabetics with macrovascular complications (MVC). Evaluations were carried out at baseline and after in vitro activation prolonged for 5 and 15 min. PMA (4-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and fMLP (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were used as stimulating agents. TMA-DPH (1-[4-(trimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) was used as fluorescent probe for the membrane fluidity tests and Fura 2-AM for the cytosolic Ca2+ content. A significant variation was evident in PMN filtration parameters at 5 and 15 min. No variation was present in PMN membrane fluidity and cytosolic Ca2+ content in normals. In type II diabetics with MVC, we found an increase solely in PMN cytosolic Ca2+ content after PMA activation and an early decrease in PMN membrane fluidity and a late increase in PMN cytosolic Ca2+ content after fMLP activation. After PMA activation alone (at 15 min), PMN filtration distinguishes normals from type II diabetics with MVC. The PMN filtration parameters behave similarly in the two groups, but PMN membrane fluidity and cytosolic Ca2+ content behave differently.

  16. Detection of leukocyte filtration and potential selective migration during use of cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery by flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Joerg; Schlykow, Veronika; Bocsi, Jozsef; Schneider, Peter; Pipek, Michal; Tarnok, Attila

    1999-06-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can induce severe post-operative immune responses. During CPB loss of activated lymphocytes from the peripheral blood (PBL) was observed. We investigated if PBL get lost by binding to the CPB or by migration into the peripheral tissue and if the cells adhere selectively to different filter types. PBL were collected before, during and after surgery of pediatric patients and from the filters of the CPB by washing. Immunophenotype was determined by four color flow cytometry (FCM). In addition, PBL adhesion to CPB was analyzed in vitro. During surgery, B-cell counts decreased by greater than 50% due to the loss of CD69+ cells. The fraction of CD25+ and CD54+ T-lymphocytes decreased by 70%, that of CD69+ natural killer cells by 40%. In vivo in the CPB the proportion of CD69+ cells increased by up to 50%. These findings were supported by in vitro filtration studies. In contrast, the proportion of T-lymphocytes CD25+ or CD54+ were lower in the CPB. CD69+ cells adhere selectively to CPB filters. Loss of activated CD25+ or CD54+ T-lymphocytes could be due to their selective migration into the peripheral tissue. This FCM technique could be applied to test various filter types used in CPB in order to test their biocompatibility.

  17. Influence of prestorage incubation on embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; Graat, E A M; van den Brand, H

    2009-12-01

    Egg storage longer than 7 d is associated with a delay in hatch time and a decline in hatchability and chick quality. Prestorage incubation is suggested as a method to reduce the negative effects of prolonged storage times by altering the developmental stage of the embryo, but earlier research has shown that prestorage incubation can both be detrimental and beneficial for hatchability. The reason for these ambiguous results is not clear and the effect of prestorage incubation on chick quality is not studied extensively. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in developmental stage of embryos during prestorage incubation and the effect of prestorage incubation on hatchability and chick quality. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, eggs were stored for 3, 5, 8, or 12 d. In experiment II, eggs were stored for 5 or 11 d. Half of the eggs was stored immediately at 16 to 18 degrees C and the other half was exposed to prestorage incubation for 6 h in experiment I and for 4.5 h in experiment II. According to the classification table of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EG), embryonic development was advanced by prestorage incubation from developmental stage EG11.67 to developmental stage EG13.26 in experiment I (P = 0.02) and from developmental stage EG9.22 to developmental stage EG12.63 in experiment II (P < 0.0001). In experiment I, prestorage incubation reduced hatchability of set eggs from 59.3 to 51.5% when storage time was 12 d but did not reduce hatchability when storage time was 3, 5, or 8 d (interaction P = 0.02). Prestorage incubation increased chick length (P = 0.004). In experiment II, prestorage incubation increased hatchability of fertile eggs from 80.6 to 85.9% when storage time was 11 d but did not increase hatchability when storage time was 5 d (interaction P = 0.0009). Prestorage incubation increased percentage of second grade chicks (P = 0.0007). It seems that storage time, embryonic development at egg collection, and prestorage

  18. Filtration Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

    1997-01-01

    Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

  19. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  20. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  1. Filtration principles and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides theoretical and practical data on filtration of gases and liquids. Topics covered include the following: gas filtration theory; liquid filtration theory; filter media; industrial gas filtration; filtration pretreatment; filtration in the chemical process industry; ultrafiltration; filtration in the mineral industry; filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; cartridge filtration; high-efficiency air filtration; analytical applications of filtration; and filter evaluation and testing.

  2. Effect of prestorage treatmlents and storage conditions on the survival of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh marine and freshwater aquaaculture fish.

    PubMed

    Tassou, C C; Lamibropoulou, K; Nychas, G J E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of prestorage treatments, such as immersion in a sorbate solution (5%, wt/vol), heating (60 degrees C, 1 min), and a combination of the two treatments, and the subsequent storage in air or under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 40% CO2, 30% O2, and 30% N2) at chill temperatures (0 +/- 1 degrees C), on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 was studied. The prestorage treatments affected the pathogenic bacteria, and in all cases, there was a decrease in their population, with the sorbate and combination (hot water and sorbate) treatment being most effective. The beneficial effect of the prestorage treatments, which was more pronounced in storage under MAP conditions, suggests an interaction of the treatments with the CO2 of MAP against injured bacterial cells.

  3. Influence of pre-storage incubation on hatchability traits, thyroid hormones, antioxidative status and immunity of newly hatched chicks at two chicken breeder flock ages.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, T A; Twfeek, F A; Assar, M H; Bealish, A M; Abd El-Karim, R E; Ragab, M

    2017-04-17

    Egg storage longer than 7 days is associated with negative effects on hatchability traits. Pre-storage incubation has been a suggested method to reduce the negative effects of long-term storage times by enhancing the developmental stage of the embryo and probably reducing the embryonic stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-storage incubation and storage time on hatchability characteristics, chick quality and serum thyroid hormones, antioxidative properties and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) concentrations of newly hatched chicks at two breeder flock ages. A total of 8000 fertile eggs were obtained from two different ages of chicken breeder hens (Egyptian local cross, Inshas). Half of the eggs were collected from young breeder hens (28 weeks old) and the other half from old breeder hens (50 weeks old). In each breeder flock age, eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement, with two storage periods (4 or 14 days) and four pre-storage incubation durations (0, 4, 6 or 8 h at 37.5°C). At 28 and 50 weeks of age, pre-storage incubation and its interaction with storage period influenced significantly the apparent fertility, hatchability of set eggs and hatchability of fertile eggs and this improvement in hatchability is attributed to the reduction in embryonic mortality (early, intermediate and late). Pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h elevated significantly the grade A chicks and reduced the grade B chicks in comparison with non-heated controls. Interestingly, for eggs stored for 14 days, pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h enhanced serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glutathione peroxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity and IgY concentrations significantly and decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration significantly in the newly hatched chicks. It could be concluded that pre-storage incubation enhanced the hatching results, improved the antioxidative properties, reduced

  4. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Leukoreduction and Pre-storage Leukodepletion on Red Blood Cells during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Casali, Emanuela; Baroni, Fabio; Berni, Pamela; Baricchi, Roberto; Spisni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion is a fundamental therapy in numerous pathological conditions. Regrettably, many clinical reports describe adverse transfusion's drawbacks due to red blood cells alterations during storage. Thus, the possibility for a blood bank to ameliorate the quality of the erythrocyte concentrates units is crucial to improve clinical results and reduce transfusion adverse occurrences. Leukodepletion is a pre-storage treatment recognized to better preserve the quality of red blood cells with respect to leukoreduction. Aim of this work is to unravel the biochemical and biophysical basis that sustain the good clinical outcomes associated to the use of leukodepleted erythrocytes units. Erythrocytes concentrates were prepared as leukoreduced (n = 8) and pre-storage leukodepleted (n = 8) and then studied during 6 weeks in blood bank conditions. Overall, the data indicate that leukodepletion not only provide red blood cells with an appropriate amount of nutrients for a longer time but also selects red blood cells characterized by a more resilient plasma membrane fit to prolong their viability. We believe these results will stimulate new ideas to further optimize the current storage protocols. PMID:27148539

  5. Plasma constituent integrity in pre-storage vs. post-storage riboflavin and UV-light treatment--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bela; Jovicic-Gojkov, Dragana; Todorovic-Balint, Milena; Subota, Vesna; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Goodrich, Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by riboflavin (RB) and ultraviolet (UV) light inhibits nucleic acid replication, leading to inactivation of white blood cells (WBCs) and pathogens. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of pathogen reduction technology (PRT) treatment on the plasma protein content based on biochemical, immune and hemostatic characteristics in "typical" pre-storage vs. post-storage PRT-treatment setting. Following whole blood centrifugation, separated plasma units were: (a) inactivated and frozen (pre-storage setting or control group [CG]) or (b) immediately frozen (post-storage setting or study group [SG]) afterward thawed, inactivated and stored at -40 ± 5°C (cryostorage). Plasma units were inactivated by the Mirasol PRT system (TerumoBCT, USA). Using multi-laboratory techniques and equipments, biochemistry (Advia 1800; Siemens, Germany), IgM, IgG and IgA, complement components C3 and C4 (BNA II nefelometer analyzer; Siemens, Germany), as well as CH50 activity (Behring coagulation timer; Siemens, Germany) were investigated. Procoagulant and inhibitor factors, such as antithrombin-III (AT-III), and protein C (PC) were determined by BCS XP Coagulation system (Siemens, Germany). There were neither significant changes in final protein levels, nor any differences in plasma immunoglobulin levels investigated. In the final samples CH50 activity was reduced in both investigated groups. The plasma concentration of the complement C3 following post-storage treatment was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in pre-storage setting. There was a trend of depletion of procoagulant activities in both, pre-storage and post-storage PRT-treatment (initial vs. final values), but there were no significant differences between two groups. Results confirmed that AT-III was significantly higher after post-storage inactivation. In conclusion, this study confirmed that there were not clinically relevant intergroup (pre-storage vs. post-storage PRT

  6. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment.

  7. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C; Gifford, Sean C; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2016-10-24

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current 'leukoreduction' filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional 'dead end' filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed 'controlled incremental filtration' (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  8. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T [Aiken, SC; Maxwell, David N [Aiken, SC

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  9. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates. PMID:27775049

  10. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  11. Prestorage in ovo injection of biological buffers: an approach to improve hatchability in long-term stored eggs.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Hashemi, S R; Navidshad, B; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Ebrahimi, M R; Dadpasand, M; Atashi, H; Liang, J B

    2013-04-01

    A hypothesis was tested that the in ovo injection of biological buffers may reinforce the buffering capacity of albumen, thereby withstanding the increase in albumen pH during storage and improving hatchability and chick quality in long-term stored eggs. Hatching eggs (n = 2,420) were randomly assigned to 11 treatment groups (4 replicates of 55 eggs each) and injected (d 1) with distilled water, 25 or 50 mM HEPES (H25 and H50), Bicine (B25 and B50), Tris (T25 and T50), and Bis-Tris-propane (BTP25 and BTP50) solutions or were not injected (intact: control; or pricked with a needle: N). The eggs were then stored for 14 d during which the egg internal characteristics were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 13 d of storage (n = 924 in total) and the remaining eggs (n = 1,496) were incubated. A decrease in albumen pH was found for H25, H50, B50, and BTP25 groups from 2 through 5 d postinjection. Eggs receiving H25, H50, and B50 recorded a higher albumen index (at 13 d of storage) and Haugh unit (between 8 and 13 d of storage) compared with the control. Interestingly, the hatchability of fertile eggs was influenced by the treatment effect (P = 0.0001) where the eggs receiving H25 (88.3%), H50 (88.9%), B50 (88.4%), and BTP25 (87.6%) recorded higher values than that of control (82.1%), associated with a decreased early embryonic mortality rate (P < 0.0001). In ovo injection of Tris buffer, however, profoundly decreased the hatchability (47.2 and 29.0% for T25 and T50, respectively) and percentage of first-grade chicks (67.5 and 63.6% for T25 and T50, respectively) compared with the control (90.1%). In conclusion, prestorage in ovo injection of H25, H50, B50, and BTP25 improved hatchability in long-term stored eggs in which a decreased albumen pH during the d 2 through 5 of storage period might be involved.

  12. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Biomechanics of leukocyte rolling

    PubMed Central

    Sundd, Prithu; Pospieszalska, Maria K.; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Ley, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells and other P-selectin substrates is mediated by P-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 expressed on the tips of leukocyte microvilli. Leukocyte rolling is a result of rapid, yet balanced formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds in the presence of hydrodynamic shear forces. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the bonds may either increase (catch bonds) or decrease (slip-bonds) their lifetimes. The force-dependent ‘catch-slip’ bond kinetics are explained using the ‘two pathway model’ for bond dissociation. Both the ‘sliding-rebinding’ and the ‘allosteric’ mechanisms attribute ‘catch-slip’ bond behavior to the force-induced conformational changes in the lectin-EGF domain hinge of selectins. Below a threshold shear stress, selectins cannot mediate rolling. This ‘shear-threshold’ phenomenon is a consequence of shear-enhanced tethering and catch-bond enhanced rolling. Quantitative dynamic footprinting microscopy has revealed that leukocytes rolling at venular shear stresses (> 0.6 Pa) undergo cellular deformation (large footprint) and form long tethers. The hydrodynamic shear force and torque acting on the rolling cell are thought to be synergistically balanced by the forces acting on tethers and stressed microvilli, however, their relative contribution remains to be determined. Thus, improvement beyond the current understanding requires in silico models that can predict both cellular and microvillus deformation and experiments that allow measurement of forces acting on individual microvilli and tethers. PMID:21515934

  15. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effects of prestorage application of propolis and storage time on eggshell microbial activity, hatchability, and chick performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Ali; Sert, Durmus

    2013-12-01

    Propolis, a resinous mixture produced by honeybees from substances collected from plants, has strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The purpose of the current study was to establish the effects of prestorage application of propolis and storage time on eggshell microbial activity, egg weight loss, hatchability, and chick performance in quail hatching eggs. Treatments were compared in a 2 × 5 factorial design with 2 different storage times (7 and 14 d) and 5 prestorage applications (control, ethyl alcohol 70%, 5% propolis, 10% propolis, and 15% propolis solution). After application, the eggs were stored for 7 or 14 d at 13°C and 75 to 80% RH before incubation. Eggs sprayed with propolis had lower levels of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., and mold yeasts than control eggs over the storage period and incubation period. Microbial activity in eggs stored for 7 d was significantly higher than in eggs stored for 14 d at the end of the storage. The lowest egg weight loss during storage was obtained in P15 treatment eggs stored for 7 d, whereas the highest egg weight loss was found in the treatment A after storage for 14 d. Although propolis treatment at 3 different doses was not effective on relative growth, only P15 decreased the BW at d 10, compared with the control. Hatchability in eggs stored for 14 d was significantly lower than in eggs stored for 7 d. No significant differences were observed for hatchability and embryonic mortality among propolis treatment groups. Propolis did not have a detrimental effect on hatchability, embryonic mortality, or BW gain. Our results indicate that propolis may be used to effectively reduce microbial activity on the surface of quail hatching eggs during storage and incubation without any detrimental effects on hatchability.

  17. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p < 0.05) than Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  18. Towards a computational model of leukocyte adhesion cascade: Leukocyte rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khismatullin, Damir

    2005-11-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes into sites of acute and chronic inflammation is a vital component of the innate immune response in humans and plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. Leukocytes extravasate into the inflamed tissue through a multi-step process called "leukocyte adhesion cascade", which involves initial contact of a leukocyte with activated endothelium (tethering), leukocyte rolling, firm adhesion, and transendothelial migration. Recently we developed a fully three-dimensional CFD model of receptor-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The model treats the leukocyte as a viscoelastic cell with the nucleus located in the intracellular space and cylindrical microvilli distributed over the cell membrane. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion is assumed to be mediated by adhesion molecules expressed on the tips of cell microvilli and on endothelium. We show that the model can predict both shape changes and velocities of rolling leukocytes under physiological flow conditions. Results of this study also indicate that viscosity of the cytoplasm is a critical parameter of leukocyte adhesion, affecting the cell's ability to roll on endothelium. This work is supported by NIH Grant HL- 57446 and NCSA Grant BCS040006 and utilized the NCSA IBM p690.

  19. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  20. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  1. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, Petr; Šidlof, Petr; Hrůza, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  2. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  3. Pulsatility of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joy A.; Roorda, Austin

    2009-01-01

    The use of adaptive optics (AO) in a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) allows for long-term imaging of parafoveal capillary leukocyte movement and measurement of leukocyte velocity without contrast dyes. We applied the AOSLO to investigate the possible role of the cardiac cycle on capillary leukocyte velocity by directly measuring capillary leukocyte pulsatility. The parafoveal regions of 8 eight normal healthy subjects with clear ocular media were imaged with an AOSLO. All subjects were dilated and cyclopleged. The AOSLO field of view was either 1.4 × 1.5 degrees or 2.35 × 2.5 degrees, the imaging wavelength was 532 nm and the frame rate was 30 fps. A photoplethysmograph was used to record the subject’s pulse synchronously with each AOSLO video. Parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocities and pulsatility were determined for two or three capillaries per subject. Leukocyte velocity and pulsatility were determined for all eight subjects. The mean parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity for all subjects was Vmean = 1.30 mm/sec (SD = +/− 0.40 mm/sec). There was a statistically significant difference between leukocyte velocities, Vmax and Vmin, over the pulse cycle for each subject (p<0.05). The mean pulsatility was Pmean= 0.45 (+/− 0.09). Parafoveal capillary leukocyte pulsatility can be directly and non-invasively measured without the use of contrast dyes using an AOSLO. A substantial amount of the variation found in leukocyte velocity is due to the pulsatility that is induced by the cardiac cycle. By controlling for the variation in leukocyte velocity caused by the cardiac cycle, we can better detect other changes in retinal leukocyte velocity induced by disease or pharmaceutical agents. PMID:18708051

  4. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” - often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  5. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  7. Filtration by eyelashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  8. [Oxygen Leukocyte Larceny].

    PubMed

    Pinto da Costa, Miguel; Pimenta Coelho, Henrique

    2016-05-01

    The authors present a case of a 60-year-old male patient, previously diagnosed with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who was admitted to the Emergency Room with dyspnea. The initial evaluation revealed severe anemia (Hgb = 5.0 g/dL) with hyperleukocytosis (800.000/µL), nearly all of the cells being mature lymphocytes, a normal chest X-ray and a low arterial oxygen saturation (89%; pulse oximetry). After red blood cell transfusion, Hgb values rose (9.0 g/dL) and there was a complete reversion of the dyspnea. Yet, subsequent arterial blood gas analysis, without the administration of supplemental oxygen, systematically revealed very low oxygen saturation values (~ 46%), which was inconsistent with the patientâs clinical state and his pulse oximetry values (~ 87%), and these values were not corrected by the administration of oxygen via non-rebreather mask. The investigation performed allowed to establish the diagnosis of oxygen leukocyte larceny, a phenomenon which conceals the true oxygen saturation due to peripheral consumption by leukocytes.

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  11. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N.; Ferre, April L.; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A. R.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. Methods and Findings To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10–15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Conclusions Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27232996

  12. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  13. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  14. Effect of prestorage UV-A, -B, and -C radiation on fruit quality and anthocyanin of 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chau T T; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lim, Sooyeon; Lee, Eun Jin

    2014-12-17

    Ultraviolet (UV)-A, -B, and -C were radiated to full-ripe blueberries (cv. 'Duke'), and their effects on fruit qualities and phytonutrients during subsequent cold storage were investigated. The blueberries were exposed to each UV light at 6 kJ/m(2) and then stored at 0 °C for 28 days. Weight loss and decay of the fruits after UV treatment were significantly decreased during the cold storage. The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of blueberries after UV-B and -C treatments were always higher than those of the control and UV-A treatment. Individual anthocyanins were markedly increased during the 3 h after the UV-B and -C treatments. The correlation matrix between total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay indicated a significantly close correlation with the individual anthocyanin contents. It was confirmed that the prestorage treatments of UV-B and -C increased the storability and phytochemical accumulation of the full-ripe 'Duke' blueberries during cold storage.

  15. Influence of Pre-Storage Irradiation on the Oxidative Stress Markers, Membrane Integrity, Size and Shape of the Cold Stored Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Antosik, Adam; Czubak, Kamila; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka; Glowacki, Rafal; Borowczyk, Kamila; Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the extent of oxidative damage and changes in morphology of manually isolated red blood cells (RBCs) from whole blood, cold stored (up to 20 days) in polystyrene tubes and subjected to pre-storage irradiation (50 Gy) and to compare the properties of SAGM-preserved RBCs stored under experimental conditions (polystyrene tubes) with RBCs from standard blood bag storage. The percentage of hemolysis as well as the extracellular activity of LDH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Changes in the topology of RBC membrane, shape, and size were evaluated by flow cytometry and judged against microscopy images. Irradiation caused significant LDH release as well as increased hemolysis and lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction of TAC. Prolonged storage of irradiated RBCs resulted in phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface. By day 20, approximately 60% of RBCs displayed non-discoid shape. We did not notice significant differences in percentage of altered cells and cell volume between RBCs exposed to irradiation and those not exposed. Irradiation of RBC transfusion units with a dose of 50 Gy should be avoided. For research purposes such as studying the role of antioxidants, storage of small volumes of RBCs derived from the same donor would be more useful, cheaper, and blood-saving.

  16. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Melt Purification via Filtration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    function of melt flow rate . This work was extended to encompass variations in deep bed filter characteristics such as porosity, length of bed...of a, which is the concentration of entrapped inclusions, as well as a function of the melt physical properties, melt flow rates and the shape and...filtration runs at different flow rates . Measurement of thfe inclusion (Al^O,) concentration in the inlet and filtered melt at different flowrate allows one

  18. Interstitial leukocyte migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui-ying; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Rapid leukocyte motility is essential for immunity and host defense. There has been progress in understanding the molecular signals that regulate leukocyte motility both in vitro and in vivo. However, a gap remains in understanding how complex signals are prioritized to result in directed migration, which is critical for both adaptive and innate immune function. Here we focus on interstitial migration and how external cues are translated into intracellular signaling pathways that regulate leukocyte polarity, directional sensing and motility in three-dimensional spaces. PMID:23797028

  19. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-12-01

    Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.

  20. Use of leukocyte-depleting filters during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a review.

    PubMed

    Boodram, Shalini; Evans, Ed

    2008-03-01

    Numerous researchers and clinicians have shown that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) plays a large role in the initiation of the systemic inflammatory response during cardiac surgery. The activation of leukocytes during this process has been implicated as one of the major contributors to multi-organ dysfunction experienced by some patients after cardiac surgery. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response and to reduce the amount of activated leukocytes from the systemic circulation during CPB, leukocyte-depleting filters were developed in the early 1990s. Since the clinical introduction of these filters into the CPB circuit, several articles have been published evaluating the effectiveness of leukocyte filtration; however, the results have been conflicting. This article will review some of the most recent literature, approximately 40 papers published within the past 10 years, regarding the use of leukocyte-depleting filters during CPB and its effectiveness in preserving organ function. In addition, the effect of different filtration strategies and the effectiveness of the filter to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response in combination with other mechanical and pharmaceutical strategies will be reviewed.

  1. Leukocyte depletion during extracorporeal circulation allows better organ protection but does not change hospital outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Antonino S; Serraino, Giuseppe F; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Marsico, Roberto; Sala, Andrea; Renzulli, Attilio

    2011-02-01

    Leukocyte filtration has been reported to reduce inflammatory damage during cardiopulmonary bypass. We evaluated the role of leukocyte filtration on hospital outcome and postoperative morbidity. Eighty-two consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive leukocyte filters on both arterial and cardioplegia lines or standard arterial filters during cardiopulmonary bypass. Hospital outcome, postoperative markers of morbidity, and biochemical assays were compared. Data were collected preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. Costs for patients receiving intraoperative leukofiltration were compared with control patients getting standard arterial filters. Hospital mortality and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were similar. Although duration of ventilation and incidence of pneumonia were comparable, leukocyte-depleted patients showed a higher ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (p = 0.008) and lower need for postoperative noninvasive ventilation (p = 0.041). Control patients showed higher need for continuous furosemide infusion (p = 0.013) and for renal replacement therapy (p = 0.014), in association with higher serum creatinine (p = 0.038) and blood urea (p = 0.18) and lower glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.038). Leukocyte-depleted patients required lower doses of inotropic agents (p = 0.56), whereas troponin I leakage and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation were comparable. No differences were found in terms of postoperative cerebral dysfunction or neutrophil and platelet counts, as well as postoperative bleeding and need for transfusions. Finally, leukodepletion proved significantly cost-beneficial, with a 37% cost reduction. Although hospital outcomes were similar in terms of mortality and length of stay, the improvements in pulmonary, renal, and myocardial function, in association with the cost benefit, justify the use of

  2. Dynamic optical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  3. Melt Purification via Filtration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    to determine the melt flow - rate through the filter. A filtration run consists of first stirring the melt rigorously in order to prevent settling of...as an on/off valve to regulate melt flow through the filter. The filter bed preparation consists of heating the SiC tube to 970-1070*K and adding to it...the initial P1020 infiltrant aluminum has been purged out of the filter and the contaminated melt is flowing through the bed inlet and filtered

  4. Dynamic Optical Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  5. Dynamic Optical Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  7. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and

  8. Modus of filtration.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Theodore H

    2006-01-01

    Experience teaches that particles larger than the pores of a filter cannot negotiate its passage. Other retention mechanisms are less obvious than sieve retention or size exclusion. They are electrical in nature, and find expression in the bonding alliances that mutually attract (or repel) filters and particles. The influence of hydrogen bonds, of van der Waals forces, of hydrophobic adsorptions, and of transient polarities on particle retentions are set forth in terms of the double electrical layer concept that also governs colloidal destabilizations. The origins of differences in membrane porosities is explained, as also the importance of the filtration conditions. The singularity of the particle-fluid-filter relationship on organism and/or pore size alteration is stressed.

  9. Elemental composition of leukocyte subfractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admans, L. L.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to determine the elemental concentration of various subfractions of leukocytes in a normal subject. Little work has been published on the elemental composition of these subfractions. First, a reliable technique for separation of these subfractions had to be established so that it could be applied to the determination of elemental concentrations in leukocyte subfractions from patients undergoing heart bypass surgery. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilising short irradiation and counting was the technique employed. Various washing media were examined during the separation of the leukocyte subfractions, for contamination of these small samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclearcytes (PMN). Early results showed Mg and Se were present in these subfractions. Possibilities for further work are also discussed.

  10. Filtration: Principles and practices. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, M.J.; Orr, C.

    1998-12-31

    This new book is the most authoritative and comprehensive guide to essential, state-of-the-art data. It provides the very latest theoretical and practical data on filtration for gas and liquids. The 2nd edition has been revised and updated to include several new chapters which detail filtration in the mineral industry, high-efficiency air filtration, cartridge filters, and ultrafiltration. The contents include: Gas filtration theory; Liquid-filtration theory; Filter media; Industrial gas filtration; Filtration pretreatment; Filtration in the chemical process industry; Ultrafiltration; Filtration in the mineral industry; Filtration in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; Cartridge filtration; High-efficiency air filtration; Analytical applications of filtration; and Filter evaluation and testing.

  11. A PERSPECTIVE OF RIVERBANK FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverbank filtration is a process in which pumping of wells located along riverbanks induce a portion of the river water to flow toward the pumping wells. The process has many similarities to the slow sand filtration process. River water contaminants are attenuated due to a combi...

  12. A PERSPECTIVE OF RIVERBANK FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverbank filtration is a process in which pumping of wells located along riverbanks induce a portion of the river water to flow toward the pumping wells. The process has many similarities to the slow sand filtration process. River water contaminants are attenuated due to a combi...

  13. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water...

  14. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water...

  15. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water...

  16. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water...

  17. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that does... treatment, direct filtration, slow sand filtration, or diatomaceous earth filtration. A public water...

  18. Selective Harvesting of Marginating-pulmonary Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shaashua, Lee; Sorski, Liat; Melamed, Rivka; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2016-03-11

    Marginating-pulmonary (MP) leukocytes are leukocytes that adhere to the inner endothelium of the lung capillaries. MP-leukocytes were shown to exhibit unique composition and characteristics compared to leukocytes of other immune compartments. Evidence suggests higher cytotoxicity of natural killer cells, and a distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory profile of the MP-leukocyte population compared to circulating or splenic immunocytes. The method presented herein enables selective harvesting of MP-leukocytes by forced perfusion of the lungs in either mice or rats. In contrast to other methods used to extract lung-leukocytes, such as tissue grinding and biological degradation, this method exclusively yields leukocytes from the lung capillaries, uncontaminated with parenchymal, interstitial, and broncho-alveolar cells. In addition, the perfusion technique better preserves the integrity and the physiological milieu of MP-leukocytes, without inducing physiological responses due to tissue processing. This unique MP leukocyte population is strategically located to identify and react towards abnormal circulating cells, as all circulating malignant cells and infected cells are detained while passing through the lung capillaries, physically interacting with endothelial cells and resident leukocytes,. Thus, selective harvesting of MP-leukocytes and their study under various conditions may advance our understanding of their biological and clinical significance, specifically with respect to controlling circulating aberrant cells and lung-related diseases.

  19. Selective Harvesting of Marginating-hepatic Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sorski, Liat; Shaashua, Lee; Melamed, Rivka; Matzner, Pini; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2016-07-21

    Marginating-hepatic (MH) leukocytes (leukocytes adhering to the sinusoids of the liver), were shown to exhibit unique composition and characteristics compared to leukocytes of other immune compartments. Specifically, evidence suggests a distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory profile of the MH-leukocyte population and higher cytotoxicity of liver-specific NK cells (namely, pit cells) compared to circulating or splenic immunocytes in both mice and rats. The method presented herein enables selective harvesting of MH leukocytes by forced perfusion of the liver in mice and rats. In contrast to other methods used to extract liver-leukocytes, including tissue grinding and biological degradation, this method exclusively yields leukocytes from the liver sinusoids, uncontaminated by cells from other liver compartments. In addition, the perfusion technique better preserves the integrity and the physiological milieu of MH leukocytes, sparing known physiological responses to tissue processing. As many circulating malignant cells and infected cells are detained while passing through the liver sinusoids, physically interacting with endothelial cells and resident leukocytes, the unique MH leukocyte population is strategically located to interact, identify, and react towards aberrant circulating cells. Thus, selective harvesting of MH-leukocytes and their study under various conditions may advance our understanding of the biological and clinical significance of MH leukocytes, specifically with respect to circulating aberrant cells and liver-related diseases and cancer metastases.

  20. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  1. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    PubMed

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  2. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  3. Mechanisms of leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Muller, William A

    2011-01-01

    Neither the innate nor adaptive immune system "responds" unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. This process occurs through diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in an ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders and, in some cases, through the endothelial cell itself. This review focuses on the active role of the endothelial cell in diapedesis. Several mechanisms play a critical role in transendothelial migration, including signals derived from clustering of apically disposed intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, disruption or loosening of adherens junctions, and targeted recycling of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule and other molecules from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed.

  4. Mechanisms of Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration

    PubMed Central

    Muller, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Neither the innate nor adaptive immune system “responds” unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. This process occurs through diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in an ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders and, in some cases, through the endothelial cell itself. This review focuses on the active role of the endothelial cell in diapedesis. Several mechanisms play a critical role in transendothelial migration, including signals derived from clustering of apically disposed intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, disruption or loosening of adherens junctions, and targeted recycling of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule and other molecules from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:21073340

  5. Leukocyte integrins: role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-03-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leukocyte integrins: Role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signalling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1- integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25448040

  7. Highly selective biomechanical separation of cancer cells from leukocytes using microfluidic ratchets and hydrodynamic concentrator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bill K; McFaul, Sarah M; Jin, Chao; Black, Peter C; Ma, Hongshen

    2013-01-01

    The separation of cells based on their biomechanical properties, such as size and deformability, is important in applications such as the identification of circulating tumor cells, where morphological differences can be used to distinguish target cancer cells from contaminant leukocytes. Existing filtration-based separation processes are limited in their selectivity and their ability to extract the separated cells because of clogging in the filter microstructures. We present a cell separation device consisting of a hydrodynamic concentrator and a microfluidic ratchet mechanism operating in tandem. The hydrodynamic concentrator removes the majority of the fluid and a fraction of leukocytes based on size, while the microfluidic ratchet mechanism separates cancer cells from leukocytes based on a combination of size and deformability. The irreversible ratcheting process enables highly selective separation and robust extraction of separated cells. Using cancer cells spiked into leukocyte suspensions, the complete system demonstrated a yield of 97%, while enriching the concentration of target cancer cells 3000 fold relative to the concentration of leukocytes.

  8. Highly selective biomechanical separation of cancer cells from leukocytes using microfluidic ratchets and hydrodynamic concentrator

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bill K.; McFaul, Sarah M.; Jin, Chao; Black, Peter C.; Ma, Hongshen

    2013-01-01

    The separation of cells based on their biomechanical properties, such as size and deformability, is important in applications such as the identification of circulating tumor cells, where morphological differences can be used to distinguish target cancer cells from contaminant leukocytes. Existing filtration-based separation processes are limited in their selectivity and their ability to extract the separated cells because of clogging in the filter microstructures. We present a cell separation device consisting of a hydrodynamic concentrator and a microfluidic ratchet mechanism operating in tandem. The hydrodynamic concentrator removes the majority of the fluid and a fraction of leukocytes based on size, while the microfluidic ratchet mechanism separates cancer cells from leukocytes based on a combination of size and deformability. The irreversible ratcheting process enables highly selective separation and robust extraction of separated cells. Using cancer cells spiked into leukocyte suspensions, the complete system demonstrated a yield of 97%, while enriching the concentration of target cancer cells 3000 fold relative to the concentration of leukocytes. PMID:24404034

  9. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system... filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or....74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

  10. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system... filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or....74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

  11. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system... filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or....74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

  12. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system... filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or....74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

  13. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system... filtration, the turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water must be less than or....74 (a)(1) and (c)(1). (d) Other filtration technologies. A public water system may use a...

  14. Human leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF): two distinct molecular species.

    PubMed

    Brown, A P; Rocklin, R E

    1979-03-01

    Human leukocyte inhibitory factor or LIF was generated in vitro by stimulating blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A (Con A). The control and Con A active supernatants were partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The fraction containing LIF (68,000 daltons) activity was then subjected to isoelectric focusing (pH 3 to 10 ampholines) in a sucrose gradient. Two LIF activities were reproducibly recovered by this procedure. One molecular form was found to have an isoelectric point of approximately pH 5.0 and the other approximately pH 8.5. Both molecular species were rechromatographed on Sephadex G-75 and found to have the same apparent m.w. (68 to 75,000). Furthermore, the biologic activity of both factors was destroyed after treatment with diisopropylphosphofluoridate, suggesting that they may be esterases.

  15. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  16. Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors in human disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Brian A; Rott, Alena; Butcher, Eugene C

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of leukocyte attractant ligands and cognate heptahelical receptors specify the systemic recruitment of circulating cells by triggering integrin-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells, supporting extravasation, and directing specific intratissue localization via gradient-driven chemotaxis. Chemoattractant receptors also control leukocyte egress from lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues. In this article, we summarize the fundamental mechanics of leukocyte trafficking, from the evolution of multistep models of leukocyte recruitment and navigation to the regulation of chemoattractant availability and function by atypical heptahelical receptors. To provide a more complete picture of the migratory circuits involved in leukocyte trafficking, we integrate a number of nonchemokine chemoattractant receptors into our discussion. Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors play key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We review recent advances in our understanding of chemoattractant receptors in disease pathogenesis, with a focus on genome-wide association studies in humans and the translational implications of mechanistic studies in animal disease models.

  17. Filtrates and Residues: Gel Filtration--An Innovative Separation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James

    1985-01-01

    Gel filtration is a form of liquid chromatography that separates molecules primarily on the basis of their size. Advantages of using this technique, theoretical aspects, and experiments (including procedures used) are discussed. Several questions for students to answer (with answers) are also provided. (JN)

  18. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  19. Health benefits of particle filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

  20. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  1. Health benefits of particle filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product was developed under an interagency agreement between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews o...

  2. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL BY FILTRATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration ws originally used to remove contaminants that affect the appearance, odor, and taste of drinking water. Later it was demonstrated that bacteria in drinking water were causative agents of disease. Water treatment technology improved with the addition of disinfection, c...

  4. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  5. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  6. ITP Filtrate Benzene Removal Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1993-05-21

    Existing ITP filtrate hold tanks may provide sufficient capacity and residence time to strip dissolved benzene from the incoming filtrate using nitrogen sparging in the bottom of the old tanks. This is based on equilibrium supported by late Wash test data using aged washed slurry. Theoretical considerations indicate that benzene stripping will be more difficult from the ITP unwashed high salt filtrates due to reduced mass transfer. Therefore experimental sparging data is needed to quantify the theoretical effects.Foaming limits which dictate allowable sparging rate will also have to be established. Sparging in the hold tanks will require installation of sintered metal spargers, and possibly stirrers and foam monitoring/disengagement equipment. The most critical sparging needs are at the start of the precipitation/concentration cycle, when the filtrate flux rate is the highest,and at the end of wash cycle where Henry`s equilibrium constant falls off,requiring more gas to sparge the dissolved benzene. With adequate recycle (for proper distribution) or sparging in the old tanks, the 30 inch column could be used for the complete ITP process. A courser packing would reduce back pressure while enabling benzene stripping. The Late Wash Tests indicate adequate benzene stripping even at reduced gas flow. This will require experimental verification under ITP conditions. Using the 30 in. column vs 18 in. during the wash cycle will enhance stripping without need for additional sparging provided the minimum flow requirements are met.

  7. A motility test of leukocytes under agar.

    PubMed

    Goedemans, W T; de Jong, M M

    1985-01-01

    A migration test under agar for leukocytes was developed. Leukocytes moved quite a distance under anaerobic Blood Agar Base (blood agar), a Gibco product. Migration on stained and coloured plates was visualized by projection with a profile projector, making the use of a light microscope superfluous. A migration index was defined. Reproducibility was good enough to allow paired comparisons of leukocyte populations subjected to different treatments. Migration was the result of spontaneous and chemotactically directed migration. Cell-labelling complexes as 111In-oxinate and 111In-tropolonate--ligand concentration 3.5 micrograms/mL in the ultimate cell preparation--did not affect leukocyte migration. 111In-pyrithionate (mercapto pyridine-N-oxide) significantly impaired cell motility. The motility test described could be used as retrospective analysis in abscess localization studies using 111In labelled leukocytes.

  8. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  9. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  10. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-11-13

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment.

  11. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  12. Hot gas filtration technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) Contractors Conferences, specific tasks assigned to Southern Research Institute, meetings with METC personnel and contractors, and other conferences and workshops organized by METC. Initial research and pilot scale installations have shown that there are some potential problem areas. Thick ash deposits have formed, bridging from passive surfaces to the filter material and between filter candles. A great number of ceramic filters have broken in various experimental and demonstration devices, especially during long-term testing. This paper reviews particulate characteristics (effects on filtration processes, conventional fly ash, gasifier char, PFBC ash, and detailed studies of PFBC ash) and ceramic filter materials (general issues, thermal stress, clay-bonded SiC filter materials, and monolithic ceramic materials).

  13. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  14. Prevention of HLA alloimmunization: role of leukocyte depletion and UV-B irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, E. L.

    1990-01-01

    HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of the platelet refractory state. The stimulus for HLA alloimmunization is believed to derive from incompatibility between the recipient's lymphocytes and the passenger donor lymphocytes contained in transfused red cells or platelet concentrates. Two techniques to prevent post-transfusion HLA alloimmunization include filtration, which physically removes the donor lymphocytes, and UV-B irradiation, which renders the donor leukocytes biologically inactive. The role of these two techniques in the prevention of HLA alloimmunization is the focus of this review. PMID:2293501

  15. Prevention of HLA alloimmunization: Role of leukocyte depletion and UV-B irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.L. )

    1990-09-01

    HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of the platelet refractory state. The stimulus for HLA alloimmunization is believed to derive from incompatibility between the recipient's lymphocytes and the passenger donor lymphocytes contained in transfused red cells or platelet concentrates. Two techniques to prevent post-transfusion HLA alloimmunization include filtration, which physically removes the donor lymphocytes, and UV-B irradiation, which renders the donor leukocytes biologically inactive. The role of these two techniques in the prevention of HLA alloimmunization is the focus of this review.42 references.

  16. Interactions between stably rolling leukocytes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Michael R.; Ruscio, Aimee D.; Kim, Michael B.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2005-03-01

    We have characterized the two-dimensional spatial dependence of the hydrodynamic interactions between two adhesively rolling leukocytes in a live venule in the mouse cremaster muscle. Two rolling leukocytes were observed to slow each other down when rolling together in close proximity due to mutual sheltering from the external blood flow in the vessel lumen. A previous study of leukocyte rolling interactions using carbohydrate-coated beads in a parallel-plate flow chamber and a detailed computer model of adhesion in a multicellular environment is in qualitative agreement with the current in vivo results.

  17. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelecki, Tomasz; Strzelecki, Michał

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot's and Terzaghi's soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on the use of the methods of determining the filtration coefficient on the basis of oedometer test results. The present analysis of the filtration theory equations should help interpret effective parameters of the non-steady filtration model. Moreover, equations for the flow of a gas through a porous medium and an interpretation of the filtration model effective parameters in this case are presented.

  18. Chromate transport in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Lilien, D L; Spivak, J L; Goldman, I D

    1970-08-01

    Chromium is a trace metal of importance in human physiology and, in addition, as 51-chromate, has been extensively used as a label in the study of blood cell pool sizes and intravascular kinetics. The transport characteristics of 51-chromate were investigated in normal human leukocytes. Chromate uptake is unidirectional over a 1 hr incubation with extracellular chromate concentrations up to 200 mumoles/liter. Under these conditions, intracellular 51-chromium is in a form in which it is nonexchangeable. Influx is temperature sensitive with a Q(10) of approximately 2 and may be energy dependent since a variety of metabolic poisons strongly inhibit uptake. The unidirectional influx of chromate follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the maximum velocity is 52 mmumoles/g dry weight of cells per min and the chromate concentration at which influx velocity is half maximal is 87 mumoles/liter. This transport mechanism is highly specific for chromate; other divalent tetrahedral anions only slightly inhibit influx at concentrations up to 10 times that of chromate. Metavanadate, however, competitively inhibits chromate influx at equimolar concentrations. Exposure of cells to unlabeled chromate leads to inhibition of subsequent influx of 51-chromate. It is suggested that this is due to a primary inhibitory effect of chromate on cellular energy metabolism.

  19. Chromate transport in human leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lilien, David L.; Spivak, Jerry L.; Goldman, I. David

    1970-01-01

    Chromium is a trace metal of importance in human physiology and, in addition, as 51-chromate, has been extensively used as a label in the study of blood cell pool sizes and intravascular kinetics. The transport characteristics of 51-chromate were investigated in normal human leukocytes. Chromate uptake is unidirectional over a 1 hr incubation with extracellular chromate concentrations up to 200 μmoles/liter. Under these conditions, intracellular 51-chromium is in a form in which it is nonexchangeable. Influx is temperature sensitive with a Q10 of approximately 2 and may be energy dependent since a variety of metabolic poisons strongly inhibit uptake. The unidirectional influx of chromate follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the maximum velocity is 52 mμmoles/g dry weight of cells per min and the chromate concentration at which influx velocity is half maximal is 87 μmoles/liter. This transport mechanism is highly specific for chromate; other divalent tetrahedral anions only slightly inhibit influx at concentrations up to 10 times that of chromate. Metavanadate, however, competitively inhibits chromate influx at equimolar concentrations. Exposure of cells to unlabeled chromate leads to inhibition of subsequent influx of 51-chromate. It is suggested that this is due to a primary inhibitory effect of chromate on cellular energy metabolism. PMID:5431664

  20. A continuum model of protrusion of pseudopod in leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, C; Skalak, R

    1988-01-01

    The morphology of human leukocytes, the biochemistry of actin polymerization, and the theory of continuum mechanics are used to model the pseudopod protrusion process of leukocytes. In the proposed model, the pseudopod is considered as a porous solid of F-actin network, the pores of which are full of aqueous solution. G-actin is considered as a "solute" transported by convection and diffusion in the fluid phase. The pseudopod grows as actin filaments elongate at their barbed ends at the tip of the pseudopod. The driving force of extension is hypothesized as being provided by the actin polymerization. It is assumed that elongation of actin filaments, powered by chemical energy liberated from the polymerization reaction, does mechanical work against opposing pressure on the membrane. This also gives rise to a pressure drop in the fluid phase at the tip of the pseudopod, which is formulated by an equation relating the work done by actin polymerization to the local state of pressure. The pressure gradient along the pseudopod drives the fluid filtration through the porous pseudopod according to Darcy's Law, which in turn brings more actin monomers to the growing tip. The main cell body serves as a reservoir of G-actin. A modified first-order equation is used to describe the kinetics of polymerization. The rate of pseudopod growth is modulated by regulatory proteins. A one-dimensional moving boundary problem based on the proposed mechanism has been constructed and approximate solutions have been obtained. Comparison of the solutions with experimental data shows that the model is compatible with available observations. The model is also applicable to growth of other cellular systems such as elongation of acrosomal process in sperm cells. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:3233268

  1. Estrogen binding by leukocytes during phagocytosis,

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Estradiol binds covalently to normal leukocytes during phagocytosis. The binding involves three cell types, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes and at least two reaction mechanisms, one involving the peroxidase of neutrophils and monocytes (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and possibly the eosinophil peroxidase, and the second involving catalase. Binding is markedly reduced when leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), severe leukocytic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and familial lipochrome histiocytosis are employed and two populations of neutrophils, one which binds estradiol and one which does not, can be demonstrated in the blood of a CGD carrier. Leukocytes from patients with hereditary MPO deficiency also bind estradiol poorly although the defect is not as severe as in CGD. These findings are discussed in relation to the inactivation of estrogens during infection and the possible role of estrogens in neutrophil function. PMID:858996

  2. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  3. Leukocytes in Mammary Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Lisa M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocytes, of both the innate and adaptive lineages, are normal cellular components of all tissues. These important cells not only are critical for regulating normal tissue homeostasis, but also are significant paracrine regulators of all physiologic and pathologic tissue repair processes. This article summarizes recent insights regarding the trophic roles of leukocytes at each stage of mammary gland development and during cancer development, with a focus on Murids and humans. PMID:21123394

  4. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight

  5. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  6. Water filtration using plant xylem.

    PubMed

    Boutilier, Michael S H; Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees--a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material--can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm(3) of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  7. Preparation of surface-modified poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwovens and their application as leukocyte removal filters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yeo, Gwu-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2009-08-01

    Blood transfusion-related adverse reactions have been reported to be caused by leukocytes in blood products. It is now generally accepted that it would be highly desirable to reduce leukocytes level as low as possible. In this study, melt-blown poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven (PBT-NW) was treated with a hydroxyapatite (HA) surface-modification method for removal of leukocytes from blood components. Acrylic acid was graft-polymerized onto the surface of the PBT-NW after oxygen plasma glow discharge treatment. The PBT-NW surface was covered with a thin layer of HA produced by immersing the polymer surface in an aqueous solution containing high concentrations of PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) after graft-polymerization of acrylic acid, which provided the nucleus for HA crystallization. The surface was characterized using water contact angles, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. When filtration was performed with a unit of red blood cell concentrates, HA-deposited PBT-NW (PBT-HA) removed 98.5% of the leukocytes and recovered 99.5% of the erythrocytes, suggesting that HA-deposited PBT-NW is a very promising blood filter for selective removal of leukocytes.

  8. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  9. Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-06-01

    The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

  10. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  11. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Sondus; Chang, Sheng; Zhou, Hongde

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA. PMID:25007243

  12. Persistent homology in graph power filtrations

    PubMed Central

    Marchette, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of homological features in simplicial complex representations of big datasets in Rn resulting from Vietoris–Rips or Čech filtrations is commonly used to probe the topological structure of such datasets. In this paper, the notion of homological persistence in simplicial complexes obtained from power filtrations of graphs is introduced. Specifically, the rth complex, r ≥ 1, in such a power filtration is the clique complex of the rth power Gr of a simple graph G. Because the graph distance in G is the relevant proximity parameter, unlike a Euclidean filtration of a dataset where regional scale differences can be an issue, persistence in power filtrations provides a scale-free insight into the topology of G. It is shown that for a power filtration of G, the girth of G defines an r range over which the homology of the complexes in the filtration are guaranteed to persist in all dimensions. The role of chordal graphs as trivial homology delimiters in power filtrations is also discussed and the related notions of ‘persistent triviality’, ‘transient noise’ and ‘persistent periodicity’ in power filtrations are introduced. PMID:27853540

  13. Leukocyte margination in a model microvessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    2007-02-01

    The physiological inflammation response depends upon the multibody interactions of blood cells in the microcirculation that bring leukocytes (white blood cells) to the vessel walls. We investigate the fluid mechanics of this using numerical simulations of 29 red blood cells and one leukocyte flowing in a two-dimensional microvessel, with the cells modeled as linearly elastic shell membranes. Despite its obvious simplifications, this model successfully reproduces the increasingly blunted velocity profiles and increased leukocyte margination observed at lower shear rates in actual microvessels. Red cell aggregation is shown to be unnecessary for margination. The relative stiffness of the red cells in our simulations is varied by over a factor of 10, but the margination is found to be much less correlated with this than it is to changes associated with the blunting of the mean velocity profile at lower shear rates. While velocity around the leukocyte when it is near the wall depends upon the red cell properties, it changes little for strongly versus weakly marginating cases. In the more strongly marginating cases, however, a red cell is frequently observed to be leaning on the upstream side of the leukocyte and appears to stabilize it, preventing other red cells from coming between it and the wall. A well-known feature of the microcirculation is a near-wall cell-free layer. In our simulations, it is observed that the leukocyte's most probable position is at the edge of this layer. This wall stand-off distance increases with velocity following a scaling that would be expected for a lubrication mechanism, assuming that there were a nearly constant force pushing the cells toward the wall. The leukocyte's near-wall position is observed to be less stable with increasing mean stand-off distance, but this distance would have potentially greater effect on adhesion since the range of the molecular binding is so short.

  14. Leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Arash; van Oostrom, Antonie J H H M; Izraeljan, Alisa; Verseyden, Caroline; Collins, Jennifer M; Frayn, Keith N; Plokker, Thijs W M; Elte, Jan Willem F; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been linked to atherosclerosis and inflammation. Because leukocyte activation is obligatory for atherogenesis, leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) was investigated. The expression of CD11b and CD66b after incubation with glucose and native and artificial TRLs (NTRL and ATRL) in vivo and in vitro was evaluated by flowcytometry. Oral fat loading tests showed an increased expression of CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils and CD66b on neutrophils. In 11 volunteers, postprandial leukocytes became enriched with meal-derived fatty acids ([1-(13)C]16:0) suggesting uptake of exogenous fat. ApoB binding on leukocytes measured by flowcytometry in 65 subjects was highest on neutrophils and monocytes suggesting adherence of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Physiological concentrations of TRLs showed 62% increased neutrophil CD11b and a dose-dependent increased monocyte CD11b up to 84% in vitro. Incubations with lipid emulsions in the hypertriglyceridemic range showed a 5-fold increased monocyte CD11b expression, which was higher than the positive control (fMLP), and a dose-dependent 2- to 3-fold increased neutrophil CD11b and CD66b. The oxidative scavenger DMTU decreased the neutrophil CD66b expression by 36%. Acute hypertriglyceridemia is a leukocyte activator most likely by direct interaction between TRLs and leukocytes and uptake of fatty acids. TG-mediated leukocyte activation is an alternative proinflammatory and proatherogenic mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia in part associated to the generation of oxidative stress.

  15. Imaging Leukocyte Responses in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Finsterbusch, Michaela; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The kidney can be negatively affected by a range of innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in alterations in the functions of the kidney and, in some cases, progression to renal failure. In many of these responses, infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes into the kidney is central to the response. In addition, a large population of mononuclear phagocytes resident in the kidney can modulate these responses. A great deal of research has investigated both the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to the kidney and the actions of immune cells resident within the kidney. Because of the dynamic nature of the processes whereby leukocytes enter sites of inflammation, in vivo imaging has been one of the key approaches used for understanding leukocyte recruitment as it occurs throughout the body, and this is also true for kidney. However, imaging this organ and its complicated microvasculature during different forms of renal pathology presents a unique set of challenges. In this review, we examine the approaches used for intravital imaging of the kidney and summarize the insights gained from these studies regarding the mechanisms of leukocyte entry into the kidney during inflammation and the actions of immune cells within this organ.

  16. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  17. Halloysite nanotube coatings suppress leukocyte spreading

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Andrew D.; Marsh, Graham; Waugh, Richard E.; Foster, David G.; King, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale topography of adhesive surfaces is known to be an important factor governing cellular behavior. Previous work has shown that surface coatings composed of halloysite nanotubes enhances the adhesion, and therefore capture, of rare target cells such as circulating tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate a unique feature of these coatings in its ability to reduce the adhesion of leukocytes and prevent leukocyte spreading. Surfaces were prepared with coatings of halloysite nanotubes and functionalized for leukocyte adhesion with E-selectin, and the dilution of nanotube concentration revealed a threshold concentration below which cell spreading became comparable with smooth surfaces. Evaluation of surface roughness characteristics determined that the average distance between discrete surface features correlated with adhesion metrics, with a separation distance of approximately 2 μm identified as the critical threshold. Computational modeling of the interaction of leukocytes with halloysite nanotube coated surfaces of varying concentrations demonstrates that the geometry of the cell surface and adhesive counter-surface produce a significantly diminished effective contact area compared to a leukocyte interacting with a smooth surface. PMID:26605493

  18. Tangential flow filtration of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P(50)) and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the alpha and beta globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the alpha- and beta- globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC-grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers.

  19. Tangential Flow Filtration of Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells (bRBCs and hRBCs, respectively) via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P50), and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (α) and beta (β) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the α and β globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the α-and β-globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). PMID:19224583

  20. Bactericidal mechanisms of human breast milk leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D F; France, G L; Marmer, D J; Steele, R W

    1980-01-01

    The functional capacity of human breast milk phagocytes was evaluated with both bactericidal and biochemical assays. Acridine orange was used as a vital stain for bacteria to directly visualize phagocytosis and killing. Bactericidal capabilities were further examined by colony count and chemiluminescent methods. Cytocentrifuged specimens stained for myeloperoxidase exhibited enzyme activity in breast milk leukocytes equal to that of peripheral neutrophils. A radioisotopic assay of hexose monophosphate shunt activity demonstrated metabolic activity in breast milk leukocytes greater than that in peripheral blood neutrophils. However, the chemiluminescent response of breast cells was negligible, apparently the result of quenching secondary to fat present in the milk; preincubation of human blood leukocytes with the fatty layer of breast milk produced similar inhibition in the chemiluminescence assay. By most parameters breast milk phagocytes are at least equal to blood neutrophils. PMID:6249738

  1. Leukocytes Crossing the Endothelium: A Matter of Communication.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Ilse; Daniel, Anna E; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes cross the endothelial vessel wall in a process called transendothelial migration (TEM). The purpose of leukocyte TEM is to clear the causing agents of inflammation in underlying tissues, for example, bacteria and viruses. During TEM, endothelial cells initiate signals that attract and guide leukocytes to sites of tissue damage. Leukocytes react by attaching to these sites and signal their readiness to move back to endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in turn respond by facilitating the passage of leukocytes while retaining overall integrity. In this review, we present recent findings in the field and we have endeavored to synthesize a coherent picture of the intricate interplay between endothelial cells and leukocytes during TEM.

  2. Leukocytic Promotion of Prostate Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kristy L.; Begley, Lesa A.; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Markovitz, David M.; Macoska, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Histological evidence of pervasive inflammatory infiltrate has been noted in both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Cytokines known to attract particular leukocyte subsets are secreted from prostatic stroma consequent to aging and also from malignant prostate epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that leukocytes associated with either acute or chronic inflammation attracted to the prostate consequent to aging or tumorigenesis may promote the abnormal cellular proliferation associated with BPH and PCa. METHODS An in vitro system designed to mimic the human prostatic microenvironment incorporating prostatic stroma (primary and immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts), epithelium (N15C6, BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells), and inflammatory infiltrate (HL-60 cells, HH, and Molt-3 T-lymphocytes) was developed. Modified Boyden chamber assays were used to test the ability of prostate stromal and epithelial cells to attract leukocytes and to test the effect of leukocytes on prostate cellular proliferation. Antibody arrays were used to identify leukocyte-secreted cytokines mediating prostate cellular proliferation. RESULTS Leukocytic cells migrated towards both prostate stromal and epithelial cells. CD4+ T-lymphocytes promoted the proliferation of both transformed and non-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines tested, whereas CD8+ T-lymphocytes as well as dHL-60M macrophagic and dHL-60N neutrophilic cells selectively promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. CONCLUSIONS The results of these studies show that inflammatory cells can be attracted to the prostate tissue microenvironment and can selectively promote the proliferation of non-transformed or transformed prostate epithelial cells, and are consistent with differential role(s) for inflammatory infiltrate in the etiologies of benign and malignant proliferative disease in the prostate. PMID:19866464

  3. Factors in the Membrane Filtration of Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cliver, D. O.

    1965-01-01

    The filtration of two species of enteroviruses through membranes of porosity ranging from 50 to 220 mμ was studied. It was shown that extensive or total losses of virus may attend filtration at these porosities, apparently owing to adsorption of the virus to the membrane matrix. This could be minimized by the incorporation of serum into the virus suspension at the time of filtration, or by pretreating the membrane with serum or with a gelatin solution. It was also found that the first few drops of filtrate, even under optimal conditions, were likely to be virus-free, so that the filtration of too small a volume of virus suspension would result in a relatively great loss of titer. The degree to which these factors were critical was found to decrease with increasing pore diameter. PMID:14325282

  4. Tertiary filtration in small wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary filtration can be proposed in small wastewater treatment plants with impact on protected water bodies. Rotating disk filters may be adopted, in respect to conventional sand filters, when low availability of space and low investment costs are the prevailing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to evaluate the filtration efficiency of rotating disk filters; to compare effectiveness with traditional sand filters; to analyse thoroughly the importance of particle size distribution in wastewater tertiary filtration. In the experimental activity, conventional wastewater quality parameters were investigated and particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized to discuss the filter effectiveness. The effect of design and operation parameters of tertiary filters were discussed related to particle removal curves derived from particles counts. Analysis of particle size distribution can be very useful to help comprehension of filtration processes, design of filtration treatments and to decide the best measures to improve filter performance.

  5. Reactive oxygen species in phagocytic leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Phagocytic leukocytes consume oxygen and generate reactive oxygen species in response to appropriate stimuli. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a multiprotein complex, existing in the dissociated state in resting cells becomes assembled into the functional oxidase complex upon stimulation and then generates superoxide anions. Biochemical aspects of the NADPH oxidase are briefly discussed in this review; however, the major focus relates to the contributions of various modes of microscopy to our understanding of the NADPH oxidase and the cell biology of phagocytic leukocytes. PMID:18597105

  6. Modeling Leukocyte-Leukocyte Non-Contact Interactions in a Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (≅25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  7. 8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view of southwest corner of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of east entry to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. 32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. 1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. 14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of damage to southeast corner of filtration building. Note construction of concrete over brick. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Piping under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of west entrance to central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. 7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east of southeast corner of filtration bed building. Laboratory building is at center left of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  17. 10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  19. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  20. A Semianalytic Model of Leukocyte Rolling

    PubMed Central

    Krasik, Ellen F.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Rolling allows leukocytes to maintain adhesion to vascular endothelium and to molecularly coated surfaces in flow chambers. Using insights from adhesive dynamics, a computational method for simulating leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion, we have developed a semianalytic model for the steady-state rolling of a leukocyte. After formation in a force-free region of the contact zone, receptor-ligand bonds are transported into the trailing edge of the contact zone. Rolling velocity results from a balance of the convective flux of bonds and the rate of dissociation at the back edge of the contact zone. We compare the model's results to that of adhesive dynamics and to experimental data on the rolling of leukocytes, with good agreement. We calculate the dependence of rolling velocity on shear rate, intrinsic forward and reverse reaction rates, bond stiffness, and reactive compliance, and use the model to calculate a state diagram relating molecular parameters and the dynamic state of adhesion. A dimensionless form of the analytic model permits exploration of the parameters that control rolling. The chemical affinity of a receptor-ligand pair does not uniquely determine rolling velocity. We elucidate a fundamental relationship between off-rate, ligand density, and reactive compliance at the transition between firm and rolling adhesion. The model provides a rapid method for screening system parameters for the potential to mediate rolling. PMID:15315955

  1. Gravity sedimentation of leukocytes is partially independent from erythrocyte sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Bogar, L L; Tarsoly, P P

    2006-01-01

    Leukocyte function tests are suitable for monitoring the severity of chronic inflammatory and acute infectious diseases. The tests usually require time consuming leukocyte separation techniques while the original character of leukocytes can substantially alter. In contrast, we noted that gravity sedimentation properties of leukocytes is simple to measure and it also reflects non-specific inflammatory reactions of leukocytes. Our novel test is named leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) which is measured by leukocyte counting in the upper (U) and lower (L) half of the sedimentation blood column after one-hour gravity sedimentation of the whole blood. The formula LAR=100.(U-L)/(U+L) is used to calculate the percentage of leukocytes crosses the middle line of sedimentation blood column upward during one-hour sedimentation (normal range<15%, inter-assay coefficient of variation<5%). In this study we found that in vitro pre-treatment of septic patients' blood samples with protamine, lidocaine and prednisolone decreased leukocyte antisedimentation rate in a concentration dependent manner without effecting erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Leukocyte adherence was measured by the retention rate of leukocytes in a nylon fibre column. There was a significant positive correlation between leukocyte antisedimentation rate and leukocyte adherence (p<0.01), hematocrit (p<0.05), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p<0.05) when blood samples of 35 healthy individuals were analysed. We concluded that leukocyte antisedimentation rate in septic patients is significantly elevated comparing to healthy controls and as a bedside test it can reflect leukocyte involvement in infections. In vitro protamine, lidocaine and prednisolone pre-treatment of septic patients' blood samples indicates that leukocyte antisedimentation process is partially independent from the ongoing erythrocyte sedimentation.

  2. Plankton filtration with compressible crumb rubber packs.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Ngo, Anh T; Valdes, Julio R

    2011-01-01

    The experiments described provide insight into the feasibility of using compressible particulate packs to filter live plankton. The pore constriction sizes are controlled by subjecting the filter pack to isotropic confinement, thereby allowing for: (1) enhanced filtration upon confinement and (2) enhanced unclogging upon relaxation. Results show that filtration efficiency increases with increasing confinement; however, complete plankton retention is difficult to attain due to the plankton's ability to pass through pore constrictions that are smaller than the plankton size. The results are anticipated to offer potential benefits to ballast treatment and aquatic filtration operations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive indium-111 leukocyte scan in Nocardia brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Osenbach, R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Youngblood, L.; Crooks, L.; Landry, A.J.; Cawthon, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    We report a case of clinically unsuspected nocardia brain abscess detected by /sup 111/In-labeled autologous leukocytes. Clinical and computed tomographic findings supported the diagnosis of primary or metastatic tumor and the patient was treated with dexamethasone for 30 days prior to the leukocyte scan. Labeled leukocytes may provide a sensitive discriminator for brain abscess despite previous therapy with steroids.

  4. Metal reduction at bulk chemical filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Daikoku, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Murakami, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    OK73 thinner and cyclohexanone, both of which were spiked with metals were passed through Nylon 6,6 filter, varying flow rate, which include the conditions of both point-of-use and bulk filtrations. The influent and effluent metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS for metal removal efficiency of the filtration. As a result, removal efficiency for some metals descended depending on the flow rate, while others maintained. Slower flow rate is recommended to maintain low metal concentration in bulk filtration based on the result. Metals in cyclohexanone were reduced at higher efficiency than in OK73 thinner, agrees with a metal removal model of hydrophilic adsorbent in organic solvent, evidenced in our previous paper. Further, metal reduction on 300 mm φ Si wafer after coating organic solvents with Nylon 6,6 filtration was evidenced with TREX analysis.

  5. Coagulation-membrane filtration of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Liao, Guan-Yu; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    Filtration-based separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was investigated using a surface-modified hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) attained maximum turbidity removal at 200 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3). The membrane filtration flux at 1 bar increased as the PACl dose increased, regardless of overdosing in the coagulation stage. The filtered cake at the end of filtration tests peaked in solid content at 10 mg L(-1) as Al(2)O(3), reaching 34% w/w, roughly two times that of the original suspension. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests demonstrate that the cake with minimum water-solid binding strength produced the driest filter cake. Coagulation using 10 mg L(-1) PACl as Al(2)O(3), followed by PTFE membrane filtration at 1 bar, is an effective process for harvesting C. vulgaris from algal froth.

  6. New developments in slow sand filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), including the Surface Water Treatment Rule, have helped to renew the interest in the use of slow sand filtration (SSF) for treating surface waters for small communities. Slow sand filtration is not a new process, but is one that has been used to treat water effectively since the early 1800's. Interest in slow sand filtration in the United States has increased dramatically in the past thirteen years. New analytical techniques, such as particle counting, improved turbidity, improved growth media for microbiological analysis, and advanced techniques for measuring organic constituents allowed for more detailed studies than were possible in the early 1900's. The new work led to the publication of design manuals and task committee reports describing slow sand filtration in detail.

  7. Filtration in coal liquefaction - Influence of filtration conditions in non-hydrogenated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. W.; Rantell, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out to study the effects of filtration conditions upon the rate of filtration of non-hydrogenated coal digests. The results show the dependence of cake resistivity on both the filtration temperature and pressure. Filter cakes were found to be compressible, resulting in smaller increases in rate with increasing pressure than with incompressible cakes. The filtration temperature determines the packing of residual solids in the cake which in turn affects the cake resistivity. An empirical relation has been derived between filtration temperature and resistivity. With increasing temperature there is an increase in filtration rate due to the reduced viscosity, but a reduction owing to a higher packing density of solids in the filter cake.

  8. Filtration treatment of dairy processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Samkutty, Pushpa J; Gough, Ronald H

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of various filtration agents in the primary treatment of dairy processing wastewater was investigated in laboratory-scale studies. The filtration agents used were: zeolite, crushed coral, charcoal, sand and crushed coral and sand and glass beads. The effectiveness of the filtration media was determined by testing parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and total suspended solids (TSS) before and after filtration of wastewater. Percent reduction of the different parameters as a result of filtration was calculated. Sand combined with crushed coral or glass beads was found to be the most effective filtering medium with an average reduction of 99% in TSS, 93% in COD and 51% in TS. Charcoal filtration resulted in an average 85% reduction in TSS, 83% reduction in COD and 46% reduction in TS. Filtration using crushed coral resulted in an average 83% reduction in TSS, 78% reduction in COD and 39% reduction in TS. Zeolite was the least effective of the four media; it resulted in an average reduction of 78% in TSS, 76% in COD and 30% in TS. The differences among mean values of COD, TSS and TS after the different treatments were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). When differences among means were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.0001), each mean value was compared with every other mean value using Duncan's multiple range test and least significant difference (LSD) test. Comparison of the mean values indicated the following: No significant difference between means of zeolite and crushed coral treatment. Mean values of COD, TSS, and TS of charcoal treatment were significantly different from the other treatments. Sand combined with crushed coral or glass beads was the most effective filtration agent and the means were significantly different from the means of the other treatments.

  9. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase leukocyte overexpression in Graves' opthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Budny, Bartłomiej; Zybek-Kocik, Ariadna; Sowiński, Jerzy; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of NAMPT/visfatin in euthyroid patients with Graves' disease without (GD) and with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), we analyzed NAMPT leukocyte expression and its serum concentration. This was a single-center, cross-sectional study with consecutive enrollment. In total, 149 patients diagnosed with Graves' disease were enrolled in the study. We excluded subjects with hyper- or hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, other autoimmune disorders, active neoplastic disease, and infection. The control group was recruited among healthy volunteers adjusted for age, sex, and BMI with normal thyroid function and negative thyroid antibodies. Serum levels of visfatin, TSH, FT4, FT3, antibodies against TSH receptor (TRAb), antithyroperoxidase antibodies, antithyroglobulin antibodies, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured. NAMPT mRNA leukocyte expression was assessed using RT-qPCR. NAMPT/visfatin serum concentration was higher in GD (n = 44) and GO (n = 49) patients than in the control group (n = 40) (p = 0.0275). NAMPT leukocyte expression was higher in patients with GO (n = 30) than in GD patients (n = 27) and the control group (n = 29) (p < 0.0001). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that NAMPT/visfatin serum concentration was significantly associated with GD (β = 1.5723; p = 0.021). When NAMPT leukocyte expression was used as a dependent variable, simple regression analysis found association with TRAb, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, GD, and GO. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we confirmed the association between higher serum NAMPT/visfatin level and GD (coefficient = 1.5723; p = 0.0212), and between NAMPT leukocyte expression and GO (coefficient = 2.4619; p = 0.0001) and TRAb (coefficient = 0.08742; p = 0.006). Increased NAMPT leukocyte expression in patients with GO might suggest a presently undefined role in the pathogenesis of GO.

  10. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Endothelial cell regulation of leukocyte infiltration in inflammatory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, A.; Introna, M.; Dejana, E.

    1995-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important, active role in the onset and regulation of inflammatory and immune reactions. Through the production of chemokines they attract leukocytes and activate their adhesive receptors. This leads to the anchorage of leukocytes to the adhesive molecules expressed on the endothelial surface. Leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is frequently followed by their extravasation. The mechanisms which regulate the passage of leukocytes through endothelial clefts remain to be clarified. Many indirect data suggest that leukocytes might transfer signals to endothelial cells both through the release of active agents and adhesion to the endothelial cell surface. Adhesive molecules (such as PECAM) on the endothelial cell surface might also ‘direct’ leukocytes through the intercellular junction by haptotaxis. The information available on the molecular structure and functional properties of endothelial chemokines, adhesive molecules or junction organization is still fragmentary. Further work is needed to clarify how they interplay in regulating leukocyte infiltration into tissues. PMID:18475659

  12. Endothelial activation drives lateral migration and diapedesis of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christian; Riethmuller, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    To invade a tissue, leukocytes have to overcome the endothelial barrier. Prior to trans-endothelial migration, leukocytes move laterally on the endothelial surface-searching for an emigration site. It is still unclear, how the actual diapedesis step is initiated and whether the endothelium has a decisive role. Here, video-microscopy was employed to investigate, whether lateral migration of leukocytes is correlated to their diapedesis rate. To address the contribution of each cell type, selective stimulation of either leukocytes or endothelial cells with TNFα was performed. Stimulation of endothelial cells alone was sufficient for maximal effects, thereby underlining their decisive role for leukocyte diapedesis. Concomitant to the TNFα-enhanced diapedesis rate, leukocyte adhesion was intensified and, unexpectedly, the lateral leukocyte migration was accelerated.

  13. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  14. Blood spotlight on leukocytes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello; Qiu, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both primary metabolic dysfunction and subsequent tissue failure. Importantly, this inflammation has been shown to arise as a consequence of both the disruption of homeostatic tissue resident leukocytes and the recruitment of antagonistic effector cells from the circulation. In this review, we discuss the roles of visceral adipose tissue’s salient leukocyte lineages in the transition to obesity and highlight key points at which this emerging immune axis may be manipulated for therapeutic effect. PMID:24065242

  15. Getting Leukocytes to the Site of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Muller, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is no “response” in either the innate or adaptive immune response unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. They do this through the process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders (paracellular transmigration) and in some cases through the endothelial cell itself (transcellular migration). This review summarizes the steps leading up to diapedesis, then focuses on the molecules and mechanisms responsible for transendothelial migration. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration, including a major role for membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:23345459

  16. Passive deformation analysis of human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Skalak, R; Sung, K L; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Chien, S

    1988-02-01

    The following analysis presents an experimental and theoretical study of the passive viscoelastic behavior of human leukocytes. Individual neutrophils in EDTA were observed both during their partial aspiration into a small micropipette and after expulsion from a large micropipette where the cell had been totally aspirated and deformed into a sausage shape. To analyze the data, a passive model of leukocyte rheology has been developed consisting of a cortical shell containing a Maxwell fluid which describes the average properties of the cell cytoplasm. The cortical shell represents a crosslinked actin layer near the surface of the cell and is assumed to be under pre-stressed tension. This model can reproduce the results of experiments using micropipette for both short-time small deformation and slow recovery data after large deformation. In addition, a finite element scheme has been established for the same model which shows close agreement with the analytical solution.

  17. Leukocyte set points in metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Justin I; Chawla, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate tissues comprise precise admixtures of parenchymal and hematopoietic cells, whose interactions are vital to proper tissue function. By regulating this interaction, vertebrates are able to mitigate environmental stress and coordinate dramatic physiologic adaptations. For instance, under conditions of chronic nutrient excess, leukocyte recruitment and activation increase in an effort to decrease excess nutrient storage and alleviate adipocyte stress. While basal equilibria may be reestablished upon normalization of nutrient intake, a new set point characterized by insulin resistance and chronic inflammation is established if the stress persists. Consequently, although this response is adaptive in settings of acute overfeeding and infection, it has catastrophic health consequences in the modern context of obesity. Understanding how leukocyte set points (numbers and activation status) are established, maintained, and regulated in tissues is, thus, critical to our understanding of, and intervention in, chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes.

  18. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. 10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View west of east entry to filtration beds. Note monitor roof and clerestory windows over central corridor. Laboratory building is sited over the center of the filtration bed building at extreme left center of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... taken from a surface water or GWUDI source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not... separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional filtration toolbox...

  2. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... taken from a surface water or GWUDI source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not... separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional filtration toolbox...

  3. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... taken from a surface water or GWUDI source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not... separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional filtration toolbox...

  4. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle.

  5. Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2009-03-01

    Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies.

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

  7. Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF R3f GARNET BEAD FILTRATION AND MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION SYSTEMS; FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of tests conducted to date at the EPA T&E Facility on the R3f filtration system utilizing fine beads (such as garnet beads or glass beads) and a conventional multimedia filtration system. Both systems have been designed and built by Enprotec, a...

  9. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  10. Dynamic filtration of invert-emulsion muds

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. )

    1993-09-01

    Dynamic-filtration experiments conducted on oil-based muds show that the dynamic-filtration rate is much higher than API filtration rates. The use of water-wet solids results in very poor-quality external mudcakes and high fluid-loss rates. Better external mudcakes are formed by mixing equal parts organophilic clay and mud. Filtration-loss-control additives (asphalt mineral pitches) do not reduce the equilibrium filtration rate, but do reduce spurt loss and limit solids invasion. In brine-saturated rocks, the invasion rate for oil-based muds is significantly smaller than for water-based muds because capillary pressure prevents the oil phase from entering the core in oil-based muds. Oil-based mudcakes are softer and more shear-sensitive than water-based mudcakes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs indicate that oil-based mudcakes consist of individual water droplets coated with clay particles. This cake structure gives rise to the low permeability and shear sensitivity of oil-based muds.

  11. Filtration deformability of rabbit pulmonary macrophage.

    PubMed

    Smith, C M; Tukey, D P; Mundshenk, D; Krivit, W; White, J G; Repine, J E; Hoidal, J R

    1982-04-01

    Rabbit PAM deformability was evaluated by positive-pressure filtration through Nucleopore membranes of well-specified pore diameter. The PAM filtration method was standardized and was influenced by apparatus variations (pore size, flow rate, cell concentration), environment (temperature, pH, divalent cations, protein concentration), and differences in PAM cell volume. The influence of phagocyte function on filtration deformability was evaluated by exposing PAMs to pharmacologic and physiologic agents with somewhat exclusive influences on phagocyte physiology. Agents that interact with microfilament contractile protein (N-ethylmaleimide, cytochalasin B) altered deformability profoundly, but no effect was observed with agents interacting with microtubules (vinblastine, colchicine). Agents that cause general PAM activation (phorbol myristate acetate) or stimulate chemotaxis (F-Met-Leu-Phe) increased deformability. On the contrary, PAM deformability was not changed by phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus or latex beads. Pharmacologic agents that alter PAM adhesion (aspirin, indomethacin, physiologic dose hydrocortisone) or inhibit glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose) had no influence on filtration deformability. Filtration PAM deformability reflects passive whole cell rigidity, which appears to be determined by the state of polymerization of the actin-myosin microfilament complex.

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.; Suguro, T.; Kitakata, Y.; Uchiyama, G.; Miyoshi, T.; Uematsu, S.; Inoue, S.; Arimizu, N.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.

  13. FAK and PAX-illin get involved in leukocyte diapedesis.

    PubMed

    Luscinskas, Francis W

    2012-02-01

    A major focus of researchers studying leukocyte recruitment has been to identify and understand how cell surface endothelial adhesion molecules, cell-to-cell junctional protein complexes, secreted chemokines and chemoattractants, and the vessel basement membrane structure organization coordinate the process of leukocyte recruitment. As research expands beyond the components initially identified as being necessary for leukocyte recruitment, attention has turned to the structures that regulate endothelial cell-to-matrix adhesion. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Parsons et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 436-446] identify new players in the regulation of neutrophil diapedesis (transendothelial migration), namely the focal adhesion proteins, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). While understudied, and indeed previously underappreciated, in leukocyte diapedesis, this Commentary discusses how the work by Parsons et al. implicates FAK and paxillin in the proximal (leukocyte rolling) and distal (diapedesis) steps of the multistep adhesion cascade of leukocyte recruitment.

  14. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation.

  15. Quantifying oil filtration effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needelman, William M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1991-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing life is influenced by the number, size, and material properties of particles entering the Hertzian contact of the rolling element and raceway. In general, rolling-element bearing life increases with increasing level of oil filtration. Based upon test results, two equations are presented which allow for the adjustment of bearing L(sub 10) or catalog life based upon oil filter rating. It is recommended that where no oil filtration is used catalog life be reduced by 50 percent.

  16. Filtration of A Hanford AN-104 Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, MichaelR

    2004-03-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter.Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

  17. Filtration of a Hanford AN-104 Sample

    SciTech Connect

    POIRIER, MICHAEL

    2004-04-19

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted ultrafiltration tests with samples from the Hanford Site's 241-AN-104 tank. The test objectives were to measure filter flux during dewatering and the removal of soluble species during washing. The filtration tests were conducted with the Cells Unit Filter (CUF) currently installed in Cell 16 of the SRTC High Activity Caves. Following filtration, personnel performed inhibited water washing to remove soluble species. Because of the limited volume of concentrated slurry, the washing was performed with a volumetric flask rather than a crossflow filter. Following the washing, personnel chemically cleaned the filter with 1 M nitric acid and periodically measured the clean water flux.

  18. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  19. Maize genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Lance E; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; O'Shaughnessy, Andrew L; Balija, Vivekanand S; Nascimento, Lidia U; Dike, Sujit; de la Bastide, Melissa; Martienssen, Robert A; McCombie, W Richard

    2003-12-19

    Gene enrichment strategies offer an alternative to sequencing large and repetitive genomes such as that of maize. We report the generation and analysis of nearly 100,000 undermethylated (or methylation filtration) maize sequences. Comparison with the rice genome reveals that methylation filtration results in a more comprehensive representation of maize genes than those that result from expressed sequence tags or transposon insertion sites sequences. About 7% of the repetitive DNA is unmethylated and thus selected in our libraries, but potentially active transposons and unmethylated organelle genomes can be identified. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to finish the maize transcriptome.

  20. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  1. Mechanisms of pressure filtration of liquid aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.

    2006-12-01

    The Prefil Footprinter, a portable pressure filtration instrument, is usually used to detect the quality of liquid aluminum alloys. However, no investigations have ever been done to calculate the cake resistance to date. Based on the identification and classification of flow behavior using the first derivative method for filtrate mass vs filtration time curves, conventional filtration equations are successfully employed to understand the filtration behaviors. From the analyses of the variations of cake resistance with filtration time, the filtration mechanisms are discussed in detail over the different filtration stages. During the steady stage, either incompressible or compressible cake mode is the main mechanism. At the initial and terminal transient stages, however, deep-bed filtration, complete straining, and solidification clogging may appear. Solid inclusions in liquid metal have significant influence on the cake structures and properties. Some important issues related to the heterogeneity of filter media and test methodology are highlighted in this work.

  2. [Role of "leukocyte adhesion molecules" in early periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Vierucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on functional characteristics of leukocyte adhesion molecules, on their localization and specific ligands. In fact, leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelium is an essential step in promoting adequate immune response to bacterial infections. Since periodontal health is highly dependent on neutrophil function against the microbial dental plaque, defects in chemotaxis and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium often result in severe, early onset periodontitis. Furthermore, oral lesions may be the only clinical manifestation of neutrophil impairment.

  3. Passenger leukocytes and microchimerism: what role in tolerance induction?

    PubMed

    Wood, Kathryn J

    2003-05-15

    The role of passenger leukocytes in determining the outcome after transplantation is complex. In some settings, donor-derived passenger leukocytes can initiate graft rejection, whereas in others they contribute to graft acceptance. Both donor and recipient factors contribute to this potential dual role. Understanding the interaction between passenger leukocytes and the recipient's immune system, particularly after liver transplantation, may provide important clues for developing novel strategies for inducing specific unresponsiveness to donor alloantigens.

  4. Seminal and colostral protease inhibitors on leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Veselský, L; Cechová, D; Hruban, V; Klaudy, J

    1982-01-01

    For detection of protease inhibitors from cow colostrum (CTI) and bull seminal plasma (BUSI I and BUSI II) on the surface of leukocytes, immunological methods were used. An agglutination and an immunofluorescence test demonstrated components on the surface of bovine, porcine and ovine granulocytes and lymphocytes which were immunologically identical with the protease inhibitors isolated from cow colostrum and bull seminal plasma. When antisera against (CTI, BUSI and BUSI II were absorbed by bovine and porcine liver, kidney and spleen homogenate or by bovine and porcine granulocytes or lymphocytes, the immunological tests were negative.

  5. Leukocyte involvement in renal reperfusion-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Khastar, Hossein; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Seifi, Behjat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Delavari, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2011-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induces organ damage in remote organs. The aim of this study was to assess the role of leukocytes in the induction of liver damage after renal IR injury. Inbred mice were subjected to either sham operation or bilateral renal IR injury (60 min ischemia followed by 3 h reperfusion). Mice were then anesthetized for collection of leukocytes by heart puncture. Isolated leukocytes were transferred to two other groups: intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice and intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. After 24 h, recipient mice were anesthetized and samples were collected. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde increased significantly, and hepatic glutathione decreased significantly in intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR mice in comparison with intact recipient mice that received leukocytes from sham-operated control mice. Loss of normal liver architecture, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and focal infiltration of leukocytes were seen. These results suggest that leukocytes are one of the possible factors that contribute to liver damage after renal IR injury and this damage is partly due to the induction of oxidative stress.

  6. A role for leukocyte-endothelial adhesion mechanisms in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fabene, Paolo F.; Mora, Graciela Navarro; Martinello, Marianna; Rossi, Barbara; Merigo, Flavia; Ottoboni, Linda; Bach, Simona; Angiari, Stefano; Benati, Donatella; Chakir, Asmaa; Zanetti, Lara; Schio, Federica; Osculati, Antonio; Marzola, Pasquina; Nicolato, Elena; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Xia, Lijun; Lowe, John B.; McEver, Rodger P.; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Butcher, Eugene C.; Constantin, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 percent of the world population, are not well understood1–3. Using a mouse model of epilepsy, we show that seizures induce elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and enhanced leukocyte rolling and arrest in brain vessels mediated by the leukocyte mucin P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and leukocyte integrins α4β1 and αLβ2. Inhibition of leukocyte-vascular interactions either with blocking antibodies, or in mice genetically deficient in functional PSGL-1, dramatically reduced seizures. Treatment with blocking antibodies following acute seizures prevented the development of epilepsy. Neutrophil depletion also inhibited acute seizure induction and chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, which is known to enhance neuronal excitability, was induced by acute seizure activity but was prevented by blockade of leukocyte-vascular adhesion, suggesting a pathogenetic link between leukocyte-vascular interactions, BBB damage and seizure generation. Consistent with potential leukocyte involvement in the human, leukocytes were more abundant in brains of epileptics than of controls. Our results suggest leukocyte-endothelial interaction as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of epilepsy. PMID:19029985

  7. Contamination control through filtration of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabekis, P. D.; Lyle, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the various kinds of gas and liquid filters used in decontamination and sterilization procedures. Also discussed are filtration mechanisms, characteristics of filter materials, and the factors affecting filter performance. Summaries are included for filter testing and evaluation techniques and the possible application of the filters to spacecraft sterilization.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: MEMBRANE FILTRATION - SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SBP Technologies Inc. (SBP) has developed a membrane-based separation technology that can reduce the volume of contaminated groundwater requiring treatment. The SBP Filtration Unit consists of porous, sintered, stainless steel tubes arranged in a shell-and-tube module configurati...

  9. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, F.N.N.

    1995-10-18

    Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

  11. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: MEMBRANE FILTRATION - SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SBP Technologies Inc. (SBP) has developed a membrane-based separation technology that can reduce the volume of contaminated groundwater requiring treatment. The SBP Filtration Unit consists of porous, sintered, stainless steel tubes arranged in a shell-and-tube module configurati...

  13. Gel Filtration Chromatography: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography. The procedure separates two highly colored proteins of different molecular weights on a Sephadex G-75 in 45 minutes. This time includes packing the column as well. Background information, reagents needed, procedures used, and results obtained are…

  14. Solute partitioning and filtration by extracellular matrices

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Christina L.; Ferrell, Nicholas; Schnell, Lisa; Dubnisheva, Anna; Zydney, Andrew L.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Roy, Shuvo

    2009-01-01

    The physiology of glomerular filtration remains mechanistically obscure despite its importance in disease. The correspondence between proteinuria and foot process effacement suggests podocytes as the locus of the filtration barrier. If so, retained macromolecules ought to accumulate at the filtration barrier, an effect called concentration polarization. Literature data indicate macromolecule concentrations decrease from subendothelial to subepithelial glomerular basement membrane (GBM), as would be expected if the GBM were itself the filter. The objective of this study was to obtain insights into the possible role of the GBM in protein retention by performing fundamental experimental and theoretical studies on the properties of three model gels. Solute partitioning and filtration through thin gels of a commercially available laminin-rich extracellular matrix, Matrigel, were measured using a polydisperse polysaccharide tracer molecule, Ficoll 70. Solute partitioning into laminin gels and lens basement membrane (LBM) were measured using Ficoll 70. A novel model of a laminin gel was numerically simulated, as well as a mixed structure-random-fiber model for LBM. Experimental partitioning was predicted by numerical simulations. Sieving coefficients through thin gels of Matrigel were size dependent and strongly flux dependent. The observed flux dependence arose from compression of the gel in response to the applied pressure. Gel compression may alter solute partitioning into extracellular matrix at physiologic pressures present in the glomerular capillary. This suggests a physical mechanism coupling podocyte structure to permeability characteristics of the GBM. PMID:19587146

  15. Recycled PET Nanofibers for Water Filtration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Nicole E.; Gillan, Margaret; Sweetser, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Water shortage is an immediate and serious threat to our world population. Inexpensive and scalable methods to clean freshwater and wastewater are in high demand. Nanofiber filtration membranes represent a next generation nonwoven filter media due to their unique properties. Polyethlyene terephthalate (PET) is often used in the packaging of water and other commonly used materials, leading to a large amount of plastic waste often with limited incentive for recycling (few value-added uses). Here, we present work in the generation of nanofiber liquid filtration membranes from PET plastic bottles and demonstrate their use in microfiltration. PET nanofiber membranes were formed via solution electrospinning with fiber diameters as low as ca. 100 nm. Filtration efficiency was tested with latex beads with sizes ranging from 30 to 2000 nm. Greater than 99% of the beads as small as 500 nm were removed using gravity filtration. To reduce biofouling, the mats were functionalized with quaternary ammonium and biguanide biocides. The biguanide functionalized mats achieved 6 log reduction for both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. PMID:28773380

  16. [Clinical experience of automated double filtration plasmapheresis].

    PubMed

    Lee, C T; Chuang, F R; Hsu, K T; Lam, K K; Liao, S C; Liu, C C; Chen, J B; Jang, S W; Chien, Y S; Pan, H H

    1996-12-01

    Double filtration plasmapheresis, one kind of fractionation plasmapheresis, was developed from membrane type plasmapheresis to remove only the pathogen and return the normal protein back to the patient. We started our automated double filtration plasmapheresis since December 1993. There were 13 patients who received one hundred treatments totally during one year period. And they are myasthenia gravis (8 patients); acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (1 patient), multiple myeloma (1 patient); acquired factor VIII inhibitor (1 patient); autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1 patient); systemic lupus erythematous (1 patient). Technically double filtration plasmapheresis is easy to perform and time-saving. It also makes necessity of replacement fluid less frequent. Incidence of complication is rare, and this includes hypotension 2%, palpitation 1%, headache 1%, hemolysis 4%, air emboli 1%, high secondary pressure 2%, and no motality during our treatment. Clinical response is documented in cases of myasthenia gravis; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acquired factor VIII inhibitor in our study. In conclusion, double filtration plasmapheresis is a time-saving, convenient, and safe therapeutic modality with rare complication. Because its effectiveness on limited kinds of diseases and costs relatively high price, thus plasmapheresis should be used in selected cases and treat aggressively if indicated.

  17. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  18. Interaction of activated leukocytes with polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, H; Pişkin, E

    1997-12-01

    Three types of polymeric particles with different surface wettabilities, i.e., poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(methylmethacrylate-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (P(MMA/HEMA)) and poly(methylmethacrylate)/poly(vinyl alcohol) PMMA/PVAL with a diameter of 1.5 microm were produced in this study These particles were incubated with blood samples obtained both from three patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. In the blood samples taken before the bypass operations, there was considerable phagocytosis and/or adhesion of the PMMA particles, i.e., 14+/-4 particles per monocyte and 11+/-3 particles per neutrophil. While there was almost no phagocytosis and/or adhesion of the P(MMA/HEMA) and PMMA/PVAL particles. In the blood samples which were taken during bypass operations, phagocytosis and/or adhesion of PMMA microspheres increased significantly. The P(MMA/HEMA) and/or PMMA/PVAL particles adhered, or were even phagocytosed by the activated leukocytes in this case. Leukocytes activated during the bypass operations gradually returned to normal in about 24 h.

  19. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  20. Characterization of rag1 mutant zebrafish leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Hanson, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Zebrafish may prove to be one of the best vertebrate models for innate immunology. These fish have sophisticated immune components, yet rely heavily on innate immune mechanisms. Thus, the development and characterization of mutant and/or knock out zebrafish are critical to help define immune cell and immune gene functions in the zebrafish model. The use of Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) and recombination activation gene 1 and 2 mutant mice has allowed the investigation of the specific contribution of innate defenses in many infectious diseases. Similar zebrafish mutants are now being used in biomedical and fish immunology related research. This report describes the leukocyte populations in a unique model, recombination activation gene 1-/- mutant zebrafish (rag1 mutants). Results Differential counts of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) showed that rag1 mutants had significantly decreased lymphocyte-like cell populations (34.7%) compared to wild-types (70.5%), and significantly increased granulocyte populations (52.7%) compared to wild-types (17.6%). Monocyte/macrophage populations were similar between mutants and wild-types, 12.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Differential leukocyte counts of rag1 mutant kidney hematopoietic tissue showed a significantly reduced lymphocyte-like cell population (8%), a significantly increased myelomonocyte population (57%), 34.8% precursor cells, and 0.2% thrombocytes, while wild-type hematopoietic kidney tissue showed 29.4% lymphocytes/lymphocyte-like cells, 36.4% myelomonocytes, 33.8% precursors and 0.5% thrombocytes. Flow cytometric analyses of kidney hematopoietic tissue revealed three leukocyte populations. Population A was monocytes and granulocytes and comprised 34.7% of the gated cells in rag1 mutants and 17.6% in wild-types. Population B consisted of hematopoietic precursors, and comprised 50% of the gated cells for rag1 mutants and 53% for wild-types. Population C consisted of lymphocytes and lymphocyte

  1. Computerized detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Ya; Wang, Xiangzhou; Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Detection of leukocytes is critical for the routine leukorrhea exam, which is widely used in gynecological examinations. An elevated vaginal leukocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. In the routine leukorrhea exam, the counting of leukocytes is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the viewing and counting of leukocytes from multiple high-power viewing fields on a glass slide under a microscope leads to subjectivity, low efficiency, and low accuracy. To date, many biological cells in stool, blood, and breast cancer have been studied to realize computerized detection; however, the detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images has not been studied. Thus, there is an increasing need for computerized detection of leukocytes. There are two key processes in the computerized detection of leukocytes in digital image processing. One is segmentation; the other is intelligent classification. In this paper, we propose a combined ensemble to detect leukocytes in the microscopic leukorrhea image. After image segmentation and selecting likely leukocyte subimages, we obtain the leukocyte candidates. Then, for intelligent classification, we adopt two methods: feature extraction and classification by a support vector machine (SVM); applying a modified convolutional neural network (CNN) to the larger subimages. If different methods classify a candidate in the same category, the process is finished. If not, the outputs of the methods are provided to a classifier to further classify the candidate. After acquiring leukocyte candidates, we attempted three methods to perform classification. The first approach using features and SVM achieved 88% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 92.5% accuracy. The second method using CNN achieved 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 89.5% accuracy. Then, in the combination approach, we achieved 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and 93.5% accuracy. Finally, the images

  2. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. 12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL OF FILTRATION ROOM SHOWING TANKS AND CONTROL VALVES, LOOKING NORTH - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER TANK IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER TANK IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    PubMed

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p < 0.001). Mathematical modeling confirmed this decrease both in LF and HF dialyzers which was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in internal filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  7. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  8. Relationship of Stress, Leukocyte Functions and Acute Ulcerative Gingivitis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    IONAL 1jjl (I Y AN[)AAU> I,)(, 4 •. . . . .i -AD (Report Number 3 , Lf) RELATIONSHIP OF STRESS, LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION AND ACUTE ULCERATIVE GINGIVITIS...AIk £It. KEY WORDS (C~mntm. a reers old. A *1acoa and Identit by block number) Acute Necrotic Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)), Stress 4 Leukocyte

  9. Mixed wife-husband leukocyte migration inhibition test after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Halbrecht, I; Komlos, L; Ben-Efraim, S

    1979-01-01

    The leukocyte migration inhibition test was performed in mixed wife-husband leukocyte suspensions in 11 cases of normal pregancy. Migration of leukocytes was significantly inhibited in the presence of paternal, as compared to maternal serum.

  10. Degradation of Thyroid Hormones by Phagocytosing Human Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Seymour J.; Green, William L.

    1973-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T9) are rapidly degraded by a purified preparation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and H2O2 with the formation of iodide and material which remains at the origin on paper chromatography. Deiodination by MPO and H2O2 occurs more readily at pH 7.0 than at pH 5.0 in contrast to iodination by this system which is known to occur more readily at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0. Degradation is inhibited by azide, cyanide, ascorbic acid, and propylthiouracil. Methimazole stimulates deiodination by MPO and H2O2 but inhibits this reaction when MPO is replaced by lactoperoxidase or horseradish peroxidase. Intact human leukocytes, in the resting state, degrade T4 and T3 slowly: degradation, however, is increased markedly during phagocytosis of preopsonized particles. Serum inhibits this reaction. T3 can be detected as a minor product of T4 degradation. Proteolytic digestion of the reaction products increases the recovery of monoiodotyrosine. The fixation of iodine in the cytoplasm of leukocytes which contain ingested bacteria was detected radioautographically. Chronic granulomatous disease leukocytes, which are deficient in H2O2 formation, degrade T4 and T3 poorly during phagocytosis. MPO-deficient leukocytes degrade the thyroid hormones at a slower rate than do normal leukocytes although considerable degradation is still observed. Azide, cyanide, ascorbic acid, and propylthiouracil which inhibit certain peroxidasecatalyzed reactions inhibit degradation by normal leukocytes; however, inhibition is incomplete. Formation of iodinated origin material is inhibited to a greater degree by azide, cyanide, and propylthiouracil than is deiodination. Methimazole inhibits the formation of iodinated origin material by both normal and MPO-deficient leukocytes. However, deiodination by normal leukocytes is stimulated and that of MPO-deficient leukocytes is unaffected by methimazole. Hypoxia inhibits the degradation of T4 and T3 by untreated normal or MPO

  11. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS, a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized, as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS. Nevertheless, the two applications have much in common, so that what is learned in one application can be used to advantage in the other. We have

  12. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS, a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized, as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS. Nevertheless, the two applications have much in common, so that what is learned in one application can be used to advantage in the other. We have

  13. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  14. A novel method to analyze leukocyte rolling behavior in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Jessica L.; Goobic, Adam P.; Acton, Scott T.

    2004-01-01

    Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscopy. Here, we present an improvement of the traditional intravital microscopy that allows leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction to be studied from the time the leukocyte makes its initial contact with the endothelium until it adheres to or detaches from the endothelium. The leukocyte is tracked throughout the venular tree with the aid of a motorized stage and the rolling and adhesive behavior is measured off-line. Because this method can involve human error, methods to automate the tracking procedure have been developed. This novel tracking method allows for a more detailed examination of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. PMID:15346173

  15. A major allogenic leukocyte antigen in the agnathan hagfish.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Imai, Takeshi; Miki, Shoji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Miyashita, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Naoko; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    All vertebrates, from jawless fish to mammals, possess adaptive immune systems that can detect and inactivate non-self-antigens through a vast repertoire of antigen receptors. Unlike jawed vertebrates, the hagfish utilizes variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are unrelated to immunoglobulin molecules but are diversified by copy-choice gene conversion mechanism. Here, we report that hagfish VLRs react with allogenic leukocyte antigens but not with self-antigens. We found that a highly polymorphic membrane protein, NICIR3, is recognized by VLRs as an allogenic leukocyte antigen (ALA). In a serological cross-reactivity test, a close correlation was observed between the amino acid differences in the protein sequences and the VLR cross-reactivities. This leukocyte antigen was predominantly expressed in phagocytic leukocytes, where it was associated with phagocytosed protein antigens. These findings suggest that a polymorphic leukocyte antigen, NICIR3/ALA, plays a pivotal role in jawless vertebrate adaptive immunity.

  16. A major allogenic leukocyte antigen in the agnathan hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Imai, Takeshi; Miki, Shoji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Miyashita, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Naoko; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    All vertebrates, from jawless fish to mammals, possess adaptive immune systems that can detect and inactivate non-self-antigens through a vast repertoire of antigen receptors. Unlike jawed vertebrates, the hagfish utilizes variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are unrelated to immunoglobulin molecules but are diversified by copy-choice gene conversion mechanism. Here, we report that hagfish VLRs react with allogenic leukocyte antigens but not with self-antigens. We found that a highly polymorphic membrane protein, NICIR3, is recognized by VLRs as an allogenic leukocyte antigen (ALA). In a serological cross-reactivity test, a close correlation was observed between the amino acid differences in the protein sequences and the VLR cross-reactivities. This leukocyte antigen was predominantly expressed in phagocytic leukocytes, where it was associated with phagocytosed protein antigens. These findings suggest that a polymorphic leukocyte antigen, NICIR3/ALA, plays a pivotal role in jawless vertebrate adaptive immunity. PMID:23612706

  17. 2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to earth covering over reinforced concrete roof is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 3. View southeast of northwest corner of filtration bed. Laboratory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View southeast of northwest corner of filtration bed. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. East rock appears directly behind the laboratory building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements....

  20. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements....

  1. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source...

  2. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source...

  4. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements....

  5. 15. View west of central corridor between filtration beds which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View west of central corridor between filtration beds which are located to the left and right of the photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  6. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection... water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements....

  7. 16. View west from center of central corridor between filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View west from center of central corridor between filtration beds which are located to the left and right of the photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Valves under central corridor of filtration bed building. Main flood valves is at left and crossover valve is a right. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all of...)(C)(iii), that filtration is required. A public water system that uses a ground water source...

  10. Membrane filtration technology for the metals fabrication industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, J.; Lindsey, T.

    1995-12-31

    Membrane filtration for separating contaminants from aqueous cleaning solutions based on molecular size, shape, and charge is described in this paper. Ultrafiltration is a pressure driven membrane filtration technique capable of producing high quality filtrate from wastewater. Three case studies are briefly described where ultrafiltration has been incorporated into the manufacturing process.

  11. 20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of sand filtration bed. Wheelbarrow was used to remove schmutzdeck (top, dirty sand layer containing particulate contamination, dead microorganisms and debris) for cleaning and or disposal. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Overflow pipe in filtration bed. Located at each corner of the bed, the pipes drain off any excess water and maintain a limit on water depth. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, J E; Scott, R W; Campanelli, D; Griffith, J; Wilde, C; Marra, M N; Seeger, M; Nathan, C F

    1989-01-01

    Nine polypeptide peaks with antibiotic activity were resolved from human polymorphonuclear leukocyte azurophil granule membranes. All but 1 of the 12 constituent polypeptides were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis. Near quantitative recovery of protein and activity permitted an assessment of the contribution of each species to the overall respiratory-burst-independent antimicrobial capacity of the cell. Three uncharacterized polypeptides were discovered, including two broad-spectrum antibiotics. One of these, a defensin that we have designated human neutrophil antimicrobial peptide 4, was more potent than previously described defensins but represented less than 1% of the total protein. The other, named azurocidin, was abundant and comparable to bactericidal permeability-increasing factor in its contribution to the killing of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:2501794

  14. Oxidation of glucosamine by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, C L; DeChatelet, L R

    1981-03-01

    When exposed to a phagocytic stimulus (opsonized zymosan), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) produced 14CO2 from [1-14C]glucosamine at a rate 10-25% of that produced from glucose under the same conditions. The production of CO2 from glucosamine by intact PMNs was inhibited by glucose and dependent upon activation of the hexosemonophosphate shunt (HMPS). However, the metabolic pathways for the oxidation of glucose and glucosamine by PMNs are not identical. This is suggested by the fact that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the initiating enzyme for the HMPS, did not utilize glucosamine-6-phosphate as a substrate. In addition, glucosamine was not oxidized by sonically disrupted PMNs whereas oxidation of glucose by the same preparation was increased sevenfold over intact cells. Taken together, the data suggest that PMNs oxidize glucosamine by converting it to a compound compatible with the enzymes of the HMPS. This conversion requires intact PMNs and/or an as yet unidentified cofactor.

  15. Leukocyte Count and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Andrea; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Anderson, Christopher D; Jessel, Michael J; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M; Pezzini, Alessandro; Padovani, Alessandro; Gurol, M Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Acute leukocytosis is a well-established response to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Leukocytes, because of their interaction with platelets and coagulation factors, may in turn play a role in hemostasis. We investigated whether admission leukocytosis was associated with reduced bleeding after acute ICH. Consecutive patients with primary ICH were prospectively collected from 1994 to 2015 and retrospectively analyzed. We included subjects with a follow-up computed tomographic scan available and automated complete white blood cell count performed within 48 hours from onset. Baseline and follow-up hematoma volumes were calculated with semiautomated software, and hematoma expansion was defined as volume increase >30% or 6 mL. The association between white blood cell count and ICH expansion was investigated with multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1302 subjects met eligibility criteria (median age, 75 years; 55.8% men), of whom 207 (15.9%) experienced hematoma expansion. Higher leukocyte count on admission was associated with reduced risk of hematoma expansion (odds ratio for 1000 cells increase, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.96; P=0.001). The risk of hematoma expansion was inversely associated with neutrophil count (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96; P=0.001) and directly associated with monocyte count (odds ratio, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.83; P=0.034). There was no association between lymphocyte count and ICH expansion (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.17; P=0.718). Higher admission white blood cell count is associated with lower risk of hematoma expansion. This highlights a potential role of the inflammatory response in modulating the coagulation cascade after acute ICH. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Association between Snoring and Leukocyte Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Dae Wui; Baik, Inkyung

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional PSG study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2010–2013. During the same period, questionnaire-based interviews, blood collection, and relative LTL assays were conducted. A total of 887 Korean men and women aged 50–79 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 determined in the PSG study were included in the study. Results: We observed that the percentage of time spent snoring during sleep (% time spent snoring) assessed by PSG was inversely associated with LTL even after adjusting for potential risk factors and AHI. In the linear regression association between tertiles of percentage of time spent snoring and log-transformed LTL, coefficient estimates (P value) were −0.076 (< 0.05) for the second tertile and −0.084 (< 0.01) for the third tertile compared with the bottom tertile. When LTL was compared according to snoring status determined using PSG and questionnaire information, both primary snorers and those with mild sleep apnea (5 ≤ AHI < 15) had shorter LTL than nonsnorers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that snoring may influence telomere attrition independent of sleep apnea. Citation: Shin C, Yun CH, Yoon DW, Baik I. Association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length. SLEEP 2016;39(4):767–772. PMID:26715224

  17. Physical Characterization of Mouse Deep Vein Thrombosis Derived Microparticles by Differential Filtration with Nanopore Filters

    PubMed Central

    Peramo, Antonio; Diaz, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    With the objective of making advancements in the area of pro-thrombotic microparticle characterization in cardiovascular biology, we present a novel method to separate blood circulating microparticles using a membrane-based, nanopore filtration system. In this qualitative study, electron microscopy observations of these pro-thrombotic mouse microparticles, as well as mouse platelets and leukocytes obtained using a mouse inferior vena cava ligation model of deep-vein thrombosis are presented. In particular, we present mouse microparticle morphology and microstructure using SEM and TEM indicating that they appear to be mostly spherical with diameters in the 100 to 350 nm range. The nanopore filtration technique presented is focused on the development of novel methodologies to isolate and characterize blood circulating microparticles that can be used in conjunction with other methodologies. We believe that determination of microparticle size and structure is a critical step for the development of reliable assays with clinical or research application in thrombosis and it will contribute to the field of nanomedicine in thrombosis. PMID:24957960

  18. Nonlinear filtration of the spoken language signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchenko, Lilia V.; Sinitsyn, Rustem B.

    2009-06-01

    Work is devoted to important topic of acoustic signals processing in a pilot's cabin of aircraft in which the high noise level is observed. We have investigated heuristic approach of acoustic signal nonlinear filtration. First of all the kernel estimate of the cumulative distribution function was done. The signal was transformed using the estimate of the cumulative distribution function as a functional transform. Then measurements of acoustic signals' parameters and an estimation of their spectral density were done. The estimation was measured by means of fast Fourier transform procedure with use of window functions. At the second stage the new procedure of the adaptive filtration based on the Wiener frequency approach has been offered. The estimations of spectra received at the first stage have been thus used. Results are confirmed by experimental processing of spoken language signals.

  19. Cellular proliferation after experimental glaucoma filtration surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Jampel, H.D.; McGuigan, L.J.; Dunkelberger, G.R.; L'Hernault, N.L.; Quigley, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    We used light microscopic autoradiography to determine the time course of cellular incorporation of tritiated thymidine (a correlate of cell division) following glaucoma filtration surgery in seven eyes of four cynomolgus monkeys with experimental glaucoma. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine was detected as early as 24 hours postoperatively. Peak incorporation occurred five days postoperatively and had returned to baseline levels by day 11. Cells incorporating tritiated thymidine included keratocytes, episcleral cells, corneal and capillary endothelial cells, and conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy was correlated with the autoradiographic results to demonstrate that fibroblasts were dividing on the corneoscleral margin. These findings have potential clinical implications for the use of antiproliferative agents after filtration surgery.

  20. Optimal filtration of the atmospheric parameters profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. E.; Glazov, G. N.; Igonin, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The idea of optimal Marcovian filtration of fluctuating profiles from lidar signals is developed but as applied to a double-frequency sounding which allows the use of large cross sections of elastic scattering and correct separation of the contributions due to aerosol and Rayleigh scatterings from the total lidar return. The filtration efficiency is shown under different conditions of sounding using a computer model. The accuracy of restituted profiles (temperature, pressure, density) is determined by the elements of a posteriori matrix K. The results obtained allow the determination of the lidar power required for providing the necessary accuracy of restitution of the atmospheric parameter profiles at chosen wavelengths of sounding in the ultraviolet and visible range.

  1. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  2. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  3. New and Novel Technologies in Particulate Filtration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    be stacked up to provide more air as required. The HEPA filter media is a glass and polymer fiber blend, and is pleated to provide more filter ...filtration for Collective Protection Systems (CPS) uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters . These filters are excellent at removing an extremely...high percentage of biological and particulate material from the air, with relatively low pressure drop and energy consumption. These filters have

  4. Soluble manganese removal by porous media filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Jung, S

    2008-12-01

    Filtration experiments were conducted to investigate soluble manganese removal in granular media filtration; sand, manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS), sand + MOCS (1:1) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as filter media. Manganese removal, manganese oxide accumulation, turbidity removal, and regeneration of MOCS under various conditions were examined. Soluble manganese removal by the MOCS column was rapid and efficient; most of the removal happened at the top (e.g. 5 cm) of the filter. When filter influent with an average manganese concentration of 0.204 mg l(-1) was fed through the filter columns, the sand + MOCS and MOCS columns removed 98.9% and 99.2% of manganese, respectively. However, manganese removal in sand and the GAC columns was not significant during the initial stage of filtration, but after eight months of filter run they could remove 99% and 35% of manganese, respectively. It was revealed that partial replacement of sand with MOCS showed comparable manganese removal to that of the MOCS filter media.

  5. Solving filtrate invasion with clay-water base mud systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hassen, B.R.

    1982-11-01

    Addressing the problem of drilling fluid filtration damage to the permeability of formations, a technique has been developed which calculates filtration of drilling fluids under actual well conditions. Filtration volumes into a particular zone can now be estimated through use of a programmable calculator. This article outlines study results, specifically the types of filtration relationships derived, examples of model results and also potential applications of the system. Armed with the capabilities of this system, it becomes possible to reap the benefits of reduced filtrate invasion.

  6. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  7. Nanofiber filter media for air filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

    Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000°C. Ceramic nanofibers

  8. Filtration Efficiency of Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters for Aluminum Melt Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Claudia; Jäckel, Eva; Taina, Fabio; Zienert, Tilo; Salomon, Anton; Wolf, Gotthard; Aneziris, Christos G.; Le Brun, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    The influence of filter surface chemistry on the filtration efficiency of cast aluminum alloys was evaluated for four different filter coating compositions (Al2O3—alumina, MgAl2O4—spinel, 3Al2O3·2SiO2—mullite, and TiO2—rutile). The tests were conducted on a laboratory scale with a filtration pilot plant, which facilitates long-term filtration tests (40 to 76 minutes). This test set-up allows the simultaneous use of two LiMCAs (before and after the filter) for the determination of the efficiency of inclusion removal. The four tested filter surface chemistries exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical robustness after 750 kg of molten aluminum had been cast. All four filter types exhibited a mean filtration efficiency of at least 80 pct. However, differences were also observed. The highest filtration efficiencies were obtained with alumina- and spinel-coated filter surfaces (>90 pct), and the complete removal of the largest inclusions (>90 µm) was observed. The efficiency was slightly lower with mullite- and rutile-coated filter surfaces, in particular for large inclusions. These observations are discussed in relation to the properties of the filters, in particular in terms of, for example, the surface roughness.

  9. Treatment efficiency and filtration rate of a horizontal sand filtration system.

    PubMed

    Kompayak, U; Dejthai, T

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish acceptable criteria for a horizontal sand filtration (HSF) system that are suitable for the design of community water supply units in rural areas. Two laboratory scales of HSF were constructed and tested for their filtration rates and treatment efficiency in Visetchaicharn District of Angthong Province, Thailand. The main structure of both models was the same except for the lengths of the filtration column, i.e., 80 cm. in Model 1 and 100 cm. in Model 2. The results of treatment efficiency of both models were very satisfactory. The physical and chemical quality of the filtered water was within the standards for drinking water except for bacteria quality. The rates of filtration of Model 1 were slightly faster than those of Model 2 for both one and two meters of water level in the raw water column. The rates for both models were higher than the lower limit standards of the slow sand filtration system throughout the study.

  10. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients.

  11. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induction of leukocyte-derived corticotropin and endorphins.

    PubMed Central

    Harbour-McMenamin, D; Smith, E M; Blalock, J E

    1985-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that there is an endogenous opioid component associated with pathophysiological responses to endotoxin. It has been shown that these responses are alleviated by naloxone, a specific opiate antagonist. Results of another study have indicated that leukocytes may mediate some of those responses since leukocyte depletion alleviated the effects of lipopolysaccharide. In view of the above reports as well as the finding that leukocytes produce immunoreactive (ir-) endorphins and corticotropin (ACTH) when stimulated with Newcastle disease virus or ACTH-releasing factor, we postulated that leukocytes may serve as an extrapituitary source of endorphins produced in response to bacterial endotoxin. To test this hypothesis, human peripheral blood leukocytes as well as mouse spleen cells were cultured in vitro with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide for 48 h. The lipopolysaccharide (i.e., endotoxin) was shown to induce de novo synthesis of ir-ACTH and ir-endorphins. The leukocyte-derived ir-ACTH had a molecular weight of approximately 2,900 and demonstrated a bioactivity similar to that of pituitary-derived ACTH. The lymphocyte-derived ir-endorphin comigrated with alpha- and gamma-endorphin at approximately 1,800 daltons and was shown to bind to brain opiate receptors. These findings imply that leukocyte-derived endorphins may be involved in the pathophysiological response to endotoxin. PMID:2987131

  12. Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

    2009-03-09

    The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite

  13. Removal of pathogens using riverbank filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, M. M.; Emelko, M. B.; Thomson, N. R.

    2003-04-01

    Although more than hundred years old, in situ or Riverbank Filtration (RBF) has undergone a renewed interest in North America because of its potential as a surface water pre-treatment tool for removal of pathogenic microorganisms. A new RBF research field site has been constructed along the banks of the Grand River in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to assess factors influencing pathogen removal in the subsurface. Implementation of RBF and appropriate design of subsequent treatment (UV, chlorination, etc.) processes requires successful quantification of in situ removals of Cryptosporidium parvum or a reliable surrogate parameter. C.~parvum is often present in surface water at low indigenous concentrations and can be difficult to detect in well effluents. Since releases of inactivated C.~parvum at concentrations high enough for detection in well effluents are cost prohibitive, other approaches for demonstrating effective in situ filtration of C.~parvum must be considered; these include the use of other microbial species or microspheres as indicators of C.~parvum transport in the environment. Spores of Bacillus subtilis may be considered reasonable indicators of C.~parvum removal by in situ filtration because of their size (˜1 μm in diameter), spherical shape, relatively high indigenous concentration is many surface waters, and relative ease of enumeration. Based on conventional particle filtration theory and assuming equivalent chemical interactions for all particle sizes, a 1 μm B.~subtilis spore will be removed less readily than a larger C. parvum oocyst (4-6 μm) in an ideal granular filter. Preliminary full-scale data obtained from a high rate RBF production well near the new RBF test site demonstrated greater than 1 log removal of B.~subtilis spores. This observed spore removal is higher than that prescribed by the proposed U.S. Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule for C.~parvum. To further investigate the removal relationship between C

  14. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  15. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  16. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2(*)) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism.

  17. Association between Snoring and Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chol; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yoon, Dae Wui; Baik, Inkyung

    2016-04-01

    Data on the association between snoring and telomere length, an indicator of biological aging, are very limited. Moreover, no polysomnography (PSG) studies on this association in a general population have been conducted. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between snoring and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using PSG and a questionnaire. A cross-sectional PSG study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2010-2013. During the same period, questionnaire-based interviews, blood collection, and relative LTL assays were conducted. A total of 887 Korean men and women aged 50-79 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 determined in the PSG study were included in the study. We observed that the percentage of time spent snoring during sleep (% time spent snoring) assessed by PSG was inversely associated with LTL even after adjusting for potential risk factors and AHI. In the linear regression association between tertiles of percentage of time spent snoring and log-transformed LTL, coefficient estimates (P value) were -0.076 (< 0.05) for the second tertile and -0.084 (< 0.01) for the third tertile compared with the bottom tertile. When LTL was compared according to snoring status determined using PSG and questionnaire information, both primary snorers and those with mild sleep apnea (5 ≤ AHI < 15) had shorter LTL than nonsnorers. Our findings suggest that snoring may influence telomere attrition independent of sleep apnea. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Chemotactic peptide receptor modulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The binding of the chemotactic peptide N- formylnorleucylleucylphenylalanine (FNLLP) to its receptor on rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) modulates the number of available peptide receptors. Incubation with FNLLP decreases subsequent binding capacity, a phenomenon that has been termed receptor down regulation. Down regulation of the chemotactic peptide receptor is concentration dependent in both the rate and extent of receptor loss. The dose response parallels that of FNLLP binding to the recptor. The time- course is rapid; even at concentrations of FNLLP as low as 3 x 10(-9) M, the new equilibrium concentration of receptors is reached within 15 min. Down regulation is temperature dependent, but does occur even at 4 degrees C. Concomitant with down regulation, some of the peptide becomes irreversibly cell associated. At 4 degrees C, there is a small accumulation of nondissociable peptide that rapidly reaches a plateau. At higher temperatures, accumulation of nondissociable peptide continues after the rceptor number has reached equilibrium, and the amount accumulated can exceed the initial number of receptors by as much as 300%. The dose response of peptide uptake at 37 degrees C reflects that of binding, suggesting that it is receptor mediated. This uptake may occur via a pinocytosis mechanism. Although PMNs have not been considered to be pinocytic, the addition of FNLLP causes a fourfold stimulation of the rate of pinocytosis as measured by the uptake of [3H]sucrose. PMID:7391138

  19. Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN.

  20. Dysfunction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in uremia.

    PubMed

    Haag-Weber, M; Hörl, W H

    1996-05-01

    There is increased incidence of infectious complications in uremic patients, indicating impairment of cellular host defense in these patients. Several reports confirm metabolic and functional abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) including altered adherence to endothelial cells, altered generation of reactive oxygen species, altered release of microbial enzymes, impaired chemotaxis, phagocytosis, intracellular killing of bacteria, altered carbohydrate metabolism, and/or impaired ATP formation. Several studies report on correlations between PMNL dysfunction, especially phagocytosis and oxidative burst, and ferritin content. Deferoxamine therapy improved PMNL function. Chronic renal failure is a state of increased cytosolic calcium. Increased cytosolic calcium is associated with several alterations of PMNL function and metabolism, which improve by normalization of cytosolic calcium either by calcium channel blockers or by lowering of elevated parathyroid hormone. Each hemodialysis session using bioincompatible membranes triggers neutrophil activation, evidenced by overexpression of adhesion molecules, elevation of cytosolic calcium, release of PMNL granular enzymes, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Several studies claim that this results in chronic downregulation of phagocyte function. Several granulocyte inhibitory compounds have been isolated and characterized from uremic serum. The uremic retention product p-cresol depresses respiratory burst activity. The following granulocyte inhibitory peptides could be isolated from dialysis patients: granulocyte inhibitory protein I and II with homology to light chain proteins and beta 2-microglobulin, degranulation inhibitory protein I and II being identical to angiogenin and complement factor D, and immunoglobulin light chains. These proteins inhibit PMNL function in nanomolar concentrations.

  1. Neutrophil Leukocyte: Combustive Microbicidal Action and Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil leukocytes protect against a varied and complex array of microbes by providing microbicidal action that is simple, potent, and focused. Neutrophils provide such action via redox reactions that change the frontier orbitals of oxygen (O2) facilitating combustion. The spin conservation rules define the symmetry barrier that prevents direct reaction of diradical O2 with nonradical molecules, explaining why combustion is not spontaneous. In burning, the spin barrier is overcome when energy causes homolytic bond cleavage producing radicals capable of reacting with diradical O2 to yield oxygenated radical products that further participate in reactive propagation. Neutrophil mediated combustion is by a different pathway. Changing the spin quantum state of O2 removes the symmetry restriction to reaction. Electronically excited singlet molecular oxygen (1O2 *) is a potent electrophilic reactant with a finite lifetime that restricts its radius of reactivity and focuses combustive action on the target microbe. The resulting exergonic dioxygenation reactions produce electronically excited carbonyls that relax by light emission, that is, chemiluminescence. This overview of neutrophil combustive microbicidal action takes the perspectives of spin conservation and bosonic-fermionic frontier orbital considerations. The necessary principles of particle physics and quantum mechanics are developed and integrated into a fundamental explanation of neutrophil microbicidal metabolism. PMID:26783542

  2. Breakthrough of cyanobacteria in bank filtration.

    PubMed

    Pazouki, Pirooz; Prévost, Michèle; McQuaid, Natasha; Barbeau, Benoit; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    The removal of cyanobacteria cells in well water following bank filtration was investigated from a source water consisting of two artificial lakes (A and B). Phycocyanin probes used to monitor cyanobacteria in the source and in filtered well water showed an increase of fluorescence values demonstrating a progressive seasonal growth of cyanobacteria in the source water that were correlated with cyanobacterial biovolumes from taxonomic counts (r = 0.59, p < 0.00001). A strong correlation was observed between the cyanobacterial concentrations in the lake water and in the well water as measured by the phycocyanin probe (p < 0.001, 0.73 ≤ r(2) ≤ 0.94). Log removals from bank filtration estimated from taxonomic counts ranged from 0.96 ± (0.5) and varied according to the species of cyanobacteria. Of cyanobacteria that passed through bank filtration, smaller cells were significantly more frequent in well water samples (p < 0.05) than larger cells. Travel times from the lakes to the wells were estimated as 2 days for Lake B and 10 days for Lake A. Cyanobacterial species in the wells were most closely related to species found in Lake B. Thus, a travel time of less than 1 week permitted the breakthrough of cyanobacteria to wells. Winter samples demonstrated that cyanobacteria accumulate within bank filters, leading to continued passage of cells beyond the bloom season. Although no concentrations of total microcystin-LR were above detection limits in filtered well water, there is concern that cyanobacterial cells that reach the wells have the potential to contain intracellular toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transfer and transport of aluminum in filtration unit.

    PubMed

    Wen-dong, Wang; Hong-wei, Yang; Hua-zhang, Zhao; Zhan-peng, Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum salt coagulants were used prevalently in various water works. In this article, the effects of filtration on residual aluminum concentration and species distribution were researched by determining the concentration of different aluminum species before and after single layer filter, double layer filter, and membrane filtration units. In the research, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to separate colloidal and soluble aluminum, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) was used to separate organic and inorganic aluminum, and inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the aluminum concentration. The results showed that the rapid filtration process had the ability of removing residual aluminum from coagulant effluent water, and that double layer filtration was more effective in residual aluminum removal than single layer filtration, while nano filtration was more effective than micro filtration. It was found that when the residual aluminum concentration was below 1 mg/L in sediment effluent, the residual aluminum concentration in treated water was above 0.2 mg/L. The direct rapid filtration process mainly removed the suspended aluminum. The removal of soluble and colloidal aluminum was always less than 10% and the natural small particles that adsorbed the amount of soluble or small particles aluminum on their surface were difficult to be removed in this process. Micro filtration and nano filtration were good technologies for removing aluminum; the residual aluminum concentration in the effluent was less than 0.05 mg/L.

  4. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  5. Electrospinning of nanofibers for filtration media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungjun

    Since particulate impurity is regarded as the primary cause of lung diseases, purification of air has been a crucial issue. Filtration is the most conventional method to obtain clean air, whereby particulate matter is collected on a fibrous media. The use of fibrous filters is prevalent because of their high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. Fibrous filters were fabricated via the electrospinning process which can be used to produce continuous submicron-diameter sized fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a mean fiber diameter of 224 nm were electrospun to form fibermats. Filtration tests on fibermats of PAN were conducted to confirm that filters of thinner fibers result in higher collection efficiencies and lower pressure drops than that of thicker fibers as predicted by the theoretical filtration mechanism. Results showed that electrospun PAN nanofibermats had a superior quality factor of 0.067+/-0 compared to 0.031+/-0.001 by the current state-of-the-art microfiber-based high particulate air (HEPA) filtration media. The verified theory implies that nanofibermats of other types of materials could also be considered as promising filtration media since filtration performance is independent of the material used. As materials for advanced next-generation filtration media, ceramics are favored over polymeric materials due to their robustness against environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, abrasive particles, and high temperature all of which degrade and damage the fibrous structure. Amidst various ceramic materials, the anatase phase of TiO2 was selected due to its mechanical property and versatility as a photocatalyst and microwave-absorbing material. Anatase TiO2 fibers were fabricated by electrospinning followed by heat treatment at 500°C for 3 hours. However, early precipitation or gelation of the organic solvent-based TiO2 sol posed a practical challenge in the sample preparation. In order to enhance stability of the precursor sol, a

  6. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  7. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, J; Prakash, Chandra; Anandakrishna, Latha; Gaviappa, Dhananjaya; Ganesh, Dhanu

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by the presence of a defect of phagocytic function resulting from a lack of leukocyte cell surface expression of β₂ integrin molecules (CD11 and CD18) that are essential for leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and chemotaxis. A small number of patients with LAD-1 have a milder defect, with residual expression of CD18. These patients tend to survive beyond infancy; they manifest progressive severe periodontitis, leading to partial or total premature loss of the primary and permanent dentitions. Close cooperation with pediatricians and immunologists is often the key to successful management of pediatric patients with LAD. The purpose of this report was to present the case of a 5-year-old boy with moderate leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 and severe periodontitis, cellulitis and illustrate the need for periodic oral checkups to avoid the progression of oral diseases and prevent premature tooth loss.

  8. The use of inert gas xenon for cryopreservation of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Laptev, D S; Polezhaeva, T V; Zaitseva, O O; Khudyakov, A N; Solomina, O N; Utemov, S V

    2014-06-01

    We studied the possibility of cryopreservation of human blood nuclear cells under protection with inert gas xenon. A method for inducing clathrate anabiosis of leukocytes was developed that preserved the cells for practical use in biology and medicine.

  9. Leukocyte Agglomeration Reaction in Diagnosis of Allergy Reactions from Antibiotics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    tested in a clinic on 80 patients with serious allergic anamnesis . The results of the studies indicate that the leukocyte agglomeration reaction is a highly sensitive immunological indicator of hypersensitivity to antibiotics.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email ... with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 develop serious bacterial and fungal infections. One of the first signs ...

  11. Targeting vascular and leukocyte communication in angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kreuger, Johan; Phillipson, Mia

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of vascular permeability, recruitment of leukocytes from blood to tissue and angiogenesis are all processes that occur at the level of the microvasculature during both physiological and pathological conditions. The interplay between microvascular cells and leukocytes during inflammation, together with the emerging roles of leukocytes in the modulation of the angiogenic process, make leukocyte-vascular interactions prime targets for therapeutics to potentially treat a wide range of diseases, including pathological and dysfunctional vessel growth, chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In this Review, we discuss how the different cell types that are present in and around microvessels interact, cooperate and instruct each other, and in this context we highlight drug targets as well as emerging druggable processes that can be exploited to restore tissue homeostasis.

  12. PLATELET–LEUKOCYTE INTERACTIONS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AND BEYOND

    PubMed Central

    Totani, Licia; Evangelista, Virgilio

    2010-01-01

    Platelet–leukocyte interactions define a basic cell process that is characterized by the exchange of signals between platelets and different types of leukocytes, and that bridges two fundamental physiopathological events: atherothrombosis and immune–inflammatory reactions. When this process takes place at the site of atherosclerotic plaque development or at the site of endothelial injury, platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment and activation contributes to the inflammatory reaction of the vessel wall, which accounts for the exacerbation of atherosclerosis, and for intimal hyperplasia and plaque instability. Moreover, platelet–leukocyte interactions might have a key role in modulating a wide array of responses of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and tissue damage, as well as to host defense. PMID:21071701

  13. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair.

  14. Influence of Magnetite Nanoparticles on Human Leukocyte Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Džarová, Anežka; Dubničková, Martina; Závišová, Vlasta; Koneracká, Martina; Kopčanský, Peter; Gojzewski, Hubert; Timko, Milan

    2010-12-01

    Chemically synthesized magnetite particles coated by sodium oleate and PEG (MNP), and magnetosomes (MS) influence the process of phagocytosis and the metabolic activity (lysozyme and peroxidase activity) in leukocytes. Lysozyme activity is oxygen-independent liquidation mechanisms of engulfed microorganism, peroxidase activity is an oxygen-dependent mechanism. Both tested types of nanoparticles lysed leukocyte cells during incubation. MNP at concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/mL lysed almost all leukocytes and their cell viability was in the 14±0.05% range. On the other hand MS begin to influence leukocytes activity at the concentration of 1 μg/ml and this influence grows with increasing concentration up to 20 μg/ml. MS are more suitable for biological applications than MNP which are more aggressive material than MS. MS should not be used above 10 μg/mL.

  15. Navigating the leukocyte signaling maze guided by Ariadne's thread.

    PubMed

    Altman, Amnon; Koretzky, Gary A; Tsoukas, Constantine D

    2009-11-01

    Ariadne is the legendary Minoan goddess of the Labyrinth. The term 'Ariadne's thread' is used to describe the understanding of complex issues. Immunologists attending the 5th Leukocyte Signal Transduction Workshop discussed the Ariadne's thread woven about intracellular signaling pathways.

  16. Osteomyelitis complicating fracture: pitfalls of /sup 111/In leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Gobuty, A.H.; Traina, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging has shown greater accuracy and specificity than alternative noninvasive methods in the detection of uncomplicated osteomyelitis. Forty patients with suspected osteomyelitis complicating fractures (with and without surgical intervention) were evaluated with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. All five patients with intense focal uptake, but only one of 13 with no uptake, had active osteomyelitis. However, mild to moderate /sup 111/In leukocyte uptake, observed in 22 cases, indicated the presence of osteomyelitis in only four of these; the other false-positive results were observed in noninfected callus formation, heterotopic bone formation, myositis ossificans, and sickle-cell disease. These results suggest that /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating fracture but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid false-positive results.

  17. Platelet-mediated adhesion facilitates leukocyte sequestration in hypoxia-reoxygenated microvessels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Senfeng; Cao, Yanting; Zhang, Wenjian; Liu, Honglin; You, Jia; Yin, Yiqing; Lou, Jinning; Li, Chenghui

    2016-03-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration and sequestration are two distinct outcomes following leukocyte adhesion to endothelium during ischemia-reperfusion injury, in which platelets may play a pivotal role. In the present study, we established an in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation model to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury and found platelet pre-incubation significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells after hyoxia-reoxygenation (over 67%). Blockade of endothelial-cell-expressed adhesion molecules inhibited leukocyte direct adhesion to endothelial cells, while platelet-mediated leukocyte adhesion was suppressed by blockade of platelet-expressed adhesion molecules. Further experiments revealed platelets acted as a bridge to mediate leukocyte adhesion, and platelet-mediated adhesion was the predominant pattern in the presence of platelets. However, platelet pre-incubation significantly suppressed leukocyte transendothelial migration after hypoxia-reoxygenation (over 31%), which could be aggravated by blockade of endothelial-cell-expressed adhesion molecules, but alleviated by blockade of platelet- expressed adhesion molecules. This would indicate that platelet-mediated adhesion disrupted leukocyte transendothelial migration. An in vivo mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion model demonstrated leukocyte transfusion alone caused mild leukocyte adhesion to reperfused vessels and subsequent leukocyte infiltration, while simultaneous leukocyte and platelet transfusion led to massive leukocyte adhesion and sequestration within reperfused microvessels. Our studies revealed platelets enhanced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, but suppressed leukocyte transendothelial migration. Overall, this leads to leukocyte sequestration in hypoxia-reoxygenated microvessels.

  18. Enhanced leukotriene synthesis in leukocytes of atopic and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, A P; Thomas, R U; Costello, J F; Piper, P J

    1992-01-01

    1. We have investigated the capacities of peripheral leukocytes from atopic asthmatic (AA) (n = 7), atopic non-asthmatic (AN) (n = 7), and normal (N) (n = 7) subjects to generate the bronchoconstrictor and proinflammatory mediators leukotrienes (LTs) B4 and C4. 2. Mixed leukocyte preparations containing 61-84% neutrophils, 2.4-15% eosinophils, and 13-29% mononuclear cells were incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187. Synthesis of LTB4 and LTC4 was quantitated by radioimmunoassay. 3. Both in dose-response experiments (0-10 microM A23187 for 5 min), and in time-course investigations (2 microM A23187 for 0-30 min), the mixed leukocytes of the AA and AN subjects generated on average 4- to 5-fold more LTB4 and 3- to 5-fold more LTC4 than the normal leukocytes (P less than 0.01 in all cases; ANOVA). 4. This enhanced LT synthesis by the AN and AA leukocytes was not due to differences in the counts of leukocyte sub-types, or to altered rates of LT catabolism between the subject groups. 5. LTB4 synthesis correlated significantly with LTC4 synthesis in the leukocytes of the AN and AA subjects (r = 0.81, n = 14, P less than 0.01), but not in those of the normal subjects (r = 0.19, n = 7, P greater than 0.05). 6. Our results demonstrate an up-regulation of the leukotriene synthetic pathway in the circulating leukocytes of atopic non-asthmatic and atopic asthmatic subjects, which may have important implications in the pathophysiology of asthma and allergy. PMID:1576069

  19. Isolation of Leukocytes from the Human Maternal-fetal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Plazyo, Olesya; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes in the reproductive tissues and at the maternal-fetal interface (decidua basalis and decidua parietalis). This interface is the anatomical site of contact between maternal and fetal tissues; therefore, it is an immunological site of action during pregnancy. Infiltrating leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface play a central role in implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and timing of delivery. Therefore, phenotypic and functional characterizations of these leukocytes will provide insight into the mechanisms that lead to pregnancy disorders. Several protocols have been described in order to isolate infiltrating leukocytes from the decidua basalis and decidua parietalis; however, the lack of consistency in the reagents, enzymes, and times of incubation makes it difficult to compare these results. Described herein is a novel approach that combines the use of gentle mechanical and enzymatic dissociation techniques to preserve the viability and integrity of extracellular and intracellular markers in leukocytes isolated from the human tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Aside from immunophenotyping, cell culture, and cell sorting, the future applications of this protocol are numerous and varied. Following this protocol, the isolated leukocytes can be used to determine DNA methylation, expression of target genes, in vitro leukocyte functionality (i.e., phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, T-cell proliferation, and plasticity, etc.), and the production of reactive oxygen species at the maternal-fetal interface. Additionally, using the described protocol, this laboratory has been able to describe new and rare leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:26067211

  20. Thiamin deficiency effects on rat leukocyte pyruvate decarboxylation rates.

    PubMed

    Hathcock, J N

    1978-02-01

    Thiamin status usually is assessed by urinary excretion of thiamin or by exogenous thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase activity. Because of the possible great utility of a biologically and chemically sensitive alternative method for thiamin status assessment, studies were made of rat leukocyte pyruvate decarboxylation activity in thiamin deficiency. Pyruvate decarboxylation rates were determined by assaying 14CO2 produced by leukocytes from 1-14C-pyruvic acid in vitro. Reaction conditions were 5 mumoles pyruvic acid, 2.2 X 10(4) DPM 1-14C-pyruvic acid, leukocytes from 5 ml whole blood, 50 mumoles NaH2PO4, 5 mumoles MgSO4, and 1 mumole MnSO4 at pH 7.4 in 1 ml reaction volume at 25 C. Four weeks of thiamin deficiency decreased leukocyte pyruvate decarboxylation rates and markedly increased the TPP effect on this reaction. Dual weekly assays in the same rats showed that 21 days of thiamin deficiency significantly increased the TPP effect on leukocyte pyruvate decarboxylation rates. In contrast, the TPP effect on erythrocyte transketolase activity was significantly increased after only 7 days of thiamin deficiency. Erythrocyte transketolase is more sensitive than leukocyte pyruvate decarboxylation rate to early thiamin deficiency in rats.

  1. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  2. Platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugates in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Silvia; Angeloni, Giulia; Tamburrelli, Chiara; Pampuch, Agnieszka; Izzi, Benedetta; Messano, Loredana; Parisi, Quintino; Santamaria, Matteo; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Cerletti, Chiara

    2009-06-01

    Although platelets may contribute to the inflammatory component in atrial fibrillation (AF), the impact of platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugates has not yet been determined. Seventeen patients with persistent AF (8/9 m/f; mean age 68.1 +/- 2.5 years), not on anticoagulant therapy, were recruited and compared to 34 healthy controls with normal sinus rhythm (16/18 m/f; mean age 60.8 +/- 1.2 years). Platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugates, platelet P-selectin and leukocyte activation markers (CD11b, myeloperoxidase) were measured by flow-cytometry in whole blood both in basal condition and after in vitro ADP/collagen challenge. Plasma D-dimer and soluble P-selectin were also measured. Statistical analyses were performed by Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon U test for intergroup differences. In AF patients platelet count, as well as platelet P-selectin expression and percent platelet-leukocyte conjugates were all significantly lower both in basal condition and upon activation with ADP/collagen. In contrast, both soluble P-selectin and D-dimer were significantly higher than in controls; white blood cell count and leukocyte activation markers were unchanged. In conclusion, the formation of platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugates was unexpectedly reduced in AF, possibly due to less reactive platelets as a consequence of previous in vivo activation by ongoing formation of trace amounts of thrombin.

  3. Comparison of Garnet Bead Media Filtration and Multimedia Filtration for Turbidity and Microbial Pathogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) in Cincinnati, Ohio is evaluating drinking water filtration systems to determine their capability to meet the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ...

  4. Comparison of Garnet Bead Media Filtration and Multimedia Filtration for Turbidity and Microbial Pathogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) in Cincinnati, Ohio is evaluating drinking water filtration systems to determine their capability to meet the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ...

  5. Addi-Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Males, B M; Walshe, J J; Garringer, L; Koscinski, D; Amsterdam, D

    1986-02-01

    The Addi-Chek (filtration; Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.) and BACTEC (radiometric detection of growth in culture media; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) systems were compared with the 10-ml culture (centrifugation) method for the recovery of microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate collected from patients with clinical evidence of peritonitis and containing greater than or equal to 200 leukocytes per mm3. Both alternate methods were comparable, and results were not significantly different from those of the conventional 10-ml culture method. All systems were adversely affected in their capacity to recover organisms when dialysates had been collected during periods of antimicrobial therapy.

  6. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  7. Granular media filtration: old process, new thoughts.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Nason, J A

    2006-01-01

    The design of granular media filters has evolved over many years so that modern filters have larger media sizes and higher filtration velocities than in earlier times. The fundamental understanding of filtration has also improved over time, with current models that account reasonably for all characteristics of the media, the suspension and the filter operation. The methodology for design, however, has not kept pace with these improvements; current designs are based on pilot plants, past experience, or a simple guideline (the ratio of the bed depth to media grain size). We propose that design should be based universally on a characteristic removal length, with the provision of a bed depth that is some multiple of that characteristic length. This characteristic removal length is calculated using the most recent (and most complete) fundamental model and is based on the particle size with the minimum removal efficiency in a filter. The multiple of the characteristic length that yields the required bed depth has been calibrated to existing, successful filters.

  8. Dewatering of flocculated suspensions by pressure filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, K. A.; Sirakoff, C.; White, L. R.

    1991-06-01

    Pressure filtration is an important method for removing liquids from a suspension. Previous work used linear models or applied to stable suspensions. Nonlinear models for flocculated suspensions are studied here. The equations governing the consolidation of flocculated suspensions under the influence of an applied pressure are based on the assumption that when the volume fraction is high enough, the network formed from the aggregation of flocs possesses a compressive yield stress Py(φ) that is a function of local volume fraction φ only. There are two modes of operation of the pressure filter—the fluid flux or the applied pressure is specified—and both of these are studied. The resulting nonlinear partial differential equations involve the time-dependent piston position, and in the case of the suspension being initially unnetworked, another internal moving boundary below which the suspension is networked. The small time behavior of these systems is obtained with an asymptotic method. In general, at later times, the solution can only be found numerically and an algorithm for doing this is discussed. The important parameters and properties of the filter cake are described. The results suggest various ways of controlling the filtration process, which may be useful in the manufacture of ceramics.

  9. Particle Dynamics in Tangential Flow Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Mike; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-11-01

    Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) is a rapid and efficient method for filtration and separation of solutions containing particles such as viruses, bacteria or cellular material. Enhancing the efficiency of TFF not only requires a detailed understanding of the individual mechanisms behind particle transport, but the interaction between these transport mechanisms and a porous wall. In this work, we numerically and experimentally explore how inertial migration is affected by the presence of a permeate flow through the porous walls of a microchannel in order to develop a platform for further studies of particle transport in a TFF device. Numerically, we use COMSOL multiphysics to model the large parameter space of permeate versus inertial forces. Experimentally, we develop a MEMS fabricated TFF device to confirm the results of the numerical model, where the permeate flow is controlled using multiple pumps and pressure transducers regulated by a feedback loop. Experimental and numerical results reveal interesting dynamics, including the competition between permeate and inertial forces and the consequences of this competition on particle trajectories and equilibrium location.

  10. Advances in Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimating Equations

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Lesley A; Padala, Smita; Levey, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Estimated GFR is now commonly reported by clinical laboratories. Here we review the performance of current creatinine and cystatin C based estimating equations as well as demonstration of their utility in public health and clinical practice. Recent findings Lower levels of GFR are associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including acute kidney injury and medical errors. The new CKD-EPI equation improves performance and risk prediction compared to the MDRD Study equation. Current cystatin C based equations are not accurate in all populations, even in those with reduced muscle mass or chronic illness, where cystatin C would be expected to outperform creatinine. eGFR reporting has led to a greater number of referrals to nephrologists, but the increased numbers do not appear to be excessive or burdensome The MDRD Study equation appears to be able to provide drug dosage adjustments similar to the Cockcroft and Gault. Summary Estimated GFR and their reporting can improve and facilitate clinical practice for chronic kidney disease. Understanding strengths and limitations facilitates their optimal use. Endogenous filtration markers, alone or in combination, that less dependent on non GFR determinants of the filtration markers are necessary to lead to more accurate estimated GFR. PMID:20393287

  11. Approximate theory for radial filtration/consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.; Kirby, J.M.; Nguyen, H.L.

    1996-10-01

    Approximate solutions are developed for filtration and subsequent consolidation of compactible cakes on a cylindrical filter element. Darcy`s flow equation is coupled with equations for equilibrium stress under the conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry for radial flow inwards. The solutions are based on power function forms involving the relationships of the solidosity {epsilon}{sub s} (volume fraction of solids) and the permeability K to the solids effective stress p{sub s}. The solutions allow determination of the various parameters in the power functions and the ratio k{sub 0} of the lateral to radial effective stress (earth stress ratio). Measurements were made of liquid and effective pressures, flow rates, and cake thickness versus time. Experimental data are presented for a series of tests in a radial filtration cell with a central filter element. Slurries prepared from two materials (Microwate, which is mainly SrSO{sub 4}, and kaolin) were used in the experiments. Transient deposition of filter cakes was followed by static (i.e., no flow) conditions in the cake. The no-flow condition was accomplished by introducing bentonite which produced a nearly impermeable layer with negligible flow. Measurement of the pressure at the cake surface and the transmitted pressure on the central element permitted calculation of k{sub 0}.

  12. Length filtration of the separable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Doković, Dragomir Ž.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the separable states ρ of an arbitrary multi-partite quantum system with Hilbert space H of dimension d. The length L(ρ) of ρ is defined as the smallest number of pure product states having ρ as their mixture. The length filtration of the set of separable states, S , is the increasing chain ∅ ⊊S1‧⊆S2‧⊆⋯, where Si‧={ρ ∈S :L (ρ )≤i }. We define the maximum length, Lmax=maxρ ∈S L (ρ ), critical length, Lcrit, and yet another special length, Lc, which was defined by a simple formula in one of our previous papers. The critical length indicates the first term in the length filtration whose dimension is equal to Dim S . We show that in general d≤Lc≤Lcrit≤Lmax≤d2. We conjecture that the equality Lcrit=Lc holds for all finite-dimensional multi-partite quantum systems. Our main result is that Lcrit=Lc for the bipartite systems having a single qubit as one of the parties. This is accomplished by computing the rank of the Jacobian matrix of a suitable map having S as its range.

  13. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crumb rubber filtration: a potential technology for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2006-05-01

    The removal of turbidity, particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton in water by crumb rubber filtration was investigated. A substantial reduction was achieved. Of the three variables, filter depth, media size and filtration rate, media size had the most significant influence. Smaller media size favored higher removal efficiency of all targeted matter. There was no apparent relationship between removal efficiency and filter depth. Higher filtration rate resulted in lower removal efficiency and higher head loss. Compared with conventional granular media filters, crumb rubber filters required less backwash, and developed lower head loss. Consequently crumb rubber filters could be run for a longer time or allow a higher filtration rate. The results also indicate that the crumb rubber filtration alone did not achieve the target removal of invasive species. However, crumb rubber filtration could potentially be used as a primary treatment technology to enhance the efficiency of a secondary treatment process (e.g., disinfection).

  15. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  16. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  17. The filterability of leukocytes in undiluted blood.

    PubMed

    Cook, A M; Evans, S A; Jones, J G

    1998-01-01

    A filtrometer is described for measuring the flow of fluids through microfilters. The flow of Newtonian fluids through the filters can be predicted from the diameter, length and number of pores. There are no physical artefacts such as turbulent flow or a significant lag period before steady-state flow is achieved. The instrument has been used as a viscometer and has been used to record and analyse the flow of undiluted blood through 5 microns polycarbonate filters. The calculated viscosity of Newtonian fluids agrees well with those measured by a more conventional viscometer (Ostwald). Flow profiles of blood have been analysed to give both the numbers and the flow properties of a small population of slow leukocytes which equate numerically with the monocytes. They are subdivided into three distinct sub-populations, according to their rheological properties, and these are termed SL1, SL2 and PB. The concentration of these cells, in blood, are 0.12 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) ml-1, 0.11 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) ml-1, 0.09 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) ml-1 in young females aged about 25 years. The transit time of these cells, through 5 microns pores, is 34.8 +/- 1.4 s, 147.5 +/- 2.5 s and > 300 s, respectively. Analysis of blood from older men (53-79 years) gives essentially the same results although the concentration of SL1 is slightly higher at 0.19 +/- 0.09 x 10(6) ml-1.

  18. Telomere shortening in leukocyte subpopulations in depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening is a normal age-related process. However, premature shortening of telomeres in leukocytes – as has been reported in depression – may increase the risk for age-related diseases. While previous studies investigated telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a whole, this study investigated specific changes in the clonal composition of white blood cells of the adaptive immune system (CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and CD20+ B lymphocytes). Methods Forty-four females with a history of unipolar depression were investigated and compared to fifty age-matched female controls. Telomere lengths were compared between three groups: 1) individuals with a history of depression but currently no clinically relevant depressive symptoms, 2) individuals with a history of depression with relevant symptoms of depression, and 3) healthy age-matched controls. Telomere length was assessed using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH). Results Both groups with a history of unipolar depression (with and without current depressive symptoms) showed significantly shorter telomeres in all three lymphocyte subpopulations. The effect was stronger in CD8+ and CD20+ cells than in CD4+ cells. Individuals with a history of depression and with (without) current symptoms exhibited a CD8+ telomere length shortening corresponding to an age differential of 27.9 (25.3) years. Conclusions A history of depression is associated with shortened telomeres in the main effector populations of the adaptive immune system. Shorter telomeres seem to persist in individuals with lifetime depression independently of the severity of depressive symptoms. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD20+ B cells seem to be particularly affected in depression. The total number of depressive episodes did not influence telomere length in the investigated adaptive immune cell populations. PMID:24996455

  19. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in bank filtration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L. L.

    2003-04-01

    The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Many surface water systems therefore depend on filtration systems, including bank filtration systems, for the removal of the pathogenic oocysts. To better understand the effectiveness, e.g., of bank filtration systems, we have implemented a series of columns studies under various environmental conditions (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough of C. parvum in pulsed injections of the oocyst through sand columns, although the model does not account for the significant tailing that occurs in C. parvum transport. Application of colloid filtration theory to bank filtration system is further limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the geologic systems used for bank filtration. We couple filtration theory with a stochastic subsurface transport approach and with percolation theory to account for the effects of intrinsic heterogeneity. We find that a 1-log removal can be achieved even under relatively adverse conditions (low collision efficiency, high velocity) if 85% - 90% of the sedimentary hydrofacies located within the bank filtration system or of the coarsest known hydrofacies connecting the riverbed with the extraction system has a grain-size distribution with a 10% passing diameter equal to 1 mm. One millimeter is a standard sieve size in sediment analysis.

  20. Simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.

    PubMed

    Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A

    2009-01-01

    Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models are applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that air flow rate can be optimised to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash for a particular system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that efficient backwash operation is essential for maintaining the life time of a filter. However, the filter is not advised to be completely cleaned up in the backwash and the particles retained on filter grains after the backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs.

  1. Simulation on combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.

    PubMed

    Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A

    2009-01-01

    Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models have been applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that an optimum air flow rate exists to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash operation for a certain backwash system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that the filter should not be completely cleaned up in the backwash and a certain amount of particles retained on filter grains after backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs. This is consistent with the experimental results in the literature.

  2. Expression of nitric oxide synthases in leukocytes in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Moon, Tae Chul; St Laurent, Chris D; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Chung, Kerri; Wright, Erin; Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Befus, A Dean

    2012-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has various roles in airway physiology and pathophysiology. Monitoring exhaled NO levels is increasingly common to measure airways inflammation and inhaled NO studied for its therapeutic value in premature infants and adult respiratory distress syndrome. NO is produced by 3 isoforms of NO synthase (NOS1, 2, 3), and each can play distinct and perhaps overlapping roles in the airways. However, the distribution, regulation, and functions of NOS in various cells in the upper airways, particularly in leukocytes, are incompletely understood. To characterize the expression of NOS isoforms in leukocytes in normal middle turbinate tissues (MT) and in inflammatory nasal tissue (nasal polyps, NP). Normal MT tissue was collected from surgical specimens that were to be discarded. The NP samples were from surgical tissue archives of 15 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Isoforms of NOS in cells were identified by double immunostaining using NOS isoform-specific and leukocyte-specific (mast cell, eosinophil, macrophage, neutrophil, or T cell) antibodies. The proportion of total cells below the epithelium that were positive for each isoform of NOS was higher in NP than in MT. Each isoform of NOS was found in all leukocyte populations studied, and there were significant differences in the percentage of leukocytes expressing NOS isoforms between MT and NP. All isoforms of NOS are expressed in leukocytes in MT and NP, and their expression varies among leukocyte types. Our data provide a basis to investigate the regulation, cell distribution, and distinct functions of NOS isoforms in normal and inflamed nasal tissues. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pig interleukin 1. Purification of two immunologically different leukocyte proteins that cause cartilage resorption, lymphocyte activation, and fever

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Two forms of interleukin 1 (IL-1) were purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatants of pig buffy coat leukocytes stimulated with concanavalin A. The two proteins had identical Mr of 21,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but one, which had previously been purified as a cartilage-resorbing protein, had pI 5 (IL- 1/5) and the other, pI 8.3 (IL-1/8). After initial gel filtration and separation by chromatofocusing IL-1/5 was purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and the ion exchangers, Mono S and Mono Q; IL-1/8 was purified by chromatography at pH 4.0 and pH 6.4 on Mono S. Purification was monitored by a cartilage proteoglycan release assay and both proteins had a final specific activity approximately 10(5) times that of the leukocyte culture medium. Medium conditioned by cells from 200 L of blood yielded approximately 15 micrograms of IL-1/5 and 50 micrograms IL-1/8. IL-1/8 augmented mouse thymocyte proliferation, stimulated synovial fibroblasts to produce prostaglandin E and latent collagenase, and was pyrogenic upon intracerebroventricular injection into rabbits. IL-1/5 has previously been shown to possess all these activities. An antiserum to each IL-1 was raised in rabbits. Each antiserum inhibited its respective IL-1 in a cartilage bioassay and stained it upon Western blotting. Neither antiserum inhibited or stained the other IL-1. We conclude that pig leukocytes make two immunologically distinct forms of IL-1 that have identical Mr, demonstrate the same range of biological activity, but differ in isoelectric point. PMID:2995535

  4. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Water purification technologies such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles, or so-called diffusiophoresis. Due to the large diffusion potential built up by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Our findings suggest a means to separate particles without membranes or filters, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits very low pressure drop and is essentially free from fouling.

  5. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-05-01

    Water purification technologies such as microfiltration/ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles. Due to the large diffusion potential generated by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits low energy consumption, three orders of magnitude lower than conventional microfiltration/ultrafiltration processes, and is essentially free from fouling.

  6. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  7. Dynamics and filtration of microgel suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegele, Gerhard; Roa, Rafael; Riest, Jonas

    Microgel suspensions exhibit interesting transport properties determined by direct and hydrodynamic interactions. Using an annulus model to account for solvent permeability, we calculate the diffusion function and sedimentation coefficient of PNiPAM microgel suspensions, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, an extension of our precise analytic methods to long-time properties including viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient is presented, with results compared to simulation and experimental data. The predicted transport properties are an important ingredient to the modeling of convective-diffusive transport in membrane ultrafiltration of permeable particles. The efficiency of the separation process depends on hydrodynamic boundary conditions, membrane properties and particle interactions. We calculate the concentration polarization layer and permeate flux at different operating conditions for cross-flow ultrafiltration of non-ionic and ionic microgels. Small microgel permeability already affects the filtration significantly.

  8. Filtration of ultrafine metallic particles in industry.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Morele, Y; Régnier, R

    2015-01-01

    Thermal metal spraying, metal cutting and arc welding processes generate large quantities of ultrafine particles that cause the irreversible clogging of industrial filters. The aim of the study performed was to identify the causes of the clogging of cartridge filters and investigate other paths for cleaning them. This study required the development of a test bench capable of reproducing a thermal spraying process to test the performances of different filtration techniques. This test instrument first, permitted the precise characterization of the aerosol generated by the process and, second, defined the clogging and cleaning conditions for filters. Several parameters were tested: the type of filter, online and off-line cleaning, pre-coating, cleaning by jets of high-speed compressed air via a probe.

  9. Filtration test of sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.C.; Backer, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    A filtration system was developed to test for particulate matter in 1.6 liter samples of fuel. Four micron, absolute, filter paper was used. Four alkali refined sunflower oils, two of which were also dewaxed, were tested along with 50:50% and 25:75% blends with No. 2-D diesel fuel. The two sunflower oils that were not dewaxed were darker and cloudier than the dewaxed oils and clogged the test filter in less than 10 minutes. Clogging also occurred for the 50:50% and 25:75% blends of these oils at all temperatures and pressures tested. The two dewaxed sunflower oils did not clog the filter in the ten minute tests. The flow rates of the latter two oils and their blends decreased only slightly with time.

  10. Hierarchical analysis of filtration. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Quintard, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1993-07-01

    The original proposal for this work suggested two lines Of analysis that could be used to develop an hierarchical analysis of filtration. The first of these was semi-empirical and required the use of an angle-dependent rate coefficient to model the effect of particle inertia, while the second made use of a particle velocity decomposition that separated the velocity into an inertial part and a diffusive part. We have concluded that the semiempirical approach cannot lead to an efficient treatment of the filtration problem, and in this study we have dirrcted most of our effort toward the development of the velocity decomposition approach. Problems arise with the velocity decomposition method because the panicle tracking equation is hyperbolic in nature, and there are regions in the flow field where it is difficult to calculate the deterministic particle velocity. These problems can be avoided with an asymptotic analysis, and we have used this approach to determine single fiber efficiencies for small Stokes numbers. These efficiencies illustrate a minimum as a function of the particle diameter; however, the range of validity (in terms of the Stokes number) of the asymptotic method is uncertain. If the range of validity of the asymptotic expansion is suitable for the solution of practical problems, the current work on homogeneous filters should be expanded to included a broader range of values of the key parameters and then extended to include the case of heterogeneous filters. If the range of validity of the asymptotic method is not suitable for the solution of practical problems, the particle tracking problem must be resolved or we must move on to the use of Brownian dynamics. This approach is outlined, where we have indicated how Brownian dynamics may be incorporated into the method of volume averaging.

  11. Loading and filtration characteristics of filtering facepieces.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Lehtimäki, M; Willeke, K

    1993-02-01

    Most filtering facepieces used today are made of electret material (material with significant electrical charges on the filter fibers). Because of the addition of this electrical removal force, the filtration efficiency can be significantly increased without increasing the air pressure drop inside the respirator; pressure drop is closely related to physiological load. However, the removal by electrical forces is reduced in time, as aerosols deposit on the filter fibers. We have studied the contribution of this electrical removal and its change in time as a function of aerosol loading. To prove the change in aerosol penetration is due to the reduction of electrical force, the electrical charges were removed from new facepieces by the application of appropriate chemicals. The dust-mist filtering facepieces tested have similar fiber diameters and packing densities, as determined by scanning electron microscopy and pressure drop data. At a face velocity of 10 cm/s (corresponding to 100 L/min through a complete filtering facepiece) and an aerosol size of 0.16 microns, electrical force removal accounts for 69% of the total filtration for the respirator found to have the best filter quality but only 25% for the respirator (from a different manufacturer) found to have the worst filter quality. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiency of these facepieces is reduced in time by as much as this amount. However, under normal wear conditions, the total aerosol particle load is not as high as shown and the filtering facepieces are likely to be discarded before the fiber charges (i.e., the electrostatic attractions) are significantly diminished.

  12. Role of human leukocyte antigen-G 14-base pair polymorphism in kidney transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Littera, Roberto; Piredda, Gianbenedetto; Pani, Antonello; Frongia, Mauro; Onano, Bruno; Michittu, Maria Benigna; Murgia, Maria Gavina; Lai, Sara; Alba, Francesco; Valentini, Maria Donatella; Loi, Valentina; Caocci, Giovanni; Orrù, Sandro; La Nasa, Giorgio; Carcassi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Both the membrane-bound and soluble forms of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules exhibit a multitude of immunomodulatory properties that can potentially obviate or delay graft rejection. The 14-base pair (14-bp) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the HLA-G gene is thought to have a role in soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a large cohort of 418 kidney transplant recipients with the aim of establishing whether the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could serve as an effective genetic risk marker for acute and/or chronic deterioration of transplanted kidney function. A statistically significant higher incidence of chronic kidney dysfunction leading to allograft loss was observed in transplant recipients homozygous for the HLA-G 14-bp deletion polymorphism. This difference increased over time and was confirmed by progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate. These results suggest that alongside other factors previously consolidated in clinical practice, recipient HLA-G 14-bp genotype may serve as an adjuvant independent predictor of long-term outcome of kidney transplantation.

  13. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  14. Endothelial-Leukocyte Interaction in Severe Malaria: Beyond the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana C.; Padua, Tatiana A.; Henriques, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, accounting for 1 million deaths each year. Severe malaria is a systemic illness characterized by dysfunction of brain tissue and of one or more peripheral organs as lungs and kidney. The most severe and most studied form of malaria is associated with cerebral complications due to capillary congestion and the adhesion of infected erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes to brain vasculature. Thus, leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the brain vascular bed during severe malaria is singular and distinct from other models of inflammation. The leukocyte/endothelium interaction and neutrophil accumulation are also observed in the lungs. However, lung interactions differ from brain interactions, likely due to differences in the blood-brain barrier and blood-air barrier tight junction composition of the brain and lung endothelium. Here, we review the importance of endothelial dysfunction and the mechanism of leukocyte/endothelium interaction during severe malaria. Furthermore, we hypothesize a possible use of adjunctive therapies to antimalarial drugs that target the interaction between the leukocytes and the endothelium. PMID:26491221

  15. Endothelial-Leukocyte Interaction in Severe Malaria: Beyond the Brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariana C; Padua, Tatiana A; Henriques, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, accounting for 1 million deaths each year. Severe malaria is a systemic illness characterized by dysfunction of brain tissue and of one or more peripheral organs as lungs and kidney. The most severe and most studied form of malaria is associated with cerebral complications due to capillary congestion and the adhesion of infected erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes to brain vasculature. Thus, leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the brain vascular bed during severe malaria is singular and distinct from other models of inflammation. The leukocyte/endothelium interaction and neutrophil accumulation are also observed in the lungs. However, lung interactions differ from brain interactions, likely due to differences in the blood-brain barrier and blood-air barrier tight junction composition of the brain and lung endothelium. Here, we review the importance of endothelial dysfunction and the mechanism of leukocyte/endothelium interaction during severe malaria. Furthermore, we hypothesize a possible use of adjunctive therapies to antimalarial drugs that target the interaction between the leukocytes and the endothelium.

  16. Preferential Adhesion of Leukocytes Near Bifurcations is Endothelium Independent

    PubMed Central

    Tousi, Nazanin; Wang, Bin; Pant, Kapil; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions play central roles in many pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms responsible for non-uniform spatial distribution of adhering leukocytes to endothelial cells in microvascular networks in vivo are not clear. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo methodologies for understanding of this complex phenomenon. A mouse cremaster muscle model was used to study the spatial distribution of leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in vivo. A PDMS based synthetic microvascular network (SMN) device was used to study interactions of functionalized microspheres using a receptor-ligand system in a (endothelial) cell-free environment for the in vitro studies. Our in vivo and in vitro findings indicate that both leukocytes in vivo and microspheres in vitro preferentially adhere near bifurcation within 1-2 vessel diameters from the bifurcation. This adhesion pattern was found to be independent of the diameter of the vessels. These findings support our hypothesis that the fluidic patterns near bifurcations/junctions, and not the presence or absence of endothelial cells and/or receptors on their surfaces, may be the driving force behind the preferential adhesion patterns of leukocytes near bifurcations. PMID:20624406

  17. Platelets Guide Leukocytes to Their Sites of Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Puhr-Westerheide, Daniel; Pörnbacher, Michaela; Lauber, Kirsten; Krombach, Fritz; Reichel, Christoph Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Effective immune responses require the directed migration of leukocytes from the vasculature to the site of injury or infection. How immune cells “find” their site of extravasation remains largely obscure. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized role of platelets as pathfinders guiding leukocytes to their exit points in the microvasculature: upon onset of inflammation, circulating platelets were found to immediately adhere at distinct sites in venular microvessels enabling these cellular blood components to capture neutrophils and, in turn, inflammatory monocytes via CD40-CD40L-dependent interactions. In this cellular crosstalk, ligation of PSGL-1 by P-selectin leads to ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent conformational changes of leukocyte integrins, which promote the successive extravasation of neutrophils and monocytes to the perivascular tissue. Conversely, blockade of this cellular partnership resulted in misguided, inefficient leukocyte responses. Our experimental data uncover a platelet-directed, spatiotemporally organized, multicellular crosstalk that is essential for effective trafficking of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. PMID:27152726

  18. Extravasation of leukocytes in comparison to tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Strell, Carina; Entschladen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The multi-step process of the emigration of cells from the blood stream through the vascular endothelium into the tissue has been termed extravasation. The extravasation of leukocytes is fairly well characterized down to the molecular level, and has been reviewed in several aspects. Comparatively little is known about the extravasation of tumor cells, which is part of the hematogenic metastasis formation. Although the steps of the process are basically the same in leukocytes and tumor cells, i.e. rolling, adhesion, transmigration (diapedesis), the molecules that are involved are different. A further important difference is that leukocyte interaction with the endothelium changes the endothelial integrity only temporarily, whereas tumor cell interaction leads to an irreversible damage of the endothelial architecture. Moreover, tumor cells utilize leukocytes for their extravasation as linkers to the endothelium. Thus, metastasis formation is indirectly susceptible to localization signals that are literally specific for the immune system. We herein compare the extravasation of leukocytes and tumor cells with regard to the involved receptors and the localization signals that direct the cells to certain organs and sites of the body. PMID:19055814

  19. Leukocyte emigration in the early stages of laminitis.

    PubMed

    Black, Samuel J; Lunn, D Paul; Yin, Cailing; Hwang, Misako; Lenz, Stephen D; Belknap, James K

    2006-01-15

    The mechanisms that initiate the pathophysiologic changes in the digital laminae in equine laminitis are poorly understood. Due to the fact that (1) the horse at risk of laminitis has many similarities clinically to the human sepsis patient and (2) our recent finding of marked laminar proinflammatory cytokine expression at the developmental time point of the black walnut extract (BWE) model of laminitis, we tested the possibility that, similar to organ damage in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is an early event in laminitis. Using immunoperoxidase methods with an anti-equine CD13 monoclonal antibody that recognizes neutrophils and monocytes, we discovered that, whereas the dermal microvasculature of the skin commonly has a marginal pool of leukocytes, the normal laminar dermal microvasculature has minimal to no perivascular leukocytes. However, increases in leukocyte numbers occurred around the dermal vasculature of both the laminae and the skin in the majority of BWE-treated horses in the developmental stage and at the onset of clinical signs of lameness in the BWE model. These findings indicate that, similar to organ failure in human sepsis, leukocyte emigration is likely to play a significant role in initiating numerous pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to the development of laminitis.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of glyoxalase-1 expression in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Skapare, Elina; Riekstina, Una; Liepinsh, Edgars; Konrade, Ilze; Makrecka, Marina; Maurina, Baiba; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-03-01

    Altered glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1) activity and expression is associated with the development of late diabetic complications, malignancy and oxidative stress- and aging-related diseases. In the present study, we developed a flow cytometry method for GLO-1 detection in human leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood samples to investigate GLO-1 expression in leukocyte subsets from type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 11) and healthy subjects (n = 8). The flow cytometry analysis of GLO-1 in leukocytes showed that expression index of GLO-1-positive cells was slightly increased in mononuclear leukocytes from diabetic patients. This result correlated with the increase in GLO-1 activity in the whole blood samples of type 2 diabetes patients. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that flow cytometry is suitable for the detection of the GLO-1 enzyme in human leukocytes and that this method could be used to investigate the fast adaptation of the glyoxalase system related to the pathogenesis of late complications of diabetes mellitus and other glycation stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Systemic leukocyte alterations are associated with invasive uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Murta, Beatriz M; Mendonça, Maria A O; Duarte, Natália L; da Silva, Juliana A; Mutão, Taciana S; Garcia, Cristiana B; Murta, Eddie F C

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate blood leukocyte counts in patients with uterine cervical neoplasia. Patients treated at a university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Disease progression was monitored, beginning in 1990 to 2002, for at least 5 years. Blood count parameters included absolute leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, leukocytosis (white blood cells > 10³/μL), neutrophilia (neutrophils ≥ 70% of leukocytes), lymphopenia (lymphocytes ≤ 15% of leukocytes), and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), categorized as less than 5 or 5 or greater. A total of 315 patients were enrolled: 182 (57.8%) with preinvasive neoplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] group), 95 (30.1%) with stages I to II (early group), and 38 patients (12.1%) with stages III to IV neoplasia (advanced group). Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were elevated and reduced, respectively, at advanced stages compared with the CIN group (P < 0.05). Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and an NLR of 5 or greater were more frequent at advanced stages compared with the CIN and early-stage groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, neutrophilia was also significantly more frequent at early stage compared with the CIN group. The advanced group with neutrophilia had increased frequency of recidivism and metastasis than patients in the CIN group with neutrophilia (P < 0.05). Patients with advanced cervical cancer had significantly higher frequency of leukocyte alterations, although they may occur apart from the preinvasive stages. Overall, neutrophilia was the best indicator of cancer invasiveness.

  2. Some aspects of applying nanostructured materials in air filtration, water filtration and electrical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Lovecka, Lenka; Kazda, Tomas; Giurg, Adam; Skorvan, Ondrej

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures prepared from nanofibres and nanostructured composites prepared from nanofibres and fillers are gradually becoming increasingly demanded materials for applications in various industrial branches connected with catalysis, environment protection (air filtration, waste water treatment, sound absorption), in biological engineering, electronics (battery separators, electrode materials), etc. Selected applications of these materials prepared in the company SPUR a.s. are summed up in the following presentation.

  3. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and...

  4. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  5. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and...

  6. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141.171 Section 141.171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and...

  7. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  8. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141.174 Section 141.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...

  9. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

  10. STORMWATER TREATMENT AT CRITICAL AREAS: EVALUATION OF FILTRATION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has identified urban runoff as a major contributor to the degradation of urban streams and rivers. Filtration, especially "slow" filtration, is of interest for stormwater runoff treatment because filters will work on intermittent flows without significant loss of ca...

  11. STORMWATER TREATMENT AT CRITICAL AREAS: EVALUATION OF FILTRATION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has identified urban runoff as a major contributor to the degradation of urban streams and rivers. Filtration, especially "slow" filtration, is of interest for stormwater runoff treatment because filters will work on intermittent flows without significant loss of ca...

  12. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: FATE OF DBP PRECURSORS AND SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors and selected microorganisms during riverbank filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking water utilities. At all three sites, filtration (RBF) was monitored at three different mid-Western drinking wa...

  13. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    PubMed

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more.

  14. Application of granular media filtration in wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, M F; Al-Ghusain, I; Al-Jasem, D M

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) using four identical filter columns made of Plexiglas, each of 1 m height and 15 cm internal diameter, packed with granular media of 70 cm depth. Each filter was operated at a constant filtration rate, thus four rates were tested in the range of 2-15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). Mono-media (sand) and dual-media (sand and anthracite) were tested and three types of municipal wastewaters, namely raw, primary and secondary-treated effluents were applied. The results obtained indicate that considerable improvements in effluent quality could be attained by tertiary sand filtration. Removal of solids, organics and bacteria was not significantly affected by the increase in filtration rate from 2 to 15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). The highest removal efficiency was obtained at low filtration rate of 2 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), but higher filtration rates achieved acceptable removal efficiencies and provided effluents of good quality to satisfy the irrigation water quality standards. Since the conventional sand filters in wastewater treatment plants operate at a rate in the range of 2-5 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), utilization of high rate filtration is advantageous and would result in significant cost savings. However, with high filtration rates the filters require more frequent backwashing. Dual-media filters achieved 50% reductions in BOD suggesting that filtration could be used to treat primary effluents in emergency cases.

  15. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  16. Traveling waves in natural counterflow filtration combustion and their stability

    SciTech Connect

    Schult, D.A.; Bayliss, A.; Matkowsky, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The authors consider two-dimensional filtration combustion in a porous medium in which an exothermic reaction takes place between the solid and a pure gaseous oxidant which is delivered to the reaction zone by filtration through the pores of the medium. As a result of the reaction, oxidant is consumed and a solid product is formed. The consumption of gas in the reaction causes a pressure gradient which drives filtration. Since no external forcing is required, this arrangement is termed natural filtration combustion. The samples are assumed to be open to gas permeation at one end with ignition at the other end so that gas flow is opposite to the direction of reaction propagation. This configuration is termed counterflow, so they study natural counterflow filtration combustion. This reaction scheme and configuration describe conditions of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), in which combustion waves are employed to synthesize advanced materials.

  17. Platelet subpopulation bearing leukocyte specific antigen and tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Z A; Saburova, O S; Antonova, O A; Golubeva, N V; Khaspekova, S G; Shustova, O N; Zyuryaev, I T; Ruda, M Ya; Mazurov, A V

    2016-11-01

    Platelets bearing leukocyte antigen CD45 were identified in the blood of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and healthy donors by flow cytofluorimetry. Part of these platelets contained tissue factor (TF)-primary initiator of blood clotting. The number of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets in MI patients at the first day was comparable with their level in healthy donors, but was increased at 8-12 days after MI onset. At that time in some patients the amount of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets reached 5-6 and 2-3% of their total number. It is assumed that CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets could be formed as a result of platelet interaction with leukocytes or leukocyte produced membrane microparticles.

  18. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  19. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, A R; Raviola, C A; Weber, P N; McDonald, P T; Navarro, D A; Jasko, I

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of apendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging111 In oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocytes and reticulocytes stained with proflavine.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, H; Tatsumi, N

    1997-12-01

    Proflavine, an acridine analog for industrial use, was used to stain blood cells. A drop of blood treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-2K was mixed with a 0.00001% solution of the dye and observed immediately by fluorescence microscopy with a green filter. Leukocytes, platelets, and reticulocytes were stained but mature red blood cells were not. Chromatin in the nuclei of all leukocytes and nucleoli of lymphocytes and monocytes had greenish-yellow fluorescence, and the kind of cell could be identified by the tone and intensity of this color. Granules in granulocytes were in green. Reticular fine-granular or granulofibrous structures in the reticulocytes were brownish. The proflavine could be used routinely in clinical laboratories because this single stain makes possible simultaneous differentiation of leukocytes and counting of reticulocytes.

  1. Tissue Digestion for Stromal Cell and Leukocyte Isolation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saba; Campos, Joana; Steinthal, Nathalie; Barone, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Tissue mechanical disruption is often not sufficient to disrupt cell-to-cell interactions; this is particularly relevant for stromal cells that are embedded within the extracellular matrix. For this reason, different enzyme combinations have been described to enable the isolation of single-cell populations, particularly stromal cells. This chapter aims to describe different methods used for enzymatic digestion of stromal cell and leukocyte populations from secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs. Collagenase D and P and collagenase D and dispase protocols provide a good yield of stromal cells, while a collagenase dispase-only protocol should be used if the main aim of the technique is to retrieve leukocyte populations. However, for isolation of both stroma and leukocyte populations the collagenase D and P protocol would provide the best results. Protocols for these techniques and illustrative results from flow cytometry analysis can be found in this chapter.

  2. Diagnosis of brain abscesses with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehncrona, S.; Brismar, J.; Holtas, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with intracerebral mass lesions where computed tomography (CT) was not fully conclusive with respect to the differential diagnosis between brain tumor and abscess were examined with leukocyte brain scintigraphy (LBS). Autologous leukocytes were labeled with indium-111 oxinate and were reinjected intravenously; registration with a gamma camera was performed after 24 and 48 hours. In 10 of 11 patients with the final diagnosis of a brain tumor, no accumulation of radiolabeled leukocytes could be detected in the brain. In 4 of 5 patients with the final diagnosis of brain abscess, scintigraphy showed a pronounced increase of focal activity corresponding to the lesion demonstrated with CT. The reasons for the one false-positive and the one false-negative result are discussed, and it is concluded that LBS (a) can be used to detect intracranial infection and (b) may be a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing between brain abscess and brain tumor.

  3. Occult Purulent Pericarditis Detected by Indium-111 Leukocyte Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark L.; Niebulski, Harvey I. J; Uretsky, Barry F.; Salerni, Rosemarie; Klein, Herbert A.; Forstate, William J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is-a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiously purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient. PMID:6370622

  4. Inflamed leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles for molecular imaging of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Wong, Richard; Khalidov, Ildar; Wang, Andrew Y; Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Wang, Yi; Jin, Moonsoo M

    2011-10-01

    Dysregulated host inflammatory response causes many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and sepsis. Sensitive detection of the site of inflammation will, therefore, produce a wide-ranging impact on disease diagnosis and treatment. We hypothesized that nanoprobes designed to mimic the molecular interactions occurring between inflamed leukocytes and endothelium may possess selectivity toward diverse host inflammatory responses. To incorporate inflammation-sensitive molecular interactions, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 I domain, engineered to mimic activated leukocytes in physiology. Whole body optical and magnetic resonance imaging in vivo revealed that leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles localized preferentially to the vasculature within and in the invasive front of the tumor, as well as to the site of acute inflammation. This study explored in vivo detection of tumor-associated vasculature with systemically injected inflammation-specific nanoparticles, presenting a possibility of tumor detection by inflamed tumor microenvironment.

  5. Intravascular staining for discrimination of vascular and tissue leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin G; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sung, Heungsup; Beura, Lalit; James, Britnie R; Taylor, Justin J; Qunaj, Lindor; Griffith, Thomas S; Vezys, Vaiva; Barber, Daniel L; Masopust, David

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. Previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. Several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne cells in the mouse lung. Here we outline a protocol for the validation and use of intravascular staining to define innate and adaptive immune cells in mice. We demonstrate application of this protocol to leukocyte analyses in many tissues and we describe its use in the contexts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections or solid tumors. Intravascular staining and organ isolation usually takes 5-30 min per mouse, with additional time required for any subsequent leukocyte isolation, staining and analysis. In summary, this simple protocol should help enable interpretable analyses of tissue immune responses.

  6. Intravascular staining for discrimination of vascular and tissue leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin G; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sung, Heungsup; Beura, Lalit; James, Britnie R; Taylor, Justin J; Qunaj, Lindor; Griffith, Thomas S; Vezys, Vaiva; Barber, Daniel L; Masopust, David

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne cells in the mouse lung. Here we outline a protocol for the validation and use of intravascular staining to define innate and adaptive immune cells in mice. We demonstrate application of this protocol to leukocyte analyses in many tissues and we describe its use in the contexts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections or solid tumors. Intravascular staining and organ isolation usually takes 5–30 min per mouse, with additional time required for any subsequent leukocyte isolation, staining and analysis. In summary, this simple protocol should help enable interpretable analyses of tissue immune responses. PMID:24385150

  7. Regulation of leukocyte-endothelium interaction and leukocyte transendothelial migration by intercellular adhesion molecule 1-fibrinogen recognition.

    PubMed

    Languino, L R; Duperray, A; Joganic, K J; Fornaro, M; Thornton, G B; Altieri, D C

    1995-02-28

    Although primarily recognized for its role in hemostasis, fibrinogen is also required for competent inflammatory reactions in vivo. It is now shown that fibrinogen promotes adhesion to and migration across an endothelial monolayer of terminally differentiated myelomonocytic cells. This process does not require chemotactic/haptotactic gradients or cytokine stimulation of the endothelium and is specific for the association of fibrinogen with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelium. Among other adhesive plasma proteins, fibronectin fails to increase the binding of leukocytes to endothelium, or transendothelial migration, whereas vitronectin promotes the binding but not the migration. The fibrinogen-mediated leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration could be inhibited by a peptide from the fibrinogen gamma-chain sequence N117NQKIVNL-KEKVAQLEA133, which blocks the binding of fibrinogen to ICAM-1. This interaction could also be inhibited by new anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies that did not affect the ICAM-1-CD11a/CD18 recognition, thus suggesting that the fibrinogen binding site on ICAM-1 may be structurally distinct from regions previously implicated in leukocyte-endothelium interaction. Therefore, binding of fibrinogen to vascular cell receptors is sufficient to initiate (i) increased leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and (ii) leukocyte transendothelial migration. These two processes are the earliest events of immune inflammatory responses and may also contribute to atherosclerosis.

  8. Elevated platelet and leukocyte response to oral bacteria in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nicu, E A; Van der Velden, U; Nieuwland, R; Everts, V; Loos, B G

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that platelets from periodontitis patients are more activated than those from controls. Given the regularly occurring bacteremic episodes in periodontitis patients, we hypothesized that platelets and/or leukocytes from periodontitis patients are more sensitive to stimulation by oral bacteria, in particular the known periodontal pathogens, than platelets from control subjects. Three-color flow cytometry analysis was performed to quantify activation of platelets (P-selectin, PAC-1, CD63) and leukocytes (CD11b) in whole blood from patients with periodontitis (n = 19) and controls (n = 18), with and without stimulation by oral bacteria. Phagocytosis was assessed by using green-fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Neutrophils and monocytes were activated by all species of oral bacteria tested, but no differences were observed between patients and controls. In response to several species of oral bacteria, platelets from periodontitis patients showed, compared with controls, increased exposure of P-selectin (P = 0.027) and increased formation of platelet-monocyte complexes (P = 0.040). Platelet-leukocyte complexes bound and/or phagocytosed more GFP-Aa than platelet-free leukocytes (for neutrophils and monocytes, in both patients and controls, P < 0.001). In periodontitis, increased platelet response to oral bacteria is paralleled by increased formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes with elevated capacity for bacterial clearance. We speculate that activated platelets and leukocytes might contribute to increased atherothrombotic activity.

  9. Upregulation of Leukocytic Syncytin-1 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Zhu, Hongyan; Song, Jianxin; Jiang, Yaxian; Ouyang, Hongmei; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Guiqian; Fan, Xin; Tao, Rui; Jiang, Jie; Niu, Hua

    2016-07-09

    BACKGROUND Syncytin-1, a cell membrane-localizing fusogen, is abnormally expressed in several cancers, including endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia. Although abnormal syncytin-1 expression has been detected in two-thirds of leukemia blood samples, its expression profile in acute leukemia patients has not yet been analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bone marrow samples from 50 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cases and 14 B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-cell ALL) patients were subjected to flow cytometry to assess leukocyte type distributions and leukocytic syncytin-1 surface expression. RT-PCR was applied to assess leukocytic syncytin-1 mRNA expression. Statistical analysis was applied to compare syncytin-1 expression between AML and B-cell ALL patients across blasts, granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes as well as to determine clinical factors statistically associated with changes in syncytin-1 expression. RESULTS The leukocyte type distributions of the AML and B-cell ALL cohorts highly overlapped, with an observable difference in blast distribution between the 2 cohorts. The AML cohort displayed significantly greater syncytin-1 surface and mRNA expression (p<0.05). Syncytin-1 surface and mRNA expression was significantly increased across all 4 leukocyte types (p<0.05). The percentage of syncytin-1-expressing blasts was significantly greater in AML patients (p<0.05), with blasts showing the largest fold-change in syncytin-1 expression (p<0.05). M5, M5a, and M5b AML patients displayed significantly higher syncytin-1 surface expression relative to all other AML French-American-British (FAB) classifications (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest leukocytic syncytin-1 expression may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of the AML phenotype and the acute monocytic leukemia phenotype in particular.

  10. Therapeutic hypothermia impacts leukocyte kinetics after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Dufner, Matthias C.; Andre, Florian; Stiepak, Jan; Zelniker, Thomas; Chorianopoulos, Emmanuel; Preusch, Michael; Katus, Hugo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients admitted to the hospital after primarily successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are at a very high risk for neurologic deficits and death. Targeted temperature management (TTM) for mild therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival compared to standard treatment. Acute cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction (MI), are a major cause for cardiac arrest (CA) in patients who undergo CPR. Recent findings have demonstrated the importance and impact of the leukocyte response following acute MI. Methods In this retrospective, single center study we enrolled 169 patients with CA due to non-traumatic causes and primarily successful CPR. A total of 111 subjects (66%) underwent TTM aiming for a target temperature of 32–34 °C. Results Analysis of 30 day follow up showed a significantly improved survival of all patients who received TTM compared to patients without hypothermia (P=0.0001). Furthermore TTM was an independent variable of good neurological outcome after 6 months (P=0.0030). Therapeutic hypothermia was found to be beneficial independent of differences in age and sex between both groups. While a higher rate of pneumonia was observed with TTM, this diagnosis had no additional impact on survival or neurological outcome. The beneficial effect on mortality remained significant in patients with the diagnosis of an acute cardiac event (P=0.0145). Next, we evaluated the kinetics of leukocytes in this group over the course of 7 days after CA. At presentation, patients showed a mean level of 16.5±6.7 of leukocytes per microliter. While this level stayed stable in the group of patients without hypothermia, patients who received TTM showed a significant decline of leukocyte levels resulting in significantly lower numbers of leukocytes on days 3 and 5 after CPR. Interestingly, these differences in leukocyte counts remained beyond the time period of TTM while C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were suppressed only during

  11. In Vivo Quantitation of Local Anesthetic Suppression of Leukocyte Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Giddon, D. B.; Lindhe, J.

    1972-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, topically applied amide-type local anesthetics suppressed the adherence of leukocytes to the venular endothelium within surgical defects in the hamster cheek pouch. The response was reversible with physiologic saline and was localized to venules within the defect. Quantitation in terms of the percent of initially adhering leukocytes remaining in place on the venule wall at each minute following application of lidocaine and physiologic saline, respectively, revealed the suppression to be reliably related to the concentration, viz: 20.0 >10.0 >5.0 >0.0 mg ml of commercially available Xylocaine® (lidocaine) HCl. ImagesFig 1Fig 1 PMID:5049429

  12. Toxins–Useful Biochemical Tools for Leukocyte Research

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos, Susana; Norgauer, Johannes; Lehmann, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of cells that display differences in anatomic localization, cell surface phenotype, and function. The different subtypes include e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and NK cells. These different cell types represent the cellular component of innate and adaptive immunity. Using certain toxins such as pertussis toxin, cholera toxin or clostridium difficile toxin, the regulatory functions of Gαi, Gαs and small GTPases of the Rho family in leukocytes have been reported. A summary of these reports is discussed in this review. PMID:22069594

  13. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae) Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ghafourian, Mehri; Ganjalikhanhakemi, Neda; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Dehghani, Rouhullah; Kooti, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat. Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second experimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sampling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub-populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods. Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05), six (P<0.01) and 24 (P<0.05) hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05). The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible. PMID:27308274

  14. Automated filtration capture immunoelectrochemical assay of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Jeffrey D.

    1999-01-01

    An automated system for filtration capture and immunoelectrochemical detection of bactria in liquid samples is described. The detector incorporates a porous electrode in contact with the filter, rather than the solid electrode used previously, to allow sample and reagent solutions to be delivered in a flowing stream. This eliminated the need for manual assembly of the electrode and filter for each assay and allowed repetitive assays on a single filter/electrode. The electrochemical response of the novel gold grid electrode under static and flow conditions was found to be consistent with theory for a planar electrode operating in laminar flow conditions. A computer-controlled fluid handling system was coupled to the detector for delivery of samples and reagents at controlled flow rates and times. The combination of flow detector and fluid handling system allows for automation of the previous assay protocol as well as providing new operating modes with enhanced background rejection and improved sensitivity. The use of these operating modes is demonstrated by a simple assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 with virtually no background current.

  15. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, Brent C.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Clark, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: a) a module retaining filter elements; b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to sealing engage a filter element therebetween; c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member.

  16. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-09

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

  17. Sorghum Genome Sequencing by Methylation Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rohlfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W. Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:15660154

  18. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  19. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  20. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  1. Improve filtration for optimum equipment reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction 20 years ago of the American Petroleum Institute Standard API-614 as a purchase specification for lubrication, shaft sealing and control oil systems, had a considerable impact and did much to improve system reliability at that time. Today, however, these recommendations regarding filter rating and flushing cleanliness are outdated. Much research in the tribology field correlates clearance size particulate contamination with accelerated component wear, fatigue and performance degradation. Some of these studies demonstrate that by decreasing the population of clearance size particulate in lubrication oils, component life increases exponentially. Knowing the dynamic clearances of a piece of machinery makes it possible, using the ISO 4406 Cleanliness Code, to determine what cleanliness level will minimize contamination-related component wear/fatigue and thus help optimize machinery performance and reliability. Data obtained by the author through random sampling of rotating equipment lube and seal oil systems indicate that the API-614 standard, as it pertains to filtration and flushing, is insufficient to ensure that particulate contamination is maintained to within the levels necessary to achieve optimum equipment reliability and safety, without increasing operating cost. Adopting and practicing the guidelines presented should result in the following benefits: (1) the frequency of bearing, oil pump, mechanical seal, fluid coupling, gearbox and hydraulic control valve failures would be minimized; (2) the mean time between planned maintenance (MTBPM) would be increased. The result will be a substantial increase in safety and cost savings to the operator.

  2. Gravity filtration of suspensions: permeability effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Wang, Mengyu; Ward, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the filtration rates of mono-modal suspensions as a function of time and a cake layer builds up through theory and experimentation. Darcy's Law, which describes fluid flow through porous media, was applied along with the Kynch theory of sedimentation, which provides the basis for analyzing low concentration (ϕ <=20%) cake formation. Experiments were performed to study the effects of varying particle sizes (45 μm <= d <= 1400 μm) and total solid concentration ϕ on both the formation rate of the cake layer and its flow permeability (k) in conjunction with the filter media. A CCD camera was used to capture images of the cake formation and fluid drainage processes, and subsequent image and theoretical analysis found the fluid flow experienced a constant pressure loss due to the permeability of the filter media, whereas the experienced pressure loss due to the cake formation varies as a function of time, ϕ and d. The rate of cake formation was also found to be independent of ϕ but dependent on d which can be attributed to a change in porosity affecting permeability. Studies on similar systems with multi-modal suspensions are in-progress.

  3. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  4. Critical analysis of uncertainties during particle filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalyan, Alexander; Carageorgos, Themis; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; You, Zhenjiang; Zeinijahromi, Abbas; Aji, Keyiseer

    2012-09-01

    Using the law of propagation of uncertainties we show how equipment- and measurement-related uncertainties contribute to the overall combined standard uncertainties (CSU) in filter permeability and in modelling the results for polystyrene latex microspheres filtration through a borosilicate glass filter at various injection velocities. Standard uncertainties in dynamic viscosity and volumetric flowrate of microspheres suspension have the greatest influence on the overall CSU in filter permeability which excellently agrees with results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Two model parameters "maximum critical retention concentration" and "minimum injection velocity" and their uncertainties were calculated by fitting two quadratic mathematical models to the experimental data using a weighted least squares approximation. Uncertainty in the internal cake porosity has the highest impact on modelling uncertainties in critical retention concentration. The model with the internal cake porosity reproduces experimental "critical retention concentration vs velocity"-data better than the second model which contains the total electrostatic force whose value and uncertainty have not been reliably calculated due to the lack of experimental dielectric data.

  5. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  6. Thermophilic biotrickling filtration of ethanol vapors.

    PubMed

    Cox, H H; Sexton, T; Shareefdeen, Z M; Deshusses, M A

    2001-06-15

    The treatment of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were operated in parallel, one at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and one at high temperature (53 degrees C). After a short adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s, the elimination capacity exceeded 220 g m(-3) h(-1) at both temperatures. The experiments performed revealed that the process was most likely limited by biodegradation in the biofilm. The high-temperature biotrickling filter exhibited a higher degree of ethanol mineralization to CO2 (60 vs 46% at ambient temperature); hence, a lower rate of biomass accumulation was observed. Plating and cultivation of biofilm samples revealed that the high-temperature biotrickling filter hosted a process culture composed of both mesophilic and thermotolerant or thermophilic microorganisms, whereas the ambient-temperature reactor lacked microorganisms capable of growing at high temperature. Consequently, the performance of the control biotrickling filter was significantly affected by a short incursion at 53 degrees C. The upper temperature limit for treatment was 62 degrees C. Overall, the results of this study open new possibilities for biotrickling filtration of hot gases.

  7. Certification of Probability of Sterilization of Liquid by Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Portner, Dorothy M.; Phillips, Charles R.; Hoffman, Robert K.

    1967-01-01

    Four types of hydrosol filters, two reusable (diatomaceous cylinder and fritted-glass funnel) and two disposable (asbestos pad and membrane filter) were challenged with a heavy bacterial suspension to assess their ability to produce sterile filtrates. Two of the four diatomaceous earth filters, the four fritted-glass funnels, and all of the asbestos pads tested generally gave sterile filtrates. However, only one type of filter, one of the membranes in its manufacturer's own holder, consistently gave sterile filtrates. The two other types of membranes usually gave sterile filtrates if tested in one manufacturer's holder, but all types invariably gave contaminated filtrates when tested in another manufacturer's holder. Contaminated filtrates were generally attributed to a poor reusable filter or to a faulty holder used with a disposable filter. If a high degree of certainty is required for sterile heat-labile filtrate, it is suggested that the liquid be passed through two or more filters in a previously tested and proven system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:4860528

  8. Human leukocyte interferon: structural and biological relatedness to adrenocorticotropic hormone and endorphins.

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, J E; Smith, E M

    1980-01-01

    Anti-alpha-corticotropin [anti-ACTH alpha (1-13)](also alpha-melanotropin) and anti-gamma-endorphin antisera neutralized human leukocyte interferon activity but not fibroblast interferon activity. Human leukocyte interferon was not neutralized by anti-human lutenizing hormone (lutropin) or follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin) antisra. Conversely, antisera to human leukocyte interferon neutralized ACTH activity. The neturalization of human leukocyte interferon by anti-human leukocyte interferon serum was partially blocked by ACTH. These studies show strong antigenic relatedness among human leukocyte interferon, ACTH, and endorphins, implying that there are underlying structural similarities. Structural relatedness is shown by pepsin cleavage of ACTH activity from human leukocyte interferon. The implication for the natural functions of human leukocyte interferon are discussed. PMID:6160589

  9. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    SciTech Connect

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections.

  10. Diagnosis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Unterberger, Ursula; Regelsberger, Günther; Sundt, Regina; Bernheimer, Hanno; Voigtländer, Till

    2007-09-01

    Our aim was to replace cultured skin fibroblasts in the diagnosis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) by peripheral blood cells. Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) were analyzed in leukocytes from X-ALD patients, heterozygotes, and controls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Immunofluorescence for adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) was performed in mononuclear blood cell preparations of X-ALD patients known to be ALDP negative in fibroblasts, heterozygote relatives of these patients, and controls. All X-ALD patients were distinguishable from controls by VLCFA analysis in leukocytes. 91.7% of heterozygotes were identified by combined VLCFA analysis in leukocytes and plasma. All patients investigated lacked ALDP immunoreactivity in mononuclear cells, while heterozygotes showed mosaic patterns of positive and negative cells. Determination of VLCFAs by GC-MS in combination with ALDP immunofluorescence in peripheral blood cells provides a fast and minimally invasive diagnostic method for X-ALD, which, in contrast to plasma analysis, is independent of alimentary influences. Notably, joint evaluation of leukocytes and plasma considerably improves the identification of heterozygotes.

  11. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  12. Endothelial signaling in paracellular and transcellular leukocyte transmigration

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Erika S.

    2008-01-01

    As the primary physical barrier between blood and tissue compartments within the body, blood vessel endothelial cells and integrity of the cell junctions connecting them must be carefully regulated to support leukocyte transendothelial migration only when necessary. Leukocytes utilize two independent routes across the endothelium: the paracellular route involves migration in-between adjacent endothelial cells and requires the transient disassembly of endothelial cell junctions, while the transcellular route occurs directly through an individual endothelial cell, likely requiring the formation of a channel or pore. In this review, I will first summarize the signaling events that are transduced by leukocyte engagement of endothelial cell-surface receptors like ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Some of these signals include activation of GTPases, production of reactive oxygen species, and phosphorylation of target proteins. These signaling pathways converge to cause junctional disruption, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or the membrane fusion events that are associated with leukocyte transendothelial migration. The review will conclude with a detailed discussion of the newly characterized transmigratory cup structure, and the recent advances made towards understanding the mechanisms of transcellular transendothelial migration. PMID:19273217

  13. Endothelial signaling in paracellular and transcellular leukocyte transmigration.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Erika S

    2009-01-01

    As the primary physical barrier between blood and tissue compartments within the body, blood vessel endothelial cells and integrity of the cell junctions connecting them must be carefully regulated to support leukocyte transendothelial migration only when necessary. Leukocytes utilize two independent routes across the endothelium: the paracellular route involves migration in-between adjacent endothelial cells and requires the transient disassembly of endothelial cell junctions, while the transcellular route occurs directly through an individual endothelial cell, likely requiring the formation of a channel or pore. In this review, I will first summarize the signaling events that are transduced by leukocyte engagement of endothelial cell-surface receptors like ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Some of these signals include activation of GTPases, production of reactive oxygen species, and phosphorylation of target proteins. These signaling pathways converge to cause junctional disruption, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or the membrane fusion events that are associated with leukocyte transendothelial migration. The review will conclude with a detailed discussion of the newly characterized transmigratory cup structure, and the recent advances made towards understanding the mechanisms of transcellular transendothelial migration.

  14. Differential MSC activation leads to distinct mononuclear leukocyte binding mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Daniel J.; Dicarlo, Bryan; Hetz, Robert A.; Smith, Philippa; Cox, Charles S.; Olson, Scott D.

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the field of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal cell (MSC) biology have demonstrated that MSCs can improve disease outcome when `activated' to exert immunomodulatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms modulating MSC-immune cells interactions remain largely elusive. In here, we activated MSC based on a recent polarization paradigm, in which MSCs can be polarized towards a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype depending on the Toll-like receptor stimulated, to dissect the mechanisms through which MSCs physically interact with and modulate leukocytes in this context. Our data show that MSCs activated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 dependent binding of leukocytes. On the other hand, TLR3 stimulation strongly increases leukocytes affinity to MSC comparatively, through the formation of cable-like hyaluronic acid structures. In addition, TLR4 activation elicited secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by MSCs, whereas TLR3-activated MSCs displayed a milder pro-inflammatory phenotype, similar to inactivated MSCs. However, the differently activated MSCs maintained their ability to suppress leukocyte activation at similar levels in our in vitro model, and this immunomodulatory property was shown here to be partially mediated by prostaglandin. These results reinforce the concept that alternate activation profiles control MSC responses and may impact the therapeutic use of MSCs.

  15. Intracellular Penetration and Activity of Gemifloxacin in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    García, Isabel; Pascual, Alvaro; Ballesta, Sofía; Joyanes, Providencia; Perea, Evelio J.

    2000-01-01

    The intracellular penetration and activity of gemifloxacin in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were evaluated. Gemifloxacin reached intracellular concentrations eight times higher than extracellular concentrations. The uptake was rapid, reversible, and nonsaturable and was affected by environmental temperature, cell viability, and membrane stimuli. At therapeutic extracellular concentrations, gemifloxacin showed intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:11036051

  16. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-11-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

  17. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Patricia DA; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Anne Croy, B

    2014-01-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed. PMID:25066422

  18. Medical Applications of Leukocyte Surface Molecules—the CD molecules

    PubMed Central

    Zola, Heddy

    2006-01-01

    Leukocytes are the cells of the immune system and are centrally involved in defense against infection, in autoimmune disease, allergy, inflammation, and in organ graft rejection. Lymphomas and leukemias are malignancies of leukocytes, and the immune system is almost certainly involved in most other cancers. Each leukocyte expresses a selection of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids which mediate its interaction with antigen, with other components of the immune system, and with other tissues. It is therefore not surprising that the leukocyte surface molecules (CD molecules) have provided targets for diagnosis and therapy. Among the “celebrities” are CD20, a target for lymphoma therapeutic antibodies which earns $2 billion annually (and makes a significant difference to lymphoma patients), and CD4, the molecule used by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as an entry portal into cells of the immune system. This short review provides a background to the CD molecules and antibodies against them, and summarizes research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications of antibodies against these molecules. PMID:17380197

  19. Recent advances in microscopic techniques for visualizing leukocytes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rohit; Tikoo, Shweta; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes are inherently motile and interactive cells. Recent advances in intravital microscopy approaches have enabled a new vista of their behavior within intact tissues in real time. This brief review summarizes the developments enabling the tracking of immune responses in vivo. PMID:27239292

  20. ADRENERGIC NERVES GOVERN CIRCADIAN LEUKOCYTE RECRUITMENT TO TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Scheiermann, Christoph; Kunisaki, Yuya; Lucas, Daniel; Chow, Andrew; Jang, Jung-Eun; Zhang, Dachuan; Hashimoto, Daigo; Merad, Miriam; Frenette, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The multistep sequence leading to leukocyte migration is thought to be locally regulated at the inflammatory site. Here, we show that broad systemic programs involving long-range signals from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) delivered by adrenergic nerves, regulate rhythmic recruitment of leukocytes in tissues. Constitutive leukocyte adhesion and migration in murine bone marrow (BM) and skeletal muscle microvasculature fluctuated with circadian peak values at night. Migratory oscillations, altered by experimental jetlag, were implemented by perivascular SNS fibers, acting on β-adrenoreceptors expressed on non-hematopoietic cells, and leading to tissue-specific, differential circadian oscillations in the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and chemokines. We showed that these rhythms have physiological consequences by alteration of hematopoietic cell recruitment and overall survival in models of septic shock, sickle cell vaso-occlusion and BM transplantation. These data provide unique insight in the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the potential for time-based therapeutics for transplantation and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22863835

  1. Evaluation of methylglyoxal toxicity in human erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Alessandro de Souza; Dos Santos, Matheus Mülling; Ecker, Assis; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-05-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl metabolite originated mainly from glucose degradation pathway that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Reactions of MG with biological macromolecules (proteins, DNA and lipids) can induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Here, human erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets were acutely exposed to MG at concentration ranging from 0.025 to 10 mM. Afterwards, hemolysis and osmotic fragility in erythrocytes, DNA damage and cell viability in leukocytes, and the activity of purinergic ecto-nucleotidases in platelets were evaluated. The levels of glycated products from leukocytes and free amino groups from erythrocytes and platelets were also measured. MG caused fragility of membrane, hemolysis and depletion of amino groups in erythrocytes. DNA damage, loss of cell viability and increased levels of glycated products were observed in leukocytes. In platelets, MG inhibited the activity of enzymes NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) without affecting the levels of free amino groups. Our findings provide insights for understanding the mechanisms involved in MG acute toxicity towards distinct blood cells.

  2. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Patricia D A; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Croy, B Anne

    2014-11-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed.

  3. Biocompatibility of cellulosic and synthetic membranes assessed by leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maria Rosa; Galán, Ana Maria; Cases, Aleix; Lopez-Pedret, Jose; Pereira, Arturo; Tonda, Raul; Bozzo, Jordi; Escolar, Gines; Ordinas, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The contact of blood with artificial surfaces may activate blood leukocytes and platelets and initiate the leukocyte inflammatory response. We have investigated the effect of a hemodialysis (HD) with a cellulosic- and a synthetic-based membrane on circulating leukocyte activation. Samples were obtained from patients with ESRD at baseline, and at 15 and 120 min of a hemodialysis session from both the arterial and venous lines. Leukocyte respiratory burst was analyzed by luminol chemiluminescence. Actin polymerization, expression of CD11b, and heterotypic aggregation were studied by flow cytometry, leukocyte labeling with NBD phallacidin and monoclonal antibodies, respectively. HD with a cellulosic membrane induced a transient fall in neutrophil (1.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(9) vs. 3.6 +/- 0.6 x 10(9) cells/l; p < 0.05) and monocyte counts (0.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(9) vs. 0.7 +/- 0.1 x 10(9) cells/l; p < 0.05). There was also an increase in respiratory burst in the venous line during a HD with a cellulosic membrane, at 15 and 120 min (100 +/- 41 and 143.2 +/- 45.3 vs. 23.8 +/- 15.7; p < 0.05). Polymerized actin, expressed as fluorescence arbitrary units, was increased in baseline samples from uremic patients versus control subjects (327.8 +/- 60.8 for a cellulosic membrane, p < 0.005, and 205 +/- 26.5 for a synthetic one, p < 0.05 vs. 97.8 +/- 27.6 in controls). The percentage of CD11b+ cells increased in samples during a HD with a cellulosic membrane at the venous line at 15 and 120 min (9.6 +/- 4.5 and 18.4 +/- 7.1% vs. 3.3 +/- 1.9%; p < 0.05%). Changes in heterotypic aggregation during HD did not reach statistical significance, but levels were higher in patients treated with a cellulosic membrane at all points than in patients dialyzed with a synthetic one. There is evidence of a priming state of leukocytes from uremic patients, which is more evident in patients dialyzed with a cellulosic membrane. Cellulosic membranes also induce greater leukocyte activation than synthetic membranes

  4. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation together with Lipid A on Human Leukocytes Activities In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakova, E.; Dubnickova, M.; Boreyko, A.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation and of Lipid A from Escherichia coli on phagocytosis, lyzosyme and peroxidase activities of human leukocytes, in vitro was investigated. Leukocytes samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 Gy, respectively. The number of irradiated leukocytes was decreased in the irradiated samples. Only samples with additive Lipid A were not damaged by irradiation. The Lipid A had positive influence on biological activities of the irradiated leukocytes.

  5. In vivo compartmental analysis of leukocytes in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Brijesh V.; Tatham, Kate C.; Wilson, Michael R.; O'Dea, Kieran P.

    2015-01-01

    The lung has a unique structure consisting of three functionally different compartments (alveolar, interstitial, and vascular) situated in an extreme proximity. Current methods to localize lung leukocytes using bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung perfusion have significant limitations for determination of location and phenotype of leukocytes. Here we present a novel method using in vivo antibody labeling to enable accurate compartmental localization/quantification and phenotyping of mouse lung leukocytes. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal labeling with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CD45 antibodies, and lung single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. The combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal CD45 labeling enabled robust separation of the alveolar, interstitial, and vascular compartments of the lung. In naive mice, the alveolar compartment consisted predominantly of resident alveolar macrophages. The interstitial compartment, gated by events negative for both intratracheal and intravenous CD45 staining, showed two conventional dendritic cell populations, as well as a Ly6Clo monocyte population. Expression levels of MHCII on these interstitial monocytes were much higher than on the vascular Ly6Clo monocyte populations. In mice exposed to acid aspiration-induced lung injury, this protocol also clearly distinguished the three lung compartments showing the dynamic trafficking of neutrophils and exudative monocytes across the lung compartments during inflammation and resolution. This simple in vivo dual-labeling technique substantially increases the accuracy and depth of lung flow cytometric analysis, facilitates a more comprehensive examination of lung leukocyte pools, and enables the investigation of previously poorly defined “interstitial” leukocyte populations during models of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26254421

  6. Filtration performance of microporous ceramic supports.

    PubMed

    Belouatek, Aissa; Ouagued, Abdellah; Belhakem, Mustapha; Addou, Ahmed

    2008-04-24

    The use of inorganic membranes in pollution treatment is actually limited by the cost of such membranes. Advantages of inorganic membranes are their chemical, thermal and pH properties. The purpose of this work was the development of microporous ceramic materials based on clay for liquid waste processing. The supports or ceramic filters having various compositions were prepared and thermally treated at 1100 degrees C. The results show that, at the temperature studied, porosity varied according to the support composition from 12% for the double-layered (ceramic) support to 47% for the activated carbon- filled support with a mean pore diameter between 0.8 and 1.3 microm, respectively. Volumes of 5 l of distilled water were filtered tangentially for 3 h under an applied pressure of 3.5 and 5.5 bar. The retention of tubular supports prepared was tested with molecules of varying size (Evans blue, NaCl and Sacharose). The study of the liquid filtration and flow through these supports showed that the retention rate depends on support composition and pore diameter, and solute molecular weight. The S1 support (mixture of barbotine and 1% (w/w) activated carbon) gave a flux for distilled water of 68 L/m2 h while the double-layered support resulted in a flux of 8 L/m2 h for the same solution at the pressure of 3.5 bar. At a pressure of 5.5 bar an increase in the distilled water flux through the various supports was observed. It was significant for the S1 support (230 L/m h).

  7. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) that is co-recovered by the filtration procedure which is the most commonly used method to concentrate target microbes from environmental waters. Using C. parvum 18S rRNA gene fragment as a representative of eDNA, we examined the impact of filters (types and pore sizes) and physiochemical properties of surface water samples on the recovery of spiked DNA. Our results indicated that binding affinities of various filter membranes were quantifiably different for eDNA fragments with the polycarbonate (PC) binding the least and mixed cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate (MCE) binding the most as evidenced by up to 16% recovery of the spiked plasmid DNA with a pore size of 0.2µm. Water quality parameters also had a distinct influence on the recovery of eDNA which was enhanced by the presence of high total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations and reduced pH. At pH 5.5, with 150mg/L of clay, DNA recovery was increased to as much as 18%. By shielding the negative charge, thus increasing the interaction of DNA and colloids, the increase of Na+ and Ca+2 concentrations resulted in more DNA binding and consequently more recovery from environmental water samples. Therefore, in addition

  8. The accumulation of lipids and proteins during red blood cell storage: the roles of leucoreduction and experimental filtration

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Christopher C.; Burke, Timothy; Kelher, Marguerite R.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-storage leucoreduction has been universally adopted in most developed countries in Asia, Europe and the Americas. It decreases febrile transfusion reactions, alloimmunisation to HLA antigens, cytomegalovirus exposure, the accumulation of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatant, including the accumulation of platelet-and leucocyte-derived proteins and metabolites during routine storage. This review will highlight the lipids and proteins, biological response modifiers (BRMs) that accumulate, their clinical effects in transfused hosts, and methods of mitigation. PMID:28263170

  9. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... up to 12 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (3) Ultra-filtration membranes that consist... up to 5 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (4) Ultrafiltration membranes that consist...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... up to 12 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (3) Ultra-filtration membranes that consist... up to 5 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (4) Ultrafiltration membranes that consist...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... up to 12 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (3) Ultra-filtration membranes that consist... up to 5 percent yttrium oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1314-36-9). (4) Ultrafiltration membranes that consist...

  12. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: EFFECT OF GROUND PASSAGE ON NOM CHARACTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to explore the effect of underground travel on the character of the natural organic matter (NOM) originating from the river water source during riverbank filtration (RBF) at three Midwestern US drinking water utilities. Measurements of biodegradable dissolv...

  13. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potential for contamination by Giardia lamblia cysts and viruses in the source water. The State must....71 Section 141.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection §...

  14. A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

  15. Effect of lithium therapy on glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Decina, P; Oliver, J A; Sciacca, R R; Colt, E; Fieve, R R

    1983-08-01

    Patients taking lithium had a slightly higher serum creatinine concentration than controls. Creatinine concentration was independent of lithium level or therapy length, suggesting that lithium decreases glomerular filtration but that this effect is small, noncumulative, and of marginal clinical significance.

  16. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, Daniel; Slungaard, Torbjørn; Sønju, Otto K

    2007-06-18

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration is comparable to those of bag filters. The granular filter can operate with high filtration velocities compared to bag filters and maintain high efficiency and a low residual pressure. This work is a part of the BioSOFC-up project that has a goal of utilizing the producer gas from the gasification plant in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The BioSOFC-up project will continue to the end of 2007.

  17. Conservation laws for two-phase filtration models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikov, V. A.; Ibragimov, N. H.; Zheltova, I. S.; Yakovlev, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of group properties of a one-dimensional model of two-phase filtration in porous medium. Along with the general model, some of its particular cases widely used in oil-field development are discussed. The Buckley-Leverett model is considered in detail as a particular case of the one-dimensional filtration model. This model is constructed under the assumption that filtration is one-dimensional and horizontally directed, the porous medium is homogeneous and incompressible, the filtering fluids are also incompressible. The model of "chromatic fluid" filtration is also investigated. New conservation laws and particular solutions are constructed using symmetries and nonlinear self-adjointness of the system of equations.

  18. RIVERBANK FILTRATION: EFFECT OF GROUND PASSAGE ON NOM CHARACTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to explore the effect of underground travel on the character of the natural organic matter (NOM) originating from the river water source during riverbank filtration (RBF) at three Midwestern US drinking water utilities. Measurements of biodegradable dissolv...

  19. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  20. A CONTINUED INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICALLY STIMULATED FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes three experiments performed by Southern Research Institute under a cooperative agreement with EPA. First was a demonstration of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) used to collect particulate matter (PM) from fossil fuel electrical power pl...

  1. Advanced treatment of WWTP effluent with filtration leading to a pretreatment technique for membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Scherrenberg, S M; te Kloeze, A M; Janssen, A N; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 the European Union introduced the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is having an ecological and chemical balance for all surface waters in Europe in 2015. The European Commission identified 33 priority substances and their maximum allowable concentrations, FHI-values (Fraunhofer Institute), which are specified in the Annex of the WFD. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of suspended solids, nitrogen and total phosphorus together with priority substances. All these substances will be removed in one filter called a "One Step Total Effluent Polishing filter" i.e. 1-STEP(®) filter. For this purpose a filter pilot plant was tested at the WWTP Horstermeer. The results show that the filter can fulfil the target values in the filtrate water for total nitrogen (2.2 mg Ntotal/L) and total phosphorus (0.15 mg Ptotal/L). The majority of the priority (hazardous) substances in the WWTP effluent are already below the detection limit. Due to the low concentration ranges, the results on the removal of medicine and pesticides are only indicative. A decreasing tendency in the removal efficiency is shown for all measured compounds. The average specific ultrafiltration resistance (SUR) value decrease of the filter is 55% and the final value is always below 5·10(12) m(-2). This indicates that the filtrate water of the filter is very well filterable and can be used as ultrafiltration feedwater.

  2. Accelerated wound healing in leukocyte-specific, protein 1-deficient mouse is associated with increased infiltration of leukocytes and fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianFei; Jiao, Haiyan; Stewart, Tara L; Lyons, Megan V H; Shankowsky, Heather A; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-12-01

    Wound healing is a complex process involving the integrated actions of numerous cell types, soluble mediators, and ECM. Recently, a newly identified cell type, the fibrocyte, has been reported to contribute to wound healing and fibrotic conditions such as hypertrophic scarring. We previously established leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) as a marker for fibrocytes. LSP1 is an F-actin binding protein and substrate of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C, and has been reported to be important in leukocyte chemotaxis. We examine the biological roles of LSP1 in skin wound healing using Lsp1(-/-) null mice. These animals showed accelerated healing of full-thickness skin wounds, with increased re-epithelialization rates, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis. Healing wounds in Lsp1(-/-) mice had higher densities of neutrophiles, macrophages, and fibrocytes. Along with increased leukocyte infiltration, levels of macrophage-derived chemokine expression, TGF-beta1, and VEGF were all up-regulated. These results demonstrate that the absence of LSP1 promotes healing of skin wounds. The primary mechanism seems to be an increase in leukocyte infiltration, leading to locally elevated synthesis and release of chemokines and growth factors. Further analysis of Lsp1(-/-) mice may suggest ways to improve wound healing and/or treat fibrotic conditions of skin and other tissue.

  3. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-01-20

    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  4. The theory of filtrations of subalgebras, standardness, and independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershik, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    This survey is devoted to the combinatorial and metric theory of filtrations: decreasing sequences of σ-algebras in measure spaces or decreasing sequences of subalgebras of certain algebras. One of the key notions, that of standardness, plays the role of a generalization of the notion of the independence of a sequence of random variables. Questions are discussed on the possibility of classifying filtrations, on their invariants, and on various connections with problems in algebra, dynamics, and combinatorics. Bibliography: 101 titles.

  5. Aerosol filtration efficiency of in-duct air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, J.T.; Ensor, D.S.; Sparks, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the evaluation of the fractional efficiency of several common ventilation air cleaners. The air cleaners included fiberglass furnace filters, paper-media filters, and electrostatically charged fiber cleaners. Results showed that filtration efficiency is highly particle size dependent over a 0.01-10 micrometer size range. Filtration efficiency was also seen to be dependent upon flow rate and the dust load condition of the air cleaner.

  6. Kinetic modelling of pressure filtration of ceramic powder suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, L.A.; Salomoni, A.; Hey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    A kinetic model developed for radial pressure filtration is described and used to study the casting behaviour of an Alumina (Al6SG) and a Zirconia (TZ3Ys) slip stabilized with Dolapix CE64. For the Zirconia slip no influence of pressure and curvature is found. The casting behaviour of the Alumina slip seems to be influenced by both the pressure and the curvature of the filtrating surface.

  7. Recycle use of immobilized glucoamylase by tangential flow filtration unit.

    PubMed

    Uttapap, D; Koba, Y; Ishizaki, A

    1989-01-25

    Various properties of glucoamylase immobilized onto corn stover supporting material and separation of immobilized enzyme by tangential flow filtration unit were studied. Optimum pH and temperature of immobilized enzyme were 3.5 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Enzyme stability was studied in a packed-bed column. The starch conversion rate was attained at 81% for 15 days; after that, the hydrolysis rate gradually decreased. Size of supporting material proved to be an important factor, with higher activity and good loading yield resulting from smaller supporting material. Glucoamylase immobilized onto supporting material less than 44 microm was used for hydrolysis of 10% soluble starch at pH 3.5 and 40 degrees C for 3 h. Then immobilized glucoamylase was separated from the product by means of a tangential flow filtration unit using a 0.2-microm pore size Nylon 66 membrane filter. This operation was continued until 180 ml filtrate was obtained from a 260-mL starting volume. Then, the next batch was started by adding 180 mL starch substrate into the reactor. The batchwise experiments were repeated 20 times. The average filtration rate of each batch was determined and found to sharply decline during the first four batches. Thereafter, it gradually decreased from batch to batch. The cause of decreasing filtration rate appeared to be due to retrogradation of starch. The percentage of starch hydrolysis within 20 batches was in the range 89-96%. The filtration rate becomes higher if the hydrolyzation time is extended to 14 h. Resistance to filtration was also investigated. Almost all of the total resistance is related to insoluble materials, with the significant part of this from the resistance due to insoluble materials deposited on a surface of membrane and boundary layer resistance. Using a microscopic method, no microorganisms were found in the filtrate.

  8. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  9. Features of saturates mixture filtration in porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Maikov, I. L.; Molchanov, D. A.; Torchinsky, V. M.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Consideration is given to the filtration process of the two-phase multicomponent mixture in the porous. It is shown that “mixture-porous medium” system becomes self- oscillating one during filtration process under special conditions when there is a region of retrograde condensation on the phase diagram of the mixture. A mathematical model of the hydrocarbon mixtures filtration process of the methane series has been developed and a computer program for calculating hydrodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of this process under isothermal conditions with phase transitions has been created. Consideration is given to the basic mechanisms influencing the filtration dynamics. Limits of the model applicability are discussed. Condition range for occurring self-oscillatory properties in “mixture-porous medium” system is determined by medium permeability, viscosity of the mixture, initial and boundary filtration conditions. Experimental filtration research of mixtures “methane-n-butane”, “methane-propane-butane”, “methane-pentane” under the thermodynamic conditions corresponding retrograde condensation region on the phase diagram have shown validity of this model. It is argued that any multicomponent mixture having a retrograde condensation region on the phase diagram appears as self-oscillating system under right conditions.

  10. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  11. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.; Robinson, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the particulate properties that determine the filtration performance of fabric filters, and to investigate methods for modifying these particulate properties to enhance filtration performance. Inherent in these objectives is the development of an experimental approach that will lead to full-scale implementation of beneficial conditioning processes identified during the project. The general approach has included a large number of laboratory evaluations to be followed by optional field tests of a new successful conditioning processes performed on a sidestream device. This project was divided into five tasks. The schedule followed for these tasks is shown in Figure 4. Tasks 2 and 3 each focus on one of the two complementary parts of the project. Task 2 Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, evaluates the degree to which ash properties and fabric design determine filtration performance. Task 3 Survey of Methods to Modify the Particle Filtration Properties, provides a literature review and laboratory study of techniques to modify ash properties. The results of these two tasks were used in Task 4 Proof-of-Concept Tests of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties to demonstrate the effects on filtration performance of modifying ash properties. The findings of all the tasks are summarized in this Final Report. 13 refs.

  12. Particle detachment during hydraulic shock loads in granular media filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Lawler, D F

    2006-01-01

    Particle breakthrough can occur by either the breakoff of previously captured particles (or flocs) or the direct passage of some influent particles through the filter. Filtration experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale filter using spherical glass beads with a diameter of 0.55 mm as collectors. A single type of particle suspension (Min-U-Sil 5) and three different destabilisation methods (pH control, alum and polymer destabilisation) were used to destabilise particles. The filtration velocity of 5 m/h was similar to that used in standard media filtration practice. To assess the possibility of particle detachment during normal filtration, a hydraulic shock load (20% increase of flow rate) was applied after 4 h of normal filtration. The magnitude of particle detachment was proportional to the particle size for non-Brownian particles. At the same time, less favourable particles, i.e. particles with larger surface charge, were easily detached during the hydraulic shock load. Therefore, proper particle destabilisation before filtration is crucial for maximum particle removal, as well as minimum particle breakthrough.

  13. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Treesearch

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  14. Influence of erythrocyte aggregation on leukocyte margination in postcapillary expansions: A lattice Boltzmann analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chenghai; Munn, Lance L.

    2006-03-01

    Leukocyte rolling on the vascular endothelium requires initial contact between the circulating leukocytes in the blood and the vessel wall. Although specific adhesion mechanisms are involved in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion patterns in vivo suggest other rheological mechanisms are involved as well. Previous studies have proposed that the abundance of leukocyte rolling in postcapillary venules is due to interactions between red blood cells and leukocytes as they enter capillary expansions as well as red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. We have established a lattice Boltzmann approach to analyze the interactions of RBC aggregates and leukocytes as they flow through a postcapillary expansion. The lattice Boltzmann technique provides the complete solution of the flow field and quantification of the particle-particle forces. Our results show that RBC aggregation strongly influences leukocyte-endothelium interactions.

  15. Endothelial actin-binding proteins and actin dynamics in leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Michael

    2015-04-15

    The endothelium is the first barrier that leukocytes have to overcome during recruitment to sites of inflamed tissues. The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires the activation of various adhesion molecules and signaling pathways, as well as actin remodeling, in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Endothelial adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin or ICAM-1, are connected to the actin cytoskeleton via actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although the contribution of receptor-ligand interactions to leukocyte extravasation has been studied extensively, the contribution of endothelial ABPs to the regulation of leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recently published evidence that endothelial ABPs, such as cortactin, myosin, or α-actinin, regulate leukocyte extravasation by controlling actin dynamics, biomechanical properties of endothelia, and signaling pathways, such as GTPase activation, during inflammation. Thus, ABPs may serve as targets for novel treatment strategies for disorders characterized by excessive leukocyte recruitment.

  16. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  17. Big insights from small volumes: deciphering complex leukocyte behaviors using microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Daniel; Ellett, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an indispensable component of the immune response, and leukocytes provide the first line of defense against infection. Although the major stereotypic leukocyte behaviors in response to infection are well known, the complexities and idiosyncrasies of these phenotypes in conditions of disease are still emerging. Novel tools are indispensable for gaining insights into leukocyte behavior, and in the past decade, microfluidic technologies have emerged as an exciting development in the field. Microfluidic devices are readily customizable, provide tight control of experimental conditions, enable high precision of ex vivo measurements of individual as well as integrated leukocyte functions, and have facilitated the discovery of novel leukocyte phenotypes. Here, we review some of the most interesting insights resulting from the application of microfluidic approaches to the study of the inflammatory response. The aim is to encourage leukocyte biologists to integrate these new tools into increasingly more sophisticated experimental designs for probing complex leukocyte functions. PMID:27194799

  18. Performance of upflow gravel filtration in multi-stage filtration plants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L D; Visscher, J T; Rietveld, L C

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of four full-scale upflow gravel filters that are part of full-scale multi-stage filtration. The study explored the design criteria, the operation and maintenance (O&M) practices, and the performance of the systems. Findings showed that most design criteria and O&M procedures are following the recommendations as presented in the literature but several diversions were also identified. Performance data showed that removal efficiencies were on the low side when compared to the literature, possibly because of the good influent quality water that was treated. Cleaning efficiency was analyzed and the overall conclusion is that an adjustment of the design criteria and O&M procedures is needed to enhance system performance. This includes drainage system design, surface cleaning by weir, and filter bed cleaning to allow a reduction in cleaning cycles and an improvement in operation control.

  19. Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood.

  20. Endothelial tetraspanin microdomains regulate leukocyte firm adhesion during extravasation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Olga; Yáñez-Mó, María; Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; Ovalle, Susana; Higginbottom, Adrian; Monk, Peter N; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-04-01

    Tetraspanins associate with several transmembrane proteins forming microdomains involved in intercellular adhesion and migration. Here, we show that endothelial tetraspanins relocalize to the contact site with transmigrating leukocytes and associate laterally with both intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Alteration of endothelial tetraspanin microdomains by CD9-large extracellular loop (LEL)-glutathione S-transferase (GST) peptides or CD9/CD151 siRNA oligonucleotides interfered with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 function, preventing lymphocyte transendothelial migration and increasing lymphocyte detachment under shear flow. Heterotypic intercellular adhesion mediated by VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 was augmented when expressed exogenously in the appropriate tetraspanin environment. Therefore, tetraspanin microdomains have a crucial role in the proper adhesive function of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 during leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration.

  1. Feature selection and classification of leukocytes using random forest.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mukesh; Arya, K V

    2014-12-01

    In automatic segmentation of leukocytes from the complex morphological background of tissue section images, a vast number of artifacts/noise are also extracted causing large amount of multivariate data generation. This multivariate data degrades the performance of a classifier to discriminate between leukocytes and artifacts/noise. However, the selection of prominent features plays an important role in reducing the computational complexity and increasing the performance of the classifier as compared to a high-dimensional features space. Therefore, this paper introduces a novel Gini importance-based binary random forest feature selection method. Moreover, the random forest classifier is used to classify the extracted objects into artifacts, mononuclear cells, and polymorphonuclear cells. The experimental results establish that the proposed method effectively eliminates the irrelevant features, maintaining the high classification accuracy as compared to other feature reduction methods.

  2. Genotoxic effect of ozone in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Llera, Silvia; González-Hernández, Yanela; Prieto-González, E A; Azoy, Angel

    2002-05-27

    The genotoxic effect of ozone was studied in human leukocytes in vitro, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Cell treatment for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 0.9-5.3 mM O(3) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage, comparable to that induced by 4-40 mM of H(2)O(2), used as a positive control. This effect of ozone was reversed by post-treatment incubation of the cells for 45-90 min at 37 degrees C, and prevented by pre-incubation of the cells with catalase (20 microg/ml). These results demonstrate that O(3) induces DNA-damage in primary human leukocytes. The damage is rapidly repaired, and probably mediated by the formation of H(2)O(2).

  3. Segmentation of leukocytes and erythrocytes in blood smear images.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Tobias; Steckhan, Dirk; Wittenberg, Thomas; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Differential blood count is a standard method in hematological laboratory diagnosis. In the course of developing a computer-assisted microscopy system for the generation of differential blood counts, the detection and segmentation of white and red blood cells forms an essential step and its exactness is a fundamental prerequisite for the effectiveness of the subsequent classification step. We propose a method for the exact segmentation of leukocytes and erythrocytes in a simultaneous and cooperative way. We combine pixel-wise classification with template matching to locate erythrocytes and use a level-set approach in order to get the exact cell contours of leukocyte nucleus and plasma regions as well as erythrocyte regions. An evaluation comparing the performance of the algorithm to the manual segmentation performed by several persons yielded good results.

  4. Microfluidic platform for the quantitative analysis of leukocyte migration signatures.

    PubMed

    Boneschansker, Leo; Yan, Jun; Wong, Elisabeth; Briscoe, David M; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-09-03

    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyse four qualitative migration patterns: chemoattraction, -repulsion, -kinesis and -inhibition, using single-cell quantitative metrics of direction, speed, persistence and fraction of cells responding. We find that established chemokines, complement component 5a and IL-8 induce chemoattraction and repulsion in equal proportions, resulting in the dispersal of cells. These migration signatures are characterized by high persistence and speed and are independent of the chemokine dose or receptor expression. Furthermore, we find that twice as many T lymphocytes migrate away than towards stromal cell-derived factor 1 and their directional migration patterns are not persistent. Overall, our platform helps discover migratory signature responses and uncovers an avenue for precise characterization of leukocyte migration and therapeutic modulators.

  5. MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION SIGNATURES

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elisabeth; Briscoe, David M.; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyze four qualitative migration patterns: chemo-attraction, -repulsion, -kinesis and -inhibition, using single-cell quantitative metrics of direction, speed, persistence, and fraction of cells responding. We find that established chemokines C5a and IL-8 induce chemoattraction and repulsion in equal proportions, resulting in the dispersal of cells. These migration signatures are characterized by high persistence and speed and are independent of the chemokine dose or receptor expression. Furthermore, we find that twice as many T-lymphocytes migrate away than towards SDF-1 and their directional migration patterns are not persistent. Overall, our platform characterizes migratory signature responses and uncovers an avenue for precise characterization of leukocyte migration and therapeutic modulators. PMID:25183261

  6. Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood. PMID:27845443

  7. Antiviral activities of hybrids of two major human leukocyte interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Weck, P K; Apperson, S; Stebbing, N; Gray, P W; Leung, D; Shepard, H M; Goeddel, D V

    1981-01-01

    Four hybrid human leukocyte interferon (LeIF or IFN-alpha) genes have been constructed by in vitro recombination of LeIF-A (IFN-alpha 2) and LeIF-D (IFN-alpha 1) genes at common restriction endonuclease sites located within their coding regions. These hybrid genes have been expressed in E. coli under trp promoter control. The interferons produced [LeIF-AD (BglII), -AD (PvuII), -DA (BglII), -DA (PvuII)] have antiviral properties distinct from the parental molecules LeIF-A and -D, varying considerably in their abilities to inhibit plaque formation by different viruses in a range of mammalian cells. All six of the cloned LeIFs exhibit the heat stability, pH 2 stability and antigenic specificity of natural leukocyte interferons. PMID:6171779

  8. Vision-related quality of life following glaucoma filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Nitta, Eri; Ukegawa, Kaori; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-05-12

    To evaluate vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) following glaucoma filtration surgery. A total of 103 glaucoma patients scheduled to undergo glaucoma filtration surgery. Prior to and at three months after glaucoma filtration surgery, trabeculectomy or EX-PRESS, all patients completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). A total of 48 patients underwent combined cataract and filtration surgery. The clinical data collected pre- and postoperatively included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP). The IOP decreased significantly from 19.0 ± 8.1 mmHg to 9.7 ± 3.9 mmHg (P < 0.001). Preoperative VFQ-25 composite score (65.8 ± 15.6) was similar to the postoperative score (67.8 ± 16.6). A significantly improved VFQ-25 composite score (pre: 63.2 ± 17.1, post: 67.7 ± 17.8; P = 0.001) was observed in the patients who underwent combined cataract and filtration surgery. There was a significant association between the BCVA changes in the operated eye and the changes in the VFQ-25 composite score (r = -0.315, P = 0.003). Although glaucoma filtration surgery by itself did not decrease the VR-QOL in glaucoma patients, there was significant improvement in the VR-QOL after the patients underwent combined cataract and glaucoma filtration surgery.

  9. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    SciTech Connect

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. )

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  10. Labeled leukocyte scans for detection of retained polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberger, P.; Graham, W.P. 3d.; Manders, E.K.; Basarab, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complete removal of an infected polyurethane-covered breast prosthesis is difficult, and retained tissue-embedded foam can form a nidus for persistent infection. Scanning the chest wall after administration of indium-111 oxine-labeled autogenous leukocytes will locate areas of infection around retained fragments of foam, thereby facilitating their removal and allowing eventual successful reconstruction. This technique may deserve wider application for locating infected foreign bodies in a variety of patient problems.

  11. Leukocyte Trafficking to the Small Intestine and Colon

    PubMed Central

    Habtezion, Aida; Nguyen, Linh P.; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte trafficking to the small and large intestines is tightly controlled to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis, mediate immune responses, and regulate inflammation. A wide array of chemoattractants, chemoattractant receptors, and adhesion molecules expressed by leukocytes, mucosal endothelium, epithelium, and stromal cells controls leukocyte recruitment and microenvironmental localization in intestine and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). Naive lymphocytes traffic to the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes where they undergo antigen-induced activation and priming; these processes determine their memory/effector phenotypes and imprint them with the capacity to migrate via the lymph and blood to the intestines. Mechanisms of T-cell recruitment to GALT and of T cells and plasmablasts to the small intestine are well described. Recent advances include the discovery of an unexpected role for lectin CD22 as a B-cell homing receptor GALT, and identification of the orphan G-protein–coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) as a T-cell chemoattractant/trafficking receptor for the colon. GPR15 decorates distinct subsets of T cells in mice and humans, a difference in species that could affect translation of the results of mouse colitis models to humans. Clinical studies with antibodies to integrin α4β7 and its vascular ligand mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 are proving the value of lymphocyte trafficking mechanisms as therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel diseases. In contrast to lymphocytes, cells of the innate immune system express adhesion and chemoattractant receptors that allow them to migrate directly to effector tissue sites during inflammation. We review the mechanisms for innate and adaptive leukocyte localization to the intestinal tract and GALT, and discuss their relevance to human intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:26551552

  12. Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness during late gestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parturition has been widely described as an immunological response; however, it is unknown how this is triggered. We hypothesized that an early event in parturition is an increased responsiveness of peripheral leukocytes to chemotactic stimuli expressed by reproductive tissues, and this precedes expression of tissue chemotactic activity, uterine activation and the systemic progesterone/estradiol shift. Methods Tissues and blood were collected from pregnant Long-Evans rats on gestational days (GD) 17, 20 and 22 (term gestation). We employed a validated Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results We found that GD20 maternal peripheral leukocytes migrated more than those from GD17 when these were tested with GD22 uterus and cervix extracts. Leukocytes on GD20 also displayed a significant increase in chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) gene expression and this correlated with an increase in peripheral granulocyte proportions and a decrease in B cell and monocyte proportions. Tissue chemotactic activity and specific chemokines (CCL2, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1/CXCL1, and CXCL10) were mostly unchanged from GD17 to GD20 and increased only on GD22. CXCL10 peaked on GD20 in cervical tissues. As expected, prostaglandin F2α receptor and oxytocin receptor gene expression increased dramatically between GD20 and 22. Progesterone concentrations fell and estradiol-17β concentrations increased in peripheral serum, cervical and uterine tissue extracts between GD20 and 22. Conclusion Maternal circulating leukocytes display early chemotactic responsiveness, which leads to their infiltration into the uterus where they may participate in the process of parturition. PMID:23445935

  13. Leukocyte Trafficking to the Small Intestine and Colon.

    PubMed

    Habtezion, Aida; Nguyen, Linh P; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C

    2016-02-01

    Leukocyte trafficking to the small and large intestines is tightly controlled to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis, mediate immune responses, and regulate inflammation. A wide array of chemoattractants, chemoattractant receptors, and adhesion molecules expressed by leukocytes, mucosal endothelium, epithelium, and stromal cells controls leukocyte recruitment and microenvironmental localization in intestine and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). Naive lymphocytes traffic to the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes where they undergo antigen-induced activation and priming; these processes determine their memory/effector phenotypes and imprint them with the capacity to migrate via the lymph and blood to the intestines. Mechanisms of T-cell recruitment to GALT and of T cells and plasmablasts to the small intestine are well described. Recent advances include the discovery of an unexpected role for lectin CD22 as a B-cell homing receptor GALT, and identification of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) as a T-cell chemoattractant/trafficking receptor for the colon. GPR15 decorates distinct subsets of T cells in mice and humans, a difference in species that could affect translation of the results of mouse colitis models to humans. Clinical studies with antibodies to integrin α4β7 and its vascular ligand mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 are proving the value of lymphocyte trafficking mechanisms as therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel diseases. In contrast to lymphocytes, cells of the innate immune system express adhesion and chemoattractant receptors that allow them to migrate directly to effector tissue sites during inflammation. We review the mechanisms for innate and adaptive leukocyte localization to the intestinal tract and GALT, and discuss their relevance to human intestinal homeostasis and inflammation.

  14. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  15. In-111-leukocyte scanning in inflammatory renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, H.D.; Goodwin, D.A.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1981-06-01

    In-111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a clinically effective method for detecting inflammatory disease and abscesses. The authors present six cases that demonstrate the usefulness of this new technique in suspected inflammatory renal disease. Two patients had renal abscesses, two had acute pyelonephritis, one had acute focal bacterial nephritis (acute lobar nephronia), and one had a transitional cell carcinoma with associated acute and chronic inflammation.

  16. Myxoma and Vaccinia Viruses Bind Differentially to Human Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Winnie M.; Bartee, Eric C.; Moreb, Jan S.; Dower, Ken; Connor, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) and vaccinia virus (VACV), two distinct members of the family Poxviridae, are both currently being developed as oncolytic virotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ex vivo treatment with MYXV can selectively recognize and kill contaminating cancerous cells from autologous bone marrow transplants without perturbing the engraftment of normal CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanism(s) by which MYXV specifically recognizes and eliminates the cancer cells in the autografts is not understood. While little is known about the cellular attachment factor(s) exploited by MYXV for entry into any target cells, VACV has been shown to utilize cell surface glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate (HS), the extracellular matrix protein laminin, and/or integrin β1. We have constructed MYXV and VACV virions tagged with the Venus fluorescent protein and compared their characteristics of binding to various human cancer cell lines as well as to primary human leukocytes. We report that the binding of MYXV or VACV to some adherent cell lines could be partially inhibited by heparin, but laminin blocked only VACV binding. In contrast to cultured fibroblasts, the binding of MYXV and VACV to a wide spectrum of primary human leukocytes could not be competed by either HS or laminin. Additionally, MYXV and VACV exhibited very different binding characteristics against certain select human leukocytes, suggesting that the two poxviruses utilize different cell surface determinants for the attachment to these cells. These results indicate that VACV and MYXV can exhibit very different oncolytic tropisms against some cancerous human leukocytes. PMID:23388707

  17. Characterization of uterine leukocyte infiltration in gilts after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Crabo, B G

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the uterine leukocyte influx after artificial insemination (AI). After detection of oestrus with a boar at intervals of 1.5 h, seventy-two gilts were randomly assigned to a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. AI was performed with 100 ml extended semen containing 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa (semen; n = 36) or 100 ml VSP semen extender (extender; n = 36) at one of three times after detection of oestrus: 12, 24 or 36 h (n = 24/time). The uterus was lavaged at 6, 12, 18 or 24 h (n = 18/time) after AI to determine the total number of uterine leukocytes. In addition, uterine lavage was performed on nine untreated gilts immediately after the detection of oestrus to establish a baseline number of leukocytes. The leukocyte response in all samples consisted predominately (92-99%) of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). The mean number of PMNs recovered from the uteri of gilts treated with semen was greater than in gilts treated with extender and in untreated gilts (P < 0.01). The greatest number of PMNs in semen-treated gilts was found 12 h after AI (P < 0.01), and this number was sustained for 24 h. In contrast, the number of uterine PMNs recovered from extender-treated gilts reached a peak at 6 h and had declined by 12 h after AI (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an extensive influx of PMNs into the uterus is a normal sequence to AI. The consequences and importance of semen-induced uterine leukocytosis needs further investigation.

  18. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses bind differentially to human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie M; Bartee, Eric C; Moreb, Jan S; Dower, Ken; Connor, John H; McFadden, Grant

    2013-04-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) and vaccinia virus (VACV), two distinct members of the family Poxviridae, are both currently being developed as oncolytic virotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ex vivo treatment with MYXV can selectively recognize and kill contaminating cancerous cells from autologous bone marrow transplants without perturbing the engraftment of normal CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanism(s) by which MYXV specifically recognizes and eliminates the cancer cells in the autografts is not understood. While little is known about the cellular attachment factor(s) exploited by MYXV for entry into any target cells, VACV has been shown to utilize cell surface glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate (HS), the extracellular matrix protein laminin, and/or integrin β1. We have constructed MYXV and VACV virions tagged with the Venus fluorescent protein and compared their characteristics of binding to various human cancer cell lines as well as to primary human leukocytes. We report that the binding of MYXV or VACV to some adherent cell lines could be partially inhibited by heparin, but laminin blocked only VACV binding. In contrast to cultured fibroblasts, the binding of MYXV and VACV to a wide spectrum of primary human leukocytes could not be competed by either HS or laminin. Additionally, MYXV and VACV exhibited very different binding characteristics against certain select human leukocytes, suggesting that the two poxviruses utilize different cell surface determinants for the attachment to these cells. These results indicate that VACV and MYXV can exhibit very different oncolytic tropisms against some cancerous human leukocytes.

  19. Nonvisualization of sterile surgical incisions with indium-111 labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-09-01

    The localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes (WBCs) in recent surgical incisions was studied in 18 patients. In-111 WBC images correlated well with culture results and clinical findings. No accumulation of In-111 WBCs was detected at the site of noninfected incisions in nine patients. In-111 WBCs did accumulate at incision sites in nine patients with infected surgical incisions. These results indicate that In-111 WBC study can accurately distinguish between normal healing and infection of recent surgical incisions.

  20. Influence of light sources on the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Dai, Xiaoyan

    1995-05-01

    In the process of inflammation, leukocytes must travel from the intraluminal space of the capillary to the interstitial space in order to reach the site of the inflammation. The two major populations of mature human leukocytes based on the morphology are the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). Previous research on PMNs and MNLs at the Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute of Drexel University have shown that their migration can be markedly enhanced by excitation with electric and magnetic fields. This presentation demonstrates that the migration of PMNs under excitation of photons is enhanced in the red light region of (lambda) equals 660 nm and inhibited in the green light region of (lambda) equals 565 nm. There is an intensity threshold at which red light enhances migration and an intensity threshold at which green light inhibits migration. In these experiments the Boyden technique was used with the distance of the cell migration through a cellulose filter measured in terms of the leading edge. The comparison of the relative value of the distance to cell migration under a light to cell migration without a light stimulus was recorded as a cytokinetic index, K.I.. K.I. is a measure of the cytokinesis which is the progress of the cell movement in which the migration is enhanced by substances in the cell environment irrespective of a concentration gradient. The cytotactic index is a measure of cytotaxis which is the directional movement along a chemical gradient formed by a chemotactic factor. A Russian pulsed commercial laser biostimulator in the near infrared wavelength above an intensity threshold enhances PMN migration. Intermittent green and red stimulators below the intensity threshold markedly influence the cytokinetic index of PMNs while above the intensity threshold, this influence is deminished.

  1. Tetracyclines and host defense mechanisms: interference with leukocyte chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Belsheim, J; Gnarpe, H; Persson, S

    1979-01-01

    The influence of 2 etracycline preparations, lymecycline and doxycycline, on leukocyte chemotaxis, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline in high concentrations caused a severe depression of both spontaneous and induced migration, an effect which was more pronounced than that caused by similar concentration of lymecycline. Corresponding results were obtained both in experiments on healthy volunteers given recommended dosages of the antibiotics, and in patients treated with doxycycline for postoperative infections.

  2. Interaction of Candida albicans with Human Leukocytes and Serum1

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Robert I.; Cline, Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    A quantitative assay of candidacidal activity based on differential staining of non-viable Candida albicans by methylene blue was developed and applied to studies of leukocytes from normal individuals and patients with fungal and other infections. Serum factors were necessary for optimal phagocytosis of C. albicans but lacked direct candidacidal activity. Normal human neutrophils (38 studies) killed 29.0 ± 7.4% of ingested C. albicans in 1 hr. Eosinophils and monocytes killed a smaller percentage. Neutrophil candidacidal activity did not require protein or ribonucleic acid synthesis by the leukocyte but was inhibited by anaerobic conditions, potassium cyanide, and colchicine. Leukocytes of a patient with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency and of three children with chronic granulomatous disease phagocytized C. albicans normally, yet failed to kill them. Our data suggest that the neutrophil can play an important role in resistance to Candida infection and that the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase and its oxidant substrate hydrogen peroxide are the major participants in neutrophil candidacidal activity. Images PMID:4182532

  3. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  4. Phenotypic Characterization of Leukocytes in Prenatal Human Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3+ regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206+CD1c+CD11c+ DDCs and CD206+CD209+CD1c− skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3+FoxP3− and CD3+FoxP3+ cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117+ (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12–14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system. PMID:22718119

  5. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  6. Report: Nuclei segmentation of leukocytes in blood smear digital images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naveed; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area.

  7. Generation of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes of Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Marcos Tucunduva; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Lopes, Lucia Rossetti; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Prochilodus lineatus (curimbatá), from the Procholodontidae family, is a Brazilian freshwater fish, which is important commercially, nutritionally and ecologically. It is encountered in the Rio da Prata Bay in Southern South America. Studies on the immune system of this fish are scarce, but the physiological mechanisms of the species are analogous to those of other vertebrates. Thus, this work discusses the present study, which correlates P. lineatus leukocytes and the generation of reactive oxygen species after modulatory stimuli. Leukocytes were characterized by light and electron transmission microscopy and investigated by the generation of H2O2 and O2 (-), using phenol red, flow-cytometry and electron transmission histochemistry. The study determined that monocytes and neutrophils are the main cells responsible for generating O2 after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate. Superoxide dismutase successfully inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils and monocytes, but stimulated generation when in association with phorbol myristate acetate. Fish leukocyte samples from P. lineatus showed cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against human NADPH-oxidase antibody subunits (p47(phox) and p67(phox)). Thus, catalase enhanced the presence of p47(phox). Neutrophil mitochondria were shown to be generators of H2O2 (charged by cerium precipitate), being enlarged and changing their format. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the respiratory burst pathways in this species and suggests mitochondria as the organelle responsible for generation of reactive oxygen species.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of leukocytes in prenatal human dermis.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-11-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206(+)CD1c(+)CD11c(+) DDCs and CD206(+)CD209(+)CD1c(-) skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3(+)FoxP3(-) and CD3(+)FoxP3(+) cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117(+) (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12-14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system.

  9. Leukocyte trafficking: Can we bring the fight to the tumor?

    PubMed

    Pachynski, Russell; Nazha, Jonathon; Kohrt, Holbrook

    2016-03-01

    Control of leukocyte trafficking plays a critical role in the establishment of effective immune responses. It is now well established that the number or ratio of effector to suppressor immune cells within the tumor microenvironment can significantly impact tumor growth and clinical outcomes. Recently approved immunotherapies by the FDA, and those in development, aim to stimulate effector immune cell function. For example, many checkpoint inhibitors seek to stimulate an immune response to tumors by reversing T-cell exhaustion. However, activation of the immune response outside the tumor microenvironment can lead to sometimes fatal immune-mediated adverse events -- the result of "on-target, off-tumor" effects. Thus, control of localization of these activated effector cells remains a critical component of optimizing tumor response while minimizing immune-mediated adverse events. Chemokines and chemoattractants, along with their receptors on immune cells, govern leukocyte trafficking; thus, understanding their expression pattern in the context of the tumor microenvironment and developing approaches to favorably alter those should lead to improved efficacy of current immunotherapeutics. This review highlights the background of cancer immunotherapy, leukocyte trafficking, and some novel approaches being utilized to optimize recruitment of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Future combinatorial immunotherapy should incorporate therapeutics aimed at 1) favorably altering the tumor microenvironment, 2) activating effector immune cells, and 3) optimizing effector cell trafficking into tumors.

  10. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  11. Comparison of photonic and electromagnetic effects on the human leukocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Feng, D.; Dai, Xiaoyan; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1998-06-01

    The dielectric and magnetic influence on human cells have been widely studied previously by the authors. Recently, the effects of energy in the visible electromagnetic spectrum have been investigated. In this subsequent study, the photonic effects on the in vitro migration of the polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are compared with the corresponding electromagnetic field effects. Dielectric spectra of the polymorph in the 300 KHz to 400 KHz and 700 KHz to 800 KHz range have been measured. At frequencies of 350 KHz and 720 KHz an increase in the migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte have been observed. This stimulation was attributed to the charges on the nuclear surface. Recent preliminary data have shown a similar increased migration in the 20 MHz range. Photonic studies have indicated an enhanced migration for the polymorphonuclear leukocytes at a wavelength of 660 nm (red) and an inhibited migration at 565 nm (green). The photonic effects were postulated to be the results of a biochemical interaction rather than a membranous surface charge displacement secondary to an electric field. The migration of the white blood cells were measurement via the Boyden chamber technique and expressed in terms of a cytokinetic index which expresses the cellular movement independent of its environmental concentration gradient.

  12. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  13. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures. Subsequently, tenocytes gene expression of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components (type I collagen, decorin, fibronectin), the cell-ECM receptor β1-integrin, the angiogenic factor myodulin, ECM degrading matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNFα] and IL-6) was analysed. The only significant effect of leukocytes on tenocytes ECM genes expression was a suppression of type I collagen by neutrophils combined with TNFα stimulation. The same effect could be observed analysing the β1-integrin and myodulin gene expression. However, PBMCs up-regulated significantly cytokine and MMP1 gene expression in tenocytes. These in vitro results suggest that mononuclear cells could present an exogenic stimulus for the induction of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in tendon. PMID:23738251

  14. Macrophage recognition of ICAM-3 on apoptotic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, O D; Devitt, A; Bell, E D; Simmons, D L; Gregory, C D

    1999-06-01

    Cells undergoing apoptosis are cleared rapidly by phagocytes, thus preventing tissue damage caused by loss of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, we show that the surface of leukocytes is altered during apoptosis such that the first Ig-like domain of ICAM-3 (CD50) can participate in the recognition and phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells by macrophages. Macrophage recognition of apoptotic cell-associated ICAM-3 was demonstrated both on leukocytes and, following transfection of exogenous ICAM-3, on nonleukocytes. The change in ICAM-3 was a consistent consequence of apoptosis triggered by various stimuli, suggesting that it occurs as part of a final common pathway of apoptosis. Alteration of ICAM-3 on apoptotic cells permitting recognition by macrophages resulted in a switch in ICAM-3-binding preference from the prototypic ICAM-3 counterreceptor, LFA-1, to an alternative macrophage receptor. Using mAbs to block macrophage/apoptotic cell interactions, we were unable to obtain evidence that either the alternative ICAM-3 counterreceptor alpha d beta 2 or the apoptotic cell receptor alpha v beta 3 was involved in the recognition of ICAM-3. By contrast, mAb blockade of macrophage CD14 inhibited ICAM-3-dependent recognition of apoptotic cells. These results show that ICAM-3 can function as a phagocytic marker of apoptotic leukocytes on which it acquires altered macrophage receptor-binding activity.

  15. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Heinz, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very small tissue samples to test enzymes for their elastolytic potential. This workflow was applied to skin samples from variously aged individuals, and it was found that strong differences exist in the degradability of the elastins investigated. In summary, human leukocyte elastase was unable to degrade intact elastin fibers but hydrolyzed elastin derived from the skin of old people. However, cathepsin G cleaved all elastin samples, even those derived from younger individuals. These results indicate that human leukocyte elastase is not a driving force for elastolysis, but may nevertheless promote further breakdown of elastic fibers after the action of other enzymes such as cathepsin G. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  16. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethysmography of supine healthy male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n = 6) and during placebo infusion (n = 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 +/- 4 to 2,568 +/- 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion: mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3%, respectively, relative to preinfusion baseline values (p less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however, was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20% with ANP infusion, whereas blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/ arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, pharmacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchnic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  17. Pharmacologic Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Human Leg Capillary Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Vissing, Susanne F.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Firth, Brian G.; Erdman, William; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced and secreted by atrial cells. We measured calf capillary filtration rate with prolonged venous-occlusion plethys-mography of supine health male subjects during pharmacologic infusion of ANP (48 pmol/kg/min for 15 min; n equals 6) and during placebo infusion (n equals 7). Results during infusions were compared to prior control measurements. ANP infusion increased plasma (ANP) from 30 plus or minus 4 to 2,568 plus or minus 595 pmol/L. Systemic hemoconcentration occurred during ANP infusion; mean hematocrit and plasma colloid osmotic pressure increased 4.6 and 11.3 percent respectively, relative to pre-infusion baseline values (p is less than 0.05). Mean calf filtration, however was significantly reduced from 0.15 to 0.08 ml/100 ml/min with ANP. Heart rate increased 20 percent with ANP infusion, wheras blood pressure was unchanged. Calf conductance (blood flow/arterial pressure) and venous compliance were unaffected by ANP infusion. Placebo infusion had no effect relative to prior baseline control measurements. Although ANP induced systemic capillary filtration, in the calf, filtration was reduced with ANP. Therefore, phamacologic ANP infusion enhances capillary filtration from the systemic circulation, perhaps at upper body or splanchic sites or both, while having the opposite effect in the leg.

  18. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  19. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  20. A comparison of leukocyte aggregation, leukocyte migration and skin reactivity to recall antigens in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Rouveix, B; Groult, F; Pocidalo, J J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate the leukocyte aggregation test (LAT) in patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and with confirmed AIDS using tuberculin, streptococcus and candida as recall antigens. These patients were selected on the basis of their well known absence of delayed hypersensitivity, a fact which should avoid false positive tests. Antigen-induced human peripheral blood leukocyte aggregation was measured quantitatively. The results obtained have been compared with the leukocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT) in patient and control groups. Among the 46 patients, less than 7% were positive for the LAT, whereas more than 50% were LMIT positive (P less than 0.001). These results suggest that there are fewer false positive reactions with LAT which can therefore be considered as a reliable method for assessing CMI in human. Furthermore, a negative LAT correlated well with negative delayed skin tests in more than 90% of the patients for the three antigens. These patients had either an AIDS or an advanced AIDS-related complex (ARC). In only eight of the patients was there a discrepancy in the results of the two tests. A positive LAT and a negative skin test were seen in three cases lacking opportunistic infections (OI), whereas a negative LAT and a positive skin test were found in patients with or without OI. In the latter, a negative LAT could indicate a more advanced stage of disease and hence a poor prognosis. PMID:3568448

  1. Transit time of leukocytes rolling through venules controls cytokine-induced inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, U; Norman, K E; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Beaudet, A L; Ley, K

    1998-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment requires leukocyte rolling, activation, firm adhesion, and transmigration. Injection of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha induces expression of E-selectin, interleukin-8, and other adhesion molecules and chemoattractants on the endothelial surface. TNF-alpha- treated CD18 null mouse cremaster muscle venules show increased leukocyte rolling velocity and reduced leukocyte recruitment efficiency. Leukocyte recruitment in CD18 null but not wild-type mice is significantly blocked by an mAb to E-selectin. To understand this overlap between adhesion events previously considered separate, we introduce a quantitative analysis of the efficiency of induction of rolling, conversion of rolling to adhesion, and of adhesion to transmigration. We find that CD18 and E-selectin cooperate to control the time a leukocyte needs to roll through an inflamed area and to convert rolling to firm adhesion. Leukocyte rolling time, defined as the time it takes for a rolling leukocyte to pass through a defined length of a vessel segment, emerges as a unifying parameter determining the efficiency of inducing firm adhesion, which is a rate-limiting step controlling leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. We conclude that leukocytes integrate chemoattractant signals while rolling along the endothelial surface until they reach a critical level of activation and become firmly adherent. PMID:9788965

  2. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-07-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information.

  3. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  4. C-018H LERF filtration test plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moberg, T.P.; King, C.V.

    1994-08-26

    The following outlines the plan to test the polymeric backwash filtration system at the LERF. These tests will determine if the ETF filter design is adequate. If the tests show that the design is adequate, the task will be complete. If the tests show that the technology is inadequate, it may be necessary to perform further tests to qualify other candidate filtration technologies (e.g., polymeric tubular ultrafiltration, centrifugal ultrafiltration). The criteria to determine the success or failure of the backwash filter will be based on the system`s ability to remove the bacteria and inorganic contaminants from the evaporator process condensate. The tests are designed to qualify the design basis of the filtration technology that will be used in the ETF.

  5. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  6. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  7. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  8. Effects of drinking-water filtration on Cryptosporidium seroepidemiology, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Colin N; Wagner, Adam P; Robertson, Chris; Smith, Huw V; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts is associated with production of protective antibodies. We investigated prevalence of antibodies against the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen among blood donors in 2 areas of Scotland supplied by drinking water from different sources with different filtration standards: Glasgow (not filtered) and Dundee (filtered). During 2006-2009, seroprevalence and risk factor data were collected; this period includes 2007, when enhanced filtration was introduced to the Glasgow supply. A serologic response to the 27-kDa antigen was found for ≈75% of donors in the 2 cohorts combined. Mixed regression modeling indicated a 32% step-change reduction in seroprevalence of antibodies against Cryptosporidium among persons in the Glasgow area, which was associated with introduction of enhanced filtration treatment. Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water reduces the risk for waterborne exposure, sporadic infections, and outbreaks. Paradoxically, however, oocyst removal might lower immunity and increase the risk for infection from other sources.

  9. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma.

  10. Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

  11. A novel insight into membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration: Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Meijia; Shen, Liguo; Li, Renjie; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-09-01

    This study linked the chemical potential change to high specific filtration resistance (SFR) of gel layer, and then proposed a novel membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration, namely, Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism. A mathematical model for this mechanism was theoretically deduced. Agar was used as a model polymer for gel formation. Simulation of the mathematical model for agar gel showed that volume fraction of polymer and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were the two key factors governing the gel SFR, whereas, pH and ionic strength were not related with the gel SFR. Filtration tests of gel layer showed that the total SFR value, effects of pH and ionic strength on the gel SFR well agreed with the perditions of model’s simulation, indicating the real occurrence of this mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. This mechanism can satisfactorily explain the extremely high SFR of gel layer, and improve fundamental insights into membrane fouling regarding gel layer filtration.

  12. A novel insight into membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration: Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Meijia; Shen, Liguo; Li, Renjie; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-09-15

    This study linked the chemical potential change to high specific filtration resistance (SFR) of gel layer, and then proposed a novel membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration, namely, Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism. A mathematical model for this mechanism was theoretically deduced. Agar was used as a model polymer for gel formation. Simulation of the mathematical model for agar gel showed that volume fraction of polymer and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were the two key factors governing the gel SFR, whereas, pH and ionic strength were not related with the gel SFR. Filtration tests of gel layer showed that the total SFR value, effects of pH and ionic strength on the gel SFR well agreed with the perditions of model's simulation, indicating the real occurrence of this mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. This mechanism can satisfactorily explain the extremely high SFR of gel layer, and improve fundamental insights into membrane fouling regarding gel layer filtration.

  13. A novel insight into membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration: Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qian; Zhang, Meijia; Shen, Liguo; Li, Renjie; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Lin, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    This study linked the chemical potential change to high specific filtration resistance (SFR) of gel layer, and then proposed a novel membrane fouling mechanism regarding gel layer filtration, namely, Flory-Huggins based filtration mechanism. A mathematical model for this mechanism was theoretically deduced. Agar was used as a model polymer for gel formation. Simulation of the mathematical model for agar gel showed that volume fraction of polymer and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were the two key factors governing the gel SFR, whereas, pH and ionic strength were not related with the gel SFR. Filtration tests of gel layer showed that the total SFR value, effects of pH and ionic strength on the gel SFR well agreed with the perditions of model’s simulation, indicating the real occurrence of this mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. This mechanism can satisfactorily explain the extremely high SFR of gel layer, and improve fundamental insights into membrane fouling regarding gel layer filtration. PMID:27627851

  14. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  16. Structural basis for reduced glomerular filtration capacity in nephrotic humans.

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, M C; Kristal, B; Myers, B D; Deen, W M

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have established that in a variety of human glomerulopathies the reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is due to a marked lowering of the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). To identify the factors which lower Kf, we measured the filtering surface area per glomerulus, filtration slit frequency, basement membrane thickness, and GFR and its determinants in patients with minimal change and membraneous nephropathies and in age-matched healthy controls. Overall values of Kf for the two kidneys were calculated from GFR, renal plasma flow rate, systemic colloid osmotic pressure, and three assumed values for the transcapillary pressure difference. "Experimental" values of the glomerular hydraulic permeability (kexp) were then calculated from Kf, glomerular filtering surface area, and estimates of the total number of nephrons of the two kidneys. Independent estimates of the glomerular hydraulic permeability (kmodel) were obtained using a recent mathematical model that is based on analyses of viscous flow through the various structural components of the glomerular capillary wall. Individual values of basement membrane thickness and filtration slit frequency were used as inputs in this model. The results indicate that the reductions of Kf in both nephropathies can be attributed entirely to reduced glomerular hydraulic permeability. The mean values of kexp and kmodel were very similar in both disorders and much smaller in the nephrotic groups than in healthy controls. There was good agreement between kexp and kmodel for any given group of subjects. It was shown that, in both groups of nephrotics, filtration slit frequency was a more important determinant of the water flow resistance than was basement membrane thickness. The decrease in filtration slit frequency observed in both disorders caused the average path length for the filtrate to increase, thereby explaining the decreased hydraulic permeability. Images PMID:8083359

  17. Visualisation studies and glomerular filtration in early diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-04

    The purpose of this mini-review is to show that more modern multi-photon microscopy approaches allow quantitative glomerular filtration experiments. Modern science has now entered a transition period from light microscopy to multi-photon confocal microscopy. Since the late 20th century, multi-photon microscopy has been applied in the study of organ function. In keeping with observations made in renal physiology and other representative studies throughout this transition period, and in the context of advancing microscopy techniques, this review has been presented as a comment on the glomerular filtration barrier, with a focus on the early aetiopathogenesis of diabetes.

  18. Lipoproteins removed from serum and plasma by membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Olson, W P; Faith, M W

    1978-01-01

    Tangential (crossflow) filtration of a plasma/serum mixture through 0.2 micrometer-poresize polycarbonate track-etch membrane filters (PC) at pressures less than 10 psi removes low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) but not high density lipoproteins (HDL) from the filtrate. At pressures greater than 10 psi all lipoproteins pass through the PC. Once the filters have been intruded with LDL and VLDL those lipoproteins continue to pass the filters despite subsequent reduction in differential pressure below 10 psi.

  19. Equivariant Poincaré series of filtrations and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campillo, Antonio; Delgado, Félix; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.

    2014-04-01

    Earlier, for an action of a finite group G on a germ of an analytic variety, an equivariant G-Poincaré series of a multi-index filtration in the ring of germs of functions on the variety was defined as an element of the Grothendieck ring of G-sets with an additional structure. We discuss to which extent the G-Poincaré series of a filtration defined by a set of curve or divisorial valuations on the ring of germs of analytic functions in two variables determines the (equivariant) topology of the curve or of the set of divisors.

  20. Cryptosporidiosis and filtration of water from Loch Lomond, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kevin G J; Young, David; Smith, Huw V; Ramsay, Colin N

    2008-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between consumption of unfiltered water from Loch Lomond, Scotland, and cryptosporidiosis. Before November 1999, this water had been only microstrained and disinfected with chlorine; however, since that time, physical treatment of the water (coagulation, rapid gravity filtration) has been added. To determine risk factors, including drinking water, for cryptosporidiosis, we analyzed data on laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis collected from 1997 through 2003. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered drinking water supplied to the home. The association supports the view that adding a filtration system to minimally treated water can substantially reduce the number of confirmed cryptosporidiosis cases.