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Sample records for presurgical focus localization

  1. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Gregor; Carrette, Evelien; López, José David; Montes Restrepo, Victoria; Van Roost, Dirk; Meurs, Alfred; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP) approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii) an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time epochs were in

  2. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    PubMed Central

    Strobbe, Gregor; Carrette, Evelien; López, José David; Montes Restrepo, Victoria; Van Roost, Dirk; Meurs, Alfred; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP) approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii) an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time epochs were in

  3. Local Functional Connectivity as a Pre-Surgical Tool for Seizure Focus Identification in Non-Lesion, Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, K. E.; Chaovalitwongse, W. A.; Novotny, E. J.; Poliakov, A.; Grabowski, T. G.; Ojemann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Successful resection of cortical tissue engendering seizure activity is efficacious for the treatment of refractory, focal epilepsy. The pre-operative localization of the seizure focus is therefore critical to yielding positive, post-operative outcomes. In a small proportion of focal epilepsy patients presenting with normal MRI, identification of the seizure focus is significantly more challenging. We examined the capacity of resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) to identify the seizure focus in a group of four non-lesion, focal (NLF) epilepsy individuals. We predicted that computing patterns of local functional connectivity in and around the epileptogenic zone combined with a specific reference to the corresponding region within the contralateral hemisphere would reliably predict the location of the seizure focus. We first averaged voxel-wise regional homogeneity (ReHo) across regions of interest (ROIs) from a standardized, probabilistic atlas for each NLF subject as well as 16 age- and gender-matched controls. To examine contralateral effects, we computed a ratio of the mean pair-wise correlations of all voxels within a ROI with the corresponding contralateral region (IntraRegional Connectivity – IRC). For each subject, ROIs were ranked (from lowest to highest) on ReHo, IRC, and the mean of the two values. At the group level, we observed a significant decrease in the rank for ROI harboring the seizure focus for the ReHo rankings as well as for the mean rank. At the individual level, the seizure focus ReHo rank was within bottom 10% lowest ranked ROIs for all four NLF epilepsy patients and three out of the four for the IRC rankings. However, when the two ranks were combined (averaging across ReHo and IRC ranks and scalars), the seizure focus ROI was either the lowest or second lowest ranked ROI for three out of the four epilepsy subjects. This suggests that rsfMRI may serve as an adjunct pre-surgical tool, facilitating the identification of the seizure focus in

  4. Lateralization and Localization of Epilepsy Related Hemodynamic Foci Using Presurgical fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Clara Huishi; Lu, Yunfeng; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Welker, Kirk; Worrell, Gregory; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to develop a method for the purpose of localizing epilepsy related hemodynamic foci for patients suffering intractable focal epilepsy using task-free fMRI alone. Methods We studied three groups of subjects: patients with intractable focal epilepsy, healthy volunteers performing motor tasks, and healthy volunteers in resting state. We performed spatial independent component analysis (ICA) on the fMRI alone data and developed a set of IC selection criteria to identify epilepsy related ICs. The method was then tested in the two healthy groups. Results In seven out of the nine surgery patients, identified ICs were concordant with surgical resection. Our results were also consistent with presurgical evaluation of the remaining one patient without surgery and may explain why she was not suitable for resection treatment. In the motor task study of ten healthy subjects, our method revealed components with concordant spatial and temporal features as expected from the unilateral motor tasks. In the resting state study of seven healthy subjects, the method successfully rejected all components in four out of seven subjects as non-epilepsy related components. Conclusion These results suggest the lateralization and localization value of fMRI alone in presurgical evaluation for patients with intractable unilateral focal epilepsy. Significance The proposed method is noninvasive in nature and easy to implement. It has the potential to be incorporated in current presurgical workup for treating intractable focal epilepsy patients. PMID:24856460

  5. Determination of epileptic focus side in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using long-term noninvasive fNIRS/EEG monitoring for presurgical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rizki, Edmi Edison; Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Noninvasive localization of an epileptogenic zone is a fundamental step for presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Here, we applied long-term simultaneous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)/electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for focus diagnosis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Six MTLE patients underwent long-term (8–16 h per day for 4 days) fNIRS/EEG monitoring for the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Four spontaneous seizures were successfully recorded out of the six patients. To determine oxy-Hb amplitude, the period-average values of oxy-Hb across 20 s from the EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onset were calculated for both hemispheres from the simultaneously recorded fNIRS data. The average oxy-Hb values for the temporal lobe at the earlier EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onsets were greater for the epileptic side than for the contralateral side after EEG activity suppression, spike train, and clinical seizure in all four cases. The true laterality was determined based on the relief of seizures by selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Thus, oxy-Hb amplitude could be a reliable measure for determining the epileptic focus side. Long-term simultaneous fNIRS/EEG measurement serves as an effective tool for recording spontaneous seizures. Cerebral hemodynamic measurement by fNIRS would serve as a valuable supplementary noninvasive measurement method for presurgical evaluation of MTLE. PMID:26158007

  6. Indication of pre-surgical radiochemotherapy enhances psychosocial morbidity among patients with resectable locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bencova, V; Krajcovicova, I; Svec, J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer experience stress-determined psychosocial comorbidities and behavioural alterations. Patients expectation to be cured by the first line surgery and their emotional status can be negatively influenced by the decision to include neoadjuvant long-course radiotherapy prior to surgical intervention. From the patient's perspective such treatment algorithmindicates incurability of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent and dynamics of stress and related psychosocial disturbances among patients with resectable rectal cancer to whom the neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy before surgery has been indicated.Three standardised assessment tools evaluating psychosocial morbidity of rectal cancer patients have been implemented: The EORTC QLQ C30-3, the EORTC QLQ CR29 module and the HADS questionnaires previously tested for internal consistency were answered by patients before and after long-course radiotherapy and after surgery and the scores of clinical and psychosocial values were evaluated by means of the EORTC and HADS manuals. The most profound psychosocial distress was experienced by patients after the decision to apply neoadjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy before surgical intervention. The involvement of pre-surgical radiotherapy into the treatment algorithm increased emotional disturbances (anxiety, feelings of hopelessness) and negatively influenced patient's treatment adherence and positive expectations from the healing process. The negative psychosocial consequences appeared to be more enhanced in female patients. Despite provided information about advances of neoadjuvant radiotherapy onto success of surgical intervention, the emotional and cognitive disorders improved only slightly. The results clearly indicate that addressed communication and targeted psychosocial support has to find place before pre-surgical radiochemotherapy and as a standard part through the trajectory of the entire multimodal rectal cancer

  7. Localization of Epileptogenic Zone on Pre-surgical Intracranial EEG Recordings: Toward a Validation of Quantitative Signal Analysis Approaches.

    PubMed

    Andrzejak, Ralph G; David, Olivier; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Wendling, Fabrice; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Francione, Stefano; Kahane, Philippe; Schindler, Kaspar; de Curtis, Marco

    2015-11-01

    In patients diagnosed with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy, cerebral areas responsible for seizure generation can be defined by performing implantation of intracranial electrodes. The identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is based on visual inspection of the intracranial electroencephalogram (IEEG) performed by highly qualified neurophysiologists. New computer-based quantitative EEG analyses have been developed in collaboration with the signal analysis community to expedite EZ detection. The aim of the present report is to compare different signal analysis approaches developed in four different European laboratories working in close collaboration with four European Epilepsy Centers. Computer-based signal analysis methods were retrospectively applied to IEEG recordings performed in four patients undergoing pre-surgical exploration of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. The four methods elaborated by the different teams to identify the EZ are based either on frequency analysis, on nonlinear signal analysis, on connectivity measures or on statistical parametric mapping of epileptogenicity indices. All methods converge on the identification of EZ in patients that present with fast activity at seizure onset. When traditional visual inspection was not successful in detecting EZ on IEEG, the different signal analysis methods produced highly discordant results. Quantitative analysis of IEEG recordings complement clinical evaluation by contributing to the study of epileptogenic networks during seizures. We demonstrate that the degree of sensitivity of different computer-based methods to detect the EZ in respect to visual EEG inspection depends on the specific seizure pattern.

  8. [Presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Stippich, C

    2010-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important and novel neuroimaging modality for patients with brain tumors. By non-invasive measurement, localization and lateralization of brain activiation, most importantly of motor and speech function, fMRI facilitates the selection of the most appropriate and sparing treatment and function-preserving surgery. Prerequisites for the diagnostic use of fMRI are the application of dedicated clinical imaging protocols and standardization of the respective imaging procedures. The combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) also enables tracking and visualization of important fiber bundles such as the pyramidal tract and the arcuate fascicle. These multimodal MR data can be implemented in computer systems for functional neuronavigation or radiation treatment. The practicability, accuracy and reliability of presurgical fMRI have been validated by large numbers of published data. However, fMRI cannot be considered as a fully established modality of diagnostic neuroimaging due to the lack of guidelines of the responsible medical associations as well as the lack of medical certification of important hardware and software components. This article reviews the current research in the field and provides practical information relevant for presurgical fMRI.

  9. Presurgical window of opportunity trial design as a platform for testing anticancer drugs: Pros, cons and a focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Di Lauro, Luigi; Mottolese, Marcella; Santini, Daniele; Milella, Michele; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-10-01

    The high attrition rate is a major issue in anticancer drug development. Among the alternative trial designs, presurgical window of opportunity trials envision a short course treatment in the time window between diagnostic biopsy and surgery in a moderately-sized patient population. This approach allows testing therapeutics when pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues are available for comprehensive molecular analyses. The emerging evidence may help define the ability of a given agent to modulate its target(s) and help obtain a broader picture of the molecular changes operated by the treatment. The resulting gain may outweigh the potential harms for patients in the early disease setting. Window of opportunity trials have been extensively applied to breast cancer. Overall, a wider use of these trial designs might lead to the identification of potential responders, ineffective drugs or combinations, and ultimately contribute to enhance the efficiency of the clinical developmental process.

  10. EEG Source Imaging in Partial Epilepsy in Comparison with Presurgical Evaluation and Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chae Jung; Seo, Ji Hye; Kim, Daeyoung; Abibullaev, Berdakh; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Min-Young; An, Kyung-min; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Jeong Sik; Joo, Eun Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) scalp EEG source imaging (ESI) in partial epilepsy in comparison with the results of presurgical evaluation, magnetoencephalography (MEG), and electrocorticography (ECoG). Methods The epilepsy syndrome of 27 partial epilepsy patients was determined by presurgical evaluations. EEG recordings were made using 70 scalp electrodes, and the 3D coordinates of the electrodes were digitized. ESI images of individual and averaged spikes were analyzed by Curry software with a boundary element method. MEG and ECoG were performed in 23 and 9 patients, respectively. Results ESI and MEG source imaging (MSI) results were well concordant with the results of presurgical evaluations (in 96.3% and 100% cases for ESI and MSI, respectively) at the lobar level. However, there were no spikes in the MEG recordings of three patients. The ESI results were well concordant with MSI results in 90.0% of cases. Compared to ECoG, the ESI results tended to be localized deeper than the cortex, whereas the MSI results were generally localized on the cortical surface. ESI was well concordant with ECoG in 8 of 9 (88.9%) cases, and MSI was also well concordant with ECoG in 4 of 5 (80.0%) cases. The EEG single dipoles in one patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tightly clustered with the averaged dipole when a 3 Hz high-pass filter was used. Conclusions The ESI results were well concordant with the results of the presurgical evaluation, MSI, and ECoG. The ESI analysis was found to be useful for localizing the seizure focus and is recommended for the presurgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:25749824

  11. Environmental Flux and Locally Focused College Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews insights from place-based education and ecological models of writing to show how these theories can work together to shape locally focused composition pedagogies. From place-based education, the researcher takes an emphasis on physical specificity, and from ecological models of writing, the researcher takes an emphasis on…

  12. Use of magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Akio; Nagamine, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used twofold for presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy; to identify epileptogenic focus and to investigate functions of cortical areas at or near the epileptogenic focus or structural lesion. For the precise localization of the current source of epileptic discharge, the question as to whether MEG is superior to electroencephalography (EEG) is often addressed. To answer this question, so many factors, both biologically and technically related, have to be taken into consideration. The biological factors include the magnitude of epileptic discharge, its distribution over the cortex, depth of its source from the head surface, and the proportion of large pyramidal neurons tangentially oriented with respect to the head surface within the cortical area. The technical factors include the quality of the recording instrument such as the number of sensors and the use of gradiometer vs. magnetometer, the employed method of source analysis, and availability of experts in each institute. As far as the importance of ictal recording is emphasized, long-term video/EEG monitoring is of utmost importance. Thus, it is concluded that, once the epileptogenic focus is identified by the video/EEG monitoring, then MEG is superior to EEG in order to precisely localize the current source of the interictal epileptic discharge. Another question often addressed is whether MEG can replace the invasive intracranial EEG recording or not. In addition to the above-described factors, different coverage of the cortical areas by MEG vs. invasive intracranial EEG recording has to be taken into account to explain some of the recent reports related to this question. MEG can be effectively applied to the investigation of cortical functions near the epileptogenic focus. It is especially so when combined with other non-invasive studies like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition to the source analysis of magnetic

  13. Presurgical Mapping of the Language Network Using Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Resting-state fMRI) is a tool for investigating the functional networks that arise during the resting-state of the brain. Recent advances of the resting-state fMRI analysis suggest its feasibility for evaluating language function. The most common clinical application is for presurgical mapping of cortex for a brain tumor or for resective epilespy surgery. In this article, we review the techniques and presurgical applications of resting-state fMRI analysis for language evaluation, and discuss the use in the clinical setting, focusing on planning for neurosurgery. PMID:26848557

  14. Presurgical Mapping of the Language Network Using Resting-state Functional Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (resting-state fMRI) is a tool for investigating the functional networks that arise during the resting state of the brain. Recent advances of the resting-state fMRI analysis suggest its feasibility for evaluating language function. The most common clinical application is for presurgical mapping of cortex for a brain tumor or for resective epilespy surgery. In this article, we review the techniques and presurgical applications of resting-state fMRI analysis for language evaluation, and discuss the use in the clinical setting, focusing on planning for neurosurgery.

  15. Focused ultrasound as a local therapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Krisztina; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2010-01-01

    Conventional surgical treatments of liver cancer are invasive (including minimally invasive) with a high incidence of new metastasis and poor success, even after multiple resections or ablations. These limitations motivated research into new, less invasive solutions for liver cancer treatment.Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), or high-intensity focused ultrasound, has been recognized as a noninvasive technology for benign and malignant tumor treatment. Previously, FUS was guided with ultrasound that has limited target definition and monitoring capability of the ablation process. Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with multiple-element phased-array transducers to create MRI-guided focused ultrasound thermal therapy provides more accurate targeting and real-time temperature monitoring. This treatment is hindered by the ribcage that limits the acoustic windows to the liver and the respiratory motion of the liver. New advances in MRI and transducer design will likely resolve these limitations and make MRI-guided FUS a powerful tool in local liver cancer therapy. This article reviews this technology and advances that can expand its use for cancer treatment in general and liver cancer in particular.

  16. Localized harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound surgery targeting.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-08-01

    Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired radio-frequency (RF) signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude.

  17. The Role of Functional Neuroimaging in Pre-Surgical Epilepsy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Grouiller, Frédéric; Spinelli, Laurent; Seeck, Margitta; Michel, Christoph M.; Vulliemoz, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy is about 1% and one-third of cases do not respond to medical treatment. In an eligible subset of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone is the only treatment that can possibly cure the disease. Non-invasive techniques provide information for the localization of the epileptic focus in the majority of cases, whereas in others invasive procedures are required. In the last years, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, such as simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG-fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electric and magnetic source imaging (MSI, ESI), spectroscopy (MRS), have proved their usefulness in defining the epileptic focus. The combination of these functional techniques can yield complementary information and their concordance is crucial for guiding clinical decision, namely the planning of invasive EEG recordings or respective surgery. The aim of this review is to present these non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, their potential combination, and their role in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. PMID:24715886

  18. Functional neuro-imaging as a pre-surgical tool in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chen, David K

    2014-03-01

    Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificity although the results are better with more expertise as is true for any technique. More recently magnetoencephalogram/magnetic source imaging (MEG/MSI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in localization and functional mapping during the pre-surgical work-up of epilepsy. Newer techniques such as fMRI-EEG, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and near infra-red spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magneto nanoparticles hold promise for further development that could then be applied in the work-up of epilepsy surgery. In this manuscript, we review these techniques and their current position in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy.

  19. Functional neuro-imaging as a pre-surgical tool in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chen, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificity although the results are better with more expertise as is true for any technique. More recently magnetoencephalogram/magnetic source imaging (MEG/MSI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in localization and functional mapping during the pre-surgical work-up of epilepsy. Newer techniques such as fMRI-EEG, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and near infra-red spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magneto nanoparticles hold promise for further development that could then be applied in the work-up of epilepsy surgery. In this manuscript, we review these techniques and their current position in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:24791091

  20. Task-free presurgical mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging intrinsic activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hesheng; Buckner, Randy L.; Talukdar, Tanveer; Tanaka, Naoaki; Madsen, Joseph R.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Object Low-frequency components of the spontaneous functional MR imaging signal provide information about the intrinsic functional and anatomical organization of the brain. The ability to use such methods in individual patients may provide a powerful tool for presurgical planning. The authors explore the feasibility of presurgical motor function mapping in which a task-free paradigm is used. Methods Six surgical candidates with tumors or epileptic foci near the motor cortex participated in this study. The investigators directly compared task-elicited activation of the motor system to activation obtained from intrinsic activity correlations. The motor network within the unhealthy hemisphere was identified based on intrinsic activity correlations, allowing distortions of functional anatomy caused by the tumor and epilepsy to be directly visualized. The precision of the motor function mapping was further explored in 1 participant by using direct cortical stimulation. Results The motor regions localized based on the spontaneous activity correlations were quite similar to the regions defined by actual movement tasks and cortical stimulation. Using intrinsic activity correlations, it was possible to map the motor cortex in presurgical patients. Conclusions This task-free paradigm may provide a powerful approach to map functional anatomy in patients without task compliance and allow multiple brain systems to be determined in a single scanning session. PMID:19361264

  1. Comprehensive presurgical functional MRI language evaluation in adult patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Holland, Scott K; Jacola, Lisa M; Lindsell, Christopher; Privitera, Michael D; Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to replace the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. In this study, we compared fMRI verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) tasks and the IAP in their ability to localize language functions in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. We enrolled 50 healthy controls to establish normal language activation patterns for VG and SDTD tasks at 3 or 4 T, and to design language regions of interest (ROIs) that were later applied to 38 patients with epilepsy (28 of 38 also underwent the IAP). We calculated laterality indices (LIs) for each task for each subject based on the ROIs, and we used general linear modeling to analyze the fMRI data. All healthy and epileptic subjects activated language areas with both fMRI tasks. We found significant correlations in language lateralization between the fMRI tasks (r=0.495, P<0.001) and between VG and IAP (r=0.652, P<0.001) and SDTD and IAP (r=0.735, P<0.001). The differences in LIs between SDTD and VG tasks were small and not affected by age, gender, epilepsy status, handedness, or performance. SDTD and VG tasks combined explained approximately 58.4% in the variability of the IAP/language. In the general linear modeling, only the SDTD task significantly contributed to the determination of language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. Results indicate a moderate convergent validity between both fMRI language tasks and between IAP and fMRI tasks. The results of this study indicate that either of these fMRI tasks can be used for language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation, but that the SDTD task is likely to provide more information regarding language lateralization than the VG task.

  2. Modeling of space-time focusing of localized nondiffracting pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Besieris, Ioannis M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we develop a method capable of modeling the space-time focusing of nondiffracting pulses. These pulses can possess arbitrary peak velocities and, in addition to being resistant to diffraction, can have their peak intensities and focusing positions chosen a priori. More specifically, we can choose multiple locations (spatial ranges) of space and time focalization; also, the pulse intensities can be chosen in advance. The pulsed wave solutions presented here can have very interesting applications in many different fields, such as free-space optical communications, remote sensing, medical apparatus, etc.

  3. Critical role of bevacizumab scheduling in combination with pre-surgical chemo-radiotherapy in MRI-defined high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the branch trial

    PubMed Central

    Avallone, Antonio; Pecori, Biagio; Bianco, Franco; Aloj, Luigi; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Romano, Carmela; Granata, Vincenza; Marone, Pietro; Leone, Alessandra; Botti, Gerardo; Petrillo, Antonella; Caracò, Corradina; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo R.; Muto, Paolo; Romano, Giovanni; Comella, Pasquale; Budillon, Alfredo; Delrio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that an intensified preoperative regimen including oxaliplatin plus raltitrexed and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (OXATOM/FUFA) during preoperative pelvic radiotherapy produced promising results in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preclinical evidence suggests that the scheduling of bevacizumab may be crucial to optimize its combination with chemo-radiotherapy. Patients and methods This non-randomized, non-comparative, phase II study was conducted in MRI-defined high-risk LARC. Patients received three biweekly cycles of OXATOM/FUFA during RT. Bevacizumab was given 2 weeks before the start of chemo-radiotherapy, and on the same day of chemotherapy for 3 cycles (concomitant-schedule A) or 4 days prior to the first and second cycle of chemotherapy (sequential-schedule B). Primary end point was pathological complete tumor regression (TRG1) rate. Results The accrual for the concomitant-schedule was early terminated because the number of TRG1 (2 out of 16 patients) was statistically inconsistent with the hypothesis of activity (30%) to be tested. Conversely, the endpoint was reached with the sequential-schedule and the final TRG1 rate among 46 enrolled patients was 50% (95% CI 35%–65%). Neutropenia was the most common grade ≥3 toxicity with both schedules, but it was less pronounced with the sequential than concomitant-schedule (30% vs. 44%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8/15 (53%) and 13/46 (28%) patients in schedule A and B, respectively. At 5 year follow-up the probability of PFS and OS was 80% (95%CI, 66%–89%) and 85% (95%CI, 69%–93%), respectively, for the sequential-schedule. Conclusions These results highlights the relevance of bevacizumab scheduling to optimize its combination with preoperative chemo-radiotherapy in the management of LARC. PMID:26320185

  4. Response of malignant scalp dermatofibrosarcoma to presurgical targeted growth factor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Austin K; Mehta, Ankit I; Grossi, Peter M; Cummings, Thomas J; Adamson, D Cory

    2010-05-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon, locally aggressive, malignant cutaneous tumor that sparingly presents on the scalp. Dermatofibrosarcomas often result from the formation of a fusion oncogene on translocated or supernumerary ring chromosomes 17 and 22, causing the overexpression of PDGFRbeta driven by the COL1A1 promoter. Because of uncertainty surrounding appropriate treatment of aggressive scalp DFSP, the authors performed an extensive review of the available data from a MEDLINE (Ovid) search to describe the clinical presentation and treatment options for this rare tumor. Their search identified 39 different cases, including the illustrative case presented in this study. Adjuvant therapy for this malignant lesion is not universally established in the literature. In the present case, the authors successfully treated a locally invasive scalp DFSP with presurgical therapy that specifically inhibited the PDGFbeta receptor. Imatinib significantly shrank the DFSP tumor mass, reduced hypervascularity, reduced metabolic activity on PET scanning, and permitted a safe gross-total resection. Although wide excision and Mohs micrographic surgery remain the standard surgical treatments for DFSP, the authors illustrate that presurgical chemotherapeutic treatment by imatinib provides a critical adjunct to traditional therapy.

  5. [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography and MR imaging coregistration for presurgical evaluation of medically refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, K K; Salamon, N

    2009-11-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population of the world. Approximately one third of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to medical therapy. For these patients, surgery is a curative option. In order for surgery to be considered, precise localization of the structural abnormality is needed. When MR imaging findings are normal, more sensitive techniques such as positron-emission tomography (PET) can help find the abnormality. Combining MR imaging and PET information increases the sensitivity of the presurgical evaluation. In this review, we discuss the clinical applications of coregistration of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET with MR imaging for medically refractory epilepsy. Because FDG-PET/MR imaging coregistration has been a routine component of the presurgical evaluation for patients with epilepsy at our institution since 2004, we also included cases from our data base that exemplify the utility of this technology to obtain better postsurgical outcomes.

  6. A rapid method for the presurgical cleansing of hands.

    PubMed

    Decker, L A; Gross, A; Miller, F C; Read, J A; Cutright, D E; Devine, J

    1978-01-01

    A new rapid method of presurgical cleansing of the hands has been evaluated in a clinical setting. The effectiveness of a 90 second jet wash has been compared with a standard 10-minute presurgical scrub. Bacteriologic cultures were obtained from the fingertips of interns, residents, and staff of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center before and after 90-second jet washings and 10-minute conventional scrubs. The results showed that the 90-second jet wash was more effective in degerming the hands than the 10-minute standard brush scrub. Other advantages of the new method, such as the amount of time saved, the standardization of cleansing, and reduced skin irritation are discussed.

  7. Presurgical nasal moulding in a neonate with cleft lip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Shah, Dixit; Macwan, Chirag S

    2014-01-01

    The concept of presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNM) was developed to improve the aesthetic result of surgically corrected cleft lip. This paper presents the method of fabrication of PNM appliance and the case of a 30-day-old neonate with unilateral cleft lip in whom nasal moulding was performed. Treatment was initiated at 30 days and continued for 60 days after which the surgical correction of cleft lip was performed. Significant improvement in aesthetics and symmetry of the nose was achieved at the end of the treatment. PMID:24928928

  8. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

  9. Combined EEG/MEG Can Outperform Single Modality EEG or MEG Source Reconstruction in Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

  10. Stimulus-evoked potentials contribute to map the epileptogenic zone during stereo-EEG presurgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boido, Davide; Kapetis, Dimos; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Pastori, Chiara; Galbardi, Barbara; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Cardinale, Francesco; Francione, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Presurgical monitoring with intracerebral electrodes in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy represents a standard invasive procedure to localize the sites of seizures origin, defined as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During presurgical evaluation, intracerebral single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) is performed to define the boundaries of eloquent areas and to evoke seizure-associated symptoms. Extensive intracranial exploration and stimulation generate a large dataset on brain connectivity that can be used to improve EZ detection and to understand the organization of the human epileptic brain. We developed a protocol to analyse field responses evoked by intracranial stimulation. Intracerebral recordings were performed with 105-162 recording sites positioned in fronto-temporal regions in 12 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Recording sites were used for bipolar SPES at 1 Hz. Reproducible early and late phases (<60 ms and 60-500 ms from stimulus artefact, respectively) were identified on averaged evoked responses. Phase 1 and 2 responses recorded at all and each recording sites were plotted on a 3D brain reconstructions. Based on connectivity properties, electrode contacts were primarily identified as receivers, mainly activators or bidirectional. We used connectivity patterns to construct networks and applied cluster partitioning to study the proprieties between potentials evoked/stimulated in different regions. We demonstrate that bidirectional connectivity during phase 1 is a prevalent feature that characterize contacts included in the EZ. This study shows that the application of an analytical protocol on intracerebral stimulus-evoked recordings provides useful information that may contribute to EZ detection and to the management of surgical-remediable epilepsies.

  11. A Simulation Model for Local Harmonic Motion Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkilae, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-14

    A computational model for local harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. LMH technique is based on a focused ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local mechanical vibrations at the focal region. These pulse-echo imaged vibrations are then used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM has been proven to be feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic fields, sonication induced temperature elevation and mechanical vibrations, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These simulation models are based on Rayleigh integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated temperature rise and vibration amplitudes have been compared with in vivo rabbit experiments with noninvasive MRI thermometry.

  12. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim; Fagiri, Maram A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applies high-intensity focused ultrasound energy to locally heat and destroy diseased or damaged tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU to explain the fundamentals of HIFU, evaluate the evidence concerning the role of HIFU in the treatment of prostate cancer (PC), review the technologies used to perform HIFU and the published clinical literature regarding the procedure as a primary treatment for PC. Material/Methods Studies addressing HIFU in localized PC were identified in a search of internet scientific databases. The analysis of outcomes was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. Results HIFU is a non-invasive approach that uses a precisely delivered ultrasound energy to achieve tumor cell necrosis without radiation or surgical excision. In current urological oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of PC. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for localized PC began in the 1990s, and the majority of PC patients were treated with the Ablatherm device. Conclusions HIFU treatment for localized PC can be considered as an alternative minimally invasive therapeutic modality for patients who are not candidates for radical prostatectomy. Patients with lower pre-HIFU PSA level and favourable pathologic Gleason score seem to present better oncologic outcomes. Future advances in technology and safety will undoubtedly expand the HIFU role in this indication as more of patient series are published, with a longer follow-up period. PMID:25806099

  13. Presurgical satisfaction with facial appearance in orthognathic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, E; Litt, M D; Nanda, R

    1996-06-01

    Orthognathic surgery and orthodontic therapy are most often performed to improve the patient's appearance. However, not all patients are satisfied with the result though the procedure may be considered successful by the orthodontist and the maxillofacial surgeon. It has been suggested that the patient's satisfaction with his or her facial appearance before the surgery can predict later satisfaction with orthognathic procedures. The present study examined the role of several potential predictor variables in satisfaction with facial appearance before orthognathic treatment. The variables, identified in previous research, included severity of facial disharmony, self-concept, psychological distress, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Questionnaires were gathered from 54 patients in 10 orthodontic practices in Connecticut and New York. Contrary to expectations, gender, age and socioeconomic status failed to predict patients' presurgical satisfaction with appearance. Self-concept, psychological distress, and orthodontists' ratings of total facial appearance (from a lateral view) were bivariate predictors of satisfaction. When all variables were analyzed with a multiple regression analysis, however, only self-concept emerged as a significant independent predictor of satisfaction with appearance. This accounted for 15% of the variance in satisfaction. Orthodontists' ratings of facial views, considered here objective measures of disharmony, were predictive neither of satisfaction with appearance nor of self-concept. It is suggested that self-concept may be a predictor of postsurgical as well as presurgical satisfaction with appearance and that self-concept itself may be unaffected by severity of facial disharmony, at least in young adults. Orthodontists may need to pay special attention to those patients with poor self-concept, because these patients may be more likely to report unsatisfactory surgical outcomes.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of local thermal diffusivity using backscattered ultrasound and focused ultrasound heating.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create a brief local temperature rise of no more than 10 degrees C. Beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data are collected during heating and cooling using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the time-varying "acoustic strain", that is, spatiotemporal variations in the RF echo shifts induced by the temperature related sound speed changes, are related to a solution of the heat transfer equation to estimate the thermal diffusivity in the heated zone. Numerical simulations and experiments performed in vitro in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate agreement between the ultrasound derived thermal diffusivity estimates and independent estimates made by a traditional hot-wire technique. The new noninvasive ultrasonic method has potential applications in thermal therapy planning and monitoring, physiological monitoring and as a means of noninvasive tissue characterization.

  15. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal spot localization using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the  -3dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R2 = 0.821 at p  <  0.002 in the 2D HMI system. We demonstrated

  16. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal spot localization using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-08-07

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the -3dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R(2) = 0.821 at p < 0.002 in the 2D HMI system. We demonstrated the

  17. Computing network-based features from intracranial EEG time series data: Application to seizure focus localization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sandya; Jordan, Austin; Santaniello, Sabato; Yaffe, Robert; Jouny, Christophe C; Bergey, Gregory K; Anderson, William S; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2014-01-01

    The surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is the only effective treatment for many drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) patients, but the pre-surgical identification of the EZ is challenging. This study investigates whether the EZ exhibits a computationally identifiable signature during seizures. In particular, we compute statistics of the brain network from intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings and track the evolution of network connectivity before, during, and after seizures. We define each node in the network as an electrode and weight each edge connecting a pair of nodes by the gamma band cross power of the corresponding iEEG signals. The eigenvector centrality (EVC) of each node is tracked over two seizures per patient and the electrodes are ranked according to the corresponding EVC value. We hypothesize that electrodes covering the EZ have a signature EVC rank evolution during seizure that differs from electrodes outside the EZ. We tested this hypothesis on multi-channel iEEG recordings from 2 DRE patients who had successful surgery (i.e., seizures were under control with or without medications) and 1 patient who had unsuccessful surgery. In the successful cases, we assumed that the resected region contained the EZ and found that the EVC rank evolution of the electrodes within the resected region had a distinct "arc" signature, i.e., the EZ ranks first rose together shortly after seizure onset and then fell later during seizure.

  18. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  19. Grains unchained: local fluidization of a granular packing by focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lidon, Pierre; Taberlet, Nicolas; Manneville, Sébastien

    2016-02-28

    We report experimental results on the dynamics of a granular packing submitted to high-intensity focused ultrasound. Acoustic radiation pressure is shown to remotely induce local rearrangements within a pile as well as global motion around the focal spot in an initially jammed system. We demonstrate that this fluidization process is intermittent for a range of acoustic pressures and hysteretic when the pressure is cycled. Such a first-order-like unjamming transition is reproduced in numerical simulations in which the acoustic pressure field is modeled by a localized external force. Further analysis of the simulated packings suggests that in the intermittent regime unjamming is not associated with any noticeable prior structural signature. A simple two-state model based on effective temperatures is proposed to account for these findings.

  20. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases. PMID:26822900

  1. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-29

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases.

  2. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: evidence from the global-local task.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.

  3. Design techniques and analysis of high-resolution neural recording systems targeting epilepsy focus localization.

    PubMed

    Shoaran, Mahsa; Pollo, Claudio; Leblebici, Yusuf; Schmid, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The design of a high-density neural recording system targeting epilepsy monitoring is presented. Circuit challenges and techniques are discussed to optimize the amplifier topology and the included OTA. A new platform supporting active recording devices targeting wireless and high-resolution focus localization in epilepsy diagnosis is also proposed. The post-layout simulation results of an amplifier dedicated to this application are presented. The amplifier is designed in a UMC 0.18µm CMOS technology, has an NEF of 2.19 and occupies a silicon area of 0.038 mm(2), while consuming 5.8 µW from a 1.8-V supply.

  4. In Vivo Application and Localization of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Using Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams have been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real-time. In particular, a concave (40-mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5 MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat model. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function (psf) of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the DMUA capability to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood brain barrier opening. The results show that, while the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within sub

  5. Local harmonic motion monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery--a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a computational model for localized harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. The LHM technique is based on a focused, time-varying ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local oscillatory motions at the focal region. These vibrations are tracked, using pulse-echo imaging, and then, used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM is feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation process affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic sonication fields, sonication-induced temperature elevation and mechanical motion, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These 3-D simulation models are based on Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated-tissue temperature elevation and mechanical motion were compared with previously published in vivo measurements. Finally, the simulation model was used to simulate coagulation and LHM monitoring, as would occur with multiple, neighbouring sonication locations covering a large tumor.

  6. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) and Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) for localized measurements - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarises up to date development in Focused Impedance Method (FIM) initiated by us. It basically involves taking the sum of two orthogonal tetra-polar impedance measurements around a common central region, giving a localized enhanced sensitivity. Although the basic idea requires 8 electrodes, versions with 6- and 4-electrodes were subsequently conceived and developed. The focusing effect has been verified in 2D and 3D phantoms and through numerical analysis. Dynamic stomach emptying, and ventilation of localized lung regions have been studied successfully suggesting further applications in monitoring of gastric acid secretion, artificial respiration, bladder emptying, etc. Multi-frequency FIM may help identify some diseases and disorders including certain cancers. FIM, being much simpler and having less number of electrodes, appears to have the potential to replace EIT for applications involving large and shallow organs. An enhancement of 6-electrode FIM led to Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) in a square matrix through backprojection in two orthogonal directions, good for localising of one or two well separated objects.

  7. Information flow and application to epileptogenic focus localization from intracranial EEG.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Shivkumar; Good, Levi B; Tsakalis, Konstantinos S; Spanias, Andreas; Treiman, David M; Iasemidis, Leon D

    2009-06-01

    Transfer entropy ( TE) is a recently proposed measure of the information flow between coupled linear or nonlinear systems. In this study, we suggest improvements in the selection of parameters for the estimation of TE that significantly enhance its accuracy and robustness in identifying the direction and the level of information flow between observed data series generated by coupled complex systems. We show the application of the improved TE method to long (in the order of days; approximately a total of 600 h across all patients), continuous, intracranial electroencephalograms (EEG) recorded in two different medical centers from four patients with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) for localization of their foci. All patients underwent ablative surgery of their clinically assessed foci. Based on a surrogate statistical analysis of the TE results, it is shown that the identified potential focal sites through the suggested analysis were in agreement with the clinically assessed sites of the epileptogenic focus in all patients analyzed. It is noteworthy that the analysis was conducted on the available whole-duration multielectrode EEG, that is, without any subjective prior selection of EEG segments or electrodes for analysis. The above, in conjunction with the use of surrogate data, make the results of this analysis robust. These findings suggest a critical role TE may play in epilepsy research in general, and as a tool for robust localization of the epileptogenic focus/foci in patients with focal epilepsy in particular.

  8. Focused impedance measurement (FIM). A new technique with improved zone localization.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, K S; Sarker, M; Akond, M H; Akter, T

    1999-04-20

    Conventional four-electrode impedance measurements (FEIM) cannot localize a zone of interest in a volume conductor. On the other hand, the recently developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system offers an image with reasonable resolution, but is complex and needs many electrodes. By placing two FEIM systems perpendicular to each other over a common zone at the center and combining the two results, it is possible to obtain enhanced sensitivity over this central zone. This is the basis of the proposed new method of focused impedance measurement (FIM). Sensitivity maps in both 2D and 3D show the desired improvement. A comparison of stomach-emptying studies also indicates the improvement achieved. This new method may be useful for impedance measurements of large organs like stomach, heart, and lungs. Being much simpler in comparison to EIT, multifrequency systems can be simply built for FIM. Besides, FIM may have utility in other fields like geology where impedance measurements are performed.

  9. Localization and characterization of fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Aldrin, John; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David

    2017-02-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments and simulations that demonstrate the ability to localize fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes for shear-wave inspections. For the experiments, fatigue cracks were created in aluminum plates in a testing frame under cyclic loading. With the exceptions of one specimen with a mid-bore crack and another with a "through" crack, the remaining specimens contain surface-breaking cracks. All of the specimens were inspected for the cracks intersecting the back wall, and some were flipped over and re-inspected with the crack intersecting the front surface. Parameter and variable sensitivity studies were performed using CIVA Simulation Software. In contrast to C-scans where detection and localization of small cracks can be very difficult, modeling and initial experimental results demonstrate that cracks can be accurately located in "True" B-scans (B-scans projected in the part along the beam path). Initial results show that small-amplitude diffracted/scattered signals from the crack tips and edges are essential in obtaining clear crack traces in the True B-scans. It is important therefore that experimental data be acquired with sufficient gain to capture the diffracted/scattered signals. In all of the cases studied here, saturating the high-amplitude specular reflections from the fastener hole and crack enhanced the crack trace in the True B-scans.

  10. Focused ultrasound treatment of VX2 tumors controlled by local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Huang, Yuexi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-06-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using localized harmonic motion (LHM) to monitor and control focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) in VX2 tumors in vivo. FUS exposures were performed on 13 VX2 tumors implanted in nine rabbits. The same transducer induced coagulation and generated a localized oscillatory motion by periodically varying the radiation force. A separate diagnostic ultrasound transducer tracked motion by cross-correlating echo signals at different instances. A threshold in motion amplitude was instituted to cease exposure. Coagulation was confirmed by T2-weighted MR images, thermal dose obtained through MR thermometry and histological examinations. For tumor locations achieving coagulation, the LHM amplitude was 9% (p = 0.04) to 57% (p < 0.0001) lower than that before exposure. Control was successful for 74 (69%) out of 108 cases, with 52 (48%) reaching the threshold and achieving coagulation and 22 (21%) never reaching threshold nor coagulating. For the 34 (31%) unsuccessful exposures, 16 (15%) never reached the threshold but coagulation occurred, and 18 (16%) reached threshold without coagulation confirmed. Noise or radio-frequency signal changes explained motion over- or underestimation in 24 (22%) cases; the remaining 10 (9%) had other causes of error. The control was generally successful, but sudden change or noise in the acquired echo signal caused failure. Coagulation after exposure could be validated by comparing amplitudes before and after exposure.

  11. In vivo monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery using local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    The present study established the feasibility of a technique for monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) lesion formation in vivo using localized harmonic motion (LHM) measurements. Oscillatory motion (frequencies between 50 and 300 Hz) was generated within tissues by induction of a periodic radiation force with a FUS transducer. The harmonic motion was estimated using cross correlation of RF ultrasonic signals acquired at different instances during the motion by using a confocal diagnostic ultrasound transducer. The technique was evaluated in vivo in rabbit muscle (14 locations) in an magnetic resonance (MR) imager for simultaneous ultrasound harmonic motion tracking and MR thermometry. The measured maximum amplitude of the induced harmonic motion before and after the lesion formation was significantly different for all the tested motion frequencies, and decreased between 17 and 81% depending on the frequency and location. During the FUS exposure a drop in the maximum amplitude value was observed and a threshold value could be associated to the formation of a thermal lesion. A series of controlled sonications was performed by stopping the exposure when the threshold value in LHM amplitude was reached and the presence of a thermal lesion was confirmed by MR imaging. LHM measurements were also used to perform a spatial scan of the tissues across the exposure region and the thermal lesions could be detected as a reduction in the maximum motion amplitude value at the sonication region.

  12. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  13. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  14. Use of stationary focused ultrasound fields for characterization of tissue and localized tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, Brian Andrew

    Ultrasound-induced blood stasis has been observed for more than 30 years. The physical understanding of the phenomenon has not been fully explored. Analytical descriptions of the acoustic interaction with spheres in suspension have been derived but the physical implications and limitations have not been demonstrated. The analytical expressions will be tested against physical observations using numerical simulations. The simulations will begin with stationary spheres and continue with the inclusion of moving spheres and a moving suspending fluid. To date, experimental observations of acoustically induced blood stasis have been either in vitro or invasive. We demonstrate ultrasound-induced blood stasis in murine normal leg muscle versus tumor-bearing legs, observed through noninvasive measurements of optical spectroscopy, and discuss possible diagnostic uses for this effect of ultrasound. We derive the optimal optical wavelengths for measuring the effects of the ultrasound at small source detector separations. Using optical oximetry performed at the optimal wavelengths, we demonstrate that effects of ultrasound can be used to differentiate tumor from normal leg muscle tissue in mice. To provide a statistical analysis of the experiments, we propose a novel diagnostic algorithm that quantitatively differentiates tumor from nontumor with maximum specificity 0.83, maximum sensitivity 0.79, and area under receiver-operating-characteristics curve 0.90. Ultrasound has long been known to cause tissue heating when applied in high intensities. More recently, interest has arisen in the area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for localized tissue heating effects, specifically thermal ablation. All present techniques employ focused traveling high intensity acoustic waves to create a region of elevated temperature. Such high intensity traveling waves can be damaging to normal tissue in the vicinity of the focal region, and have demonstrated surface burns and caused

  15. Alternative-based thresholding with application to presurgical fMRI.

    PubMed

    Durnez, Joke; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Bartsch, Andreas; Nichols, Thomas E

    2013-12-01

    Functional magnetic reasonance imaging (fMRI) plays an important role in pre-surgical planning for patients with resectable brain lesions such as tumors. With appropriately designed tasks, the results of fMRI studies can guide resection, thereby preserving vital brain tissue. The mass univariate approach to fMRI data analysis consists of performing a statistical test in each voxel, which is used to classify voxels as either active or inactive-that is, related, or not, to the task of interest. In cognitive neuroscience, the focus is on controlling the rate of false positives while accounting for the severe multiple testing problem of searching the brain for activations. However, stringent control of false positives is accompanied by a risk of false negatives, which can be detrimental, particularly in clinical settings where false negatives may lead to surgical resection of vital brain tissue. Consequently, for clinical applications, we argue for a testing procedure with a stronger focus on preventing false negatives. We present a thresholding procedure that incorporates information on false positives and false negatives. We combine two measures of significance for each voxel: a classical p-value, which reflects evidence against the null hypothesis of no activation, and an alternative p-value, which reflects evidence against activation of a prespecified size. This results in a layered statistical map for the brain. One layer marks voxels exhibiting strong evidence against the traditional null hypothesis, while a second layer marks voxels where activation cannot be confidently excluded. The third layer marks voxels where the presence of activation can be rejected.

  16. Noninvasive, localized, and transient brain drug delivery using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, James J.

    In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and brain cancer caused 72,432, 19,566 and 12,886 deaths in 2006, respectively. Whereas the number of deaths due to major disorders such as heart disease, stroke, and prostate cancer have decreased since 2006, deaths attributed to AD, PD, and brain cancer have not. Treatment options for patients with CNS disorders remain limited despite significant advances in knowledge of CNS disease pathways and development of neurologically potent agents. One of the major obstacles is that the cerebral microvasculature is lined by a specialized and highly regulated blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents large agents from entering the brain extracellular space. The purpose of this dissertation is to design a noninvasive, localized, and transient BBB opening system using focused ultrasound (FUS) and determine ultrasound and microbubble conditions that can effectively and safely deliver large pharmacologically-relevant-sized agents to the brain. To meet this end, an in vivo mouse brain drug delivery system using a stereotactic-based targeting method was developed. FUS was applied noninvasively through the intact skin and skull, which allowed for long-term and high-throughput studies. With this system, more than 150 mice were exposed to one of 31 distinct acoustic and microbubble conditions. The feasibility of delivering a large MRI contrast agent was first demonstrated in vivo in both wild-type and transgenic Alzheimer's disease model (APP/PS1) mice. A wide range of acoustic and microbubble conditions were then evaluated for their ability to deliver agents to a target region. Interestingly, the possible design space of parameters was found to be vast and different conditions resulted in distinct spatial distributions and doses delivered. In particular, BBB opening was shown to be dependent on the microbubble diameter, acoustic pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and pulse length (PL). Each set of

  17. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  18. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine Ku70

    PubMed Central

    KOIKE, Manabu; YUTOKU, Yasutomo; KOIKE, Aki

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair machinery, specifically non-homologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), is crucial for developing next-generation radiotherapies and common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. The localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications of core NHEJ factors, might play vital roles for regulation of NHEJ activity. The human Ku heterodimer (Ku70/Ku80) is a core NHEJ factor in the NHEJ pathway and is involved in sensing of DSBs. Companion animals, such as canines, have been proposed to be an excellent model for cancer research, including development of chemotherapeutics. However, the post-translational modifications, localization and complex formation of canine Ku70 have not been clarified. Here, we show that canine Ku70 localizes in the nuclei of interphase cells and that it is recruited quickly at laser-microirradiated DSB sites. Structurally, two DNA-PK phosphorylation sites (S6 and S51), an ubiquitination site (K114), two canonical sumoylation consensus motifs, a CDK phosphorylation motif, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the human Ku70 are evolutionarily conserved in canine and mouse species, while the acetylation sites in human Ku70 are partially conserved. Intriguingly, the primary candidate nucleophile (K31) required for 5’dRP/AP lyase activity of human and mouse Ku70 is not conserved in canines, suggesting that canine Ku does not possess this activity. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of Ku-dependent NHEJ in a canine model and form a platform for the development of next-generation common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. PMID:28163277

  19. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine Ku70.

    PubMed

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2017-03-23

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair machinery, specifically non-homologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), is crucial for developing next-generation radiotherapies and common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. The localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications of core NHEJ factors, might play vital roles for regulation of NHEJ activity. The human Ku heterodimer (Ku70/Ku80) is a core NHEJ factor in the NHEJ pathway and is involved in sensing of DSBs. Companion animals, such as canines, have been proposed to be an excellent model for cancer research, including development of chemotherapeutics. However, the post-translational modifications, localization and complex formation of canine Ku70 have not been clarified. Here, we show that canine Ku70 localizes in the nuclei of interphase cells and that it is recruited quickly at laser-microirradiated DSB sites. Structurally, two DNA-PK phosphorylation sites (S6 and S51), an ubiquitination site (K114), two canonical sumoylation consensus motifs, a CDK phosphorylation motif, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the human Ku70 are evolutionarily conserved in canine and mouse species, while the acetylation sites in human Ku70 are partially conserved. Intriguingly, the primary candidate nucleophile (K31) required for 5'dRP/AP lyase activity of human and mouse Ku70 is not conserved in canines, suggesting that canine Ku does not possess this activity. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of Ku-dependent NHEJ in a canine model and form a platform for the development of next-generation common chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers.

  20. A Nanoscale-Localized Ion Damage Josephson Junction Using Focused Ion Beam and Ion Implanter.

    PubMed

    Wu, C H; Ku, W S; Jhan, F J; Chen, J H; Jeng, J T

    2015-05-01

    High-T(c) Josephson junctions were fabricated by nanolithography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling and ion implantation. The junctions were formed in a YBa2Cu3O7-x, thin film in regions defined using a gold-film mask with 50-nm-wide (top) slits, engraved by FIB. The focused ion beam system parameters for dwell time and passes were set to remove gold up to a precise depth. 150 keV oxygen ions were implanted at a nominal dose of up to 5 x 10(13) ions/cm2 into YBa2Cu3O7-x microbridges through the nanoscale slits. The current-voltage curves of the ion implantation junctions exhibit resistive-shunted-junction-like behavior at 77 K. The junction had an approximately linear temperature dependence of critical current. Shapiro steps were observed under microwave irradiation. A 50-nm-wide slit and 0-20-nm-thick buffer layers were chosen in order to make Josephson junctions due to the V-shape of the FIB-milled trench.

  1. Localized Delivery of Low-Density Lipoprotein Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanoparticles to the Rat Brain using Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mulik, Rohit S.; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1′-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2× more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain. PMID:26790145

  2. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility.

  3. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  4. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Katie L.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering–global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all. PMID:26790462

  5. Correlation of sensorimotor activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography in presurgical functional imaging: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Kober, H; Nimsky, C; Möller, M; Hastreiter, P; Fahlbusch, R; Ganslandt, O

    2001-11-01

    In this study we investigated the spatial heterotopy of MEG and fMRI localizations after sensory and motor stimulation tasks. Both methods are frequently used to study the topology of the primary and secondary motor cortex, as well as a tool for presurgical brain mapping. fMRI was performed with a 1.5T MR system, using echo-planar imaging with a motor and a sensory task. Somatosensory and motor evoked fields were recorded with a biomagnetometer. fMRI activation was determined with a cross-correlation analysis. MEG source localization was performed with a single equivalent current dipole model and a current density localization approach. Distances between MEG and fMRI activation sites were measured within the same anatomical 3-D-MR image set. The central region could be identified by MEG and fMRI in 33 of 34 cases. However, MEG and fMRI localization results showed significantly different activation sites for the motor and sensory task with a distance of 10 and 15 mm, respectively. This reflects the different neurophysiological mechanisms: direct neuronal current flow (MEG) and secondary changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation level of activated versus non activated brain structures (fMRI). The result of our study has clinical implications when MEG and fMRI localizations are used for pre- and intraoperative brain mapping. Although both modalities are useful for the estimation of the motor cortex, a single modality may err in the exact topographical labeling of the motor cortex. In some unclear cases a combination of both methods should be used in order to avoid neurological deficits.

  6. Lommel pulses: an analytic form for localized waves of the focus wave mode type with bandlimited spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Colin J R; Saari, Peeter

    2008-01-07

    A criticism of the focus wave mode (FWM) solution for localized pulses is that it contains backward propagating components that are difficult to generate in many practical situations. We describe a form of FWM where the strength of the backward propagating components is identically zero and derive special cases where the field can be written in an analytic form. In particular, a free-space version of "backward light" pulse is considered, which moves in the opposite direction with respect to all its spectral constituents.

  7. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yi; Lu, Cheng-Biao; Li, Xiao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61273063), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M540215), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203161).

  8. Neural substrates of vulnerability to postsurgical delirium as revealed by presurgical diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Michele; Dai, Weiying; Guttmann, Charles R G; Meier, Dominik S; Ngo, Long H; Hshieh, Tammy T; Callahan, Amy E; Fong, Tamara G; Schmitt, Eva; Dickerson, Bradford C; Press, Daniel Z; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K; Alsop, David C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant impact of postoperative delirium on surgical outcomes and the long-term prognosis of older patients, its neural basis has not yet been clarified. In this study we investigated the impact of premorbid brain microstructural integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging before surgery, on postoperative delirium incidence and severity, as well as the relationship among presurgical cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities and postoperative delirium. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging scans of 136 older (≥70 years), dementia-free subjects from the prospective Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study were analysed blind to the clinical data and delirium status. Primary outcomes were postoperative delirium incidence and severity during the hospital stay, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method. We measured cognition before surgery using general cognitive performance, a composite score based on a battery of neuropsychological tests. We investigated the association between presurgical diffusion tensor imaging parameters of brain microstructural integrity (i.e. fractional anisotropy, axial, mean and radial diffusivity) with postoperative delirium incidence and severity. Analyses were adjusted for the following potential confounders: age, gender, vascular comorbidity status, and general cognitive performance. Postoperative delirium occurred in 29 of 136 subjects (21%) during hospitalization. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, cingulum, corpus callosum, internal capsule, thalamus, basal forebrain, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes, including the hippocampus, were associated with delirium incidence and severity, after controlling for age, gender and vascular comorbidities. After further controlling for general cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and basal forebrain still remained associated with delirium

  9. MRI contrast variation of thermosensitive magnetoliposomes triggered by focused ultrasound: a tool for image-guided local drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lorenzato, Cyril; Cernicanu, Alexandru; Meyre, Marie-Edith; Germain, Matthieu; Pottier, Agnès; Levy, Laurent; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit; Smirnov, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Improved drug delivery control during chemotherapy has the potential to increase the therapeutic index. MRI contrast agent such as iron oxide nanoparticles can be co-encapsulated with drugs in nanocarrier liposomes allowing their tracking and/or visualization by MRI. Furthermore, the combination of a thermosensitive liposomal formulation with an external source of heat such as high intensity focused ultrasound guided by MR temperature mapping allows the controlled local release of the content of the liposome. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), in combination represents a noninvasive technique to generate local hyperthermia for drug release. In this study we used ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) encapsulated in thermosensitive liposomes to obtain thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TSM). The transverse and longitudinal relaxivities of this MRI contrast agent were measured upon TSM membrane phase transition in vitro using a water bath or HIFU. The results showed significant differences for MRI signal enhancement and relaxivities before and after heating, which were absent for nonthermosensitive liposomes and free nanoparticles used as controls. Thus, incorporation of USPIO as MRI contrast agents into thermosensitive liposomes should, besides TSM tumor accumulation monitoring, allow the visualization of TSM membrane phase transition upon temperature elevation. In conclusion, HIFU under MR image guidance in combination with USPIO-loaded thermosensitive liposomes as drug delivery system has the potential for a better control of drug delivery and to increase the drug therapeutic index.

  10. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  11. Adaptive localization of focus point regions via random patch probabilistic density from whole-slide, Ki-67-stained brain tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Yazan M; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda; MdZin, Reena Rahayu; Omar, Khairuddin

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved.

  12. Adaptive Localization of Focus Point Regions via Random Patch Probabilistic Density from Whole-Slide, Ki-67-Stained Brain Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Yazan M.; MdZin, Reena Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved. PMID:25793010

  13. Focused acoustic beam imaging of grain structure and local Young's modulus with Rayleigh and surface skimming longitudinal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R. W.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2013-01-25

    The interaction of a focused acoustic beam with materials generates Rayleigh surface waves (RSW) and surface skimming longitudinal waves (SSLW). Acoustic microscopic investigations have used the RSW amplitude and the velocity measurements, extensively for grain structure analysis. Although, the presence of SSLW has been recognized, it is rarely used in acoustic imaging. This paper presents an approach to perform microstructure imaging and local elastic modulus measurements by combining both RSW and SSLW. The acoustic imaging of grain structure was performed by measuring the amplitude of RSW and SSLW signal. The microstructure images obtained on the same region of the samples with RSW and SSLW are compared and the difference in the contrast observed is discussed based on the propagation characteristics of the individual surface waves. The velocity measurements are determined by two point defocus method. The surface wave velocities of RSW and SSLW of the same regions of the sample are combined and presented as average Young's modulus image.

  14. Resting state BOLD fMRI for pre-surgical planning

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Mudassar; Hacker, Carl D; Allen, Monica G; Mitchell, Timothy J; Leuthardt, Eric C; Snyder, Abraham Z; Shimony, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in the BOLD signal and can be used to elucidate the brain’s functional organization. It can be used to simultaneously assess multiple distributed resting state networks. Unlike task fMRI, rsfMRI does not require task performance and thus can be performed in any subject that can obtain an MRI scan. In this article we present a brief introduction of rsfMRI processing methods followed by a detailed discussion on the use of rsfMRI in pre-surgical planning. Example cases are provided to highlight the strengths and limitations of the technique. PMID:25441506

  15. A New Classification System for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Infants to assist Presurgical Infant Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Daigavane, P S; Hazarey, P V; Niranjane, P; Vasudevan, S D; Thombare, B R; Daigavane, S

    2015-01-01

    The proposed advantages of pre-surgical naso-alveolar moulding (PNAM) are easy primary lip repair which heals under minimum tension reducing the scar formation and improving the aesthetic results in addition to reshaping of alar cartilage and improvement of nasal symmetry.However, the anatomy and alveolar morphology varies for each cleft child; the procedure for PNAM differs accordingly. In an attempt to categorize unilateral cleft lip and palate cases as per anatomical variations, a new classification system has been proposed. This classification aims to give an insight in unilateral cleft morphology based on which modification in PNAM procedure could be done.

  16. Dynamic modulation of electronic properties of graphene by localized carbon doping using focused electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Russell, M; Henry, M; Kim, S S; Naik, R R; Voevodin, A A; Jang, S S; Tsukruk, V V; Fedorov, A G

    2015-09-28

    We report on the first demonstration of controllable carbon doping of graphene to engineer local electronic properties of a graphene conduction channel using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Electrical measurements indicate that an "n-p-n" junction on graphene conduction channel is formed by partial carbon deposition near the source and drain metal contacts by low energy (<50 eV) secondary electrons due to inelastic collisions of long range backscattered primary electrons generated from a low dose of high energy (25 keV) electron beam (1 × 10(18) e(-) per cm(2)). Detailed AFM imaging provides direct evidence of the new mechanism responsible for dynamic evolution of the locally varying graphene doping. The FEBID carbon atoms, which are physisorbed and weakly bound to graphene, diffuse towards the middle of graphene conduction channel due to their surface chemical potential gradient, resulting in negative shift of Dirac voltage. Increasing a primary electron dose to 1 × 10(19) e(-) per cm(2) results in a significant increase of carbon deposition, such that it covers the entire graphene conduction channel at high surface density, leading to n-doping of graphene channel. Collectively, these findings establish a unique capability of FEBID technique to dynamically modulate the doping state of graphene, thus enabling a new route to resist-free, "direct-write" functional patterning of graphene-based electronic devices with potential for on-demand re-configurability.

  17. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  18. Focal therapy for localized unifocal and multifocal prostate cancer: A prospective development study using real time MR guided focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, A.; Caliolo, G.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    To assess safety and feasibility of non-invasive high intensity 3T MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment of localized prostate cancer in an exploratory designed study. Men aged 45-80 years were eligible for this prospective study if they had low-risk localized prostate cancer (prostate specific antigen [PSA] ≤10 ng/mL, Gleason score ≤ 3 + 3), with no previous androgen deprivation or treatment for prostate cancer, and who could safely undergo multiparametric MRI (Discovery 750, GE; Gd-Bopta, Bracco) and have a spinal anesthetic. Patients underwent focal therapy using real time MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), delivered to all known cancer lesions, with a margin of normal tissue. Primary endpoints were adverse events (serious and otherwise) and urinary symptoms and erectile function assessed using patient questionnaires. 8 men were recruited between June 2011 and June 2012. After treatment, one man was admitted to hospital for acute urinary retention. Another patient had self-resolving, mild, intermittent dysuria (median duration 5.0 days). Urinary tract infection was not reported. Urinary debris occurred in 6 men (75%), with a median duration of 12 days. Median overall International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) scores were similar at baseline and at 6 to 12 months (p=0.060), as were median IIEF-15 scores for intercourse satisfaction (p=0.433), sexual desire (p=0.622), and overall satisfaction (p=0.256). There was an improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms, assessed by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), between baseline and 6 to 12 months (p=0.026). All 8 men with no baseline urinary incontinence were leak-free and pad-free by 9 months. No histological evidence of cancer was identified in 7 of 8 men biopsied at 6 months (87,5%); overall, the entire population (8 patients) was free of clinically significant cancer and had no evidence of disease on multi-parametric MRI at 6 to 12 months. MR guided Focused

  19. Twelve years' experience with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using sonablate™ devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Nakano, Muyura; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yoshihiro; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0, biopsy proven, localized prostate cancer, with a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of <30 ng/ml, any Gleason score were included. All patients underwent HIFU using the Sonablate™ (S) device and were required to have a minimal follow-up of 2 years after the last HIFU session to be included in this analysis. Four different generation HIFU devices, S200, S500, S500 version 4 and S500 TCM, have been used for this study. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir+2ng/ml). Seven hundred and fifty-three men with prostate cancer were included. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Former group, 421 patients were treated with S200 and 500 from 1990 to 2005; in the Latter group, 332 patients were treated with S500 ver. 4 and TCM from 2005 to 2009. The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in the Former and Latter groups were 68 and 67 years, 11.3 and 9.7 ng/ml, 6.2 and 6.6, 167 and 101 min, and 49 and 38 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (BDFR) in the groups at 5 years was, respectively, 67% and 53%, and was 50% at 10 years in the Former group (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the Former group at 5 and 10 years were 68% and 65%, 52% and 48%, and 43% and 40%, respectively (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the Latter group at 5 years were 83%, 76%, and 42% (p<0.0001). The negative prostate biopsy rate in the Former and Latter groups was 81% and 93%, respectively. Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 45%, 38%, and 24% of patients at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years after HIFU. The results after long-term follow-up have indicated that HIFU is an efficient and safe treatment for patients with

  20. PET/MRI and PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration in the presurgical evaluation of refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S; Donaire, A; Serès, E; Setoain, X; Bargalló, N; Falcón, C; Sanmartí, F; Maestro, I; Rumià, J; Pintor, L; Boget, T; Aparicio, J; Carreño, M

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the usefulness of coregistration of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (PET/MRI) and of coregistration of PET/MRI with subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) (PET/MRI/SISCOM) in localizing the potential epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. We prospectively included 35 consecutive patients with refractory focal epilepsy whose presurgical evaluation included a PET study. Separately acquired PET and structural MRI images were coregistered for each patient. When possible, ictal SPECT and SISCOM were obtained and coregistered with PET/MRI. The potential location of the epileptogenic zone determined by neuroimaging was compared with the seizure onset zone determined by long-term video-EEG monitoring and with invasive EEG studies in patients who were implanted. Structural MRI showed no lesions in 15 patients. In these patients, PET/MRI coregistration showed a hypometabolic area in 12 (80%) patients that was concordant with seizure onset zone on EEG in 9. In 7 patients without MRI lesions, PET/MRI detected a hypometabolism that was undetected on PET alone. SISCOM, obtained in 25 patients, showed an area of hyperperfusion concordant with the seizure onset zone on EEG in 7 (58%) of the 12 of these patients who had normal MRI findings. SISCOM hyperperfusion was less extensive than PET hypometabolism. A total of 19 patients underwent surgery; 11 of these underwent invasive-EEG monitoring and the seizure onset zone was concordant with PET/MRI in all cases. PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration, performed in 4 of these patients, was concordant in 3 (75%). After epilepsy surgery, 13 (68%) patients are seizure-free after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. PET/MRI and PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration are useful for determining the potential epileptogenic zone and thus for planning invasive EEG studies and surgery more precisely, especially in

  1. An Intelligibility Assessment of Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Received and Did Not Receive Presurgical Infant Orthopedic Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konst, Emmy M.; Weersink-Braks, Hanny; Rietveld, Toni; Peters, Herman

    2000-01-01

    The influence of presurgical infant orthopedic treatment (PIO) on speech intelligibility was evaluated with 10 toddlers who used PIO during the first year of life and 10 who did not. Treated children were rated as exhibiting greater intelligibility, however, transcription data indicated there were not group differences in actual intelligibility.…

  2. An Examination of the Effects of Pre-Surgical Education on Patient Expectations in Total Knee Arthroplasties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez-Ray, Natasha Dawn

    2011-01-01

    As patients prepare for total-knee arthroplasty surgery, they have numerous expectations related to their long-term recovery and function. This research discerned whether the use of a pre-surgical patient education class with an additional long-term expectation module addressing recovery during the first 12 months after surgery was more effective…

  3. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  4. Clinical Application of Spatiotemporal Distributed Source Analysis in Presurgical Evaluation of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), which acquires neuromagnetic fields in the brain, is a useful diagnostic tool in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that MEG affects the planning intracranial electroencephalography placement and correlates with surgical outcomes by using a single dipole model. Spatiotemporal source analysis using distributed source models is an advanced method for analyzing MEG, and has been recently introduced for analyzing epileptic spikes. It has advantages over the conventional single dipole analysis for obtaining accurate sources and understanding the propagation of epileptic spikes. In this article, we review the source analysis methods, describe the techniques of the distributed source analysis, interpretation of source distribution maps, and discuss the benefits and feasibility of this method in evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:24574999

  5. Clinical application of spatiotemporal distributed source analysis in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), which acquires neuromagnetic fields in the brain, is a useful diagnostic tool in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Previous studies have shown that MEG affects the planning intracranial electroencephalography placement and correlates with surgical outcomes by using a single dipole model. Spatiotemporal source analysis using distributed source models is an advanced method for analyzing MEG, and has been recently introduced for analyzing epileptic spikes. It has advantages over the conventional single dipole analysis for obtaining accurate sources and understanding the propagation of epileptic spikes. In this article, we review the source analysis methods, describe the techniques of the distributed source analysis, interpretation of source distribution maps, and discuss the benefits and feasibility of this method in evaluation of epilepsy.

  6. Tailored disconnection based on presurgical evidence in catastrophic epilepsy: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Manjila, Sunil V; Tangen, Rachel B; Cohen, Mark L; Shahid, Asim M; Sweet, Jennifer A; Tuxhorn, Ingrid E; Miller, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Catastrophic epilepsy in infants, often due to extensive cortical dysplasia, has devastating consequences with respect to brain development. Conventional lobar, multilobar, or hemispheric resection in these infants is challenging, carrying an increased operative risk compared with that in older children. Removing a larger tissue volume versus removing or disconnecting the epileptogenic region does not always guarantee better seizure outcome. The authors describe 2 infants with catastrophic epilepsy who benefited from individually tailored disconnections based on a hypothesized epileptogenic zone following intensive presurgical evaluation. Two infants with catastrophic epilepsy and epileptic spasms underwent leukotomies between 3 and 12 months of age. They were followed up postoperatively for 19-36 months. Both patients had 90%-100% seizure reduction and a significantly improved neurodevelopmental outcome without postoperative complication. Cortical malformation was seen in both patients. Modifications of established surgical disconnection techniques, tailored to each patient's specific epileptogenic zone, optimized seizure and neurodevelopmental outcomes while minimizing the risks associated with more extensive resections.

  7. Functional MRI in clinical practice: Assessment of language and motor for pre-surgical planning

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Ramyar; Shoar, Majid Haghighat; Hooshmand, Sina; Mahdavi, Arash; Kharrazi, Homayoon Hadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used for pre-neurosurgical planning and may eventually become a routine pre-surgical imaging modality. The validity of fMRI for clinical application depends on various factors such as proper task selection, correct statistical analysis and threshold setting with appropriate patient cooperation. This study was performed on 40 patients with different types of brain mass lesions or hippocampal sclerosis to assess the role of appropriate patient selection for achieving a reliable fMRI result. Accurate and reproducible fMRI strongly depends on the patient’s cooperation. In this study we observed that a pre-test mock fMRI session held by a radiologist may help to predict which patients are more or less suitable candidates for fMRI. PMID:26443298

  8. Measuring the biological effect of presurgical metformin treatment in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivalingam, V N; Kitson, S; McVey, R; Roberts, C; Pemberton, P; Gilmour, K; Ali, S; Renehan, A G; Kitchener, H C; Crosbie, E J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies in endometrial cancer (EC) show that metformin reduces cellular proliferation by PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that short-term presurgical metformin reduces cellular proliferation in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrioid EC, and assessed the feasibility of using phosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR proteins as tissue end points. Methods: Women with AEH or EC received metformin 850 mg twice a day or no drug in the presurgical window between diagnosis and hysterectomy. Before and after the window, tissue samples were obtained; serum markers of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance index) were determined; and anthropometrics measured (e.g. BMI). Cell proliferation (Ki-67) and PI3K-AKT-mTOR phosphostatus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and scored blinded to treatment. Results: Twenty-eight metformin-treated and 12 untreated patients, well matched for age and BMI, completed the study. Metformin treatment (median 20 days, range 7–34) was associated with a 17.2% reduction in tumour Ki-67 (95% CI −27.4, −7.0, P=0.002), in a dose-dependent manner. Tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus varied but the effects were not significant after adjusting for changes in controls. Conclusions: Short-term metformin was associated with reduced Ki-67 expression in EC. Changes in tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus were seen in both groups. Future studies should address the variability attributed to different sampling techniques including devascularisation of the uterus at hysterectomy. PMID:26794276

  9. Relations between Perceptual and Conceptual Scope: How Global versus Local Processing Fits a Focus on Similarity versus Dissimilarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Nine studies showed a bidirectional link (a) between a global processing style and generation of similarities and (b) between a local processing style and generation of dissimilarities. In Experiments 1-4, participants were primed with global versus local perception styles and then asked to work on an allegedly unrelated generation task. Across…

  10. Anchor Plate Efficiency in Postoperative Orthodontic Treatment Following Orthognathic Surgery via Minimal Presurgical Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Tae-Min; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Song, Seung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency of an anchor plate placed during orthognathic surgery via minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment was evaluated by analyzing the mandibular relapse rate and dental changes. Methods: The subjects included nine patients with Class III malocclusion who had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry in Ajou University Hospital, after minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment. During orthognathic surgery, anchor plates were placed at both maxillary buttresses. The anchor plates were used to move maxillary teeth backward and for maximum anchorage of Class III elastics to minimize mandibular relapse during the postoperative orthodontic treatment. The lateral cephalometric X-ray was taken preoperatively (T0), postoperatively (T1), and one year after the surgery (T2). Seven measurements (distance from Pogonion to line Nasion-Nasion perpendicular [Pog-N Per.], angle of line B point-Nasion and Nasion-Sella [SNB], angle of line maxilla 1 root-maxilla 1 crown and Nasion-Sella [U1 to SN], distance from maxilla 1 crown to line A point-Nasion [U1 to NA], overbite, overjet, and interincisal angle) were taken. Measurements at T0 to T1 and T1 to T2 were compared and differences tested by standard statistical methods. Results: The mean skeletal change was posterior movement by 13.87±4.95 mm based on pogonion from T0 to T1, and anterior movement by 1.54±2.18 mm from T1 to T2, showing relapse of about 10.2%. There were significant changes from T0 to T1 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB (P <0.05). However, there were no statistically significant changes from T1 to T2 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB. U1 to NA that represents the anterior-posterior changes of maxillary incisor did not differ from T0 to T1, yet there was a significant change from T1 to T2 (P <0.05). Conclusion: This study found that the anchor plate minimizes mandibular relapse and moves the maxillary teeth backward during the postoperative

  11. Three-dimensional intracranial EEG monitoring in presurgical assessment of MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng-Fan; Shang, Ming-Chao; Lin, Qiao; Xiao, Hui; Mei, Zhen; Jia, Yan-Zeng; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Zhong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative epilepsy is associated with poor clinical outcomes prognosis. The present study was aimed to assess whether intracranial 3D interictal and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings, a combination of EEG at a different depth, in addition to clinical, scalp EEG, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PETCT) data help to predict outcome in a series of patients with MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) after surgery. Patients with MRI-negative FLE who were presurgically evaluated by 3D-intracranial EEG (3D-iEEG) recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at least 24 months after surgery. Forty-seven patients (15 female) were included in this study. MRI was found normal in 38 patients, whereas a focal or regional hypometabolism was observed in 33 cases. Twenty-three patients (48.9%) were seizure-free (Engel class I), and 24 patients (51.1%) continued to have seizures (12 were class II, 7 were class III, and 5 were class IV). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (17.4%:75%; P = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.9 ± 7.1 s; 1.4 ± 2.9 s; P = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (21.8 ± 20.3 s; 4.9 ± 5.1 s; P = 0.025) in patients without seizure freedom. The results suggest that presurgical evaluation using 3D-iEEG monitoring lead to a better surgical outcome as seizure free in MRI-negative FLE patients. PMID:27977572

  12. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding: A boon to facilitate the surgical repair in infants with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Naik, Saraswathi V.; Deepak, B. M.; Maganti, Rekhamani; Krishna, Chaithanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly. Rehabilitation of CLP generally requires a team approach. Alveolar and nasal reconstruction for these patients is a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Various procedures have been attempted to reduce the cleft gap, so as to obtain esthetic results postsurgically. The presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) technique, developed by Grayson, is a new approach to presurgical infant orthopedics. PNAM reduces the severity of the initial cleft alveolar and nasal deformity. Thus, it enables the surgeon and the patient to enjoy the benefits associated with repair of a cleft deformity that is minimal in severity. This article presents a brief insight into PNAM with a case series of three different cases (one unilateral and two bilateral) which underwent PNAM treatment and gave an excellent surgical prognosis. PMID:27994432

  13. Focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode behind a gradient-index acoustic metalens with local resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.

  14. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  15. Disentangling Stability, Variability and Adaptability in Human Performance: Focus on the Interplay between Local Variance and Serial Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Kjerstin; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    We address the complex relationship between the stability, variability, and adaptability of psychological systems by decomposing the global variance of serial performance into two independent parts: the local variance (LV) and the serial correlation structure. For two time series with equal LV, the presence of persistent long-range correlations…

  16. Evaluation of pre-surgical models for uterine surgery by use of three-dimensional printing and mold casting.

    PubMed

    Sayed Aluwee, Sayed Ahmad Zikri Bin; Zhou, Xiangrong; Kato, Hiroki; Makino, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-04-12

    We propose an approach to supporting pre-surgical planning for the uterus by integrating medical image analysis and physical model generation based on 3D printing. With our method, we first segment the patient-specific anatomy and lesions of the uterus on MR images; then, we create a 3D physical model, an exact replica of the patient's uterus in terms of size and softness, with transparency for easy observation of the internal structures of the uterus. In our experiments, we created pre-surgical models of hysterectomy for five patients who had been diagnosed to have uterine endometrial cancer. An experienced radiologist, the surgeons, and all of the patients cooperated in our experiment for carrying out subjective evaluations of the usefulness of our model. The accuracy of the physical models was evaluated quantitatively by comparison between the MR images of the patients and the CT images of the models. The results showed that the mean values of the errors in gap ranged from 1.19 to 2.22 mm, which was satisfactory for the surgeons. The feedback from both surgeons and patients demonstrated the usefulness and convenience of the models for efficient patient explanation understanding and pre-surgical planning by surgeons.

  17. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced. PMID:26550202

  18. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced.

  19. [Quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy therapy: 1st revised version].

    PubMed

    Rosenow, F; Bast, T; Czech, T; Hans, V; Helmstaedter, C; Huppertz, H-J; Seeck, M; Trinka, E; Wagner, K

    2014-06-01

    In patients with pharmacorefractory epilepsy, preoperative epilepsy evaluation and subsequent epilepsy surgery lead to a significant improvement of seizure control, proportion of seizure-free patients, quality of life and social participation. The aims of preoperative epilepsy evaluation are to define the chance of complete seizure freedom and the likelihood of inducing new neurological deficits in a given patient. As epilepsy surgery is an elective procedure quality standards are particularly high. As detailed in the first edition of these practice guidelines, quality control relates to seven different domains: (1) establishing centres with a sufficient number of sufficiently and specifically trained personnel, (2) minimum technical standards and equipment, (3) continuing medical education of employees, (4) surveillance by trained personnel during the video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM), (5) systematic acquisition of clinical and outcome data, (6) the minimum number of preoperative evaluations and epilepsy surgery procedures and (7) cooperation of epilepsy centres. In the first edition of these practice guidelines published in 2000 it was defined which standards were desirable and that their implementation should be aimed for. These standards related especially to the certification required for different groups of medical doctors involved and to the minimum numbers of procedures required. In the subsequent decade quite a number of colleagues have been certified by the trinational Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft, AG) for Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis and Operative Epilepsy Treatment (http://www.ag-epilepsiechirurgie.de) and therefore, on 8 May 2013 the executive board of the AG decided to now make these standards obligatory.

  20. Evaluation of the factors influencing brain language laterality in presurgical planning.

    PubMed

    Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Hasani, Nafiseh; Gheisari, Sara; Behzad, Ebrahim; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-01

    Brain lesions cause functional deficits, and one treatment for this condition is lesion resection. In most cases, presurgical planning (PSP) and the information from laterality indices are necessary for maximum preservation of the critical functions after surgery. Language laterality index (LI) is reliably estimated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); however, this measure is under the influence of some external factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of a number of factors on language LI, using data from 120 patients (mean age=35.65 (±13.4) years) who underwent fMRI for PSP. Using two proposed language tasks from our previous works, brain left hemisphere was showed to be dominant for the language function, although a higher LI was obtained using the "Word Generation" task, compared to the "Reverse Word Reading". In addition, decline of LIs with age, and lower LI when the lesion invaded brain language area were observed. Meanwhile, gender, lesion side (affected hemisphere), LI calculation strategy, and fMRI analysis Z-values did not statistically show any influences on the LIs. Although fMRI is widely used to estimate language LI, it is shown here that in order to present a reliable language LI and to correctly select the dominant hemisphere of the brain, the influence of external factors should be carefully considered.

  1. A Bayesian non-parametric Potts model with application to pre-surgical FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy D; Liu, Zhuqing; Bartsch, Andreas J; Nichols, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    The Potts model has enjoyed much success as a prior model for image segmentation. Given the individual classes in the model, the data are typically modeled as Gaussian random variates or as random variates from some other parametric distribution. In this article, we present a non-parametric Potts model and apply it to a functional magnetic resonance imaging study for the pre-surgical assessment of peritumoral brain activation. In our model, we assume that the Z-score image from a patient can be segmented into activated, deactivated, and null classes, or states. Conditional on the class, or state, the Z-scores are assumed to come from some generic distribution which we model non-parametrically using a mixture of Dirichlet process priors within the Bayesian framework. The posterior distribution of the model parameters is estimated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, and Bayesian decision theory is used to make the final classifications. Our Potts prior model includes two parameters, the standard spatial regularization parameter and a parameter that can be interpreted as the a priori probability that each voxel belongs to the null, or background state, conditional on the lack of spatial regularization. We assume that both of these parameters are unknown, and jointly estimate them along with other model parameters. We show through simulation studies that our model performs on par, in terms of posterior expected loss, with parametric Potts models when the parametric model is correctly specified and outperforms parametric models when the parametric model in misspecified.

  2. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.

  3. Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of bone metastases: From primary pain palliation to local tumor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, A.; Leonardi, A.; Andrani, F.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of MRgFUS in primary pain palliation of painful bone metastases and in local tumor control. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 consecutive patients (female/male 12/14; age: 64.7±7.5yrs) with painful bone metastases. Before and 3 months after MRgFUS treatment pain severity and pain interference scores were assessed according to Brief Pain Inventory-Quality of Life (BPI-QoL) criteria and patients underwent both CT and MRI. Local tumor control was evaluated according to lesion size, density and perfusion at CT, dynamic contrast enhancement at MRI (Discovery 750HD, GE; Gd-Bopta, Bracco) and metabolic activity at PET or scintigraphy. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Results: No treatment-related adverse events were recorded during the study. As statistically significant difference between baseline and follow-up values for both pain severity and pain interference scores was observed (p<0.05). Increased bone density was observed in 9/26 (34.6%) patients. Non-Perfused Volume values ranged between 20% and 92%. There was no difference in NPV values between responders and non-responders (46.7±24.2% [25 - 90 %] vs. 45±24.9% [20 - 93 %]; p=0.7). In 6 patients (5 prostate and 1 breast primary cancer) there was nearly absence of metabolic activity after treatment (mean SUV=1.2). Conclusion: MRgFUS can be safely and effectively used as the primary treatment for pain palliation in patients with painful bone metastases; moreover our experience demonstrated also a potential role for the MRgFUS in local tumor control.

  4. Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study.

    PubMed

    Cei, Marco; Pardelli, Riccardo; Sani, Spartaco; Mumoli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.

  5. Focused parathyroidectomy without intraoperative parathormone testing is safe after pre-operative localization with (18)F-Fluorocholine PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hocevar, M; Lezaic, L; Rep, S; Zaletel, K; Kocjan, T; Sever, M J; Zgajnar, J; Peric, B

    2017-01-01

    A focused surgical approach based on pre-operative localization replaced the classical four-gland exploration in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Sestamibi scanning and ultrasound are most often used localization modalities with reported sensitivity of 54-100% for identification of single gland disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of pre-operative localization with (18)F-Fluorocholine PET/CT (FCh-PET) in patients with PHP. A retrospective review of 151 patients with PHP who underwent surgery after pre-operative localization with FCh-PET was performed. Only a focused parathyroidectomy without ioPTH testing had been done in patients with single adenoma on FCh-PET. Primary outcome was operative failure, defined as persistent PHP. According to pre-operative FCh-PET 126 (83,4%) patients had single adenoma, 22 (14,5%) multiglandular disease and the test was negative in only two patients. Intraoperative failure experienced 4/126 patients (3,3%) with single adenoma. Removed parathyroid glands were normal in three and hyperplastic in one patient with intraoperative failure. A limited bilateral neck exploration with ioPTH testing was used in 14/22 patients with double adenoma and a classical four-gland exploration without ioPTH testing was used in 8/22 patients with more than two pathological glands according to pre-operative FCh-PET. Intraoperative failure experienced 2/22 patients (9,1%). In two patients with negative FCh-PET a classical four-gland exploration without ioPTH testing was used and one experienced intraoperative failure. A preoperative localization with FCh-PET is a reliable test in patients with PHP. Patients with a single adenoma on FCh-PET can safely undergo a focused parathyroidectomy without ioPTH testing.

  6. [Pre-surgical simulation of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm using 3D-models].

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Toshihiro; Yang, Qiang; Kaneko, Naoki; Konno, Takehiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    We have been performing pre-surgical simulations using custom-built patient-specific 3D-models. Here we report the advantageous use of 3D-models for simulating microvascular decompression(MVD)for hemifacial spasms. Seven cases of MVD surgery were performed. Two types of 3D-printers were used to fabricate the 3D-models:one using plaster as the modeling material(Z Printer®450, 3D systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA)and the other using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS)(UP! Plus 3D printer®, Beijing Tiertime Technology, Beijing). We tested three types of models. Type 1 was a plaster model of the brainstem, cerebellum, facial nerve, and the artery compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve. Part of the cerebellum was digitally trimmed off to observe "the compressing point" from the same angle as that used during actual surgery. Type 2 was a modified Type 1 in which part of the skull was opened digitally to mimic a craniectomy. Type 3 was a combined model in which the cerebellum and the artery of the Type 2 model were replaced by a soft retractable cerebellum and an elastic artery. The cerebellum was made from polyurethane and cast from a plaster prototype. To fabricate elastic arteries, liquid silicone was painted onto the surface of an ABS artery and the inner ABS model was dissolved away using solvent. In all cases, the 3D-models were very useful. Although each type has advantages, the Type-3 model was judged extremely useful for training junior surgeons in microsurgical approaches.

  7. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J.; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors

  8. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors.

  9. Comparative Local Quality Assessment of 3D Medical Image Segmentations with Focus on Statistical Shape Model-Based Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Landesberger, Tatiana von; Basgier, Dennis; Becker, Meike

    2016-12-01

    The quality of automatic 3D medical segmentation algorithms needs to be assessed on test datasets comprising several 3D images (i.e., instances of an organ). The experts need to compare the segmentation quality across the dataset in order to detect systematic segmentation problems. However, such comparative evaluation is not supported well by current methods. We present a novel system for assessing and comparing segmentation quality in a dataset with multiple 3D images. The data is analyzed and visualized in several views. We detect and show regions with systematic segmentation quality characteristics. For this purpose, we extended a hierarchical clustering algorithm with a connectivity criterion. We combine quality values across the dataset for determining regions with characteristic segmentation quality across instances. Using our system, the experts can also identify 3D segmentations with extraordinary quality characteristics. While we focus on algorithms based on statistical shape models, our approach can also be applied to cases, where landmark correspondences among instances can be established. We applied our approach to three real datasets: liver, cochlea and facial nerve. The segmentation experts were able to identify organ regions with systematic segmentation characteristics as well as to detect outlier instances.

  10. Comparison between high-intensity focused ultrasound devices for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hakushi; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Sunao; Uchida, Toyoaki

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the association between long-term clinical outcomes and morbidity of patients with prostate cancer who underwent high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). We included 918 patients with stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer who were treated with Sonablate™ (SB) devices during 1999-2012 and followed-up for >2 years. Risk stratification and complication rates were compared between the treatment groups. The 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates were 89.6% and 97.4%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) rates in the SB200/500, SB500 version 4, and SB500 tissue change monitor groups were 48.3%, 62.3%, and 82.0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, the 10-year bDFS rates for all patients were 63%, 52%, and 32%, respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the 5-year bDFS rates in the tissue change monitor group were 95%, 84%, and 72%, respectively (p = 0.0134). The overall negative biopsy rate was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis showed pre-treatment serum prostate-specific antigen levels, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, and devices as significant predictors (p < 0.0001). Urethral stricture, epididymitis, and urinary incontinence were observed in 19.7%, 6.2%, and 2.3% of the cases, respectively. Long-term follow-up with HIFU demonstrated improved clinical outcomes owing to technical, imaging, and technological advancements.

  11. Does pre-surgical central modulation of pain influence outcome after total knee replacement? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baert, I A C; Lluch, E; Mulder, T; Nijs, J; Noten, S; Meeus, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review whether the presence of altered central pain modulation pre-surgical influences outcome after total knee replacement (TKR) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and if so which indices of central pain modulation predict poor outcome after TKR. To identify relevant articles, PubMed and Web of Science were searched. The search strategy was a combination of key words related to "Knee Osteoarthritis and Total Knee Replacement", "Central Pain Modulation" and "Post-Surgical Outcome Measures". Articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were screened for methodological quality and results were analyzed and summarized. Sixteen prospective cohort studies were included. Strong evidence is available that presence of catastrophic thinking and poor coping strategies predict more pain after TKR and that there is no association between fear of movement and post-surgical pain or function. Evidence on other psychosocial influences is limited or conflicting. Literature on the influence of other signs of altered central pain modulation on post-surgical outcome is scarce. It is plausible that pre-surgical signs of altered central pain modulation, such as joint pain at rest or widespread pain sensitization, predict more post-surgical pain. Surgeons should be attentive for patients with signs of altered central pain modulation before surgery as they might be at risk for unfavorable outcome. A broader therapeutic approach aiming to desensitize the central nervous system can be adapted in these patients. Further research is however needed to identify the influence of central pain modulation pre-surgical in predicting outcome after TKR.

  12. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Using Sonablate® Devices for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Localized Prostate Cancer: 18-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki

    2011-09-01

    From 1993 to 2010, we have treated 156 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 1,052 patients localized prostate cancer high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Four different HIFU devices, SonablateR-200, SonablateR-500, SonablateR-500 version 4 and Sonablate® TCM, have been used for this study. Clinical outcome of HIFU for BPH did not show any superior effects to transurethral resection of the prostate, laser surgery or transurethral vapolization of the prostate. However, HIFU appears to be a safe and minimally invasive therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially low- and intermediate-risk patients. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  13. Formation and microstructural properties of locally distributed ZnSiO3 nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 layer by using a focused electron beam.

    PubMed

    Shin, J W; No, Y S; Kim, T W; Choi, W K

    2008-10-01

    Locally distributed crystalline ZnSiO3 nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 layer inserted between the ZnO thin film and the Si substrate were formed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with a focused electron beam irradiation process. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) profiles showed that ZnSiO3 nanocrystals with a size of approximately 6 nm were formed in the SiO2 layer. The formation mechanisms of the ZnSiO3 nanocrystals in the SiO2 layer are described on the basis of the HRTEM images and the EDS profiles.

  14. Environmental education with a local focus: The development of action competency in community leaders through participation in an environmental leadership program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Karen Jean

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is a historical and theoretical examination of environmental education to promote community leadership in local environmental issues. It begins with an overview of the history of environmental education, historical perspectives of the beginning of the field, ongoing differences in perspectives of practitioners, and its relationship to the larger field of education. Using a prevalent definition of environmental education as education with an aim of promoting actions, which are environmentally responsible and careful, I examine a variety of educational approaches and their results in achieving this objective. Reasons for using a local focus in terms of promotion of community sustainability are explored, and the literature review ends with a discussion of the value of community action through participatory democratic processes. The dissertation is divided into five chapters, covering an introduction to the purpose and significance of the study, literature review, methodology, results and analysis, and conclusion and implications of the research. Two programs, one at a city or urban level and one at a state level, and outcomes for their participants are explored and compared through data collected from interviews, field observation, and program documents. Findings demonstrated the value of a local focus for environmental education programs, plus the importance of experiential learning, or learning through some sort of personal connection and involvement. Examples of the types of experiential learning involved are tours or field trips, role-playing, and games illustrating concepts. Results emphasized the importance of educational process over content, information, or factual knowledge. The urban leadership program demonstrated the value of a local focus and experiential process in increasing motivation for action. The state program demonstrated the value of education of environmental leaders in democratic processes, especially collaboration, inclusion

  15. Assessing Locally Focused Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    either validated by assess- ment or revised. Theory of Change–based assessments support learn - ing and adapting throughout operations. A preliminary...provide intelligence support to the HN LFSO team. Following the Theory of Change outlined above, as well as lessons learned from other LFSO, such as...Services, “ Theory of Change: A Practical Tool for Action, Results and Learning ,” 2004. As of March 19, 2014: http://www.aecf.org/upload

  16. Description of Ictal HFO Mapping in Patients with Both Temporal and Extratemporal Seizure Focus

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Review presurgical use of ictal HFO mapping to detect ictal activation areas with dual seizure focus in both the temporal and extratemporal cortex. Methods. Review of consecutive patients admitted to the University of South Alabama Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (SouthCEP) between January 2014 and October 2015, with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy and intracranial electrode recording. Ictal HFO localization was displayed in 3D reconstructed brain images using the patient's own coregistered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) with the implanted electrodes. Results. Four of fifteen patients showed evidence of extratemporal involvement at the onset of the clinical seizures. Ictal HFO mapping involving both frontal and temporal lobe changed the surgical resection areas in three patients where the initial surgical plan included only the temporal lobe. Resection of the ictal HFO at the onset of the seizure and the initial propagation region was associated with seizure freedom in all patients; follow-up period ranged from 12 to 25 months. Significance. Extratemporal ictal involvement may not have clinical manifestations and may account for surgical failure in temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal HFO mapping is useful to define the ictal cortical network and may help detect an extratemporal focus. PMID:28018675

  17. Dual-color multiple-particle tracking at 50-nm localization and over 100-µm range in 3D with temporal focusing two-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale particle tracking in three dimensions is crucial to directly observe dynamics of molecules and nanoparticles in living cells. Here we present a three-dimensional particle tracking method based on temporally focused two-photon excitation. Multiple particles are imaged at 30 frames/s in volume up to 180 × 180 × 100 µm3. The spatial localization precision can reach 50 nm. We demonstrate its capability of tracking fast swimming microbes at speed of ~200 µm/s. Two-photon dual-color tracking is achieved by simultaneously exciting two kinds of fluorescent beads at 800 nm to demonstrate its potential in molecular interaction studies. Our method provides a simple wide-field fluorescence imaging approach for deep multiple-particle tracking. PMID:27867724

  18. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  19. Non-inductive current built-up by local electron cyclotron heating and current drive with a 28 GHz focused beam on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; Idei, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ohwada, Hiroaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Mishra, Kishore; Shikama, Taichi; Quest Team

    2016-10-01

    The plasma current can be driven solely by injecting electron cyclotron waves (ECWs) in spherical tokamak (ST) configuration. A system of 28 GHz gyrotron (maximum power: 270 kW) is renewed and reinstalled on QUEST. A focused ECW beam, whose diameter is about 5 cm at the second harmonic resonance, is injected for local ECW heating and current drive. The local power density at resonance exceeds 75 MW/m2 at an injection power of 150 kW. The incident ECW polarization can be adjusted employing the phase shifter consisting of two corrugated plates. During 1.25 second pulse of ECH, plasma current is built up to Ip = 70 kA fully non-inductively with a core electron density of ne > 1018 m-3. The closed flux in such ST plasma is determined at the inboard limiter on the center stack. Energetic electrons are also responsible for the pressure and equilibrium. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI (15H04231, 15K17800), NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUTR085, NIFS11KUTR069, NIFS16KUTR114).

  20. Activation of signaling pathways following localized delivery of systemically administered neurotrophic factors across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Deffieux, Thomas; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Small, Scott A.; Morrison, Barclay, III; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have broad neuroprotective effects in addition to its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the efficacy of delivering exogenous BDNF to the left hippocampus is demonstrated in wild-type mice (n = 7) through the noninvasively disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) using focused ultrasound (FUS). The BDNF bioactivity was found to be preserved following delivery as assessed quantitatively by immunohistochemical detection of the pTrkB receptor and activated pAkt, pMAPK, and pCREB in the hippocampal neurons. It was therefore shown for the first time that systemically administered neurotrophic factors can cross the noninvasively disrupted BBB and trigger neuronal downstream signaling effects in a highly localized region in the brain. This is the first time that the administered molecule is tracked through the BBB and localized in the neuron triggering molecular effects. Additional preliminary findings are shown in wild-type mice with two additional neurotrophic factors such as the glia-derived neurotrophic factor (n = 12) and neurturin (n = 2). This further demonstrates the impact of FUS for the early treatment of CNS diseases at the cellular and molecular level and strengthens its premise for FUS-assisted drug delivery and efficacy.

  1. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (i) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (ii) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. PMID:25204643

  2. Localized delivery of doxorubicin in vivo from polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes with MR-guided focused ultrasound-mediated heating

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Terence; Bartolak-Suki, Elizabeth; Park, Eun-Joo; Karrobi, Kavon M.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes have emerged as a viable strategy for localized delivery and triggered release of chemotherapy. MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has the capability of heating tumors in a controlled manner, and when combined with thermosensitive liposomes can potentially reduce tumor burden in vivo. However, the impact of this drug delivery strategy has rarely been investigated. We have developed a unique liposome formulation modified with p(NIPAAm-co-PAA), a polymer that confers sensitivity to both temperature and pH. These polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes (PTSL) demonstrated sensitivity to focused ultrasound, and required lower thermal doses and were more cytotoxic than traditional formulations in vitro. A set of acoustic parameters characterizing optimal release from PTSL in vitro was applied in the design of a combined MRgFUS/PTSL delivery platform. This platform more effectively reduced tumor burden in vivo when compared to free drug and traditional formulations. Histological analysis indicated greater tumor penetration, more extensive ECM remodeling, and greater cell destruction in tumors administered PTSL, correlating with improved response to the therapy. PMID:25151982

  3. Presurgical orthopaedic nasoalveolar molding in cleft lip and palate infants: a comparative evaluation of cases done with and without nasal stents.

    PubMed

    Punga, Rohit; Sharma, S M

    2013-09-01

    Addressing the craniofacial anomaly of cleft lip and palate presurgically has been done since more than 50 years now, with a constant improvisation of the treatment protocols from time to time. The present study deals with a modification of the technique devised 16 years ago. The effect of nasal stents attached to a pre-surgical naso-alveolar molding (PNAM) appliance on the nasal morphology achieved prior to primary surgical correction of the cleft lip was to be evaluated. Twenty subjects, infants with cleft lip and palate, less than 2 months of age were selected for presurgical nasoalveolar molding treatment. Impressions were recorded, casts made and PNAM appliance fabricated. Ten infants were given the appliance without nasal stents and to the other ten appliances nasal stents were added. The patients were recalled every 2-3 weeks and a series of 9 measurements were recorded every visit along with adjustments made to the appliance for desirable effects on the lip, alveolus and nose. This was carried out till the patient was taken up for lip repair. The final measurements obtained at the end of the presurgical treatment were recorded. Mann-Whitney test, between study and control group showed that the increase in the columella length was statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.033) in the study group as compared to the control group. Also the increase of the nasal tip projection (mean = 1.30 mm) in the study group was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.006) as compared to the control group. We concluded that nasal stents attached to the alveolar molding appliance, yield significant improvement of the nasal morphology and better nasal aesthetics presurgically.

  4. Presurgical evaluation of pediatric epilepsy patients prior to hemispherotomy: the prognostic value of (18)F-FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Weidinger, Philip; Gröppel, Gundrun; Karanikas, Georgios; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Kasprian, Gregor; Dorfer, Christian; Dressler, Anastasia; Muehlebner, Angelika; Hacker, Marcus; Czech, Thomas; Feucht, Martha

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)F-FDG PET) can help to predict seizure outcome after hemispherotomy and therefore may be useful in decision making and patient selection. METHODS Children and adolescents less than 18 years of age who underwent (18)F-FDG PET studies during presurgical evaluation prior to hemispherotomy and had follow-up data of at least 12 months after surgery were included. Seizure outcome was classified according to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy. PET data were reevaluated by two specialists in nuclear medicine blinded to clinical data and to MRI. MRI studies were also reinterpreted visually by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to clinical data and PET findings. RESULTS Thirty-five patients (17 girls) with a median age of 5 years (range 0.4-17.8 years) were evaluable. Of the 35 patients, 91.4% were seizure free after surgery, including 100% of those with unilateral (18)F-FDG-PET hypometabolism compared with only 75% of those with bilateral hypometabolism. With respect to MRI, seizure freedom after surgery was observed in 96.4% of the patients with unilateral lesions compared with only 71.4% in those with bilateral MRI lesions. The best seizure outcomes were noted in patients with unilateral findings in both PET and MRI (100% seizure freedom) whereas only 50% of those with bilateral findings in both imaging techniques were seizure free. Furthermore, 100% of the patients with unilateral PET hypometabolism and bilateral MRI findings were also seizure free, but only 87.5% of those with bilateral PET hypometabolism and unilateral MRI findings. CONCLUSIONS According to these results, candidate selection for hemispherotomy can be optimized by the use of (18)F-FDG PET as part of a multimodal presurgical evaluation program, especially in patients with inconsistent (bilateral) MRI findings.

  5. The Use of Susceptibility-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Characterize the Safety Window of Focused Ultrasound Exposure for Localized Blood—Brain-Barrier Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsu, Po-Hong; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound has been discovered to be able to locally and reversibly increase the permeability of the blood—brain barrier (BBB), which can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, side effects such as microhemorrhage, erythrocyte extravasations, or even extensive hemorrhage can also occur. Although current contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI can be used to detect the changes in BBB permeability, its efficacy in detecting tissue hemorrhage after focused-ultrasound sonication remains limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using MR susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to identify tissue hemorrhage associated with the process of BBB permeability increase and characterize the safety window of acoustic pressure level. Brains of 42 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 107 sonications either unilaterally or bilaterally. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, together with SWI were performed. Tissue damage and hemorrhage were analyzed histologically with light microscopy and staining by Evan's blue, HE staining as well as TUNEL staining. Our results showed that contrast-enhanced T1 weighted imaging is sensitive to the presence of the BBB disrupture, but was unable to differentiate from extensive tissue damage such as hemorrhage. Also, SWI proved to be a superior tool for the realtime monitoring of the presence of hemorrhage, which is essential to the clinical concerns. The safety operation window in vivo in our study indicated a pressure of 0.78 to 1.1 MPa. to increase the BBB permeability successfully without hemorrhage. Potential applications such as drug delivery in the brain might be benefited.

  6. Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Manabu; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2006-08-01

    Antibody-based anticancer agents are promising chemotherapeutic agents. Among these agents, Herceptin (trastuzumab), a humanized anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/c-erbB2) monoclonal antibody, has been used successfully in patients with breast cancer. However, in patients with brain metastasis, the blood-brain barrier limits its use, and a different delivery method is needed to treat these patients. Here, we report that Herceptin can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the mouse central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier under image guidance by using an MRI-guided focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier disruption technique. The amount of Herceptin delivered to the target tissue was correlated with the extent of the MRI-monitored barrier opening, making it possible to estimate indirectly the amount of Herceptin delivered. Histological changes attributable to this procedure were minimal. This method may represent a powerful technique for the delivery of macromolecular agents such as antibodies to treat patients with diseases of the central nervous system. brain tumor | microbubble

  7. Site-Specific Preparation of Intact Solid-Liquid Interfaces by Label-Free In Situ Localization and Cryo-Focused Ion Beam Lift-Out.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Michael J; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Estroff, Lara A; Kourkoutis, Lena F

    2016-12-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows atomic scale characterization of solid-solid interfaces, but has seen limited applications to solid-liquid interfaces due to the volatility of liquids in the microscope vacuum. Although cryo-electron microscopy is routinely used to characterize hydrated samples stabilized by rapid freezing, sample thinning is required to access the internal interfaces of thicker specimens. Here, we adapt cryo-focused ion beam (FIB) "lift-out," a technique recently developed for biological specimens, to prepare intact internal solid-liquid interfaces for high-resolution structural and chemical analysis by cryo-STEM. To guide the milling process we introduce a label-free in situ method of localizing subsurface structures in suitable materials by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the depth-probing capability of the technique, and show good qualitative agreement with experiment. We also detail procedures to produce homogeneously thin lamellae, which enable nanoscale structural, elemental, and chemical analysis of intact solid-liquid interfaces by analytical cryo-STEM. This work demonstrates the potential of cryo-FIB lift-out and cryo-STEM for understanding physical and chemical processes at solid-liquid interfaces.

  8. Localized Down-regulation of P-glycoprotein by Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, HongSeok; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Han, Mun; Choi, Jong-ryul; Ahn, Sanghyun; Lee, Taekwan; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Juyoung

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant efflux transporters found in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) acts as a functional barrier, by pumping out most of the drugs into the blood. Previous studies showed focused ultrasound (FUS) induced microbubble oscillation can disrupt the BBB by loosening the tight junctions in the brain endothelial cells; however, no study was performed to investigate its impact on the functional barrier of the BBB. In this study, the BBB in rat brains were disrupted using the MRI guided FUS and microbubbles. The immunofluorescence study evaluated the expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most dominant multi-drug resistant protein found in the BBB. Intensity of the P-gp expression at the BBB disruption (BBBD) regions was significantly reduced (63.2 ± 18.4%) compared to the control area. The magnitude of the BBBD and the level of the P-gp down-regulation were significantly correlated. Both the immunofluorescence and histologic analysis at the BBBD regions revealed no apparent damage in the brain endothelial cells. The results demonstrate that the FUS and microbubbles can induce a localized down-regulation of P-gp expression in rat brain. The study suggests a clinically translation of this method to treat neural diseases through targeted delivery of the wide ranges of brain disorder related drugs. PMID:27510760

  9. Localized Down-regulation of P-glycoprotein by Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hongseok; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Han, Mun; Choi, Jong-Ryul; Ahn, Sanghyun; Lee, Taekwan; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Juyoung

    2016-08-01

    Multi-drug resistant efflux transporters found in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) acts as a functional barrier, by pumping out most of the drugs into the blood. Previous studies showed focused ultrasound (FUS) induced microbubble oscillation can disrupt the BBB by loosening the tight junctions in the brain endothelial cells; however, no study was performed to investigate its impact on the functional barrier of the BBB. In this study, the BBB in rat brains were disrupted using the MRI guided FUS and microbubbles. The immunofluorescence study evaluated the expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most dominant multi-drug resistant protein found in the BBB. Intensity of the P-gp expression at the BBB disruption (BBBD) regions was significantly reduced (63.2 ± 18.4%) compared to the control area. The magnitude of the BBBD and the level of the P-gp down-regulation were significantly correlated. Both the immunofluorescence and histologic analysis at the BBBD regions revealed no apparent damage in the brain endothelial cells. The results demonstrate that the FUS and microbubbles can induce a localized down-regulation of P-gp expression in rat brain. The study suggests a clinically translation of this method to treat neural diseases through targeted delivery of the wide ranges of brain disorder related drugs.

  10. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using Sonablate{trade mark, serif} devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer: 13-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Sunao; Kim, Hakushi; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eight hundred and eighty-four men with prostate cancer treated with Sonablate® (SB) devices were included. All patients were followed for more than 2 years. The patients were divided into three groups: in the first group, 419 patients were treated with SB200/500 from 1999 to 2006; in the second group, 263 patients were treated with SB 500 ver. 4 from 2005 to 2009: in the third group, 202 patients were treated with SB 500 TCM from 2007 up to present. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml). The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in each group were 68, 66 and 67 years, 11.2, 9.7 and 9.3 ng/ml, 6.2, 6.6 and 6.7, 167, 101 and 106 min, and 56, 48 and 36 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (bDFR) in each group at 5 years was, respectively, 54%, 61% and 84%, and was 50% at 10 years in the SB200/500 group (p<0.0001). The bDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in all patients at 10 years were 72% and 58%, 44%, respectively (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the SB500 TCM group at 5 years were 97%, 83%, and 74% (p=0.0056). The negative prostate biopsy rates in 3 groups were 81%, 92% and 88%, respectively. As post HIFU complications, urethral stricture, acute epididymitis and urinary incontinence were noted in 18.0%, 6.2% and 1.9%, respectively. Rectourethral fistula was occurred in 0.6% in the first HIFU cases, Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 27% of patients at 2 years after HIFU. HIFU therapy appears to be minimally invasive, efficacious, and safe for patients with localized prostate cancer. Technological advances as well as cultural and economic vectors have caused a shift from to minimally invasive techniques.

  11. Ten-year Biochemical Disease-free Survival After High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Four Different Generation Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Nakano, M.; Shoji, S.; Omata, T.; Harano, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Usui, Y.; Terachi, T.

    2010-03-09

    HIFU has been recognized as a minimally invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to assess with a long-term outcome of HIFU for prostate cancer. From January 1999, a total of 657 patients who had HIFU with at least 2 year follow-up were treated with four different types of Sonablate registered (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA) devices. Thirty-three patients were treated with Sonablate registered 200 (S200) from 1999 to 2001, 406 patients with Sonablate registered 500 (S500) from 2001 to 2005, 200 patients with Sonablate registered 500 version 4 (V4) from 2005-2008 and 19 patients with Sonablate registered 500 TCM (TCM) from 2007. Biochemical disease-free survival rate (bDFS) in all patients was 59% in 8 years. bDFS in 8 years in patients with S200 and S500 groups were 55% and 56%, and bDFS in 4 and 2 years in patients with V4 and TCM group were 72% and 84%, respectively. bDFS in low, intermediate, and high risk groups were 75%, 54%, and 43% in S200/S500 and 93%, 72%, and 58% in V4/TCM group. Negative prostate biopsy rate after HIFU was 97% in S200, 79% in S500, 94% in V4 and 100% in TCM group. HIFU as primary therapy for prostate cancer is indicated in patients with low- and intermediate-risk (T1-T2b N0M0 disease, a Gleason score of <=7, a PSA level of <20 ng/mL) and a prostate volume of less than 40 mL. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  12. An intelligibility assessment of toddlers with cleft lip and palate who received and did not receive presurgical infant orthopedic treatment.

    PubMed

    Konst, E M; Weersink-Braks, H; Rietveld, T; Peters, H

    2000-01-01

    A randomized, prospective, clinical study was performed investigating the effects of presurgical infant orthopedic treatment (PIO) in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). The influence of PIO on speech intelligibility was evaluated with two groups, each consisting of 10 children with UCLP. One group used PIO during the first year of life, whereas the other group did not use the device. Eight children without cleft served as a second control group. Intelligibility was assessed by lay listeners using two methods: transcription and listener rating. The ratings proved to be reliable and to have sufficient validity, but they did not completely reflect intelligibility defined as the proportion of words understood by the listener. Children in the treatment group were rated as exhibiting greater intelligibility than those in the nontreatment group. However, data obtained by means of transcriptions indicated that, in fact, there were no group differences in actual intelligibility. Only in comparison with their noncleft peers were the children with cleft lip and palate significantly less well understood.

  13. Long-Term Treatment Outcome of Presurgical Nasoalveolar Molding in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Stacey L.; Teichgraeber, John F.; Fleshman, Ruth G.; Shaw, Joi D.; Chavarria, Carmen; Kau, Chung-How; Gateno, Jaime; Xia, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Methods Twenty-five patients with UCLP treated by either PNAM or non-PNAM therapy between 1998 and 2003 were recruited in the study. During the clinical examination and data analysis, the evaluators were blinded to which patients received PNAM. The patients were reviewed clinically, and their facial morphology was captured with a three-dimensional scanner. Their dental arch configuration and occlusion were recorded by plaster dental models. After the patient evaluations and measurements were completed, the patient list was unblinded. There were 20 patients in the PNAM group and 5 patients in the non-PNAM group. Fisher exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the outcomes. Results Clinically, the improvement in the PNAM group was most evident in nasal and lip anatomy. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups on each of the measurements on three-dimensional facial images and dental models. Conclusions Our study suggests a trend toward a long-term clinical improvement in nasal and lip anatomy of UCLP patients treated with PNAM. However, these improved results were not confirmed by three-dimensional stereophotography. There was no statistically significant difference in the long-term three-dimensional anthropometric measurements and dental model analysis between the PNAM group and the non-PNAM group. PMID:21239929

  14. Effects of presurgical exercise training on quality of life in patients undergoing lung resection for suspected malignancy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Peddle, Carolyn J; Jones, Lee W; Eves, Neil D; Reiman, Tony; Sellar, Christopher M; Winton, Timothy; Courneya, Kerry S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of presurgical exercise training on quality of life (QOL) in patients with malignant lung lesions. Using a single-group prospective design, patients were enrolled in supervised aerobic exercise training for the duration of surgical wait time (mean 59.7 days). Participants completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) and QOL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung scales, including the trial outcome index (TOI) and the lung cancer subscale (LCS) at baseline, immediately presurgery, and postsurgery (mean, 57 days). 9 participants provided complete data. Repeated-measures analysis indicated a significant effect for time on TOI (P = .006) and LCS (P = .009). Paired analysis revealed that QOL was unchanged after exercise training (ie, baseline to presurgery), but there were significant and clinically meaningful declines from presurgery to postsurgery in the LCS (-3.6, P = .021) and TOI (-8.3, P = .018). Change in peak oxygen consumption from presurgery to postsurgery was significantly associated with change in the LCS (r = 0.70, P = .036) and TOI (r = 0.70, P = .035). Exercise training did not improve QOL from baseline to presurgery. Significant declines in QOL after surgery seem to be related to declines in cardiorespiratory fitness. A randomized controlled trial is needed to further investigate these relationships.

  15. Pre-surgical Psychological and Neuroendocrine Predictors of Psychiatric Morbidity Following Major Vascular Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Anthony P.; Abelson, James L.; Gholami, Bardia; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Henke, Peter; Graham, Linda; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major life stressors, including major surgeries, are often followed by psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Prior retrospective work found abdominal-aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is followed by increased psychiatric morbidity, which may adversely influence physical and functional recovery. Identifying risk factors prior to surgery, such as dysregulation in stress response systems, might be useful to improving preventative intervention. Methods Two hundred and sixteen patients receiving open AAA or aortofemoral bypass (AFB) surgeries, endovascular AAA repair (EVAR), or nonsurgical AAA treatment were recruited from two vascular surgery services. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol measures (waking, 4 pm, and 11 pm, before and after low-dose dexamethasone) were obtained at intake and 3 and 9 month followups. Results Following open surgeries, 18% of patients had new psychiatric disorders, compared to 4% of patients receiving EVAR or nonsurgical treatment (odds ratio = 6.0, 95% CI 1.6 - 22.1, p=.007). Having a history of major depression predicted onset of new disorders in surgical patients. Pre-surgical cortisol levels were associated with both baseline (r=.23, p<.05) and 9 month (r=.32, p<.01) psychiatric symptoms (cortisol B=1.0, SE=0.48, p<.05 in repeated measures mixed model). Conclusion Open AAA repair surgery is prospectively linked to development of psychiatric morbidity, and history of depression elevates risk. Cortisol measures prior to surgery are associated with current and future psychological functioning, suggesting potential neurobiological mechanisms that may contribute to vulnerability. These results can help identify surgical patients at risk, and point to potential targets for risk reduction interventions. PMID:26461854

  16. Proteomics, and metabolomics: magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the presurgical screening of thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Minuto, Michele N; Shintu, Laetitia; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    We review the progress and state-of-the-art applications of studies in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Imaging as an aid for diagnosis of thyroid lesions of different nature, especially focusing our attention to those lesions that are cytologically undetermined. It appears that the high-resolution of High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning (HRMAS) MRS improves the overall accuracy of the analysis of thyroid lesions to a point that a significant improvement in the diagnosis of cytologically undetermined lesions can be expected. This analysis, in the meantime, allows a more precise comprehension of the alterations in the metabolic pathways induced by the development of the different tumors. Although these results are promising, at the moment, a clinical application of the method to the common workup of thyroid nodules cannot be used, due to both the limitation in the availability of this technology and the wide range of techniques, that are not uniformly used. The coming future will certainly see a wider application of these methods to the clinical practice in patients affected with thyroid nodules and various other neoplastic diseases.

  17. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  18. Herbal medicine: a survey of use in Nigerian presurgical patients booked for ambulatory anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Utilization of herbal medicines in the preoperative period by Nigerian patients booked for day case surgery has not been explored. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 60 patients presenting for day-case surgery at a tertiary healthcare institution over a 3-week period in August 2011 was conducted. Using a structured questionnaire, inquiries were made concerning use of herbal medicines in the immediate preoperative period. Socio-demographic characteristics, information on use of concurrent medical prescriptions, types of herbs used, reasons for use, perceived side effects and perceived efficacy were obtained. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results Fifty-two (86.7%) were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 while 8 (13%) were ASA 2. Most patients (86.7%) had their procedures done under local infiltration with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), while 5.0% and 8.3% had their procedures done under regional and general anaesthesia, respectively. About 48.3% of respondents were on concurrent medical prescriptions while 51.7% were not. Forty percent (40%) of patients admitted to use of herbal medicine, all by the oral route, in the immediate perioperative period; 87.5% did not inform their doctor of their herbal use. Types of herbs used included ‘dogonyaro’, ‘agbo’, ‘nchanwu’, and Tahitian noni. Treatment of malaria was commonest reason for use in 29.2% of patients, while cough and concurrent surgical condition were reasons given by 12.5% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine percent (79.2%) of patients considered their herbal medications effective. Perceived side effects of herbal medication (16.6%) included fever, waist pain and intoxication. There were no variations in use between ASA 1 and ASA 2 patients and none between respondents on conventional medication against those that were not. Variables such as age less than 35 years, female gender, being married and being an urban dweller did not show

  19. Evaluation of the pain and local tenderness in bone metastasis treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Motohiro; Kato, Tomonari; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Koizumi, Norihiro

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that MRgFUS has pain palliative effects on the local pain in patients with bone metastasis. In general, a severity of pain has been evaluated using only subjective method with numerical rating scale (NRS) or visual analogue scale (VAS). It is important to evaluate local pain-palliative effects of MRgFUS treatment with objective and quantitative method. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the severity of local pain of bone metastasis before and after MRgFUS treatments, measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) using pressure algometer, and pain intensity using electrical stimulation device (the Pain Vision system) at most painful site of bone metastasis. We have conducted MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastasis for 8 patients, and evaluated the local tenderness quantitatively for 8 patients, and evaluated local pain intensity for 7 patients. Before the treatments, PPTs were 106.3kPa [40.0-431.5] at metastatic site and 344.8 kPa [206.0-667.0] at normal control site, which showed a significant difference. The PPTs at metastatic site shows a significant increase from 106.3 kPa [40.0-431.5] at the baseline to 270.5 kPa [93.5-533.5] at 3 months after the treatment. The NRS score shows a significant decrease from 6.0 [4-8] at baseline to 1 [0-3] at 3 months after the treatment. Similarly, the pain intensity shows a significant decrease 245 [96.3-888.7] at baseline to 55.9 [2.8-292] at 3 months after the treatment. The results of our study illustrate the pain-relieving effects of MRgFUS for the treatment of painful bone metastasis. PPT might be a useful parameter not only for assessing a treatment's effect, but also for the decision of the painful area to treat with MRgFUS. Pain Vision seems to be useful for quantitative and objective evaluation of local pain of painful bone metastasis.

  20. [Presurgical treatment of axitinib reduced operation risk by downsizing the vena cava tumor thrombus in advanced renal cell carcinomas: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Akihiro; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Terada, Naoki; Sugino, Yoshio; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    In cases of advanced renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus, surgical resection of both tumor and thrombus contributes to the improvement of patient's prognosis, but the risk of perioperative complication is still high. We experienced two cases of advanced renal tumors with IVC tumor thrombus down-sized by presurgical treatment of axitinib. Axitinib treatment showed a marked tumor reduction effect without any severe adverse event. We could remove both tumor and thrombus without perioperative complications. In these two cases, downsizing of IVC thrombus enabled us to reduce the extent of the surgery.

  1. Cross-correlation focus method with an electrostatic sensor array for local particle velocity measurement in dilute gas-solid two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.

  2. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  3. Local control of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic/non-magnetic bilayers by interfacial intermixing induced by focused ion-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. A.; Burn, D. M.; Sallabank, E. A.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D. E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in; Ganguly, A.; Pal, S.; Barman, A. E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in; Hase, T. P. A.

    2014-06-16

    The influence of interfacial intermixing on the picosecond magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic/non-magnetic thin-film bilayers was studied. Low-dose focused-ion-beam irradiation was used to induce intermixing across the interface between a 10 nm Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} layer and a 2–3 nm capping layer of either Au or Cr. Time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect was used to study magnetization dynamics as a function of ion-beam dose. With an Au cap, the damping of the un-irradiated bilayer was comparable with native Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} and increased with increasing ion dose. In contrast, for Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cr the damping was higher than that for native Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}, but the damping decreased with increasing dose.

  4. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  5. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  6. An Evaluation of Hemi-Ablation Therapy Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in the Treatment of Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hashim Uddin; Freeman, Alex; Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex; Illing, Rowland; Emberton, Mark

    2007-05-01

    The current choice for men with localised prostate cancer lies between active surveillance and radical therapy. The best evidence for the difference between these two extremes of care is 5% in terms of cancer-related absolute mortality at 8 years. It is generally accepted that this small difference will decrease for men diagnosed in the PSA-era. Therein lays a dilemma for men. If they choose active surveillance they accept anxiety of living with a cancer diagnosis and risk of under-treatment in the long term. On the other hand, radical therapy carries significant toxicity (incontinence, impotence, rectal problems) because it treats the whole gland and damages surrounding structures in up to half of men. With increasing PSA screening practices men are diagnosed younger with lower risk disease — early stage, lower Gleason grade and lower volume of cancer. Many have unifocal or unilateral disease. We propose a new concept whereby only the tumour focus and a margin of normal tissue is treated. With emerging techniques that can accurately localise tumour in the gland and technology that can treat to within millimetre accuracy, focal therapy of prostate cancer is now possible. By treating focally, the psychological burden of active surveillance is avoided. Equally, it is proposed that toxicity will decrease whilst at the same time retaining effective cancer control.

  7. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  8. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    repeating seasonal patterns in air quality due to shipping, local pollution, and long-range transport.

  9. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    in air quality due to shipping, local pollution, and long-range transport.

  10. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  11. Assessment of cleft lip and palate patients treated with presurgical orthopedic correction and either primary bone grafts, gingivoperiosteoplasty, or without alveolar grafting procedures.

    PubMed

    Grisius, Thomas M; Spolyar, John; Jackson, Ian T; Bello-Rojas, Gustavo; Dajani, Khaled

    2006-05-01

    The effects of alveolar grafting on the development of the craniofacial complex have been reported by numerous investigators. The reported results vary in the literature from significant to very little impediment of maxillary growth. The present work evaluates and compares facial form at age six years in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with presurgical orthopedic correction and primary reconstruction with (1) primary bone grafts (n = 14), (2) gingivoperiosteoplasty (n = II), or (3) without alveolar grafting procedures at the time of lip repair (n = 13). The cohort groups were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOV A). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the three groups for only one of the 12 parameters analyzed. The primary bone grafted group demonstrated less vertical descent-of the anterior maxilla compared to the gingivoperiosteoplasty and non-grafted groups (P = .0027).

  12. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  13. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  14. Presurgical functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) with intravenous echo enhancing agent SonoVue enables determination of language lateralization in epilepsy patients with poor temporal bone windows.

    PubMed

    House, Patrick M; Brückner, Katja E; Lohmann, Hubertus H

    2011-03-01

    Presurgical determination of language lateralization is important for planning and outcome estimation of neurosurgical interventions in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) provides an established measure for language lateralization using the temporal bone windows for continuous recording of the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, because of insufficient temporal bone windows, fTCD cannot be applied properly in every patient. Here, we established stable and sufficient CBFV signals in both MCAs using continuous intravenous application of echo-enhancing agent SonoVue in 7 of 10 patients with poor temporal bone windows and were thus able to determine language lateralization. We conclude that the application of SonoVue can solve one principal disadvantage of fTCD and improves the applicability of the technique as a presurgical functional language lateralization procedure.

  15. Motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping in basal cell carcinoma using optical imaging modalities: initial feasibility study using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, M.; Richardson, T. J.; Craythorne, E.; Mallipeddi, R.; Coleman, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    A system has been developed to assess the feasibility of using motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the clinic using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system consists of a commercial OCT imaging system (the VivoSight 1500, MDL Ltd., Orpington, UK), which has been adapted to incorporate a webcam and a single-sensor electromagnetic positional tracking module (the Flock of Birds, Ascension Technology Corp, Vermont, USA). A supporting software interface has also been developed which allows positional data to be captured and projected onto a 2D dermoscopic image in real-time. Initial results using a stationary test phantom are encouraging, with maximum errors in the projected map in the order of 1-2mm. Initial clinical results were poor due to motion artefact, despite attempts to stabilise the patient. However, the authors present several suggested modifications that are expected to reduce the effects of motion artefact and improve the overall accuracy and clinical usability of the system.

  16. Quantum focusing conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Leichenauer, Stefan; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a universal inequality that unifies the Bousso bound with the classical focusing theorem. Given a surface σ that need not lie on a horizon, we define a finite generalized entropy Sgen as the area of σ in Planck units, plus the von Neumann entropy of its exterior. Given a null congruence N orthogonal to σ , the rate of change of Sgen per unit area defines a quantum expansion. We conjecture that the quantum expansion cannot increase along N . This extends the notion of universal focusing to cases where quantum matter may violate the null energy condition. Integrating the conjecture yields a precise version of the Strominger-Thompson quantum Bousso bound. Applied to locally parallel light-rays, the conjecture implies a novel inequality, the quantum null energy condition, a lower bound on the stress tensor in terms of the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy. We sketch a proof of the latter relation in quantum field theory.

  17. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  18. Exploring effects of presurgical weight loss among women with stage 0–II breast cancer: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Yuko; Rogers, Laura Q; Krontiras, Helen; Grizzle, William E; Frugé, Andrew D; Oster, Robert A; Umphrey, Heidi R; Jones, Lee W; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poorer prognosis for premenopausal and postmenopausal patients; however, the aetiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical studies support weight loss via caloric restriction and increased physical activity as a possible cancer control strategy, though few clinical studies have been conducted. We undertook a feasibility trial among women recently diagnosed with stage 0–II breast cancer hypothesising that presurgical weight loss would be feasible, safe and result in favourable changes in tumour markers and circulating biomarkers. Methods and analysis A two-arm randomised controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese women, newly diagnosed with stage 0–II breast cancer and scheduled for surgery was planned. The attention control arm received upper body progressive resistance training and diet counselling to correct deficiencies in nutrient intake; the experimental arm received the same plus counselling on caloric restriction and aerobic exercise to achieve a weight loss of 0.68–0.919 kg/week. In addition to achieving feasibility benchmarks (accruing and retaining at least 80% of participants, and observing no serious adverse effects attributable to the intervention), we will explore the potential impact of an acute state of negative energy balance on tumour proliferation rates (Ki-67), as well as other tumour markers, serum biomarkers, gene expression, microbiome profiles and other clinical outcomes (eg, quality of life). Outcomes for the 2 study arms are compared using mixed models repeated-measures analyses. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was received from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board (Protocol number F130325009). Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Given that this is one of the first studies to investigate the impact of negative energy balance directly on tumour biology in

  19. Fast presurgical magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal tears and concurrent subchondral bone marrow lesions. Study of dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Olive, J; d'Anjou, M-A; Cabassu, J; Chailleux, N; Blond, L

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal tears and subchondral bone marrow lesions have both been described in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture, but their possible concurrence has not been evaluated. In a population of 14 dogs exhibiting signs of stifle pain with surgically confirmed cranial cruciate ligament rupture, a short presurgical 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol including dorsal proton density, dorsal T1-weighted gradient recalled echo, and sagittal fat-saturated dual echo sequences was tested to further investigate these features and illustrate meniscal tears. Interobserver agreement for detection of medial meniscal tears (k=0.83) and bone marrow lesions (k=0.87) was excellent. Consensus MR reading allowed detection of nine out of 12 surgically confirmed medial meniscal tears and there was no false positive. All dogs had cruciate ligament enthesis-related bone marrow lesions in the tibia, femur or both bones. Additionally, among the 12 dogs with confirmed medial meniscal tears, subchondral bone marrow lesions were present in the caudomedial (9 dogs) and caudoaxial (11 dogs) regions of the tibial plateau, resulting in odds ratios (13.6, p=0.12, and 38.3, p=0.04, respectively) that had large confidence intervals due to the small group size of this study. The other two dogs had neither tibial bone marrow lesions in these locations nor medial meniscal tears. These encouraging preliminary results warrant further investigation using this clinically realistic preoperative MR protocol. As direct diagnosis of meniscal tears remained challenging in dogs even with high-field MR, identification of associated signs such as subchondral bone marrow lesions might indirectly allow suspicion of an otherwise unrecognized meniscal tear.

  20. Comparison of two alcohol-based surgical scrub solutions with an iodine-based scrub brush for presurgical antiseptic effectiveness in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, C; Czubatyj, A M; Briski, L E; Malani, A K

    2007-01-01

    The antiseptic effectiveness and acceptability of a commercial alcohol-based waterless (ABWL) and an alcohol-based water-aided (ABWA) scrub solution were compared with a brush-based iodine solution (BBIS) under conditions encountered in community hospital operating rooms. This randomized partially blinded study was based on guidelines from the American Society for Testing and Methods. The three scrub solutions were compared for antimicrobial efficacy, using criteria within the Food and Drug Administration's Tentative Final Monograph for Healthcare Antiseptic Products (FDA-TFM), and for participants' acceptance of the products. Volunteer surgical staff that worked daily in the same operating room for the entire duration of the study were enrolled. In total, 1126 surgical scrub procedures were performed over the duration of the study. Only the ABWL met all of the FDA-TFM criteria. The BBIS performed better than both of the alcohol-based solutions at the end of Day 1 (P=0.03), but the ABWL was more efficacious than the ABWA and the BBIS at the end of Days 2 and 5 (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). When colony-count reductions were compared over the entire duration of the study, there was no significant difference between the three solutions (P=0.2). The participants found the ABWL easiest to use (P<0.001), with the fewest adverse effects on skin (P=0.007), and it was their preferred product (P<0.001). Although both of the commercially available alcohol-based solutions may be considered as acceptable alternatives to the BBIS for presurgical antisepsis, the ABWL was found to have significantly higher user acceptability.

  1. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  2. Diffusiophoretic Focusing of Suspended Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Nan; Nery-Azevedo, Rodrigo; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-12-01

    Using a microfluidic system to impose and maintain controlled, steady-state multicomponent p H and electrolyte gradients, we present systems where the diffusiophoretic migration of suspended colloids leads them to focus at a particular position, even in steady-state gradients. We show that naively superpositing effects of each gradient may seem conceptually and qualitatively reasonable, yet is invalid due to the coupled transport of these multicomponent electrolytes. In fact, reformulating the classic theories in terms of the flux of each species (rather than local gradients) reveals rather stringent conditions that are necessary for diffusiophoretic focusing in steady gradients. Either particle surface properties must change as a function of local composition in solution (akin to isoelectric focusing in electrophoresis), or chemical reactions must occur between electrolyte species, for such focusing to be possible. The generality of these findings provides a conceptual picture for understanding, predicting, or designing diffusiophoretic systems.

  3. Extensive Lesions in the Gustatory Cortex in the Rat Do Not Disrupt the Retention of a Presurgically Conditioned Taste Aversion and Do Not Impair Unconditioned Concentration-Dependent Licking of Sucrose and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although damage to gustatory cortex (GC) in the rat has been reported to severely impair, if not eliminate, retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion (CTA), it has equivocal effects on taste preference as measured by intake tests. Because intake tests can be influenced by nongustatory (e.g., postingestive) factors, we employed the brief-access taste test to assess the effects of ibotenic acid–induced lesions targeting the GC on unconditioned licking to a sucrose and then a quinine concentration series in a specialized lickometer. As a functional lesion assessment, a presurgical CTA to 0.1M NaCl was established in thirsty rats by following 15-min intake with intraperitoneal administration of either LiCl (or NaCl for control) on 2 occasions. Both conditioned sham-operated (SHAM) rats and rats with histologically confirmed extensive damage to the GC (GCX) avoided a NaCl concentration series relative to unconditioned controls in a postsurgical brief-access CTA test, with no difference between the surgical groups in their responses to NaCl or similar concentrations of KCl. GCX rats also did not differ from SHAM rats in the EC50 of concentration–response functions for sucrose or quinine. Clearly, the critical cortical area required for the retention of a presurgical CTA falls outside of the extensive area of damage, which was well centered within the conventionally defined gustatory zone of the insular cortex. The absence of an effect on unconditioned responsiveness to sucrose and quinine suggests that the damaged region is also unnecessary for the normal expression of affective licking responses to tastants. PMID:24226296

  4. WE-EF-BRA-12: Magnetic Resonance- Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Localized Ablation of Head and Neck Tissue Structures: A Feasibility Study in An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, A; Ellens, N; Noureldine, S; Tufano, R; Burdette, E; Farahani, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is feasible in the head and neck [1]. This study aims to expand upon these findings to assess the feasibility of treatment planning and monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance using a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform. Methods: Two 31 kg pigs were anaesthetized, shaved, and positioned prone on the HIFU table (Sonalleve, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). The necks were acoustically coupled to the integrated transducer using gel pads and degassed water. MR imaging verified acoustic coupling and facilitated target selection in the thyroid and thymus. Targets were thermally ablated with 130–200 W of acoustic power over a period of 16 s at a frequency of 1.2 MHz while being monitored through real-time, multi-planar MR-thermometry. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to assess treatment efficacy. Post-treatment, animals were euthanized and sonicated tissues were harvested for histology assessment. Results: MR-thermometry, post-contrast-imaging, and gross pathology demonstrated that the system was capable of causing localized thermal ablation in both the thyroid and the thymus without damaging the aerodigestive tract. In one animal, superficial bruising was observed in the ultrasound beam path. Otherwise, there were no adverse events. Analysis of the tissue histology found regions of damage consistent with acute thermal injury at the targeted locations. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform for extracorporeal ablation of porcine head and neck tissues. MR guidance and thermometry are sufficient to target and monitor treatment in the thyroid region, despite the presence of the inhomogeneous aerodigestive tract. Further study is necessary to assess efficacy and survival using a tumor model, and to examine what modifications should be made to the transducer positioning system and associated patient positioning aids to adapt it for clinical head and neck targets

  5. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of…

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  7. Light focusing in the Anderson regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonetti, Marco; Karbasi, Salman; Mafi, Arash; Conti, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    Anderson localization is a regime in which diffusion is inhibited and waves (also electromagnetic waves) get localized. Here we exploit adaptive optics to achieve focusing in disordered optical fibres in the Anderson regime. By wavefront shaping and optimization, we observe the generation of a propagation-invariant beam, where light is trapped transversally by disorder, and show that Anderson localizations can be also excited by extended speckled beams. We demonstrate that disordered fibres allow a more efficient focusing action with respect to standard fibres in a way independent of their length, because of the propagation-invariant features and cooperative action of transverse localizations.

  8. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bob L; Bhatia, Sanjay; Carpenter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., > 20 mm) of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were > 20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64%) the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  10. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish…

  11. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  12. Localization of focal epileptic discharges using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Liu, Hesheng; Sepulcre, Jorge; Tanaka, Naoaki; Buckner, Randy L.; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Object In patients with medically refractory epilepsy the accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is critical for successful surgical treatment. The object of this study was to investigate whether the degree of coupling of spontaneous brain activity as measured with functional connectivity MR imaging (fcMR imaging) can accurately identify and localize epileptic discharges. Methods The authors studied 6 patients who underwent fcMR imaging presurgical mapping and subsequently underwent invasive electroencephalography. Results Focal regions of statistically significant increases in connectivity were identified in 5 patients when compared with an ad hoc normative sample of 300 controls. The foci identified by fcMR imaging overlapped the epileptogenic areas identified by invasive encephalography in all 5 patients. Conclusions These results suggest that fcMR imaging may provide an effective high–spatial resolution and noninvasive method of localizing epileptic discharges in patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21351832

  13. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  14. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  15. The focused ethnographic study 'assessing the behavioral and local market environment for improving the diets of infants and young children 6 to 23 months old' and its use in three countries.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Siekmann, Jonathan; Schofield, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a focused ethnographic study (FES) emerged as a new methodology to answer specific sets of questions that are required by agencies, policymakers, programme planners or by project implementation teams in order to make decisions about future actions with respect to social, public health or nutrition interventions, and for public-private partnership activities. This paper describes the FES on complementary feeding that was commissioned by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and highlights findings from studies conducted in three very different country contexts (Ghana, South Africa and Afghanistan) burdened by high levels of malnutrition in older infants and young children (IYC). The findings are analysed from the perspective of decision-making for future interventions. In Ghana, a primary finding was that in urban areas the fortified, but not instant cereal, which was being proposed, would not be an appropriate intervention, given the complex balancing of time, costs and health concerns of caregivers. In both urban and rural South Africa, home fortification products such as micronutrient powders and small quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are potentially feasible interventions, and would require thoughtful behaviour change communication programmes to support their adoption. Among the important results for future decision-making for interventions in Afghanistan are the findings that there is little cultural recognition of the concept of special foods for infants, and that within households food procurement for IYC are in the hands of men, whereas food preparation and feeding are women's responsibilities.

  16. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  17. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  18. Focus, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2001

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of 2000-2001 "Focus" present a collection of papers focusing on issues related to poverty. The first issue discusses child support enforcement policy and low-income families, highlighting such issues as fragile families and child wellbeing; low-income families and the child support enforcement system; child support…

  19. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  20. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities.

  1. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  2. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  3. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  4. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  5. Inertial focusing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Martel, Joseph M; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-07-11

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future.

  6. Final focus nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  7. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  8. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  9. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  10. New NLC Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.

    2004-10-11

    A novel design of the Final Focus has recently been proposed [1] and has been adopted now for the Next Linear Collider [2]. This new design has fewer optical elements and is much shorter, nonetheless achieving better chromatic properties. In this paper, the new final focus system is briefly discussed stressing one particular characteristic of the new design--its multi TeV energy reach.

  11. Localization of dense intracranial electrode arrays using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Werner K.; Halgren, Eric; Carlson, Chad; Belcher, Thomas L.; Cash, Sydney S.; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial electrode arrays are routinely used in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and recordings from these electrodes have been increasingly employed in human cognitive neurophysiology due to their high spatial and temporal resolution. For both researchers and clinicians, it is critical to localize electrode positions relative to the subject-specific neuroanatomy. In many centers, a post-implantation MRI is utilized for electrode detection because of its higher sensitivity for surgical complications and the absence of radiation. However, magnetic susceptibility artifacts surrounding each electrode prohibit unambiguous detection of individual electrodes, especially those that are embedded within dense grid arrays. Here, we present an efficient method to accurately localize intracranial electrode arrays based on pre- and post-implantation MR images that incorporates array geometry and the individual's cortical surface. Electrodes are directly visualized relative to the underlying gyral anatomy of the reconstructed cortical surface of individual patients. Validation of this approach shows high spatial accuracy of the localized electrode positions (mean of 0.96 mm±0.81 mm for 271 electrodes across 8 patients). Minimal user input, short processing time, and utilization of radiation-free imaging are strong incentives to incorporate quantitatively accurate localization of intracranial electrode arrays with MRI for research and clinical purposes. Co-registration to a standard brain atlas further allows inter-subject comparisons and relation of intracranial EEG findings to the larger body of neuroimaging literature. PMID:22759995

  12. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  13. Presurgical evaluation for partial epilepsy: Relative contributions of chronic depth-electrode recordings versus FDG-PET and scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Henry, T.R.; Risinger, M.W.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Sutherling, W.W.; Levesque, M.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1990-11-01

    One hundred fifty-three patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy underwent chronic stereotactic depth-electrode EEG (SEEG) evaluations after being studied by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scalp-sphenoidal EEG telemetry. We carried out retrospective standardized reviews of local cerebral metabolism and scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets to determine when SEEG recordings revealed additional useful information. FDG-PET localization was misleading in only 3 patients with temporal lobe SEEG ictal onsets for whom extratemporal or contralateral hypometabolism could be attributed to obvious nonepileptic structural defects. Two patients with predominantly temporal hypometabolism may have had frontal epileptogenic regions, but ultimate localization remains uncertain. Scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets were misleading in 5 patients. For 37 patients with congruent focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets and temporal hypometabolic zones, SEEG recordings never demonstrated extratemporal or contralateral epileptogenic regions; however, 3 of these patients had nondiagnostic SEEG evaluations. The results of subsequent subdural grid recordings indicated that at least 1 of these patients may have been denied beneficial surgery as a result of an equivocal SEEG evaluation. Weighing risks and benefits, it is concluded that anterior temporal lobectomy is justified without chronic intracranial recording when specific criteria for focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG onsets are met, localized hypometabolism predominantly involves the same temporal lobe, and no other conflicting information has been obtained from additional tests of focal functional deficit, structural imaging, or seizure semiology.

  14. Focused local anesthesia and analgesia for head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Herlich, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Facility in the use of head and neck regional blocks will provide excellent perioperative analgesia and patient satisfaction. The scope of ambulatory surgical care for head and neck surgery will undoubtedly increase as expertize in these blocks expand in the face of strict criteria for patient selection. Supplemental sedation will be more precise with the intended result of less hangover and nausea and vomiting.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic study and the Wada test for presurgical evaluation of expressive and receptive language functions in glioma patients: with a case report of dissociated language functions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yosuke; Uzuka, Takeo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-02-29

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be useful for the evaluation of language lateralization in healthy subjects, infants, and epileptic patients. This study for the first time investigated the expressive and receptive language functions separately, using NIRS in presurgical glioma patients. We also describe a special case with dissociated pattern of language functions. Ten glioma patients were examined. Using NIRS, the hemodynamic changes during a verb generation task or story listening task were measured in the cerebral hemisphere on either side covering the language areas. Following the NIRS study, the Wada test was performed in all the patients. The NIRS study revealed increases of oxyhemoglobin and decreases of deoxyhemoglobin in the language areas elicited by both tasks. In 9 patients, who were all right-handed, the expressive and receptive language functions were lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results of the NIRS study were completely consistent with those of the Wada test. In the remaining 1 patient with a right sided insular glioma, who was right-handed, the NIRS study revealed stronger activation of the right inferior frontal region during the verb generation task, and stronger activation of the left superior temporal region during the story listening task. This dissociated language function was validated by the Wada test and the postoperative neurological course. These results demonstrate that a NIRS study using our technique is extremely valuable for preoperative assessment of the language functions and exemplifies how a preoperative NIRS study can allow detection of unforeseen language lateralization.

  16. NICMOS focus monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is used to determine and monitor the optimal focus and tilt settings for all three NICMOS cameras. It is derived from SM2/NIC 7041, but is structurally quite a bit different. This proposal is built to run NIC1/2 focus sweeps on a weekly basis, and NIC3 focus sweeps twice a week during SMOV {following the "interim" runs of the 7150}. 7043 will run for as long as it is deemed necessary to keep track of the camera focii and to monitor the dewar anomaly. After the discussion on 20/3/96, this proposal is written to run 4 complete 1-week iterations starting 3 days after the last run of the 7150 {NICMOS COARSE OPTICAL ALIGNMENT, PART 2}.

  17. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  18. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  19. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    PubMed

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  20. Electrolysis and isoelectric focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Lui, Roger; Yu, Xun

    1994-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors prove the existence of steady-state solutions for a three-species electrolyte. The species are subject to both dissociation-association reactions inside the electrolyte and electrochemical reactions at the boundary electrodes. This is a common occurrence in electrolysis. In the second part, the authors investigate how to use this model to describe isoelectric focusing, which is a common technique used to separate large protein molecules. In particular, the isoelectric focusing point for a particular type of protein molecule is calculated using formal perturbation analysis.

  1. Focus on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Donald S., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on issues in bilingual education. First, Elizabeth Flynn examines different kinds of bilingual programs; efforts made towards cultural pluralism in a number of countries; national benefits to be derived from bilingualism; the needs of American ethnic groups, new immigrants, and foreign students; and the pros and…

  2. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  3. ENC Focus Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    The mission of the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC) is to identify effective curriculum resources, create high-quality professional development materials, and disseminate useful information and products to improve K-12 mathematics and science teaching and learning. This issue of "ENC Focus" contains articles related to mathematics teaching…

  4. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  5. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  6. Focus on Grandparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    Following the birth of a handicapped child, both parent and grandparent experience similar feelings of consternation, shock, and grief. The grandparents' reaction is double, however, as they suffer not only for the newborn but for their own child's pain as well. This article focuses on dealing with grief and its stages, including numbness, denial,…

  7. Focus on Phase Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Victor H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    In this thematic issue, articles focus on the use of phase electives in the English classroom. Discussions include "Death in the Classroom,""Soapbox Operas in the English Classroom,""Language and History in Phase-Elective Programs,""Phase Electives and the Problem of Composition," and "Phase Electives and College Preparation.""Phase Electives Are…

  8. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  9. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  10. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly…

  11. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman)…

  12. Focus on Godard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Royal S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series presents selected information about the respected and controversial French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard and his films. Information is documented through reports of interviews, reviews, essays, and commentaries. Included are filmographies of Godard's films, beginning in 1954 and continuing through 1972. Also, there is a selected…

  13. A FOCUS On Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Susan

    1998-01-01

    William McKinley Middle School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has a parent volunteer program called FOCUS that targets average students who are not doing well academically. Program goals are to improve students' organizational skills, help them complete homework assignments, and reteach and preview lessons to increase understanding, so that students will…

  14. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  15. Focus on Refugees. Transcript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandel, Sarah; And Others

    This is the transcript of the "Focus on Refugees," proqram conducted by the Overseas Development Council. Remarks from the following participants are included: (1) Sarah Brandel, Associate Fellow at the Overseas Development Council; (2) Gary Perkins, Chief of Mission of the Washington Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees…

  16. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  17. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state…

  18. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from…

  19. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  20. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding,…

  1. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and…

  2. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central…

  3. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World…

  4. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  5. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  6. Lifelong Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the need for adult literacy programs, as well as recent innovations in literacy education. "Adult Literacy and Leadership: Current Innovations" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes an adult literacy outreach program in Texas, and discusses the importance of family literacy for parents' involvement in their…

  7. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  8. Neocortical focus: experimental view.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation.

  9. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  10. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  11. Local aspects of sleep: observations from intracerebral recordings in humans.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Lino; De Gennaro, Luigi; Proserpio, Paola; Moroni, Fabio; Sarasso, Simone; Pigorini, Andrea; De Carli, Fabrizio; Ferrara, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Human sleep is considered a global phenomenon, orchestrated by central specialized neuronal networks modulating the whole-brain activity. However, recent studies point to a local regulation of sleep. Sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) features of sleep and wakefulness might be simultaneously present in different cerebral regions. Recently, intracranial EEG recording techniques, mainly applied for the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients, have provided new and interesting information on the activity of different cortical and subcortical structures during sleep in humans. In particular, it has been observed that the thalamus, during the transition between wake and sleep undergoes a deactivation process that precedes the one occurring within the cortex, with extensive cortical territories maintaining an activated pattern for several minutes after the thalamic deactivation. Very recent intracerebral EEG studies have also shown that human NREM sleep can be characterized by the coexistence of wake-like and sleep-like EEG patterns in different cortical areas. Moreover, unit-firing recordings in multiple brain regions of neurosurgical patients evidenced that most sleep slow waves and the underlying active and inactive neuronal states do occur locally. These findings add a new dimension to the concept of local sleep regulation and opens new perspectives in the interpretation of the substrates underlying behavioral states of vigilance. The implications for sleep medicine are also discussed.

  12. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  13. Focused Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P V

    2000-04-30

    The diffraction broadening of a focused beam with a Bessel amplitude distribution is examined. Calculations are reported not only of the traditional differential characteristics (radial distributions of the electric-energy densities and of the axial total electromagnetic energy flux in the beam), but also of integral quantities characterising the degree of transverse localisation of the radiation in a tube of specified radius within the beam. It is shown that in a large-aperture Bessel beam only a very small fraction of the total beam power is concentrated in its central core and that a focal point is also observed on intense focusing of the Bessel beam. This spot is not in the geometric-optical focal plane but is displaced from the latter by a certain distance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  15. Focused on Robert E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shows a geological feature dubbed 'Robert E.' Light from the top is illuminating the feature, which is located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Several images, each showing a different part of 'Robert E' in good focus, were merged to produce this view. The area in this image, taken on Sol 15 of the Opportunity mission, is 2.2 centimeters (0.8 inches) across.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  17. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  18. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  19. Local entrainment of oscillatory activity induced by direct brain stimulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Julià L.; Vernet, Marine; Adam, Claude; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    In a quest for direct evidence of oscillation entrainment, we analyzed intracerebral electroencephalographic recordings obtained during intracranial electrical stimulation in a cohort of three medication-resistant epilepsy patients tested pre-surgically. Spectral analyses of non-epileptogenic cerebral sites stimulated directly with high frequency electrical bursts yielded episodic local enhancements of frequency-specific rhythmic activity, phase-locked to each individual pulse. These outcomes reveal an entrainment of physiological oscillatory activity within a frequency band dictated by the rhythm of the stimulation source. Our results support future uses of rhythmic stimulation to elucidate the causal contributions of synchrony to specific aspects of human cognition and to further develop the therapeutic manipulation of dysfunctional rhythmic activity subtending the symptoms of some neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:28256510

  20. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R.; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L.; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  1. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  2. Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of PIA04196 Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    Spirit used its microscopic imager to take this mosaic of the rock 'Haussmann' on martian day, or sol, 563 (August 3, 2005). The specific target is nicknamed 'Rue Legendre.' The rounded nature of the pebbles indicates that they were eroded on the surface before being embedded into the Haussmann rock. The size of the larger of the two pebbles is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches). The rock probably formed from impact ejecta, consistent with other rocks Spirit discovered during its climb to the summit of 'Husband Hill.'

  3. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  4. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  5. Trastuzumab Benefits Women with Locally Advanced or Inflammatory

    Cancer.gov

    Women treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin) and chemotherapy before surgery and trastuzumab again after surgery had a reduced risk of the disease recurring or progressing compared with women who received pre-surgical chemotherapy but no trastuzumab, accord

  6. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  7. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation.

  8. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  9. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  10. Focus on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen E.; Schröter, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Ordinary fluids mix themselves through thermal motions, or can be even more efficiently mixed by stirring. In contrast, granular materials such as sand often unmix when they are stirred, shaken or sheared. This granular segregation is both a practical means to separate materials in industry, and a persistent challenge to uniformly mixing them. While segregation phenomena are ubiquitous, a large number of different mechanisms have been identified and the underlying physics remains the subject of much inquiry. Particle size, shape, density and even surface roughness can play significant roles. The aim of this focus issue is to provide a snapshot of the current state of the science, covering a wide range of packing densities and driving mechanisms, from thermal-like dilute systems to dense flows.

  11. Focus awards 2002.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi

    2003-03-22

    The dental team at Zetland House Clinic are a particularly innovative group. As a result of their parent hospital being the first to complete a whole organization clinical governance programme run by the NHS Modernization Agency, they were consequently the first dental team to do so. Now the clinic is a better place to work where the staff are proud of their clinic and the work that they do. The changes that resulted through their experiences of the program have benefited the patients and staff alike, and was such a success story that they have been taken as an example for the Modernisation Agency website to illustrate good practice in clinical governance. These changes and the way they approached their involvement in the program also earned the Zetland House team a place on the finalist list of the 2002 Focus Awards.

  12. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  13. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond…

  14. Global and Local Textuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, B. G.

    Coherence and cohesion are fundamental considerations of the composing process that help to define the global and local components of texuality. Global text coherence centers on those aspects of the familiar rhetorical situation. Coherence operates at the paragraph and essay levels, answering questions about focus, tone, mode, topic, and thesis.…

  15. Use of resting-state fMRI in planning epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi; Stern, John M; Engel, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures result from abnormal neuronal excitability and synchronization, affecting 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. Although anti-seizure drugs are often effective, a significant number of patients with epilepsy continue to experience refractory seizures and are candidates for surgical resection. Whereas standard presurgical evaluation has relied on intracranial electroencephalography (icEEG) and direct cortical stimulation to identify epileptogenic tissue and areas of cortex for which resection would produce clinical deficits, the invasive nature and limited spatial extent of icEEG has led to the investigation of less invasive imaging modalities as adjunctive tools in the presurgical workup. In the past few decades, functional connectivity MRI has emerged as a promising approach for presurgical mapping, leading to a surge in the number of proposed methods and biomarkers for identifying epileptogenic tissue. This review focuses on recent advances in the use of functional connectivity MRI toward its application for presurgical planning, including epilepsy localization and eloquent cortex mapping.

  16. Muscle and eye movement artifact removal prior to EEG source localization.

    PubMed

    Hallez, Hans; Vergult, Anneleen; Phlypo, Ronald; Van Hese, Peter; De Clercq, Wim; D'Asseler, Yves; Van de Walle, Rik; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2006-01-01

    Muscle and eye movement artifacts are very prominent in the ictal EEG of patients suffering from epilepsy, thus making the dipole localization of ictal activity very unreliable. Recently, two techniques (BSS-CCA and pSVD) were developed to remove those artifacts. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the removal of muscle and eye movement artifacts improves the EEG dipole source localization. We used a total of 8 EEG fragments, each from another patient, first unfiltered, then filtered by the BSS-CCA and pSVD. In both the filtered and unfiltered EEG fragments we estimated multiple dipoles using RAP-MUSIC. The resulting dipoles were subjected to a K-means clustering algorithm, to extract the most prominent cluster. We found that the removal of muscle and eye artifact results to tighter and more clear dipole clusters. Furthermore, we found that localization of the filtered EEG corresponded with the localization derived from the ictal SPECT in 7 of the 8 patients. Therefore, we can conclude that the BSS-CCA and pSVD improve localization of ictal activity, thus making the localization more reliable for the presurgical evaluation of the patient.

  17. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  18. White Light Focusing Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  19. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  20. Local gravitomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1990-10-01

    In a simple two-body system, the gravitomagnetic components of the metric in the local quasi-inertial frame of one of the bodies is calculated. The local geometry in this frame which is freely falling along the geodesic but is directionally fixed with respect to distant stars is primarily defined by the gravitomagnetic components of the local metric. This metric serves to track down the various contributions from the local and distant source and thus provides further insight to the nature of gravitomagnetism. As a result it is shown that in the quasi-inertial frame geodetic precession is a gravitomagnetic phenomenon. Furthermore a connection between local gravitomagnetic effects and Einstein's principle of equivalence is established.

  1. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  2. Climate adaptation: Cultural knowledge and local risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    A focus on African American communities on the Eastern Shore of Maryland highlights the ways that local cultural knowledge differs from place to place, developing understanding of local climate risks and resources for adaptation.

  3. Monosized dripping mode of axisymmetric flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Mazo, Francisco; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2016-11-01

    We identify and analyze the perfectly regular dripping mode of flow focusing. This mode occurs within narrow intervals of injected flow rates and applied pressure drops and leads to homogeneous-size droplets with diameters similar to or smaller than that of the discharge orifice. The balance between the local acceleration of the fluid particle and the applied pressure drop yields the scaling law for the droplet diameter. This scaling law is validated experimentally with excellent accord.

  4. Local theory for Mott-Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sudeshna; Terletska, Hanna; Moreno, Juana; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Jarrell, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The paramagnetic metallic phase of the Anderson-Hubbard model (AHM) is investigated using a nonperturbative local moment approach within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory with a typical medium. Our focus is on the breakdown of the metallic phase near the metal-insulators transition as seen in the single-particle spectra, scattering rates, and the associated distribution of Kondo scales. We demonstrate the emergence of a universal, underlying low-energy scale, TKpeak. This lies close to the peak of the distribution of Kondo scales obtained within the metallic phase of the paramagnetic AHM. Spectral dynamics for energies ω ≲TKpeak display Fermi liquid universality crossing over to an incoherent universal dynamics for ω ≫TKpeak in the scaling regime. Such universal dynamics indicate that within a local theory the low to moderately low-energy physics is governed by an effective, disorder renormalized Kondo screening.

  5. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  6. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  7. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  8. Focus vernier for optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William H.; Barouch, Eytan; Hollerbach, Uwe; Orszag, Steven A.

    1993-08-01

    As the depth of focus of optical steppers grows smaller, it becomes more important to determine the position of best focus accurately and quickly. This paper describes the use of phase-shifted mask technology to form a focus vernier: a phase pattern on the stepper reticle which, when imaged in resist, can give both the magnitude and the direction of the focus error. In this, the focus vernier structure is analogous to 3overlay verniers. Thus the determination of focus error can be treated as an alignment problem in the z-axis. This technique is an improvement on previous schemes for the determination of best focus from resist images as it can indicate both the magnitude of the error and its direction in a single exposure.

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    represent two-photon power spectra of arbitrarily and adaptively shaped broadband laser pulses M A Montgomery and N H Damrauer Accurate and efficient implementation of the von Neumann representation for laser pulses with discrete and finite spectra Frank Dimler, Susanne Fechner, Alexander Rodenberg, Tobias Brixner and David J Tannor Coherent strong-field control of multiple states by a single chirped femtosecond laser pulse M Krug, T Bayer, M Wollenhaupt, C Sarpe-Tudoran, T Baumert, S S Ivanov and N V Vitanov Quantum-state measurement of ionic Rydberg wavepackets X Zhang and R R Jones On the paradigm of coherent control: the phase-dependent light-matter interaction in the shaping window Tiago Buckup, Jurgen Hauer and Marcus Motzkus Use of the spatial phase of a focused laser beam to yield mechanistic information about photo-induced chemical reactions V J Barge, Z Hu and R J Gordon Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection S D McGrane, R J Scharff, M Greenfield and D S Moore Mode selectivity with polarization shaping in the mid-IR David B Strasfeld, Chris T Middleton and Martin T Zanni Laser-guided relativistic quantum dynamics Chengpu Liu, Markus C Kohler, Karen Z Hatsagortsyan, Carsten Muller and Christoph H Keitel Continuous quantum error correction as classical hybrid control Hideo Mabuchi Quantum filter reduction for measurement-feedback control via unsupervised manifold learning Anne E B Nielsen, Asa S Hopkins and Hideo Mabuchi Control of the temporal profile of the local electromagnetic field near metallic nanostructures Ilya Grigorenko and Anatoly Efimov Laser-assisted molecular orientation in gaseous media: new possibilities and applications Dmitry V Zhdanov and Victor N Zadkov Optimization of laser field-free orientation of a state-selected NO molecular sample Arnaud Rouzee, Arjan Gijsbertsen, Omair Ghafur, Ofer M Shir, Thomas Back, Steven Stolte and Marc J J Vrakking Controlling the sense of molecular rotation Sharly Fleischer

  10. Making the Localism Vision a Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Chris

    2010-01-01

    A focus on adult learning has been quietly driving an increase in local activism among those who traditionally have had the least "voice". It is precisely this kind of grassroots activity that will enable the vision of local democracy and the Big Society to be implemented. In this article, the author hopes to show how a focus on adult…

  11. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  12. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  13. Focused RF hyperthermia using magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Tasci, T Onur; Vargel, Ibrahim; Arat, Anil; Guzel, Elif; Korkusuz, Petek; Atalar, Ergin

    2009-05-01

    Heat therapies such as hyperthermia and thermoablation are very promising approaches in the treatment of cancer. Compared with available hyperthermia modalities, magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) yields better results in uniform heating of the deeply situated tumors. In this approach, fluid consisting of superparamagnetic particles (magnetic fluid) is delivered to the tumor. An alternating (ac) magnetic field is then used to heat the particles and the corresponding tumor, thereby ablating it. However, one of the most serious shortcomings of this technique is the unwanted heating of the healthy tissues. This results from the magnetic fluid diffusion from the tumor to the surrounding tissues or from incorrect localization of the fluids in the target tumor area. In this study, the authors demonstrated that by depositing appropriate static (dc) magnetic field gradients on the alternating (ac) magnetic fields, focused heating of the magnetic particles can be achieved. A focused hyperthermia system was implemented by using two types of coils: dc and ac coils. The ac coil generated the alternating magnetic field responsible for the heating of the magnetic particles; the dc coil was used to superimpose a static magnetic field gradient on the alternating magnetic field. In this way, focused heating of the particles was obtained in the regions where the static field was dominated by the alternating magnetic field. In vitro experiments showed that as the magnitude of the dc solenoid currents was increased from 0 to 1.8 A, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the superparamagnetic particles 2 cm apart from the ac solenoid center decreased by a factor of 4.5, while the SAR of the particles at the center was unchanged. This demonstrates that the hyperthermia system is capable of precisely focusing the heat at the center. Additionally, with this approach, shifting of the heat focus can be achieved by applying different amounts of currents to individual dc solenoids. In vivo

  14. Focused RF hyperthermia using magnetic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Tasci, T. Onur; Vargel, Ibrahim; Arat, Anil; Guzel, Elif; Korkusuz, Petek; Atalar, Ergin

    2009-01-01

    Heat therapies such as hyperthermia and thermoablation are very promising approaches in the treatment of cancer. Compared with available hyperthermia modalities, magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) yields better results in uniform heating of the deeply situated tumors. In this approach, fluid consisting of superparamagnetic particles (magnetic fluid) is delivered to the tumor. An alternating (ac) magnetic field is then used to heat the particles and the corresponding tumor, thereby ablating it. However, one of the most serious shortcomings of this technique is the unwanted heating of the healthy tissues. This results from the magnetic fluid diffusion from the tumor to the surrounding tissues or from incorrect localization of the fluids in the target tumor area. In this study, the authors demonstrated that by depositing appropriate static (dc) magnetic field gradients on the alternating (ac) magnetic fields, focused heating of the magnetic particles can be achieved. A focused hyperthermia system was implemented by using two types of coils: dc and ac coils. The ac coil generated the alternating magnetic field responsible for the heating of the magnetic particles; the dc coil was used to superimpose a static magnetic field gradient on the alternating magnetic field. In this way, focused heating of the particles was obtained in the regions where the static field was dominated by the alternating magnetic field. In vitro experiments showed that as the magnitude of the dc solenoid currents was increased from 0 to 1.8 A, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the superparamagnetic particles 2 cm apart from the ac solenoid center decreased by a factor of 4.5, while the SAR of the particles at the center was unchanged. This demonstrates that the hyperthermia system is capable of precisely focusing the heat at the center. Additionally, with this approach, shifting of the heat focus can be achieved by applying different amounts of currents to individual dc solenoids. In vivo

  15. Automated detection of ocular focus.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David G; Nusz, Kevin J; Gandhi, Nainesh K; Quraishi, Imran H; Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2004-01-01

    We characterize objectively the state of focus of the human eye, utilizing a bull's eye photodetector to detect the double-pass blur produced from a point source of light. A point fixation source of light illuminates the eye. Fundus-reflected light is focused by the optical system of the eye onto a bull's eye photodetector [consisting of an annulus (A) and a center (C) of approximately equal active area]. To generate focus curves, C/A is measured with a range of trial lenses in the light path. Three human eyes and a model eye are studied. In the model eye, the focus curve showed a sharp peak with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of +/-0.25 D. In human eyes, the ratio C/A was >4 at best focus in all cases, with a FWHM of +/-1 D. The optical apparatus detects ocular focus (as opposed to refractive error) in real time. A device that can assess focus rapidly and objectively will make it possible to perform low-cost, mass screening for focusing problems such as may exist in children at risk for amblyopia.

  16. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951

  17. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  18. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The notion 'molecular electronics' has been used more frequently since the 1970s and summarizes a series of physical phenomena and ideas for their application in connection with organic molecules, oligomers, polymers, organic aggregates and solids. The properties studied in this field were connected to optical and electrical phenomena, such as optical absorption, fluorescence, nonlinear optics, energy transport, charge transfer, electrical conductance, and electron and nuclear spin-resonance. The final goal was and is to build devices which can compete or surpass some aspects of inorganic semiconductor devices. For example, on the basis of organic molecules there exist rectifiers, transistors, molecular wires, organic light emitting diodes, elements for photovoltaics, and displays. With respect to applications, one aspect of the organic materials is their broad variability and the lower effort and costs for their processability. The step from microstructures to the investigation of nanostructures is a big challenge also in this field and has lead to what nowadays is called molecular electronics in its narrow sense. In this field the subjects of the studies are often single molecules, e.g. single molecule optical spectroscopy, electrical conductance, i.e. charge transport through a single molecule, the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom, etc. A challenge here is to provide the techniques for addressing in a reproducible way the molecular scale. In another approach small molecular ensembles are studied in order to avoid artefacts from particular contact situations. The recent development of the field is presented in [1-8]. In this Focus Issue we present new results in the field of 'molecular electronics', both in its broad and specialized sense. One of the basic questions is the distribution of the energy levels responsible for optical absorption on the one hand and for the transport of charge on the other. A still unanswered question is whether the Wannier

  20. FOCUSing on Innovative Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, Eric; Holman, Zak, Angel, Roger

    2016-03-02

    Many of ARPA-E’s technology programs seek to break down silos and build new technological communities around a specific energy challenge. In this video, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Technology Eric Rohlfing, discusses how the Full-Spectrum Optimized Conversion and Utilization of Sunlight (FOCUS) program is bringing together the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) communities to develop hybrid solar energy systems. This video features interviews with innovators from the FOCUS project team made up by Arizona State University and the University of Arizona, and showcases how the FOCUS program is combining.

  1. FOCUSing on Innovative Solar Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    Rohlfing, Eric; Holman, Zak, Angel, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Many of ARPA-E’s technology programs seek to break down silos and build new technological communities around a specific energy challenge. In this video, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Technology Eric Rohlfing, discusses how the Full-Spectrum Optimized Conversion and Utilization of Sunlight (FOCUS) program is bringing together the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) communities to develop hybrid solar energy systems. This video features interviews with innovators from the FOCUS project team made up by Arizona State University and the University of Arizona, and showcases how the FOCUS program is combining.

  2. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. Isoelectric focusing in a drop.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noah G; Hayes, Mark A; Garcia, Antonio A; Ansari, Rafat R

    2011-01-04

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split-resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3-10) in ampholyte buffers, and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by noninvasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady-state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop, and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

  4. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  5. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Focusing on Contact Lens Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... substantial consumer injury. Back to top Types of Contact Lenses General categories Soft contact lenses. These are ...

  6. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  7. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  8. Oculometer focus and mirror control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic focusing system designed around an ultrasonic range measurement is described. Besides maintaining the focus, subject distance is a by-product which could lighten the NOVA computational effort. An automatic head tracking unit is also discussed. It is intended to reduce the search time required when track is lost. An X-Y ultrasonic measurement is also made in this design to control the deflection mirrors.

  9. Focusing of bistatic SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bia, Pietro; Ricci, Nicola; Zonno, Mariantonietta; Nico, Giovanni; Catalao, Joao; Tesauro, Manlio

    2014-10-01

    The problems of simulation of bistatic SAR raw data and focusing are studied. A discrete target simulator is described. The simulator introduces the scene topography and compute the integration time of general bistatic configurations providing a means to derived maps of the range and azimuth spatial resolutions. The problem of focusing of bistatic SAR data acquired in a translational-invariant bistatic configuration is studied by deriving the bistatic Point Target Reference spectrum and presenting an analytical solution for its stationary points.

  10. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  11. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-02-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  12. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  13. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  14. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  15. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, A M; Ramírez-Piscina, L; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K

    2013-04-14

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ∼t(-1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ∼t(-1).

  16. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasta, A. M.; Ramírez-Piscina, L.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ˜t-1/2 to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ˜t-1.

  17. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  18. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  19. Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.

    2007-05-01

    We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a satellite drop, produced by the pinch-off of a water drop from a vertical nozzle. The large oscillations following the contraction of the satellite bridge focus waves at the bottom, sending out a 30μm jet at 9.9m/s. The second jet arises when a water drop, containing surfactants, falls onto and passes through a hemispherical soap film. The gentle deformation of the drop creates a surface wave that focuses at its top, shooting out a tiny jet and entrapping a small bubble inside the drop. This jet is 16±5μm in diameter and emerges at 6.3m/s. In this configuration, the soap film wraps around the drop and acts as a sensor of the air flow, revealing that the liquid jet is preceded by a localized faster-moving air jet. The jetting in both configurations is quite robust and occurs even for slightly asymmetric conditions. These microjets appear for much lower values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers than previously observed, suggesting that free-surface jetting is not limited to the inviscid capillary-inertial regime, which has been the focus of much of the theoretical work.

  20. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…

  1. Organizing for Schooling. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on schoolwide approaches to issues of major concern to educators, from the perspective of providing equal education for all children. "Supporting School Improvement in Reading through Professional Development" (Rogelio Lopez del Bosque, Abelardo Villarreal) describes a professional development program that…

  2. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  3. Where's the Focus on Racism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Benjamin O.

    1995-01-01

    America still refuses to deal with racism's effects on a child's character development. The "Focus on the Family" agenda must become part of the school's agenda, but it cannot be based on one religion's teachings, as Linda Page suggests ("A Conservative Christian View on Values," this issue). Public schools must teach the facts…

  4. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  5. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  6. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  7. Brief therapy: focused solution development.

    PubMed

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M

    1986-06-01

    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  8. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  9. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  10. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  11. Staying in School. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on issues related to high Texas dropout rates among Hispanic and other minority group students and on dropout prevention strategies. "School Finance Inequities Mean Schools Are Not Ready To Teach" (Maria Robledo Montecel) deplores the recent Texas Supreme Court ruling that state educational funding is…

  12. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content,…

  13. Evaluating Pragmatics-Focused Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Elizabeth; Basturkmen, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Learners often find the area of pragmatics (that is, using speech acts such as requesting, inviting, and complimenting) problematic. Teachers are urged to teach pragmatic aspects of language, and make use of authentic samples of spoken discourse to do so. However, information about the effectiveness of pragmatics-focused instruction of this nature…

  14. Law-Focused Education: Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Malcolm Price Lab. School.

    This law-focused resource booklet is intended to help secondary level students learn about the civil law portion of Iowa's judicial system. The materials are designed to help students understand how to deal with conflict in a peaceful and orderly manner and how to cope with decision making in personal law situations as related to the family, the…

  15. Teaching and Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles that focus on teaching and learning strategies to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Would You Read Me a Story?: In Search of Reading Strategies That Work for the Early Childhood Classroom" (Hilaria Bauer)…

  16. Local Foods, Local Places Summary Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These summary reports describe Local Foods, Local Places projects in communities across the country, including farmers markets, cooperatives, community gardens, and other food-related enterprises that can boost local economies and drive revitalization.

  17. Reconstituting Local Government for Well-Being and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    This speech advocates substantial change in the structure and management of local governments and school districts. The discussion focuses on a reconstitution of mission, philosophy, broad goals, and features of local school governance and management. The speaker asserts that the focus of local government around the nation should individually and…

  18. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  19. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  20. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  1. The neural dynamics of sensory focus

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Stephen E.; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated sensory and motor system activity leads to efficient localization behaviours; but what neural dynamics enable object tracking and what are the underlying coding principles? Here we show that optimized distance estimation from motion-sensitive neurons underlies object tracking performance in weakly electric fish. First, a relationship is presented for determining the distance that maximizes the Fisher information of a neuron's response to object motion. When applied to our data, the theory correctly predicts the distance chosen by an electric fish engaged in a tracking behaviour, which is associated with a bifurcation between tonic and burst modes of spiking. Although object distance, size and velocity alter the neural response, the location of the Fisher information maximum remains invariant, demonstrating that the circuitry must actively adapt to maintain ‘focus' during relative motion. PMID:26549346

  2. Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy—A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Shafirstein, Gal; Bellnier, David; Oakley, Emily; Hamilton, Sasheen; Potasek, Mary; Beeson, Karl; Parilov, Evgueni

    2017-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies have shown that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) is a promising modality in the treatment of locally-advanced cancerous tumors. However, the utilization of I-PDT has been limited to several centers. The objective of this focused review is to highlight the different approaches employed to administer I-PDT with photosensitizers that are either approved or in clinical studies for the treatment of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, and brain cancer. Our review suggests that I-PDT is a promising treatment in patients with large-volume or thick tumors. Image-based treatment planning and real-time dosimetry are required to optimize and further advance the utilization of I-PDT. In addition, pre- and post-imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast may be utilized to assess the response. PMID:28125024

  3. Problems of Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on Problems of and Services Provided for Runaway and Homeless Youth, Focusing on Support to State and Local Governments and Nonprofit Agencies for the Development of Community-Based Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    These hearings, focusing on financial support for community-based programs dealing with problems of runaway and homeless youths, explore the scope of the problem, types of activities which are being undertaken, and paths for future action. Testimony and prepared statements are presented by several witnesses including a commissioner of the…

  4. Inertial focusing cytometer with integrated optics for particle characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Kenneth T.; Petrofsky, Anne C.; Haghgooie, Ramin; Granier, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic inertial focusing has been shown as a simple and effective method to localize cells and particles within a flow cell for interrogation by an external optical system. To enable portable point of care optical cytometry, however, requires a reduction in the complexity of the large optical systems that are used in standard flow cytometers. Here, we present a new design that incorporates optical waveguides and focusing elements with an inertial focusing flow cell to make a compact robust cytometer capable of enumerating and discriminating beads, cells, and platelets. PMID:25346940

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on terahertz plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Marco; Nahata, Ajay; Akalin, Tahsin; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonics is one of the growing fields in modern photonics that has garnered increasing interest over the last few years. In this focus issue, the specific challenges concerning terahertz plasmonics have been addressed and most recent advances in this specific field have been highlighted. The articles demonstrate the diversity and the opportunities of this rich field by covering a variety of topics ranging from the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on artificially structures surfaces, 2D manipulation of surface plasmons and SPPs, plasmonic focusing, plasmonic high-Q resonators for sensing applications, plasmonically enhanced terahertz antennas to terahertz field manipulation by use of plasmonic structures. The articles substantiate the impact of plasmonics and its great innovative potential for terahertz technology. In memory of Professor Mario Sorolla Ayza.

  6. Editor's Comment on Focus Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Focus Issues have been a key ingredient of Optics Express in the first six months, as every reader will have noticed. They are new to OSA journals, an innovation by Optics Express that was invented more or less out of thin air. I thought it would be useful to write a few paragraphs about them, since they are so new and still not familiar to most members of the optics community.

  7. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    scene analysis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT u c. THIS PAGE u 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT uu 18. NUMBER OF...humans can communicate in complex acoustic scenes , we must understand the dynamics of focusing, sustaining, and switching selective auditory ...many of whom deal with complex acoustic scenes full of competing sources (where selective auditory attention is challenging in the best of

  8. Focused Mission High Speed Combatant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-09

    hull types to determine which hull type best meets the requirements for the Focused Mission High Speed Combatant. The first step in the analysis...MAPC, uses parametric models and scaling to create high level designs of various hull types. The inputs are desired speed , range, payload, sea state...reached 10 SWATH vessels exhibit superior seakeeping at near zero speed compared to other hull forms 5 Assumes 2 equal-sized GE Gas Turbines 11

  9. Nozzles for Focusing Aerosol Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) October 2009 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES...Figures Figure 1. The design of the first-generation aerodynamic focusing nozzle for aerosol particles used for SPFS and TAOS instrument prototypes...Some nozzles were fabricated in aluminum and some in steel. It has been used for SPFS and TAOS measurement technologies both in the laboratory and

  10. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  11. Shifting the Focus of Validity for Test Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    The conventional focus of validity in educational measurement has been on intended interpretations and uses of test scores. Empirical studies of test use by teachers, administrators and policy-makers show that actual interpretations and uses of test scores in context are invariably shaped by local users' questions, which frequently require…

  12. Using Solution Focused Brief Therapy in Individual Referrals for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sue; Holdorf, Gail

    2003-01-01

    The authors work in a city local education authority Special Educational Needs Support Service with an Anti-Bullying Project that continues to develop effective approaches to dealing with bullying in schools. This paper describes the project's use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) and reports on the outcomes of a large number of…

  13. The quest for customer focus.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  14. A focused bibliography on robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  15. Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

  16. Ventilation mapping of chest using Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, M. Abdul; Ferdous, Humayra; Baig, Tanvir Noor; Siddique-e-Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Focused Impedance Method (FIM) provides an opportunity for localized impedance measurement down to reasonable depths within the body using surface electrodes, and has a potential application in localized lung ventilation study. This however needs assessment of normal values for healthy individuals. In this study, localized ventilation maps in terms of electrical impedance in a matrix formation around the thorax, both from the front and the back, were obtained from two normal male subjects using a modified configuration of FIM. For this the focused impedance values at full inspiration and full expiration were measured and the percentage difference with respect to the latter was used. Some of the measured values would have artefacts due to movements of the heart and the diaphragm in the relevant anatomical positions which needs to be considered with due care in any interpretation.

  17. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  18. Multiperspective Focus+Context Visualization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Lin; Popescu, Voicu

    2016-05-01

    Occlusions are a severe bottleneck for the visualization of large and complex datasets. Conventional images only show dataset elements to which there is a direct line of sight, which significantly limits the information bandwidth of the visualization. Multiperspective visualization is a powerful approach for alleviating occlusions to show more than what is visible from a single viewpoint. However, constructing and rendering multiperspective visualizations is challenging. We present a framework for designing multiperspective focus+context visualizations with great flexibility by manipulating the underlying camera model. The focus region viewpoint is adapted to alleviate occlusions. The framework supports multiperspective visualization in three scenarios. In a first scenario, the viewpoint is altered independently for individual image regions to avoid occlusions. In a second scenario, conventional input images are connected into a multiperspective image. In a third scenario, one or several data subsets of interest (i.e., targets) are visualized where they would be seen in the absence of occluders, as the user navigates or the targets move. The multiperspective images are rendered at interactive rates, leveraging the camera model's fast projection operation. We demonstrate the framework on terrain, urban, and molecular biology geometric datasets, as well as on volume rendered density datasets.

  19. Future focus for professional development.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole K; Coplit, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Professional development has evolved from individually focused sabbaticals and professional leaves to institutionally focused programs with an interest in developing faculty members' ability to teach in various environments as well as to succeed in the many endeavors they undertake. We address various issues related to professional development in the medical school arena. Professional development in medical school takes place in a context where faculty are stretched to engage in research and service not only for their own sake but also to financially support their institutions. This obligates professional developers to acknowledge and address the environments in which teaching faculty work, and to use approaches to professional development that honor the time and efforts of teaching faculty. These approaches may be brief interventions that make use of principles of education, and may include online offerings. Professional development will be most effective when professional developers acknowledge that most faculty members aspire to excellence in teaching, but they do so in an environment that pushes them to address competing concerns. Offering professional development opportunities that fit within the workplace environment, take little time, and build upon faculty's existing knowledge will assist in enhancing faculty success.

  20. Development of a Focusing DIRC

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, J.; Bedajanek, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Suzuki, K.; Schwiening, J.; Uher, J.; Va'vra, J.; /SLAC

    2006-12-12

    Benefiting from the recent introduction of new fast vacuum-based photon detectors with a transit time spread of {sigma}{sub TTS} {approx} 30-150 ps, we are developing a novel RICH detector capable of correcting the chromatic error through good time measurements; we believe that this is the first time such a technique has been demonstrated. We have built and successfully tested a particle identification detector called ''Focusing DIRC''. The concept of the prototype is based on the BaBar DIRC, with several important improvements: (a) much faster pixelated photon detectors based on Burle MCP-PMTs and Hamamatsu MaPMTs, (b) a focusing mirror which allows the photon detector to be smaller and less sensitive to background in future applications, (c) electronics allowing the measurement of single photon timing to better than {sigma} {approx} 100-200ps, which allows a correction of the chromatic error. The detector was tested in a SLAC 10GeV/c electron test beam. This detector concept could be used for particle identification at Super B-factory, ILC, GlueX, Panda, etc.

  1. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  2. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  3. Local and Global Thinking in Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…

  4. Parent Involvement in Local Chapter 1 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, E. Deborah; Shields, Patrick M.

    This report focuses on the involvement of parents in local projects funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. It researches the kind and extent of involvement, the impact of state and local factors on it, and the effect of the change from Title I to Chapter…

  5. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  6. Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Thomas E.

    The book provides practical guidelines for the layman who is interested in researching, writing, and publishing local history. Two standards considered to be essential to the writing of local history are ethics and competence. The three aspects of competence which are discussed focus on researching, writing, and publishing. Chapter I identifies…

  7. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  8. Spike voltage topography and equivalent dipole localization in complex partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J S; Wade, P B

    1990-01-01

    The EEG of 45 patients with complex partial epilepsy was recorded from standard and supplementary inferior temporal electrode sites for 2 or more days via cable telemetry onto video (VHS) tape (22-25 channels, common reference). Epochs with "temporal spikes" were read into a topographic EEG device where individual spikes were visually identified and averaged in sums of 8-32. Analysis of spike voltage topography revealed two distinct patterns - dipolar, Type 1 and non-dipolar, Type 2. One or the other spike type predominated in all but two patients. Application of source modeling techniques (3 shells, single dipole, 6 parameters) to the spike topography data revealed that both spike types had similar equivalent dipoles in terms of location and orientation, except for vector elevation. However, calculated dipoles for Type 1 spikes were more stable over the course of the spike peak. Correlations with clinical data and intracranial EEG suggest that Type 1 spikes originate in mesial temporal structures, while Type 2 spikes arise from temporal or frontal neocortex. Spike voltage topography and equivalent dipole localization appear to be useful in the presurgical evaluation of patients with focal epilepsy.

  9. Electrode Localization for Planning Surgical Resection of the Epileptogenic Zone in Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Taimouri, Vahid; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Tomas-Fernandez, Xavier; Peters, Jurriaan M.; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Poduri, Annapurna; Takeoka, Masanori; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Bergin, Ann Marie R.; Harini, Chellamani; Madsen, Joseph R.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In planning for a potentially curative resection of the epileptogenic zone in patients with pediatric epilepsy, invasive monitoring with intracranial EEG is often used to localize the seizure onset zone and eloquent cortex. A precise understanding of the location of subdural strip and grid electrodes on the brain surface, and of depth electrodes in the brain in relationship to eloquent areas is expected to facilitate pre-surgical planning. Methods We developed a novel algorithm for the alignment of intracranial electrodes, extracted from post-operative CT, with pre-operative MRI. Our goal was to develop a method of achieving highly accurate localization of subdural and depth electrodes, in order to facilitate surgical planning. Specifically, we created a patient-specific 3D geometric model of the cortical surface from automatic segmentation of a pre-operative MRI, automatically segmented electrodes from post-operative CT, and projected each set of electrodes onto the brain surface after alignment of the CT to the MRI. Also, we produced critical visualization of anatomical landmarks, e.g. vasculature, gyri, sulci, lesions or eloquent cortical areas, which enables the epilepsy surgery team to accurately estimate the distance between the electrodes and the anatomical landmarks, which might help for better assessment of risks and benefits of surgical resection. Results Electrode localization accuracy was measured using knowledge of the position of placement from 2D intra-operative photographs in ten consecutive subjects who underwent intracranial EEG for pediatric epilepsy. Average spatial accuracy of localization was 1.31±0.69mm for all 385 visible electrodes in the photos. Conclusions In comparison to previously reported approaches, our algorithm is able to achieve more accurate alignment of strip and grid electrodes with minimal user input. Unlike manual alignment procedures, our algorithm achieves excellent alignment without time consuming and difficult

  10. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  11. Clustering instability of focused swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Nadal, Francois

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of active matter is its rich nonlinear dynamics and instabilities. Recent numerical simulations of phototactic algae showed that a thin jet of swimmers, obtained from hydrodynamic focusing inside a Poiseuille flow, was unstable to longitudinal perturbations with swimmers dynamically clustering (Jibuti L. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90, (2014) 063019). As a simple starting point to understand these instabilities, we consider in this paper an initially homogeneous one-dimensional line of aligned swimmers moving along the same direction, and characterise its instability using both a continuum framework and a discrete approach. In both cases, we show that hydrodynamic interactions between the swimmers lead to instabilities in density for which we compute the growth rate analytically. Lines of pusher-type swimmers are predicted to remain stable while lines of pullers (such as flagellated algae) are predicted to always be unstable.

  12. Hormone Purification by Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1985-01-01

    Various ground-based research approaches are being applied to a more definitive evaluation of the natures and degrees of electroosmosis effects on the separation capabilities of the Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) process. A primary instrumental system for this work involves rotationally stabilized, horizontal electrophoretic columns specially adapted for the IEF process. Representative adaptations include segmentation, baffles/screens, and surface coatings. Comparative performance and development testing are pursued against the type of column or cell established as an engineering model. Previously developed computer simulation capabilities are used to predict low-gravity behavior patterns and performance for IEF apparatus geometries of direct project interest. Three existing mathematical models plus potential new routines for particular aspects of simulating instrument fluid patterns with varied wall electroosmosis influences are being exercised.

  13. Controllable Planar Optical Focusing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical device has a first metasurface disposed over a substrate. A high-contrast pattern of the first metasurface is operable for modifying, over a first phase profile, a phase front of an incident light beam. A second metasurface, is disposed over a plane parallel to the first metasurface with a second high-contrast pattern and operable for shaping, over a second phase profile, the modified phase front of the incident light beam into a converging spherical phase front. A spacer layer, in which the modified phase front of the incident light beam diffracts, is disposed in a controllably changeable separation between the first and second metasurfaces. Controllably changing the separation between the first and the second metasurfaces by a first distance correspondingly changes the position of the focus point of the converging spherical phase front by a second distance significantly greater than the first distance.

  14. Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

  15. Random focusing of tsunami waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Henri; Metzger, Jakob J.; Geisel, Theo; Fleischmann, Ragnar

    2016-03-01

    Tsunamis exhibit surprisingly strong height fluctuations. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to these variations in wave height is a prerequisite for reliable tsunami forecasting. It is known, for example, that the presence of large underwater islands or the shape of the tsunami source can affect the wave heights. Here we show that the consecutive effect of even tiny fluctuations in the profile of the ocean floor (the bathymetry) can cause unexpectedly strong fluctuations in the wave height of tsunamis, with maxima several times higher than the average wave height. A novel approach combining stochastic caustic theory and shallow water wave dynamics allows us to determine the typical propagation distance at which the strongly focused waves appear. We demonstrate that owing to this mechanism the small errors present in bathymetry measurements can lead to drastic variations in predicted tsunami heights. Our results show that a precise knowledge of the ocean's bathymetry is absolutely indispensable for reliable tsunami forecasts.

  16. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  17. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  18. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-03-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here.

  19. Focus on Nivolumab in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, Diego L.; Canova, Stefania; Abbate, Marida; Colonese, Francesca; Bidoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is changing the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab has demonstrated meaningful results in terms of efficacy with a good safety profile. The novel approach to treating NSCLC using immunotherapy still has unsolved questions and challenging issues. The main doubts regarding the optimal selection of the patient are the role of this drug in first line of treatment, the individualization of the correct methodology of radiologic assessment and efficacy analysis, the best management of immune-mediated adverse events, and how to overcome the immunoresistance. The aim of this review is to analyze literature data on nivolumab in lung cancer with a focus on critical aspects related to the drug in terms of safety, the use in clinical practice, and possible placement in the treatment algorithm. PMID:28018902

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  1. Spatial patterns of aftershocks of shallow focus earthquakes in California and implications for deep focus earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Previous workers have pioneered statistical techniques to study the spatial distribution of aftershocks with respect to the focal mechanism of the main shock. Application of these techniques to deep focus earthquakes failed to show clustering of aftershocks near the nodal planes of the main shocks. To better understand the behaviour of these statistics, this study applies them to the aftershocks of six large shallow focus earthquakes in California (August 6, 1979, Coyote Lake; May 2, 1983, Coalinga; April 24, 1984, Morgan Hill; August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills; July 8, 1986, North Palm Springs; and October 1, 1987, Whittier Narrows). The large number of aftershocks accurately located by dense local networks allows us to treat these aftershock sequences individually instead of combining them, as was done for the deep earthquakes. The results for individual sequences show significant clustering about the closest nodal plane and the strike direction for five of the sequences and about the presumed fault plane for all six sequences. This implies that the previously developed method does work properly. The reasons for the lack of clustering about main shock nodal planes for deep focus aftershocks are discussed. -from Author

  2. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter Gregory

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  3. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  4. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  5. Optimizing drugs for local delivery.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, S; Lock, R; Searcey, M

    2009-12-01

    An international panel of speakers together with approximately 70 delegates were brought together by The Society for Medicines Research's symposium on Optimising Drugs for Local Delivery, held on June 11, 2009 at the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Horsham, UK. The focus of the conference was on the delivery of drugs direct to the site of action and the consequences of this delivery route on delivery technologies, formulation science and molecular design.

  6. Parent Leadership and Family Involvement (Special Focus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.; Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This "Special Focus" issue of "America's Family Support Magazine," focuses on parent leadership and family involvement. Articles pertaining to this focus include: (1) "Forging Equal Partnerships" (Ahsan); (2) "Who Best Represents the Voice of Parents?" (Foster); (3) "Parent Leadership Training…

  7. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    Focused ultrasound surgery for uterine fibroids Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a noninvasive treatment option for ... whether you're a good candidate for focused ultrasound surgery, your doctor may perform a pelvic magnetic ...

  8. Design of a Variable Thickness Plate to Focus Bending Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Cabell, Randolph H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a thin plate whose thickness is tailored in order to focus bending waves to a desired location on the plate. Focusing is achieved by smoothly varying the thickness of the plate to create a type of lens, which focuses structural-borne energy. Damping treatment can then be positioned at the focal point to efficiently dissipate energy with a minimum amount of treatment. Numerical simulations of both bounded and unbounded plates show that the design is effective over a broad frequency range, focusing traveling waves to the same region of the plate regardless of frequency. This paper also quantifies the additional energy dissipated by local damping treatment installed on a variable thickness plate relative to a uniform plate.

  9. Intracranial Applications of MR Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Khanna, N; Gandhi, D; Steven, A; Frenkel, V; Melhem, E R

    2017-03-01

    Initially used in the treatment of prostate cancer and uterine fibroids, the role of focused ultrasound has expanded as transcranial acoustic wave distortion and other limitations have been overcome. Its utility relies on focal energy deposition via acoustic wave propagation. The duty cycle and intensity of focused ultrasound influence the rate of energy deposition and result in unique physiologic and biomechanical effects. Thermal ablation via high-intensity continuous exposure generates coagulative necrosis of tissues. High-intensity, pulsed application reduces temporally averaged energy deposition, resulting in mechanical effects, including reversible, localized BBB disruption, which enhances neurotherapeutic agent delivery. While the precise mechanisms remain unclear, low-intensity, pulsed exposures can influence neuronal activity with preservation of cytoarchitecture. Its noninvasive nature, high-resolution, radiation-free features allow focused ultrasound to compare favorably with other modalities. We discuss the physical characteristics of focused ultrasound devices, the biophysical mechanisms at the tissue level, and current and emerging applications.

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, P.; Lukes, P.; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an experimental study on spatiotemporal dynamics of conical shock waves focusing in water. A multichannel pulsed electrohydraulic discharge source with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode was used. Time-resolved visualizations revealed that cylindrical pressure waves were focused to produce conical shock wave reflection over the axis of symmetry in water. Positive and negative pressures of 372 MPa and -17 MPa at the focus with 0.48 mm lateral and 22 mm axial extension (-6 dB) were measured by a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The results clearly show the propagation process leading to the high-intensity underwater shock wave. Such strong and sharp shock wave focusing offers better localization for extracorporeal lithotripsy or other non-invasive medical shock wave procedures.

  11. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  14. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  15. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    PubMed

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  16. 3D source localization of interictal spikes in epilepsy patients with MRI lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Worrell, Gregory A.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; He, Bin

    2006-08-01

    indicate that FINE provides a more satisfactory fitting of the scalp potential measurements than MUSIC in all patients. The present results suggest that FINE provides a useful brain source imaging technique, from clinical EEG recordings, for identifying and localizing epileptogenic regions in epilepsy patients with focal partial seizures. The present study may lead to the establishment of a high-resolution source localization technique from scalp-recorded EEGs for aiding presurgical planning in epilepsy patients.

  17. Sound Localization in the Alligator

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  18. Localized structures in convective experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, J.; Mancini, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review localized structures appearing in thermo-convective experiments performed in extended (large "aspect ratio") fluid layers. After a brief general review (not exhaustive), we focus on some results obtained in pure fluids in a Bénard-Marangoni system with non-homogeneous heating where some structures of this kind appear. The experimental results are compared in reference to the most classical observed in binary mixtures experiments or simulations. In the Bénard-Marangoni experiment we present the stability diagram where localized structures appear and the typical situations where these local mechanisms have been studied experimentally. Some new experimental results are also included. The authors want to honor Prof. H. Brand in his 60th. birthday and to thank him for helpful discussions.

  19. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution.

  20. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  1. Fredholm's equations for subwavelength focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez-Arcos, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    Subwavelength focusing (SF) is a very useful tool that can be carried out with the use of left hand materials for optics that involve the range of the microwaves. Many recent works have described a successful alternative procedure using time reversal methods. The advantage is that we do not need devices which require the complicated manufacture of left-hand materials; nevertheless, the theoretical mathematical bases are far from complete because before now we lacked an adequate easy-to-apply frame. In this work we give, for a broad class of discrete systems, a solid support for the theory of electromagnetic SF that can be applied to communications and nanotechnology. The very central procedure is the development of vector-matrix formalism (VMF) based on exploiting both the inhomogeneous and homogeneous Fredholm's integral equations in cases where the last two kinds of integral equations are applied to some selected discrete systems. To this end, we first establish a generalized Newmann series for the Fourier transform of the Green's function in the inhomogeneous Fredholm's equation of the problem. Then we go from an integral operator equation to a vector-matrix algebraic one. In this way we explore the inhomogeneous case and later on also the very interesting one about the homogeneous equation. Thus, on the one hand we can relate in a simple manner the arriving electromagnetic signals with those at their sources and we can use them to perform a SF. On the other hand, we analyze the homogeneous version of the equations, finding resonant solutions that have analogous properties to their counterparts in quantum mechanical scattering, that can be used in a proposed very powerful way in communications. Also we recover quantum mechanical operator relations that are identical for classical electromagnetics. Finally, we prove two theorems that formalize the relation between the theory of Fredholm's integral equations and the VMF we present here.

  2. Focusing the management of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dbeis, Rachel; Smart, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer treatment has undergone major changes over the last 15 years with a focus on individualized care based around MRI assessment of the relationship of the tumour to the mesorectal fascia, improved surgical techniques and targeted use of pre-operative oncological therapies in patients with locally advanced disease. The recognition that some tumours responded completely to pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, and the selective use of a non-operative policy has led to a quest to further identify those patients and their tumour in whom this approach could be used, irrespective of MRI stage. With no clear patient factors identified, the tumour and its gene expression has become a target for research to identify individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which may indicate a response to specific treatment, or not. To date some agents have been identified and trialed, such as cetuximab, with individual tumours being assessed for response allowing directed treatment. The reviewed paper by Sebio and colleagues report a study that links polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 with response to neoadjuvant 5-Fluorouracil treatment in rectal cancer patients. However, genetic heterogeneity alone may not explain the variations of drug response and environmental factors may lead to epigenetic effects and therefore alter responses. Therefore whilst this study demonstrates the impact of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it is only one step forward, but perhaps a step in the right direction. PMID:28149883

  3. Local, Regional, and Spinal Anesthesia in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Misty A

    2016-11-01

    Local, regional, and spinal anesthesias are safe, effective, often more desirable procedures for ruminants than general anesthesia. Many procedures can be performed safely and humanely in ruminants using a combination of physical restraint, mild sedation, and local, regional, or spinal anesthesia. This article focuses on the use of local anesthetics for providing anesthesia for dehorning, procedures of the nose and eye, laparotomy, reproductive procedures, teat repair, and procedures on the distal limb. Local, regional, and spinal anesthesia techniques are safe effective methods for providing anesthesia for common surgical procedures and analgesia for painful conditions in cattle and small ruminants.

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  6. Enhancement of Far Field Sound Levels by Refractive Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Roth, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    The enhancement of sound pressure levels resulting from refractive focusing was calculated for meteorological conditions representative of those observed at the MOD-1 site near Boone, N.C. The results show that 10 to 20dB enhancements can occur over ranges of several hundred meters. Localized enhancements in excess of 20dB can occur but will probably be of limited duration as a consequence of normal temporally varying meteorological conditions.

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  8. Is focused parathyroidectomy appropriate for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Woong; Rhee, Yumie; Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Cho Rok; Kang, Sang-Wook; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study. PMID:27617249

  9. Possibilities for focusing ultrasonic fields - A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlengermann, U.

    1986-05-01

    Focusing techniques for ultrasound devices used in NDE are examined in a review of recent experimental investigations and application reports. The advantages of focused sound fields are outlined (including increased sensitivity, lateral resolution, and S/N and improved reflector scanning); the characteristics of the focused field are reviewed; the fundamental principles of curved-crystal, lens, curved-reflector, zone-plate, and phase-plate focusing are explained; and their practical adaptation in NDE problems (by changing delay path, changing lenses, or switching annular arrays) is described. Consideration is given to geometric and technical limitations on focusing applicability and to the optimization of focusing. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  10. Implementation of phase-shift focus monitor with modified illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shuji; Maejima, Shinroku; Ueno, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shigenori; Miyazaki, Junji; Tokui, Akira; Tsujita, Kouichirou; Arimoto, Ichiriou

    2002-07-01

    For the convenience of practical use of phase shift focus monitor (PSFM), which has been developed by T. Brunner, imaging characteristics of PSFM are investigated under modified illumination by optical image calculations and printing experiments. Although the mechanism of pattern shift with focus offset under modified illumination is different from that for conventional high coherent illumination, sufficient sensitivity for precise focus monitoring is predicted by optical image calculations. Also, it is revealed that reduction of NA, i.e., localizing illumination at the peripheral part of pupil is effective to obtain higher sensitivity. By experiments, predicted characteristics are observed and similar sensitivity to that in conventional high coherent illumination is confirmed both for annular and quadrupole illuminations.

  11. Hydrodynamic focusing--a versatile tool.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Justin, Gusphyl A; Nasir, Mansoor; Ligler, Frances S

    2012-01-01

    The control of hydrodynamic focusing in a microchannel has inspired new approaches for microfluidic mixing, separations, sensors, cell analysis, and microfabrication. Achieving a flat interface between the focusing and focused fluids is dependent on Reynolds number and device geometry, and many hydrodynamic focusing systems can benefit from this understanding. For applications where a specific cross-sectional shape is desired for the focused flow, advection generated by grooved structures in the channel walls can be used to define the shape of the focused flow. Relative flow rates of the focused flow and focusing streams can be manipulated to control the cross-sectional area of the focused flows. This paper discusses the principles for defining the shape of the interface between the focused and focusing fluids and provides examples from our lab that use hydrodynamic focusing for impedance-based sensors, flow cytometry, and microfabrication to illustrate the breadth of opportunities for introducing new capabilities into microfluidic systems. We evaluate each example for the advantages and limitations integral to utilization of hydrodynamic focusing for that particular application.

  12. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  13. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. Schütz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  14. A focused strategic plan for outcomes evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stonestreet, J S; Prevost, S S

    1997-09-01

    This article describes how organizations devise strategic directions. The process of focused strategic or hoshin planning is introduced and reviewed. This model illustrates how a nursing department planned a focused strategic direction for outcomes evaluation. This discussion includes the dedication of resources, the focusing of research priorities and a summary of the outcomes evaluation program, and the method used for implementation of the priorities. Finally, benefits of both the focused planning process and the outcomes evaluation program are discussed.

  15. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  16. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    Field observations from tsunami events show that sometimes the maximum tsunami amplitude might not occur for the first wave, such as the maximum wave from the 2011 Japan tsunami reaching to Papeete, Tahiti as a fourth wave 72 min later after the first wave. This might mislead local authorities and give a wrong sense of security to the public. Recently, Okal and Synolakis (2016, Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735) discussed "the factors contributing to the sequencing of tsunami waves in the far field." They consider two different generation mechanisms through an axial symmetric source -circular plug; one, Le Mehaute and Wang's (1995, World Scientific, 367 pp.) formalism where irritational wave propagation is formulated in the framework of investigating tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and two, Hammack's formulation (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) which introduces deformation at the ocean bottom and does not represent an immediate deformation of the ocean surface, i.e. time dependent ocean surface deformation. They identify the critical distance for transition from the first wave being largest to the second wave being largest. To verify sequencing for a finite length source, Okal and Synolakis (2016) is then used NOAA's validated and verified real time forecasting numerical model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng., 124, 157-171) through Synolakis et al. (2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228). As a reference, they used the parameters of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile earthquake over real bathymetry, variants of this source (small, big, wide, thin, and long) over a flat bathymetry, and 2010 Chile and 211 Japan tsunamis over both real and flat bathymetries to explore the influence of the fault parameters on sequencing. They identified that sequencing more influenced by the source width rather than the length. We extend Okal and Synolakis (2016)'s analysis to an initial N-wave form (Tadepalli

  17. Biodiversity conservation in local planning.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R; Groom, Martha; Hess, George R; Steelman, Toddi; Stokes, David L; Thompson, Jan; Bowman, Troy; Fricke, Laura; King, Brandon; Marquardt, Ryan

    2009-02-01

    Local land-use policy is increasingly being recognized as fundamental to biodiversity conservation in the United States. Many planners and conservation scientists have called for broader use of planning and regulatory tools to support the conservation of biodiversity at local scales. Yet little is known about the pervasiveness of these practices. We conducted an on-line survey of county, municipal, and tribal planning directors (n =116) in 3 geographic regions of the United States: metropolitan Seattle, Washington; metropolitan Des Moines, Iowa; and the Research Triangle, North Carolina. Our objectives were to gauge the extent to which local planning departments address biodiversity conservation and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder conservation actions in local planning. We found that biodiversity conservation was seldom a major consideration in these departments. Staff time was mainly devoted to development mandates and little time was spent on biodiversity conservation. Regulations requiring conservation actions that might benefit biodiversity were uncommon, with the exception of rules governing water quality in all 3 regions and the protection of threatened and endangered species in the Seattle region. Planning tools that could enhance habitat conservation were used infrequently. Collaboration across jurisdictions was widespread, but rarely focused on conservation. Departments with a conservation specialist on staff tended to be associated with higher levels of conservation actions. Jurisdictions in the Seattle region also reported higher levels of conservation action, largely driven by state and federal mandates. Increased funding was most frequently cited as a factor that would facilitate greater consideration of biodiversity in local planning. There are numerous opportunities for conservation biologists to play a role in improving conservation planning at local scales.

  18. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  19. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  20. Acoustic focusing by metal circular ring structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    We report an exotic acoustic focusing effect through a simple brass circular ring structure immersed in water. The acoustic waves can be focused on a prefect point at the centre of the ring structure. This exotic acoustic focusing phenomenon arises from the intrinsic modes in the ring structure at some special eigenfrequencies, which is essentially distinct from the previous studies originating from the negative refraction. The focusing effect is closely related to the size and shape of the ring structure. Interesting applications of the focusing mechanism in black box detectors in the sea and medical ultrasound treatment are further discussed.

  1. Localized coherence of freak waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.

  2. Local scale effects of disease on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Behrens, Michael D; Sax, Dov F

    2009-06-01

    To date, ecologists and conservation biologists have focused much of their attention on the population and ecosystem effects of disease at regional scales and the role that diseases play in global species extinction. Far less research has been dedicated to identifying the effects that diseases can have on local scale species assemblages. We examined the role of infectious disease in structuring local biodiversity. Our intention was to illustrate how variable outcomes can occur by focusing on three case studies: the influence of chestnut blight on forest communities dominated by chestnut trees, the influence of red-spot disease on urchin barrens and kelp forests, and the influence of sylvatic plague on grassland communities inhabited by prairie dogs. Our findings reveal that at local scales infectious disease seems to play an important, though unpredictable, role in structuring species diversity. Through our case studies, we have shown that diseases can cause drastic population declines or local extirpations in keystone species, ecosystem engineers, and otherwise abundant species. These changes in local diversity may be very important, particularly when considered alongside potentially corresponding changes in community structure and function, and we believe that future efforts to understand the importance of disease to species diversity should have an increased focus on these local scales.

  3. Radiation Reaction in a Bent Focusing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, Ronald D.

    1996-05-01

    We have shown that in a straight, continuous focusing channel the radiation reaction is different from that in a bending magnet. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing system, and the radiation damping is faster in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal one. In this talk we study the effect of radiation in a combined-function system, where both focusing and bending fields are present. In one case where the bending dominates over the focusing, we recover the result of standard synchrotron radiation damping in storage rings. In the other case where the focusing dominates over the bending, we find that the lack of quantum excitation and the asymmetric damping found in a straight focusing channel still hold. In addition, the possibility of designing a focusing-dominated damping ring to demonstrate and apply this effect is discussed.

  4. Preoperative localization of the central sulcus by dipole source analysis of early somatosensory evoked potentials and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchner, H; Adams, L; Knepper, A; Rüger, R; Laborde, G; Gilsbach, J M; Ludwig, I; Reul, J; Scherg, M

    1994-05-01

    Surgery of lesions within or close to the central area of the brain always carries the risk of iatrogenic motor or sensory deficits. Functional localization by means of intraoperative direct stimulation of the motor area or by recording somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP's) from the surface of the somatosensory cortex is believed to reduce the operative risk. The authors introduce the combination of dipole source analysis of scalp-recorded SSEP's with three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a tool for preoperative localization of the central sulcus. This provides information on both functional and structural localization for preoperative planning. Four repeated measurements of right and left median nerve SSEP's were obtained from 20 subjects. Dipole source analysis showed a retest reliability of the 3-D localization error of 2.9 +/- 2.0 mm. Compared to the MR evaluation, dipole source analysis was found to mark the central sulcus within 3 mm for 15 conditions (subjects x side of stimulation), while the 3-D MR measurement was accurate to within 6 mm for 10 conditions and 9 mm for 14 conditions. Dipole locations were confirmed in six patients who underwent surgery of the central region. With respect to this application, dipole source analysis combined with 3-D MR imaging appears to be a valuable tool for preoperative functional localization. The accuracy in localization will be further improved when realistic head models become available that can take into account individual head geometry. Further development of the proposed new method holds promise that evoked potentials and electroencephalography will gain greater use in presurgical functional localization.

  5. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  6. Flat-Lens Focusing of Electron Beams in Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yang; Cao, Xiyuan; Guo, Ran; Zhang, Yanyan; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T.; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Coupling electron beams carrying information into electronic units is fundamental in microelectronics. This requires precision manipulation of electron beams through a coupler with a good focusing ability. In graphene, the focusing of wide electron beams has been successfully demonstrated by a circular p-n junction. However, it is not favorable for information coupling since the focal length is so small that the focal spot locates inside the circular gated region, rather than in the background region. Here, we demonstrate that an array of gate-defined quantum dots, which has gradually changing lattice spacing in the direction transverse to propagation, can focus electrons outside itself, providing a possibility to make a coupler in graphene. The focusing effect can be understood as due to the gradient change of effective refractive indices, which are defined by the local energy band in a periodic potential. The strong focusing can be achieved by suitably choosing the lattice gradient and the layer number in the incident direction, offering an effective solution to precision manipulation of electron beams with wide electron energy range and high angular tolerance. PMID:27628099

  7. Making a semi-convex Focus area in a Focus+Glue+Context map, considering map visibility and transport access points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirako, Y.; Yamamoto, D.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously implemented the Focus+Glue+Context map system EMMA that provides local detailed data in Focus, global context data in Context, and connection data between both in the same view. Introducing the Glue area between Focus and Context makes it possible to provide uniform scaling for the two latter areas. This paper enhances EMMA through the implementation of a Focus creation function that considers transportation access points, such as stations and bus stops. The enhanced EMMA searches a route from the current location to the transportation access point, and allows users to identify the spatial relationship between the various locations in a small-scale Context, and view the route from the current location to the transportation access points in a large-scale Focus. However, if Focus is too large because of unnecessary areas used to identify the route, some parts of Context might be hidden by Focus. The proposed system solves this problem by implementing the following functions: (1) it searches stations that are adjacent to the current location and makes a semiconvex Focus that includes the current location and those stations in order for Focus to include really necessary areas. (2) It reduces Focus distortion by setting a fixed point as the center of the Focus area. (3) It smoothens the Focus shape in order to improve visibility in the Glue area. We developed a prototype of the proposed system that implements these functions.

  8. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  9. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  10. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  11. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  12. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  13. Exponential Localization of Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    1998-06-01

    It is shown that photons can be localized in space with an exponential falloff of the energy density and photodetection rates. The limits of localization are determined by the fundamental Paley-Wiener theorem. A direct mathematical connection between the spatial localization of photons and the decay in time of quantum mechanical systems is established.

  14. Photon localization barrier can be overcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, P.; Menert, M.; Valtna, H.

    2005-02-01

    In contradistinction to a widespread belief that the spatial localization of photons is restricted by a power-law falloff of the photon energy density, Bialynicki-Birula [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 5247] has proved that any stronger - up to an almost exponential - falloff is allowed. We are showing that for certain specifically designed cylindrical one-photon states the localization is even better in lateral directions. If the photon state is built from the so-called focus wave mode, the falloff in the waist cross-section plane turns out to be quadratically exponential (Gaussian) and such strong localization persists in the course of propagation.

  15. Chromosome analysis of 82 species of Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera), with special focus on NOR localization.

    PubMed

    Dutrillaux, A-M; Dutrillaux, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of the ancestral location of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) in the Scarabaeoidea superfamily, and its evolutive trends in the karyotypes. For this purpose, the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes at pachynema of 82 species belonging to 4 families and 8 subfamilies, including 49 species without any published data, were examined after Giemsa staining, C-banding and NOR staining. It could be perceived that most karyotypes are composed of 18 nonacrocentric autosomes, an acrocentric X and a punctiform Y. NORs are frequently located on the X independent of its morphology. In contrast, autosomal NORs are frequently on the rare acrocentric short arms. Thus, it could be shown that the ancestral karyotype was very probably composed of 18 metacentric/submetacentric autosomes, an NOR carrier acrocentric X and a punctiform Y. The NOR translocation on autosomes parallels the passage to their acrocentric morphology. It is proposed that the frequent location of the NOR on the X of beetles, and possibly other insects, is made possible by their mode of dosage compensation of the X chromosome, consisting in the overexpression of the unique X of the males.

  16. Bringing Flexibility & Focus to Education Law: Supporting State and Local Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers tips on how states may receive ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) flexibility. To receive flexibility through waivers of NCLB (No Child Left Behind) requirements, a state must develop a rigorous and comprehensive plan addressing the three critical areas that are designed to improve educational outcomes for all…

  17. Evaluation of local density enhancement of microcapsules in artificial blood vessel during exposure to focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Masuda, Kohji; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Yuto; Kato, Toshikazu; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We have proposed a physical DDS (Drug Delivery System) which makes use of microcapsules of μm size, which may contain a specified drug and also are easily affected by ultrasound exposure near their resonant frequency, to release various kinds of medications. These capsules are easily detected and actuated by ultrasound. However, because of the diffusion of capsules after injection into human body, it was difficult to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery. Thus we have considered a method for controlling the density of capsules in flow which uses acoustic radiation force, which moves the capsules to balance flow resistance. We have experimented with trapping microcapsules or microbubbles in flow of an artificial blood vessel. We have evaluated the effect of radiation force by measuring the trapped area of capsules or bubbles for various frequencies, sound pressures, and exposure times of sinusoidal ultrasound. The trapped area of capsules or bubbles increased with sound pressure and exposure time, and decreased with frequency. From those results, we have derived optimal conditions for trapping the capsules or bubbles.

  18. Into the Field: A Guide to Locally Focused Teaching. Nature Literacy Series, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orion Society, Great Barrington, MA.

    This book contains three essays on teaching outdoors about the natural world and engaging students in the natural and cultural history of their communities. An introduction, "To Learn from Wood and Stone" (Ann Zwinger), discusses the opportunities that arise when a teacher makes connections between the classroom world and the world…

  19. Partial focusing by indefinite complementary metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Mock, Jack J.; Cui, Tie Jun; Smith, David R.

    2008-09-01

    We have experimentally realized a two-dimensional partial focusing within a planar waveguide using complementary indefinite metamaterials. When the electric fields emitted from the dipole are TE polarized, the focusing condition requires negative magnetic response in the propagation direction of the waveguide, which can be achieved by the complementary electric resonator (CELC) structures. We have carefully designed the experimental configurations and the dimensions for the CELC structures. The experimental result is consistent with the theoretical prediction, which validates the partial focusing phenomenon.

  20. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liakus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  1. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  2. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions.

  3. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  4. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  5. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  6. Low voltage operation of plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S K; Banerjee, P; Das, R; Deb, P; Prabahar, T; Das, B K; Adhikary, B; Shyam, A

    2010-08-01

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 muF capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  7. Status of the STIS Instrument Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Monroe, TalaWanda; Dressel, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph needs to bring images to a good focus at its aperture plane and three detectors, for each of several optical paths. We discuss various ways of measuring the evolution of the focus over time for both the aperture plane and for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic modes. Evidence suggests that between 2013 and 2015 the best focus of STIS relative to the HST best focus, based on WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC monitoring, shifted by the equivalent of 3 microns of HST secondary motion, resulting in a decrease in the average small aperture throughput. We discuss the implications of this change for STIS observations.

  8. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  9. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  10. Model Offices: Flexible Options, Local Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 17 articles that focus on model local offices of the employment security (ES) and training systems. The articles are arranged in three parts. Part I, on developing new initiatives, contains the following five articles: "A Public Employment Service for the 1990s" (Elizabeth Dole); "The…

  11. Chemically Induced Phase Transformation in Austenite by Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basa, Adina; Thaulow, Christian; Barnoush, Afrooz

    2013-11-01

    A highly stable austenite phase in a super duplex stainless steel was subjected to a combination of different gallium ion doses at different acceleration voltages. It was shown that contrary to what is expected, an austenite to ferrite phase transformation occurred within the focused ion beam (FIB) milled regions. Chemical analysis of the FIB milled region proved that the gallium implantation preceded the FIB milling. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction analysis also showed that the phase transformation was not followed by the typical shear and plastic deformation expected from the martensitic transformation. On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that the change in the chemical composition of the austenite and the local increase in gallium, which is a ferrite stabilizer, results in the local selective transformation of austenite to ferrite.

  12. Focused Ultrasound: An Emerging Therapeutic Modality for Neurologic Disease.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Paul S; Frenkel, Victor

    2017-02-27

    Therapeutic ultrasound is only beginning to be applied to neurologic conditions, but the potential of this modality for a wide spectrum of brain applications is high. Engineering advances now allow sound waves to be targeted through the skull to a brain region selected with real time magnetic resonance imaging and thermography, using a commercial array of focused emitters. High intensities of sonic energy can create a coagulation lesion similar to that of older radiofrequency stereotactic methods, but without opening the skull. This has led to the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy for unilateral treatment of essential tremor. Clinical studies of stereotactic FUS for aspects of Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, and refractory psychiatric indications are underway, with promising results. Moderate-intensity FUS has the potential to safely open the blood-brain barrier for localized delivery of therapeutics, while low levels of sonic energy can be used as a form of neuromodulation.

  13. Characterization of long-range functional connectivity in epileptic networks by neuronal spike-triggered local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopour, Beth A.; Staba, Richard J.; Stern, John M.; Fried, Itzhak; Ringach, Dario L.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Quantifying the relationship between microelectrode-recorded multi-unit activity (MUA) and local field potentials (LFPs) in distinct brain regions can provide detailed information on the extent of functional connectivity in spatially widespread networks. These methods are common in studies of cognition using non-human animal models, but are rare in humans. Here we applied a neuronal spike-triggered impulse response to electrophysiological recordings from the human epileptic brain for the first time, and we evaluate functional connectivity in relation to brain areas supporting the generation of seizures. Approach. Broadband interictal electrophysiological data were recorded from microwires adapted to clinical depth electrodes that were implanted bilaterally using stereotactic techniques in six presurgical patients with medically refractory epilepsy. MUA and LFPs were isolated in each microwire, and we calculated the impulse response between the MUA on one microwire and the LFPs on a second microwire for all possible MUA/LFP pairs. Results were compared to clinical seizure localization, including sites of seizure onset and interictal epileptiform discharges. Main results. We detected significant interictal long-range functional connections in each subject, in some cases across hemispheres. Results were consistent between two independent datasets, and the timing and location of significant impulse responses reflected anatomical connectivity. However, within individual subjects, the spatial distribution of impulse responses was unique. In two subjects with clear seizure localization and successful surgery, the epileptogenic zone was associated with significant impulse responses. Significance. The results suggest that the spike-triggered impulse response can provide valuable information about the neuronal networks that contribute to seizures using only interictal data. This technique will enable testing of specific hypotheses regarding functional connectivity

  14. A Dynamic Alignment System for the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.; Plouffe, D.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) was conceived as a technological stepping stone on the way to the next linear collider. Nowhere is this more evident than with the alignment subsystems. Alignment tolerances for components prior to beam turn are almost an order of magnitude smaller than for previous projects at SLAC. Position monitoring systems which operate independent of the beam are employed to monitor motions of the components locally and globally with unprecedented precision. An overview of the FFTB alignment system is presented herein.

  15. Auto-focusing method for remote gaze tracking camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Chul Woo; Gwon, Su Yeong; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Heekyung; Cha, Jihun

    2012-06-01

    Gaze tracking determines what a user is looking at; the key challenge is to obtain well-focused eye images. This is not easy because the human eye is very small, whereas the required resolution of the image should be large enough for accurate detection of the pupil center. In addition, capturing a user's eye image by a remote gaze tracking system within a large working volume at a long Z distance requires a panning/tilting mechanism with a zoom lens, which makes it more difficult to acquire focused eye images. To solve this problem, a new auto-focusing method for remote gaze tracking is proposed. The proposed approach is novel in the following four ways: First, it is the first research on an auto-focusing method for a remote gaze tracking system. Second by using user-dependent calibration at initial stage, the weakness of the previous methods that use facial width in captured image to estimate Z distance between a user and camera, wherein each person has the individual variation of facial width, is solved. Third, the parameters of the modeled formula for estimating the Z distance are adaptively updated using the least squares regression method. Therefore, the focus becomes more accurate over time. Fourth, the relationship between the parameters and the face width is fitted locally according to the Z distance instead of by global fitting, which can enhance the accuracy of Z distance estimation. The results of an experiment with 10,000 images of 10 persons showed that the mean absolute error between the ground-truth Z distance measured by a Polhemus Patriot device and that estimated by the proposed method was 4.84 cm. A total of 95.61% of the images obtained by the proposed method were focused and could be used for gaze detection.

  16. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  17. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  18. Focus Groups with Linguistically Marginalized Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardi, Marco M.

    The focus group method has rapidly gained credibility among researchers in many fields, including public health researchers. The increased use of focus groups by public health researchers has underscored the demonstrable need for the capacity to apply this method of research among populations with limited abilities in or cultural resistance to…

  19. Peer Led Focus Groups and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Peer led focus groups, a qualitative social science research method, and their use with young people are examined. The paper outlines three developments that have contributed to their emergence, namely: traditional focus groups, peer education and participatory research. Drawing on a study in progress, the advantages and challenges associated with…

  20. Focused force angioplasty Theory and application

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, Ronald J.; Ischinger, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    Focused force angioplasty is a technique in which the forces resulting from inflating an angioplasty balloon in a stenosis are concentrated and focused at one or more locations within the stenosis. While the technique has been shown to be useful in resolving resistant stenoses, its real value may be in minimizing the vascular trauma associated with balloon angioplasty and subsequently improving the outcome.

  1. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  2. [Solution focused brief therapy in psychiatric practice].

    PubMed

    Bakker, J M; Bannink, F P

    2008-01-01

    Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a form of psychotherapy that reinforces clients' strengths and focuses on what clients want to replace their problems with. Research shows that SFBT is beneficial and cost-effective and makes the psychiatrist's work more satisfying. It can be used as primary psychotherapy, for instance during crisis intervention, or even as an addition to pharmacotherapy.

  3. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  4. Conducting the Computer-Mediated Focus Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Kenneth A.

    The growing popularity of focus group measurements can be traced to any one of four factors: (1) the economics associated with focus groups; (2) the speed at which data can now be collected; (3) the need to understand customer motivations; and (4) the desire to improve subsequent qualitative research activities and programs. Market researchers are…

  5. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  6. How I Learned to Conduct Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel

    2011-01-01

    The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…

  7. Focus on Form: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2016-01-01

    "Focus on form" (FonF) is a central construct in task-based language teaching. The term was first introduced by Michael Long to refer to an approach where learners' attention is attracted to linguistic forms as they engage in the performance of tasks. It contrasts with a structure-based approach--"focus on forms" (FonFs)--where…

  8. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-04-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n{sub p} much greater than electron beam density, n{sub b}) or underdense (n{sub p} less than 2 n{sub b}). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated.

  9. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  10. On FOCUS: Photographs and Writings by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeyer, Beatriz; McGrail, Loren

    Project FOCUS is aimed at enhancing literacy education for non-native speakers of English through the use of photography. It was offered as an elective course within a family literacy program for Hispanic adults. This collection of writings and photographs originated in the program. The collection begins with an overview of Project FOCUS, personal…

  11. Lifelong Learning and Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and…

  12. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle focusing and separation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for a variety of manipulations of diamagnetic (or non-magnetic) micro-particles/cells in microfluidics, including sorting, focusing, and enriching. By utilizing size dependent magnetophoresis velocity, most of the existing techniques employ single phase ferrofluids to push the particles towards the channel walls. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for focusing and separating diamagnetic micro-particles by using the laminar fluid interface of two co-flowing fluids-a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid. Next to the microfluidic channel, microscale magnets are fabricated to generate strong localized magnetic field gradients and forces. Due to the magnetic force, diamagnetic particles suspended in the ferrofluid phase migrate across the ferrofluid stream at the size-dependent velocities. Because of the low Reynolds number and high Péclet number associated with the flow, the fluid interface is sharp and stable. When the micro-particles migrate to the interface, they are accumulated near the interface, resulting in effective focusing and separation of particles. We investigated several factors that affect the focusing and separation efficiency, including susceptibility of the ferrofluid, distance between the microfluidic channel and microscale magnet, and width of the microfluidic channel. This concept can be extended to multiple fluid interfaces. For example, a complete separation of micro-particles was demonstrated by using a three-stream multiphase flow configuration.

  13. Local friction in polyolefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2005-07-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.

  14. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

  15. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  16. Experiments with program locality.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirn, J. R.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt to validate experimentally several intrinsic models for the concept of program locality. The models considered are a two-parameter simple locality model, a simple least recently used stack model, and an independent reference model. The first two models appear to produce good approximations to real world behavior, while the independent reference model, because of its static concept of locality, does very poorly. The working set is shown to be a good estimator of the simple two-parameters model's locality, provided that the locality does not change too rapidly. The working set exactly measures the locality in the case of the least recently used stack model and is thus nearly optimal for programs whose behavior can be closely approximated by this model.

  17. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  18. A new method for improving functional-to-structural MRI alignment using local Pearson correlation.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ziad S; Glen, Daniel R; Chen, Gang; Beauchamp, Michael S; Desai, Rutvik; Cox, Robert W

    2009-02-01

    Accurate registration of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) T2-weighted volumes to same-subject high-resolution T1-weighted structural volumes is important for Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) FMRI and crucial for applications such as cortical surface-based analyses and pre-surgical planning. Such registration is generally implemented by minimizing a cost functional, which measures the mismatch between two image volumes over the group of proper affine transformations. Widely used cost functionals, such as mutual information (MI) and correlation ratio (CR), appear to yield decent alignments when visually judged by matching outer brain contours. However, close inspection reveals that internal brain structures are often significantly misaligned. Poor registration is most evident in the ventricles and sulcal folds, where CSF is concentrated. This observation motivated our development of an improved modality-specific cost functional which uses a weighted local Pearson coefficient (LPC) to align T2- and T1-weighted images. In the absence of an alignment gold standard, we used three human observers blinded to registration method to provide an independent assessment of the quality of the registration for each cost functional. We found that LPC performed significantly better (p<0.001) than generic cost functionals including MI and CR. Generic cost functionals were very often not minimal near the best alignment, thereby suggesting that optimization is not the cause of their failure. Lastly, we emphasize the importance of precise visual inspection of alignment quality and present an automated method for generating composite images that help capture errors of misalignment.

  19. Local Estuary Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides information about Local Individual Estuary Programs including links to their NEP homepages, social media, Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans, and state of the bay reports.

  20. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  1. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  2. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  3. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  4. Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei; Judkewitz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Focusing light through scattering media has been a longstanding goal of biomedical optics. While wavefront shaping and optical time-reversal techniques can in principle be used to focus light across scattering media, achieving this within a scattering medium with a noninvasive and efficient reference beacon, or guide star, remains an important challenge. Here, we show optical time-reversal focusing using a new technique termed Time Reversal by Analysis of Changing wavefronts from Kinetic targets (TRACK). By taking the difference between time-varying scattering fields caused by a moving object and applying optical time reversal, light can be focused back to the location previously occupied by the object. We demonstrate this approach with discretely moved objects as well as with particles in an aqueous flow, and obtain a focal peak-to-background strength of 204 in our demonstration experiments. We further demonstrate that the generated focus can be used to noninvasively count particles in a flow-cytometry configuration—even when the particles are hidden behind a strong diffuser. By achieving optical time reversal and focusing noninvasively without any external guide stars, using just the intrinsic characteristics of the sample, this work paves the way to a range of scattering media imaging applications, including underwater and atmospheric focusing as well as noninvasive in vivo flow cytometry. PMID:25621302

  5. Regulatory focus and attitudes to migrants.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jennifer; Laham, Simon M; Peters, Kim; Boldero, Jennifer; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2010-06-01

    In two studies we examined the role of two regulatory foci (i.e., prevention and promotion) in predicting Australian's attitudes to different types of migrants. According to regulatory focus theory, promotion-focused self-regulation is concerned with nurturance and accomplishment needs and involves the pursuit of wishes and aspirations. As such, it results in sensitivity to positive outcomes and to relative pleasure from gains. On the other hand, prevention-focused self-regulation is concerned with security needs and is directed at meeting duties and obligations. As such, it results in sensitivity to negative outcome and relative pain from losses. In Study 1, as predicted, the extent of promotion focus (i.e., a concern with accomplishment and the pursuit of ideals) predicted more positive attitudes to culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, whereas the extent of prevention focus (i.e., concern with security and meeting obligations) predicted more negative attitudes to migrants who are culturally dissimilar. In Study 2 we replicated and extended these findings, showing that the extent of promotion focus and a lack of concern with threats predicted positive attitudes to both culturally similar and economically beneficial migrants, which, in the case of the latter group, was mediated by a focus on the benefits these migrants provide. In the case of culturally dissimilar migrants, the extent of promotion focus and a concern with gains predicted more positive attitudes. However, for economically less beneficial migrants, neither the extent of promotion nor prevention focus was a predictor. Only lower concerns with threat predicted more positive attitudes to this migrant group. The results are discussed with respect to other determinants of attitudes to migrants and the implications for migration and asylum-seeker policy.

  6. Line-focus concentrating collector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Line-Focus Concentrating Collector Program has emphasized the development and dissemination of concentrating solar technology in which the reflected sunlight is focused onto a linear or line receiver. Although a number of different types of line-focus concentrators were developed, the parabolic trough has gained the widest acceptance and utilization within the industrial and applications sectors. The trough is best applied for application scenarios which require temperatures between 140 and 600 F. Another concept, the bowl, is investigated for applications which may require temperatures in the range between 600 and 1200 F. Current technology emphases are upon the reduction of system installation cost and the implementation of production oriented engineering.

  7. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  8. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  9. Localization of Interference Fringes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, J. M.; Comastri, Silvia A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a proof for determining the localized fringes position arrived at when one considers the interference of two extended sources when one is able to observe fringes only at certain points in space. Shows how the localized fringes may be found in a device used to observe Newton's rings. (Author/CS)

  10. Local anesthesia: a review.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Sykes, P; Kubota, Y; Matsuura, H; Lipp, M

    1992-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely administered drugs in dentistry. Significant advances have been made in past decades that have greatly increased both the safety and the efficacy of these important drugs. This paper reviews the history of local anesthesia, pharmacokinetics and clinical implications, techniques, complications, and future directions in the quest for more effective pain control in dentistry.

  11. Local health traditions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, D

    1988-03-01

    A very systematic study made in Karjat, Maharasht (a tribal area in India) has found that in comparison with the official health care and primary health centers, the traditional health practices are far more comprehensive. However, although the local traditions are comprehensive in their 'scope', they nevertheless reveal several weaknesses when subjected to critical evaluation by the science of Ayurveda. For example, whereas some remedies are found to be sound, there are others that are incomplete, and some appear to be totally distorted. Similarly, the diagnostic abilities of local practitioners, while sound in some cases, are in several others found to be inadequate. As to the use of local herbs, whereas the local tradition has an amazing knowledge of local flora--the knowledge about properties of plants is in many cases incomplete. There are several reasons that may explain how and why these weaknesses have set in. 1st, the local traditions are 'oral' and in the natural course of things, oral traditions the world over have been found to decay over time. A 2nd, external, reason for the current decay of local traditions is the derision, neglect, and oppression they have suffered due to the intolerance of western scientific tradition. A 3rd reason for weaknesses in the local health stream is the breakdown of active links, during the last few centuries, with the mainstream science of Ayurveda.

  12. Interaural Coherence and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Eric

    2006-10-01

    In a study of the relationship between interaural coherence and localization ability, two experiments were performed. Both made use of a 1/3 octave band of low frequency sound and a 1/3 octave band of high frequency sound. Stimuli with coherences ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 were created in three recording environments using a KEMAR and digitally altered to eliminate interaural level differences (ILD). The environments had short, medium, and long reverberation times. The coherences were measured and were accurate to one significant figure. Experiment 1 had two goals: to determine the relationship between interaural coherence and the ability to localize using interaural time differences (ITD) and to determine if localization ability was dependent only on coherence. The relationship between coherence and localization was tested in a headphone lateralization experiment in which psychometric functions were generated. The functions revealed a linear relationship, with the ability to localize high coherence sounds breaking down quickly at small ITD. Within standard error, ITD localization appeared to be dependent only on coherence. In Experiment 2, a 3-down 1-up staircase method was employed to determine how opposing ILDs affected ITD localization. When the task could be completed, the threshold values were linearly related, however, the ability broke down at large ILDs. Both experiments provide a linear description of interaural coherence and localization, with thresholds being sharp deviations from these trends.

  13. Local Power: Tribe & Township.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Padi; Moloi, Dudley

    1995-01-01

    Examines the service infrastructure of a rural township in South Africa and the struggle to acquire services like water and electricity. Discusses the interaction of a system of transitional local councils and tribal authorities in the face of local government elections. (LZ)

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    tractable to support a comprehensive analysis of functional performance at the systems level. Analogously, experimental work increasingly probes the system dynamics simultaneously at multiple levels from cell to whole organ. Here an invaluable contribution of physics to the experimental characterization of large scale activity in cardiac and neuronal tissues is the currently emerging high level of quantitative precision and control. Long-term high precision recording of large scale activity patterns of neural and cardiac tissues increasingly supports the formulation of quantitative phenomenological theories of complex dynamical states as well the realization of algorithms for manipulating and controlling them. Both quantitative phenomenology and control are not only essential for bridging theory and experiment in complex systems; they are also indispensable for turning scientific insight into diagnostic progress and improved treatment for the affected heart and mind. The present Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects well the richness and excitement of this currently rapidly evolving field. It combines theoretical and experimental approaches and covers analyses ranging from the organ level over investigations of model systems to the biophysics of individual cells. The articles below represent the first contributions to this collection and further additions will appear in the near future. Focus on Heart and Mind Contents 'Heart' contributions Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues Sung-Jae Woo, Jin Hee Hong, Tae Yun Kim, Byung Wook Bae and Kyoung J Lee Epicardial wavefronts arise from widely distributed transient sources during ventricular fibrillation in the isolated swine heart J M Rogers, G P Walcott, J D Gladden, S B Melnick, R E Ideker and M W Kay Efficient control of spiral wave location in an excitable medium with localized heterogeneities J Schlesner, V S Zykov, H Brandtst

  15. Focusing Internet Searches for World Music Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Discusses the importance of focusing Internet searches for world music resources. Importance of teaching about music from various cultures; Benefits of identifying a characteristic instrument by name or stylistic terms; Types of music web sites.

  16. Focus Meetings for Pesticide Registration Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Focus meetings with affected registrants and possibly other stakeholders are based around the information needs identified by the EPA chemical review team and management for consideration during our registration reevaluation of a pesticide.

  17. A focus on shape coexistence in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. L.; Heyde, K.

    2016-02-01

    The present collection of articles focuses on new directions and developments under the title of shape coexistence in nuclei, following our 2011 Reviews of Modern Physics article (K Heyde and J L Wood).

  18. Focus Issue: Autophagy as hero and villain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei

    2017-02-28

    This Focus Issue explores autophagic responses to stress in cardiometabolic disease, reveals how autophagy limits pathological hypertrophy in the heart, and describes how autophagy itself can regulate transcriptional responses to stress.

  19. Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-05-20

    Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.

  20. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  1. NAS Forums Focus on National Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A series of public meetings designed to focus on complex and persistent problems of national importance involving science has been launched. Topics such as drugs, energy, and natural disasters are included. (DF)

  2. Magnetic multi-lens focusing optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejbal, Z.; Bejšovec, V.; S̆tursa, J.; Hanc̆l, P.

    1996-02-01

    A magnetic focusing system called B-channel is introduced. Three methods of ion optical calculation are presented and a comparison with experimental results is shown. The properties of B-channel are discussed in comparison with a classical solenoid.

  3. Acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by superharmonic focusing

    PubMed Central

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; Vos, Hendrik J.; de Jong, Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Acoustically sensitive emulsion droplets composed of a liquid perfluorocarbon have the potential to be a highly efficient system for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, or for tumor imaging. The physical mechanisms underlying the acoustic activation of these phase-change emulsions into a bubbly dispersion, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, have not been well understood. The droplets have a very high activation threshold; its frequency dependence does not comply with homogeneous nucleation theory and localized nucleation spots have been observed. Here we show that acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by a combination of two phenomena: highly nonlinear distortion of the acoustic wave before it hits the droplet and focusing of the distorted wave by the droplet itself. At high excitation pressures, nonlinear distortion causes significant superharmonics with wavelengths of the order of the droplet size. These superharmonics strongly contribute to the focusing effect; therefore, the proposed mechanism also explains the observed pressure thresholding effect. Our interpretation is validated with experimental data captured with an ultrahigh-speed camera on the positions of the nucleation spots, where we find excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the presented mechanism explains the hitherto counterintuitive dependence of the nucleation threshold on the ultrasound frequency. The physical insight allows for the optimization of acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic applications, in particular with respect to the acoustic pressures required for activation, thereby minimizing the negative bioeffects associated with the use of high-intensity ultrasound. PMID:24449879

  4. Acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by superharmonic focusing.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; Vos, Hendrik J; de Jong, Nico; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel

    2014-02-04

    Acoustically sensitive emulsion droplets composed of a liquid perfluorocarbon have the potential to be a highly efficient system for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, or for tumor imaging. The physical mechanisms underlying the acoustic activation of these phase-change emulsions into a bubbly dispersion, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, have not been well understood. The droplets have a very high activation threshold; its frequency dependence does not comply with homogeneous nucleation theory and localized nucleation spots have been observed. Here we show that acoustic droplet vaporization is initiated by a combination of two phenomena: highly nonlinear distortion of the acoustic wave before it hits the droplet and focusing of the distorted wave by the droplet itself. At high excitation pressures, nonlinear distortion causes significant superharmonics with wavelengths of the order of the droplet size. These superharmonics strongly contribute to the focusing effect; therefore, the proposed mechanism also explains the observed pressure thresholding effect. Our interpretation is validated with experimental data captured with an ultrahigh-speed camera on the positions of the nucleation spots, where we find excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the presented mechanism explains the hitherto counterintuitive dependence of the nucleation threshold on the ultrasound frequency. The physical insight allows for the optimization of acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic applications, in particular with respect to the acoustic pressures required for activation, thereby minimizing the negative bioeffects associated with the use of high-intensity ultrasound.

  5. Treatment Approaches for Presurgical Anxiety: A Health Care Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Nancy Jones; And Others

    To test the differential effectiveness of preoperative instruction (factual information, emotional expression, and trust relationship), mastery modeling, and coping modeling, 100 children, aged 7-12, were studied. Subjects from two hospitals were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one control group: alone (the control group, N=20);…

  6. Pre-surgical bronchoscopic treatment for typical endobronchial carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Carmine; Mazzarella, Gennaro; De Rosa, Nicolina; Cesaro, Cristiano; La Cerra, Giuseppe; Grella, Edoardo; Perrotta, Fabio; Curcio, Carlo; Guerra, Germano; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoids are tumors that originate from diffuse neuroendocrine system cells (APUD cells) and represent 1-2% of all pulmonary tumors. Although surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, bronchoscopic radical resection of typical carcinoids in selected cases exhibiting endoluminal growth and small implant base has also been explored. Bronchoscopic removal of endobronchial lesions may also reduce the risk of post-obstructive infections and improve pulmonary function, allowing the patient to undergo surgery in better clinical and respiratory state. In this paper we have evaluated the impact on surgical planning and outcome of preoperative bronchoscopic resection in treatment of endobronchial typical carcinoids. Our observations further support the role of bronchoscopic treatment before surgery in endobronchial typical carcinoids.

  7. Presurgical orthopedic premaxillary alignment in cleft lip and palate reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Motoki, D S; Yamashiro, D K

    1994-11-01

    Premaxillary malposition is a difficult problem in cleft lip and palate repair. Orthopedic palatal devices are excellent in positioning the premaxilla, though they are somewhat cumbersome and require complex techniques in adjusting precisely the position of the premaxilla prior to repair. A new technique has been developed for premaxillary repositioning in conjunction with palatal shelf expansion and obturation. The procedure implements microplate fixation anterior to the premaxillary segment and linked to a palatal splint by adjustable elastics. The microplate is inserted through a nasal floor incision and secured by a tight submucosal tunnel through minimal dissection between the prolabium and premaxilla. The last hole of each microplate protrudes through the mucosa and is attached to a pin-retained palatal splint by an elastic chain. Differential tension is applied to the chains to allow gradual repositioning of the protruding maxilla while the splint expands and maintains positioning of the lateral palatal segments. These elastic retractors can be adjusted by staff in the outpatient office. During the past 2 years, this technique has been used successfully in 21 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. Its technical ease and design allows simple adjustments to control premaxillary positioning and growth before definitive surgical closure.

  8. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance.

  9. Molecular focusing and alignment with plasmon fields.

    PubMed

    Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2010-12-08

    We show the possibility of simultaneously aligning molecules and focusing their center-of-mass motion near a metal nanoparticle in the field intensity gradient created by the surface plasmon enhancement of incident light. The rotational motion is described quantum mechanically while the translation is treated classically. The effects of the nanoparticle shape on the alignment and focusing are explored. Our results carry interesting implications to the field of molecular nanoplasmonics and suggest several potential applications in nanochemistry.

  10. Tight focusing of an asymmetric Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Stafeev, Sergey S.; Porfirev, Alexey P.

    2015-12-01

    Tight focusing of a linearly polarized asymmetric Bessel beam, which has a topological charge n=3 and a crescent shape, was investigated numerically and experimentally. Using the Debye formulae, it was shown that the aplanatic lens of numerical aperture NA=0.9 forms a crescent in the focal plane. Experimentally, an asymmetric Bessel beam was formed by a spatial light modulator and focused by an immersive lens (NA=1.25). The crescent was also formed in the focal plane.

  11. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  12. Microflow cytometers with integrated hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Marcin; Theisen, Janko; Kummrow, Andreas; Simon, Peter; Ragusch, Hülya; Bock, Nicole; Schmidt, Martin; Neukammer, Jörg

    2013-04-09

    This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex) principle. The sample--A suspension of micro particles or blood cells--is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  13. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  14. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  15. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  16. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  17. Transcranial Clot Lysis Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Thilo; Zadicario, Eyal; Fisher, David J.; Bradley, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is the third common cause of death worldwide. The majority of strokes are caused by sudden vessel occlusion, due to a blood clot. Vessel recanalization is the primary goal of all acute stroke treatment strategies. Initial data using ultrasound in combination with a therapeutic agent for clot lysis in stroke are promising. However, sound absorption and defocusing of the ultrasound beam occur during transskull insonation, limiting the efficiency of this approach to high extent. Using a transskull High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) head system we were able to lyse blood clots within seconds and in absence of further lytic agents. We could show that any correction for the distortion might be negligible to focus the ultrasound beam after transskull insonation. The use of transskull HIFU for immediate clot lysis in the human brain without the need of further drugs and disregarding individual skull bone characteristics could become a successful strategy in early stroke treatment. Using magnetic resonance tomography for neuronavigation MRI Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound has the potential to open new avenues for therapeutic applications in the brain including Stroke, Intracranial Hemorrhages, Braintumors, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Thalamic Pain, BBB opening, and local drug delivery. First results in transcranial clot lysis will be presented in this paper.

  18. Focused ultrasound effects on nerve action potential in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Vincent; Strichartz, Gary; Jolesz, Ferenc; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive applications of thermal and mechanical energy to selective areas of the human anatomy have led to significant advances in treatment of and recovery from typical surgical interventions. Image-guided focused ultrasound allows energy to be deposited deep into the tissue, completely noninvasively. There has long been interest in using this focal energy delivery to block nerve conduction for pain control and local anesthesia. In this study, we have performed an in vitro study to further extend our knowledge of this potential clinical application. The sciatic nerves from the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were subjected to focused ultrasound (at frequencies of 0.661MHz and 1.986MHz) and to heated Ringer’s solution. The nerve action potential was shown to decrease in the experiments and correlated with temperature elevation measured in the nerve. The action potential recovered either completely, partially, or not at all, depending on the parameters of the ultrasound exposure. The reduction of the baseline nerve temperature by circulating cooling fluid through the sonication chamber did not prevent the collapse of the nerve action potential; but higher power was required to induce the same endpoint as without cooling. These results indicate that a thermal mechanism of focused ultrasound can be used to block nerve conduction, either temporarily or permanently. PMID:19647923

  19. Enhancement of Focused Ultrasound Treatment by Acoustically Generated Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Takagi, Ryo; Inaba, Yuta; Yasuda, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Microbubbles, whether introduced from outside the body or ultrasonically generated in situ, are known to significantly enhance the biological effects of ultrasound, including the mechanical, thermal, and sonochemical effects. Phase-change nanodroplets, which selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and whose phase changes to microbubbles can be induced by ultrasonic stimulation, have been proposed for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor treatment with enhanced selectivity and efficiency. In this paper, a purely acoustic approach to generate microbubble clouds in the tissue to be treated is proposed. Short pulses of focused ultrasound with extremely high intensity, named trigger pulses, are used for exposure. They are immediately followed by focused ultrasound for heating with an intensity similar to or less than that of normal HIFU treatment. The localized generation of microbubble clouds by the trigger pulses is observed in a polyarylamide gel by a high-speed camera, and the effectiveness of the generated clouds in accelerating ultrasonically induced thermal coagulation is confirmed in excised chicken breast tissue. The use of second-harmonic superimposed waves as the trigger pulses is also proposed. The highly reproducible initiation of cavitation by waves with the negative peak pressure emphasized and the efficient expansion of the generated microbubble clouds by waves with the positive peak pressure emphasized are also observed by a high-speed camera in partially degassed water.

  20. Small Animal Radionuclide Imaging With Focusing Gamma-Ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R; Decker, T; Epstein, M; Ziock, K; Pivovaroff, M J; Craig, W W; Jernigan, J G; Barber, W B; Christensen, F E; Funk, T; Hailey, C J; Hasegawa, B H; Taylor, C

    2004-02-27

    Significant effort currently is being devoted to the development of noninvasive imaging systems that allow in vivo assessment of biological and biomolecular interactions in mice and other small animals. While physiological function in small animals can be localized and imaged using conventional radionuclide imaging techniques such as single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), these techniques inherently are limited to spatial resolutions of 1-2 mm. For this reason, we are developing a small animal radionuclide imaging system (SARIS) using grazing incidence optics to focus gamma-rays emitted by {sup 125}I and other radiopharmaceuticals. We have developed a prototype optic with sufficient accuracy and precision to focus the 27.5 keV photons from {sup 125}I onto a high-resolution imaging detector. Experimental measurements from the prototype have demonstrated that the optic can focus X-rays from a microfocus X-ray tube to a spot having physical dimensions (approximately 1500 microns half-power diameter) consistent with those predicted by theory. Our theoretical and numerical analysis also indicate that an optic can be designed and build that ultimately can achieve 100 {micro}m spatial resolution with sufficient efficiency to perform in vivo single photon emission imaging studies in small animal.