Science.gov

Sample records for presurgical focus localization

  1. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    PubMed Central

    Strobbe, Gregor; Carrette, Evelien; López, José David; Montes Restrepo, Victoria; Van Roost, Dirk; Meurs, Alfred; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP) approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii) an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time epochs were in

  2. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Gregor; Carrette, Evelien; López, José David; Montes Restrepo, Victoria; Van Roost, Dirk; Meurs, Alfred; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; van Mierlo, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP) approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii) an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii) an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time epochs were in

  3. Lateralization and Localization of Epilepsy Related Hemodynamic Foci Using Presurgical fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Clara Huishi; Lu, Yunfeng; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Welker, Kirk; Worrell, Gregory; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to develop a method for the purpose of localizing epilepsy related hemodynamic foci for patients suffering intractable focal epilepsy using task-free fMRI alone. Methods We studied three groups of subjects: patients with intractable focal epilepsy, healthy volunteers performing motor tasks, and healthy volunteers in resting state. We performed spatial independent component analysis (ICA) on the fMRI alone data and developed a set of IC selection criteria to identify epilepsy related ICs. The method was then tested in the two healthy groups. Results In seven out of the nine surgery patients, identified ICs were concordant with surgical resection. Our results were also consistent with presurgical evaluation of the remaining one patient without surgery and may explain why she was not suitable for resection treatment. In the motor task study of ten healthy subjects, our method revealed components with concordant spatial and temporal features as expected from the unilateral motor tasks. In the resting state study of seven healthy subjects, the method successfully rejected all components in four out of seven subjects as non-epilepsy related components. Conclusion These results suggest the lateralization and localization value of fMRI alone in presurgical evaluation for patients with intractable unilateral focal epilepsy. Significance The proposed method is noninvasive in nature and easy to implement. It has the potential to be incorporated in current presurgical workup for treating intractable focal epilepsy patients. PMID:24856460

  4. Determination of epileptic focus side in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using long-term noninvasive fNIRS/EEG monitoring for presurgical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rizki, Edmi Edison; Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Dan, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Noninvasive localization of an epileptogenic zone is a fundamental step for presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Here, we applied long-term simultaneous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)/electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for focus diagnosis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Six MTLE patients underwent long-term (8–16 h per day for 4 days) fNIRS/EEG monitoring for the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. Four spontaneous seizures were successfully recorded out of the six patients. To determine oxy-Hb amplitude, the period-average values of oxy-Hb across 20 s from the EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onset were calculated for both hemispheres from the simultaneously recorded fNIRS data. The average oxy-Hb values for the temporal lobe at the earlier EEG- or clinically defined epileptic onsets were greater for the epileptic side than for the contralateral side after EEG activity suppression, spike train, and clinical seizure in all four cases. The true laterality was determined based on the relief of seizures by selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Thus, oxy-Hb amplitude could be a reliable measure for determining the epileptic focus side. Long-term simultaneous fNIRS/EEG measurement serves as an effective tool for recording spontaneous seizures. Cerebral hemodynamic measurement by fNIRS would serve as a valuable supplementary noninvasive measurement method for presurgical evaluation of MTLE. PMID:26158007

  5. Locally focused MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lian; Cao, Y.; Levin, David N.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance images are reconstructed by Fourier transformation and have uniform spatial resolution across the entire field of view (FOV). This paper describes a way of creating MR images which have higher spatial resolution in some areas than others. High resolution imaging can be confined to just those areas where it is necessary to resolve strong edges without truncation artifacts. Such locally focused images can be acquired in less scan time than required to image the entire FOV with uniformly high resolution. After the user specifies the spatial resolution in each portion of the FOV, the algorithm automatically generates image basis functions which oscillate most rapidly in the regions with highest resolution. Images are reconstructed by summing image projection onto these basis functions. These projections are calculated from a subset of the usual phase-encoded signals required to create a uniformly well-resolved image. The algorithm also determines which phase-encodings are optimal for this purpose, and these are usually nonuniformly scattered in k-space. Thus, both data acquisition and image reconstruction are optimized. Functional and interventional imaging may benefit from this technique, which makes it possible to acquire a rapid series of dynamical images which have high resolution in areas of expected changes and lower resolution elsewhere. Spectroscopic images may be improved by using high resolution in the neighborhood of sharp edges which might otherwise cause truncation artifacts.

  6. Focus on Local Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the student newspaper "The Lance" (at Westside High School in Omaha, Nebraska) covered the shootings at Columbine High School. Notes that the staff localized the event and brought the student body into the story. (RS)

  7. Indication of pre-surgical radiochemotherapy enhances psychosocial morbidity among patients with resectable locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bencova, V; Krajcovicova, I; Svec, J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer experience stress-determined psychosocial comorbidities and behavioural alterations. Patients expectation to be cured by the first line surgery and their emotional status can be negatively influenced by the decision to include neoadjuvant long-course radiotherapy prior to surgical intervention. From the patient's perspective such treatment algorithmindicates incurability of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent and dynamics of stress and related psychosocial disturbances among patients with resectable rectal cancer to whom the neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy before surgery has been indicated.Three standardised assessment tools evaluating psychosocial morbidity of rectal cancer patients have been implemented: The EORTC QLQ C30-3, the EORTC QLQ CR29 module and the HADS questionnaires previously tested for internal consistency were answered by patients before and after long-course radiotherapy and after surgery and the scores of clinical and psychosocial values were evaluated by means of the EORTC and HADS manuals. The most profound psychosocial distress was experienced by patients after the decision to apply neoadjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy before surgical intervention. The involvement of pre-surgical radiotherapy into the treatment algorithm increased emotional disturbances (anxiety, feelings of hopelessness) and negatively influenced patient's treatment adherence and positive expectations from the healing process. The negative psychosocial consequences appeared to be more enhanced in female patients. Despite provided information about advances of neoadjuvant radiotherapy onto success of surgical intervention, the emotional and cognitive disorders improved only slightly. The results clearly indicate that addressed communication and targeted psychosocial support has to find place before pre-surgical radiochemotherapy and as a standard part through the trajectory of the entire multimodal rectal cancer

  8. Presurgical orthodontic planning: predictability.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Mortellaro, Carmen; Maspero, Cinzia

    2013-03-01

    The success of orthognathic surgery depends upon the anatomical details of the patient, the direction and extent of the necessary displacement, the experience of the surgical and orthodontic team, and the precision of presurgical orthodontic planning. The authors describe an experimental protocol to optimize presurgical orthodontic planning by the study of linear and rotational discrepancies of skeletal structures. Rotational changes of the skeletal structures can result in an overestimation or underestimation of linear discrepancies. Moreover, teeth can interfere with rotational movements, complicating presurgical planning.The study sample was a group of 20 adult patients, 7 males and 13 females. The inclusion criterion was adult patients who required correction of skeletal asymmetric class II or III malocclusion by osteotomy. Movements in the horizontal, frontal, and midsagittal planes can be simulated and measured through model surgery after diagnostic wax-up of the orthodontic treatment objective. Orthodontic presurgical preparation can be verified through the use of an occlusal splint, which represents a reliable guide during orthodontic preparation. The presurgical orthodontic phase can be obtained in less time and with more accuracy using this treatment planning method and indirect bonding of the orthodontic appliances.

  9. Localization of specific language pathways using diffusion-weighted imaging tractography for presurgical planning of children with intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Asano, Eishi; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Harry T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) tractography can detect multiple white matter pathways connected to language cortices, we employed a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) classification method, which has been recently validated for the corticospinal tract. Methods DWI was performed in 12 normally developing children and 17 children with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent subsequent two-stage epilepsy surgery with intracranial functional mapping. First, whole-brain DWI tractography was performed to identify unique pathways originating from Broca’s area, premotor area, and Wernicke’s area on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of normal children and intracranial electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of children with epilepsy. Group averaging of these pathways based on fMRI was performed to construct the probability maps of language areas in standard MRI space. These maps were finally used to design a DWI-MAP classifier, which can automatically sort individual fibers originating from fMRI language areas as well as ESM language areas. Results In normally developing children, the DWI-MAP classifier predicted language-activation areas on fMRI with up to 77% accuracy. In children with focal epilepsy, the DWI-MAP classifier also showed high accuracy (up to 82%) for the fibers terminating in proximity to essential language areas determined by ESM. Decreased volumes in DWI-MAP–defined pathways after epilepsy surgery were associated with postoperative language deficits. Significance This study encourages further investigations to determine if DWI-MAP analysis can serve as a noninvasive diagnostic tool during pediatric presurgical planning by estimating not only the location of essential language cortices, but also the underlying fibers connecting these cortical areas. PMID:25489639

  10. Presurgical window of opportunity trial design as a platform for testing anticancer drugs: Pros, cons and a focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Di Lauro, Luigi; Mottolese, Marcella; Santini, Daniele; Milella, Michele; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-10-01

    The high attrition rate is a major issue in anticancer drug development. Among the alternative trial designs, presurgical window of opportunity trials envision a short course treatment in the time window between diagnostic biopsy and surgery in a moderately-sized patient population. This approach allows testing therapeutics when pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues are available for comprehensive molecular analyses. The emerging evidence may help define the ability of a given agent to modulate its target(s) and help obtain a broader picture of the molecular changes operated by the treatment. The resulting gain may outweigh the potential harms for patients in the early disease setting. Window of opportunity trials have been extensively applied to breast cancer. Overall, a wider use of these trial designs might lead to the identification of potential responders, ineffective drugs or combinations, and ultimately contribute to enhance the efficiency of the clinical developmental process.

  11. Presurgical window of opportunity trial design as a platform for testing anticancer drugs: Pros, cons and a focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Di Lauro, Luigi; Mottolese, Marcella; Santini, Daniele; Milella, Michele; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-10-01

    The high attrition rate is a major issue in anticancer drug development. Among the alternative trial designs, presurgical window of opportunity trials envision a short course treatment in the time window between diagnostic biopsy and surgery in a moderately-sized patient population. This approach allows testing therapeutics when pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues are available for comprehensive molecular analyses. The emerging evidence may help define the ability of a given agent to modulate its target(s) and help obtain a broader picture of the molecular changes operated by the treatment. The resulting gain may outweigh the potential harms for patients in the early disease setting. Window of opportunity trials have been extensively applied to breast cancer. Overall, a wider use of these trial designs might lead to the identification of potential responders, ineffective drugs or combinations, and ultimately contribute to enhance the efficiency of the clinical developmental process. PMID:27637358

  12. Environmental Flux and Locally Focused College Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews insights from place-based education and ecological models of writing to show how these theories can work together to shape locally focused composition pedagogies. From place-based education, the researcher takes an emphasis on physical specificity, and from ecological models of writing, the researcher takes an emphasis on…

  13. Ictal Magnetic Source Imaging in Presurgical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Badier, Jean-Michel; Bénar, Christian-George; Woodman, Michael; Cruto, Catarina; Chauvel, Patrick; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Gavaret, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Ictal MEG recordings constitute rare data. The objective of this study was to evaluate ictal magnetic source localization (MSI), using two algorithms: linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV), a beamforming technique and equivalent current dipole (ECD). Ictal MSI was studied in six patients. Three of them were undergoing post-operative re-evaluation. For all patients, results were validated by the stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) definition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). EZ was quantified using the epileptogenicity index (EI) method, which accounts for both the propensity of a brain area to generate rapid discharges and the time for this area to become involved in the seizure. EI values range from 0 (no epileptogenicity) to 1 (maximal epileptogenicity). Levels of concordance between ictal MSI and EZ were determined as follows: A: ictal MSI localized the site whose value EI = 1, B: MSI localized a part of the EZ (not corresponding to the maximal value of EI = 1), C: a region could be identified on ictal MSI but not on SEEG, D: a region could be identified on SEEG but not on MSI, E: different regions were localized on MSI and SEEG. Ictal MEG pattern consisted of rhythmic activities between 10 and 20 Hz for all patients. For LCMV (first maxima), levels of concordance were A (two cases), B (two cases) and E (two cases). For ECD fitted on each time point separately (location characterized by the best goodness-of-fit value), levels of concordance were A (one case), B (one case), D (three cases) and E (one case). For ECD calculated for the whole time window, levels of concordance were A (two cases) and D (four cases). Source localization methods performed on rhythmic patterns can localize the EZ as validated by SEEG. In terms of concordance, LCMV was superior to ECD. In some cases, LCMV allows extraction of several maxima that could reflect ictal dynamics. In a medial temporal lobe epilepsy case, ictal MSI indicated an area of delayed propagation and was non

  14. Presurgical Pulmonary Evaluation in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Molmenti, Ernesto; Bhaskaran, Madhu C.; Ali, Nicole; Basu, Amit; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) due to various mechanisms are prone to significant pulmonary comorbidities. With the improvements in renal replacement therapy (RRT), patients with CRF are now expected to live longer, and thus may develop complications in the lung from these processes. The preferred treatment of CRF is kidney transplantation and patients who are selected to undergo transplant must have a thorough preoperative pulmonary evaluation to assess pulmonary status and to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. A MEDLINE®/PubMed® search was performed to identify all articles outlining the course of pre-surgical pulmonary evaluation with an emphasis on patients with CRF who have been selected for renal transplant. Literature review concluded that in addition to generic pre-surgical evaluation, renal transplant patients must also undergo a full cardiopulmonary and sleep evaluation to investigate possible existing pulmonary pathologies. Presence of any risk factor should then be aggressively managed or treated prior to surgery. PMID:25599047

  15. Magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kharkar, Siddharth; Knowlton, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important tool in the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The appropriate utilization and interpretation of MEG studies can increase the proportion of patients who may be able to further pursue surgical evaluation, refine surgical planning, and potentially increase the probability of seizure freedom after surgery. The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a comprehensive but accessible guide to MEG, with particular emphasis on acquiring a working knowledge of MEG analysis, identifying patient groups that are most likely to benefit, and clarifying the limitations of this technology.

  16. The Role of Functional Neuroimaging in Pre-Surgical Epilepsy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Grouiller, Frédéric; Spinelli, Laurent; Seeck, Margitta; Michel, Christoph M.; Vulliemoz, Serge

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy is about 1% and one-third of cases do not respond to medical treatment. In an eligible subset of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone is the only treatment that can possibly cure the disease. Non-invasive techniques provide information for the localization of the epileptic focus in the majority of cases, whereas in others invasive procedures are required. In the last years, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, such as simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram (EEG-fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), electric and magnetic source imaging (MSI, ESI), spectroscopy (MRS), have proved their usefulness in defining the epileptic focus. The combination of these functional techniques can yield complementary information and their concordance is crucial for guiding clinical decision, namely the planning of invasive EEG recordings or respective surgery. The aim of this review is to present these non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, their potential combination, and their role in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. PMID:24715886

  17. Localized harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound surgery targeting.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-08-01

    Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired radio-frequency (RF) signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude.

  18. Functional neuro-imaging as a pre-surgical tool in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chen, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificity although the results are better with more expertise as is true for any technique. More recently magnetoencephalogram/magnetic source imaging (MEG/MSI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in localization and functional mapping during the pre-surgical work-up of epilepsy. Newer techniques such as fMRI-EEG, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and near infra-red spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magneto nanoparticles hold promise for further development that could then be applied in the work-up of epilepsy surgery. In this manuscript, we review these techniques and their current position in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:24791091

  19. [Nonverbal communication by the presurgical patient].

    PubMed

    Freixa García, J; Marcos Sáiz, M

    1999-02-01

    Throughout human history, besides oral language, man has used other forms of communication which are known as non-verbal. From the three components of the basic structure of human communication, language, paralanguage and kinesthesia, we have chosen the last one, kinesthesia, to develop our project. Kinesthesia studies the gestures, mannerisms and postures, or in other words all body movements and positions which occur as part of our speech or independent to it. This project proposes to analyze presurgical patients' kinesthetic manifestations. We have observed that some patients do not verbally express their fears, anxieties, nervousness, etc; nonetheless, bodies do respond with similar gestures and movements in persons of varying age, sex, socio-cultural level and pathology. It is difficult to be certain what another human being feels at any given moment. One may ask a person, but he/she can refuse to answer, he/she can lie or maybe he/she does not even know what his/her feeling is. In spite of the fact that the level of information a patient possesses is higher all the time, since this is one of the primary objectives all health professionals have, one doubt remains: Will a person who has all the possible information regarding his/her surgery at his/her disposition feel the same degree of anxiety as the person who does not have such complete information available to him/her? PMID:10446605

  20. Role of Neuroimaging in the Presurgical Evaluation of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lüders, Hans

    2008-01-01

    A significant minority of patients with focal epilepsy are candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Structural and functional neuroimaging plays an important role in the presurgical evaluation of theses patients. The most frequent etiologies of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in the adult population are mesial temporal sclerosis, malformations of cortical development, cavernous angiomas, and low-grade neoplasms. High-resolution multiplanar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sequences providing T1 and T2 contrast is the initial imaging study of choice to detect these epileptogenic lesions. The epilepsy MRI protocol can be individually tailored when considering the patient's clinical and electrophysiological data. Metabolic imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) visualize metabolic alterations of the brain in the ictal and interictal states. These techniques may have localizing value in patients with a normal MRI scan. Functional MRI is helpful in non-invasively identifying areas of eloquent cortex. Developments in imaging technology and digital postprocessing may increase the yield for imaging studies to detect the epileptogenic lesion and to characterize its connectivity within the epileptic brain. PMID:19513318

  1. Modeling of space-time focusing of localized nondiffracting pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Besieris, Ioannis M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we develop a method capable of modeling the space-time focusing of nondiffracting pulses. These pulses can possess arbitrary peak velocities and, in addition to being resistant to diffraction, can have their peak intensities and focusing positions chosen a priori. More specifically, we can choose multiple locations (spatial ranges) of space and time focalization; also, the pulse intensities can be chosen in advance. The pulsed wave solutions presented here can have very interesting applications in many different fields, such as free-space optical communications, remote sensing, medical apparatus, etc.

  2. Topical local anesthesia: focus on lidocaine–tetracaine combination

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Davide; Raso, Maria Gabriella; Pernice, Carmine; Agnoletti, Vanni; Barbieri, Verter

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of aesthetic and cosmetic procedures, often performed in outpatient settings, has strongly renewed interest in topical anesthetics. A number of different options are widely used, alone or in combination, in order to minimize the pain related to surgery. Moreover, interest in local anesthetics in the treatment of some painful degenerative conditions such as myofascial trigger point pain, shoulder impingement syndrome, or patellar tendinopathy is increasing. Numerous clinical trials have shown that lidocaine–tetracaine combination, recently approved for adults aged 18 or older, is effective and safe in managing pain. The present paper gives an overview of the recent literature regarding the efficacy and safety of lidocaine–tetracaine combination use. PMID:26664201

  3. Response of malignant scalp dermatofibrosarcoma to presurgical targeted growth factor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Austin K; Mehta, Ankit I; Grossi, Peter M; Cummings, Thomas J; Adamson, D Cory

    2010-05-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon, locally aggressive, malignant cutaneous tumor that sparingly presents on the scalp. Dermatofibrosarcomas often result from the formation of a fusion oncogene on translocated or supernumerary ring chromosomes 17 and 22, causing the overexpression of PDGFRbeta driven by the COL1A1 promoter. Because of uncertainty surrounding appropriate treatment of aggressive scalp DFSP, the authors performed an extensive review of the available data from a MEDLINE (Ovid) search to describe the clinical presentation and treatment options for this rare tumor. Their search identified 39 different cases, including the illustrative case presented in this study. Adjuvant therapy for this malignant lesion is not universally established in the literature. In the present case, the authors successfully treated a locally invasive scalp DFSP with presurgical therapy that specifically inhibited the PDGFbeta receptor. Imatinib significantly shrank the DFSP tumor mass, reduced hypervascularity, reduced metabolic activity on PET scanning, and permitted a safe gross-total resection. Although wide excision and Mohs micrographic surgery remain the standard surgical treatments for DFSP, the authors illustrate that presurgical chemotherapeutic treatment by imatinib provides a critical adjunct to traditional therapy.

  4. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Kharkar, Viraj R.; Kamath, Shamika

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients have an esthetic and functional compromise of the middle third of the face and nasal structures. To improve the esthetic result of lip repair, the concept of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) was brought into conception. PNAM is an easy and passive method of bringing the alveolus and lips together by redirecting the forces of natural growth. This case report documents a 2-year follow-up of PNAM in UCLP. PMID:26681868

  5. Pre-Surgical Integration of fMRI and DTI of the Sensorimotor System in Transcortical Resection of a High-Grade Insular Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrand, Chelsea L.; Mickleborough, Marla J. S.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Gould, Layla A.; Lorentz, Eric J.; Ellchuk, Tasha; Borowsky, Ron W.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report on a patient with a WHO Grade III astrocytoma in the right insular region in close proximity to the internal capsule who underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy. Total gross resection of insular gliomas remains surgically challenging based on the possibility of damage to the corticospinal tracts. However, maximizing the extent of resection has been shown to decrease future adverse outcomes. Thus, the goal of such surgeries should focus on maximizing extent of resection while minimizing possible adverse outcomes. In this case, pre-surgical planning included integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to localize motor and sensory pathways. Novel fMRI tasks were individually developed for the patient to maximize both somatosensory and motor activation simultaneously in areas in close proximity to the tumor. Information obtained was used to optimize resection trajectory and extent, facilitating gross total resection of the astrocytoma. Across all three motor-sensory tasks administered, fMRI revealed an area of interest just superior and lateral to the astrocytoma. Further, DTI analyses showed displacement of the corona radiata around the superior dorsal surface of the astrocytoma, extending in the direction of the activation found using fMRI. Taking into account these results, a transcortical superior temporal gyrus surgical approach was chosen in order to avoid the area of interest identified by fMRI and DTI. Total gross resection was achieved and minor post-surgical motor and sensory deficits were temporary. This case highlights the utility of comprehensive pre-surgical planning, including fMRI and DTI, to maximize surgical outcomes on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27013996

  6. Stimulus-evoked potentials contribute to map the epileptogenic zone during stereo-EEG presurgical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Boido, Davide; Kapetis, Dimos; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Pastori, Chiara; Galbardi, Barbara; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Cardinale, Francesco; Francione, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Presurgical monitoring with intracerebral electrodes in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy represents a standard invasive procedure to localize the sites of seizures origin, defined as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During presurgical evaluation, intracerebral single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) is performed to define the boundaries of eloquent areas and to evoke seizure-associated symptoms. Extensive intracranial exploration and stimulation generate a large dataset on brain connectivity that can be used to improve EZ detection and to understand the organization of the human epileptic brain. We developed a protocol to analyse field responses evoked by intracranial stimulation. Intracerebral recordings were performed with 105-162 recording sites positioned in fronto-temporal regions in 12 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Recording sites were used for bipolar SPES at 1 Hz. Reproducible early and late phases (<60 ms and 60-500 ms from stimulus artefact, respectively) were identified on averaged evoked responses. Phase 1 and 2 responses recorded at all and each recording sites were plotted on a 3D brain reconstructions. Based on connectivity properties, electrode contacts were primarily identified as receivers, mainly activators or bidirectional. We used connectivity patterns to construct networks and applied cluster partitioning to study the proprieties between potentials evoked/stimulated in different regions. We demonstrate that bidirectional connectivity during phase 1 is a prevalent feature that characterize contacts included in the EZ. This study shows that the application of an analytical protocol on intracerebral stimulus-evoked recordings provides useful information that may contribute to EZ detection and to the management of surgical-remediable epilepsies. PMID:24706574

  7. Combined EEG/MEG can outperform single modality EEG or MEG source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply.

  8. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K-satisfiability.

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed. PMID:25679737

  9. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

  10. A Simulation Model for Local Harmonic Motion Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkilae, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-14

    A computational model for local harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. LMH technique is based on a focused ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local mechanical vibrations at the focal region. These pulse-echo imaged vibrations are then used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM has been proven to be feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic fields, sonication induced temperature elevation and mechanical vibrations, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These simulation models are based on Rayleigh integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated temperature rise and vibration amplitudes have been compared with in vivo rabbit experiments with noninvasive MRI thermometry.

  11. Localization of focused-ultrasound beams in a tissue phantom, using remote thermocouple arrays.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Dibaji, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Banerjee, Rupak K; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Myers, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    In focused-ultrasound procedures such as vessel cauterization or clot lysis, targeting accuracy is critical. To investigate the targeting accuracy of the focused-ultrasound systems, tissue phantoms embedded with thermocouples can be employed. This paper describes a method that utilizes an array of thermocouples to localize the focused ultrasound beam. All of the thermocouples are located away from the beam, so that thermocouple artifacts and sensor interference are minimized. Beam propagation and temperature rise in the phantom are simulated numerically, and an optimization routine calculates the beam location that produces the best agreement between the numerical temperature values and those measured with thermocouples. The accuracy of the method was examined as a function of the array characteristics, including the number of thermocouples in the array and their orientation. For exposures with a 3.3-MHz source, the remote-thermocouple technique was able to predict the focal position to within 0.06 mm. Once the focal location is determined using the localization method, temperatures at desired locations (including the focus) can be estimated from remote thermocouple measurements by curve fitting an analytical solution to the heat equation. Temperature increases in the focal plane were predicted to within 5% agreement with measured values using this method.

  12. NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY USING BACKSCATTERED ULTRASOUND AND FOCUSED ULTRASOUND HEATING

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create a brief local temperature rise of no more than 10°C. Beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data are collected during heating and cooling using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the time-varying “acoustic strain”, that is, spatiotemporal variations in the RF echo shifts induced by the temperature related sound speed changes, are related to a solution of the heat transfer equation to estimate the thermal diffusivity in the heated zone. Numerical simulations and experiments performed in vitro in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate agreement between the ultrasound derived thermal diffusivity estimates and independent estimates made by a traditional hot-wire technique. The new noninvasive ultrasonic method has potential applications in thermal therapy planning and monitoring, physiological monitoring and as a means of noninvasive tissue characterization. PMID:18450361

  13. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal spot localization using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the -3dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R(2) = 0.821 at p < 0.002 in the 2D HMI system. We demonstrated the

  14. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal spot localization using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the  -3dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R2 = 0.821 at p  <  0.002 in the 2D HMI system. We demonstrated

  15. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Focal Spot Localization Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the −3 dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R2 = 0.821 at p<0.002 in the 2D HMI system. We demonstrated the

  16. Computing network-based features from intracranial EEG time series data: Application to seizure focus localization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sandya; Jordan, Austin; Santaniello, Sabato; Yaffe, Robert; Jouny, Christophe C; Bergey, Gregory K; Anderson, William S; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2014-01-01

    The surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is the only effective treatment for many drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) patients, but the pre-surgical identification of the EZ is challenging. This study investigates whether the EZ exhibits a computationally identifiable signature during seizures. In particular, we compute statistics of the brain network from intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings and track the evolution of network connectivity before, during, and after seizures. We define each node in the network as an electrode and weight each edge connecting a pair of nodes by the gamma band cross power of the corresponding iEEG signals. The eigenvector centrality (EVC) of each node is tracked over two seizures per patient and the electrodes are ranked according to the corresponding EVC value. We hypothesize that electrodes covering the EZ have a signature EVC rank evolution during seizure that differs from electrodes outside the EZ. We tested this hypothesis on multi-channel iEEG recordings from 2 DRE patients who had successful surgery (i.e., seizures were under control with or without medications) and 1 patient who had unsuccessful surgery. In the successful cases, we assumed that the resected region contained the EZ and found that the EVC rank evolution of the electrodes within the resected region had a distinct "arc" signature, i.e., the EZ ranks first rose together shortly after seizure onset and then fell later during seizure.

  17. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  18. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Songkil; Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Henry, Mathias; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a method for "direct-write" conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  19. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases. PMID:26822900

  20. Evidence of local effects in anomalous refraction and focusing properties of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gennaro, Emiliano; Miletto, Carlo; Savo, Salvatore; Andreone, Antonello; Morello, Davide; Galdi, Vincenzo; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Pierro, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    We present the key results from a comprehensive study of the refraction and focusing properties of a two-dimensional dodecagonal photonic “quasicrystal” (PQC), which was carried out via both full-wave numerical simulations and microwave measurements on a slab made of alumina rods inserted in a parallel-plate waveguide. We observe an anomalous refraction and focusing in several frequency regions, which confirm some recently published results. However, our interpretation, which is based on numerical and experimental evidence, substantially differs from the one in terms of “effective negative refractive index” that was originally proposed. Instead, our study highlights the critical role played by short-range interactions associated with local order and symmetry.

  1. In Vivo Application and Localization of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Using Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams have been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real-time. In particular, a concave (40-mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5 MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat model. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function (psf) of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the DMUA capability to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood brain barrier opening. The results show that, while the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within sub

  2. In Vivo application and localization of transcranial focused ultrasound using dual-mode ultrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2015-12-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood-brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams has been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real time. In particular, a concave (40 mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5-MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat models. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the capability of DMUA to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood-brain barrier opening. The results show that although the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within a sub

  3. In Vivo application and localization of transcranial focused ultrasound using dual-mode ultrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2015-12-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been proposed for a variety of transcranial applications, including neuromodulation, tumor ablation, and blood-brain barrier opening. A flurry of activity in recent years has generated encouraging results demonstrating its feasibility in these and other applications. To date, monitoring of FUS beams has been primarily accomplished using MR guidance, where both MR thermography and elastography have been used. The recent introduction of real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) systems offers a new paradigm in transcranial focusing. In this paper, we present first experimental results of ultrasound-guided transcranial FUS (tFUS) application in a rodent brain, both ex vivo and in vivo. DMUA imaging is used for visualization of the treatment region for placement of the focal spot within the brain. This includes the detection and localization of pulsating blood vessels at or near the target point(s). In addition, DMUA imaging is used to monitor and localize the FUS-tissue interactions in real time. In particular, a concave (40 mm radius of curvature), 32-element, 3.5-MHz DMUA prototype was used for imaging and tFUS application in ex vivo and in vivo rat models. The ex vivo experiments were used to evaluate the point spread function of the transcranial DMUA imaging at various points within the brain. In addition, DMUA-based transcranial ultrasound thermography measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of subtherapeutic tFUS heating in rat brain ex vivo. The ex vivo setting was also used to demonstrate the capability of DMUA to produce localized thermal lesions. The in vivo experiments were designed to demonstrate the ability of the DMUA to apply, monitor, and localize subtherapeutic tFUS patterns that could be beneficial in transient blood-brain barrier opening. The results show that although the DMUA focus is degraded due to the propagation through the skull, it still produces localized heating effects within a sub

  4. Local harmonic motion monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery--a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a computational model for localized harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. The LHM technique is based on a focused, time-varying ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local oscillatory motions at the focal region. These vibrations are tracked, using pulse-echo imaging, and then, used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM is feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation process affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic sonication fields, sonication-induced temperature elevation and mechanical motion, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These 3-D simulation models are based on Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated-tissue temperature elevation and mechanical motion were compared with previously published in vivo measurements. Finally, the simulation model was used to simulate coagulation and LHM monitoring, as would occur with multiple, neighbouring sonication locations covering a large tumor.

  5. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) and Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) for localized measurements - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarises up to date development in Focused Impedance Method (FIM) initiated by us. It basically involves taking the sum of two orthogonal tetra-polar impedance measurements around a common central region, giving a localized enhanced sensitivity. Although the basic idea requires 8 electrodes, versions with 6- and 4-electrodes were subsequently conceived and developed. The focusing effect has been verified in 2D and 3D phantoms and through numerical analysis. Dynamic stomach emptying, and ventilation of localized lung regions have been studied successfully suggesting further applications in monitoring of gastric acid secretion, artificial respiration, bladder emptying, etc. Multi-frequency FIM may help identify some diseases and disorders including certain cancers. FIM, being much simpler and having less number of electrodes, appears to have the potential to replace EIT for applications involving large and shallow organs. An enhancement of 6-electrode FIM led to Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) in a square matrix through backprojection in two orthogonal directions, good for localising of one or two well separated objects.

  6. Presurgical Rehearsals for Patients Considering "Awake" Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ramsey A; Rogers, Sean L; Brewer, Cristie M; Piscitani, Franco; Shenai, Mahesh B

    2016-01-01

    Simulated surgical environments are rapidly gaining adoption in training students, residents, and members of specialized surgical teams. However, minimal attention has been given to the use of simulated surgical environments to educate patients on surgical processes, particularly procedures that require the active participation of the patient. "Awake" neurosurgery provides a unique situation in which patients openly participate in their operation. We describe a case report, in which a 62-year-old male was referred for "awake" deep brain stimulation implantation, in relation to medically refractory Parkinson's disease. The patient had significant concerns regarding anxiety and claustrophobia, and toleration of the "awake" procedure. Consequently, we designed a simulated OR environment and process, to recreate the physical experience of the procedure, with minimal cost or risk. This experience was crucial in determining the care plan, as after this experience, the patient opted for an "asleep" alternative. Thus, in certain settings, presurgical rehearsals may have a dramatic impact in the overall course of care. PMID:27532036

  7. Probabilistic machine learning for the evaluation of presurgical language dominance.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Tomer; Andelman, Fani; Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Gonen, Tal; Solski, Aliya; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Ovadia, Moran; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miriam Y; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma; Perry, Daniella

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Providing a reliable assessment of language lateralization is an important task to be performed prior to neurosurgery in patients with epilepsy. Over the last decade, functional MRI (fMRI) has emerged as a useful noninvasive tool for language lateralization, supplementing or replacing traditional invasive methods. In standard practice, fMRI-based language lateralization is assessed qualitatively by visual inspection of fMRI maps at a specific chosen activation threshold. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a new computational technique for providing the probability of each patient to be left, right, or bilateral dominant in language processing. METHODS In 76 patients with epilepsy, a language lateralization index was calculated using the verb-generation fMRI task over a wide range of activation thresholds (from a permissive threshold, analyzing all brain regions, to a harsh threshold, analyzing only the strongest activations). The data were classified using a probabilistic logistic regression method. RESULTS Concordant results between fMRI and Wada lateralization were observed in 89% of patients. Bilateral and right-dominant groups showed similar fMRI lateralization patterns differentiating them from the left-dominant group but still allowing classification in 82% of patients. CONCLUSIONS These findings present the utility of a semi-supervised probabilistic learning approach for presurgical language-dominance mapping, which may be extended to other cognitive domains such as memory and attention.

  8. Probabilistic machine learning for the evaluation of presurgical language dominance.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Tomer; Andelman, Fani; Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Gonen, Tal; Solski, Aliya; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Ovadia, Moran; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miriam Y; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma; Perry, Daniella

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Providing a reliable assessment of language lateralization is an important task to be performed prior to neurosurgery in patients with epilepsy. Over the last decade, functional MRI (fMRI) has emerged as a useful noninvasive tool for language lateralization, supplementing or replacing traditional invasive methods. In standard practice, fMRI-based language lateralization is assessed qualitatively by visual inspection of fMRI maps at a specific chosen activation threshold. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a new computational technique for providing the probability of each patient to be left, right, or bilateral dominant in language processing. METHODS In 76 patients with epilepsy, a language lateralization index was calculated using the verb-generation fMRI task over a wide range of activation thresholds (from a permissive threshold, analyzing all brain regions, to a harsh threshold, analyzing only the strongest activations). The data were classified using a probabilistic logistic regression method. RESULTS Concordant results between fMRI and Wada lateralization were observed in 89% of patients. Bilateral and right-dominant groups showed similar fMRI lateralization patterns differentiating them from the left-dominant group but still allowing classification in 82% of patients. CONCLUSIONS These findings present the utility of a semi-supervised probabilistic learning approach for presurgical language-dominance mapping, which may be extended to other cognitive domains such as memory and attention. PMID:26722848

  9. Two-dimensional locally focused MRI: applications to dynamic and spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lian; Cao, Yue; Levin, David N.

    1996-04-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance images have uniform spatial resolution across the entire field of view. We recently described a method of creating MR images with user-specified spatial resolution along one dimension of the field of view. This paper presents the 2D generalization of this technique which allows the user to specify arbitrary spatial resolution in arbitrary 2D regions. These images are reconstructed from signals which sparsely sample the k-space representation of the image. Therefore, locally focused images can be acquired in less time than that required by Fourier imaging with uniformly high resolution. In this paper we show how to increase the temporal resolution of dynamic imaging (e.g. interventional imaging) by using high resolution in areas of expected change and lower resolution elsewhere. Alternatively, by matching the local spatial resolution to the expected edge content of the image, it is possible to avoid the localized truncation artifacts which mark Fourier images reconstructed from the same number of signals. For example, we show how proton spectroscopic images of the head may be improved by using high resolution in the neighborhood of scalp lipids which might otherwise cause truncation artifacts.

  10. Improved highly accurate localized motion imaging for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Sugiyama, Ryusuke; Kanazawa, Kengo; Seki, Mika; Sasaki, Akira; Takeuchi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Visualizing an area subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is necessary for controlling the amount of HIFU exposure. One of the promising monitoring methods is localized motion imaging (LMI), which estimates coagulation length by detecting the change in stiffness. In this study, we improved the accuracy of our previous LMI by dynamic cross-correlation window (DCCW) and maximum vibration amount (MVA) methods. The DCCW method was used to increase the accuracy of estimating vibration amplitude, and the MVA method was employed to increase signal-noise ratio of the decrease ratio at the coagulated area. The qualitative comparison of results indicated that the two proposed methods could suppress the effect of noise. Regarding the results of the quantitative comparison, coagulation length was estimated with higher accuracy by the improved LMI method, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was reduced from 2.51 to 1.69 mm.

  11. High intensity focused ultrasound: A noninvasive therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The noninvasive ablation of pancreatic cancer with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) energy is received increasingly widespread interest. With rapidly temperature rise to cytotoxic levels within the focal volume of ultrasound beams, HIFU can selectively ablate a targeted lesion of the pancreas without any damage to surrounding or overlying tissues. Preliminary studies suggest that this approach is technical safe and feasible, and can be used alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. It can effectively alleviate cancer-related abdominal pain, and may confer an additional survival benefit with few significant complications. This review provides a brief overview of HIFU, describes current clinical applications, summarizes characteristics of continuous and pulsed HIFU, and discusses future applications and challenges in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25469016

  12. Improved highly accurate localized motion imaging for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Sugiyama, Ryusuke; Kanazawa, Kengo; Seki, Mika; Sasaki, Akira; Takeuchi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Visualizing an area subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is necessary for controlling the amount of HIFU exposure. One of the promising monitoring methods is localized motion imaging (LMI), which estimates coagulation length by detecting the change in stiffness. In this study, we improved the accuracy of our previous LMI by dynamic cross-correlation window (DCCW) and maximum vibration amount (MVA) methods. The DCCW method was used to increase the accuracy of estimating vibration amplitude, and the MVA method was employed to increase signal–noise ratio of the decrease ratio at the coagulated area. The qualitative comparison of results indicated that the two proposed methods could suppress the effect of noise. Regarding the results of the quantitative comparison, coagulation length was estimated with higher accuracy by the improved LMI method, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was reduced from 2.51 to 1.69 mm.

  13. Focused ultrasound treatment of VX2 tumors controlled by local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Huang, Yuexi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using localized harmonic motion (LHM) to monitor and control focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) in VX2 tumors in vivo. FUS exposures were performed on 13 VX2 tumors implanted in nine rabbits. The same transducer induced coagulation and generated a localized oscillatory motion by periodically varying the radiation force. A separate diagnostic ultrasound transducer tracked motion by cross-correlating echo signals at different instances. A threshold in motion amplitude was instituted to cease exposure. Coagulation was confirmed by T2-weighted MR images, thermal dose obtained through MR thermometry and histological examinations. For tumor locations achieving coagulation, the LHM amplitude was 9% (p = 0.04) to 57% (p < 0.0001) lower than that before exposure. Control was successful for 74 (69%) out of 108 cases, with 52 (48%) reaching the threshold and achieving coagulation and 22 (21%) never reaching threshold nor coagulating. For the 34 (31%) unsuccessful exposures, 16 (15%) never reached the threshold but coagulation occurred, and 18 (16%) reached threshold without coagulation confirmed. Noise or radio-frequency signal changes explained motion over- or underestimation in 24 (22%) cases; the remaining 10 (9%) had other causes of error. The control was generally successful, but sudden change or noise in the acquired echo signal caused failure. Coagulation after exposure could be validated by comparing amplitudes before and after exposure.

  14. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  15. In vivo monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery using local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    The present study established the feasibility of a technique for monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) lesion formation in vivo using localized harmonic motion (LHM) measurements. Oscillatory motion (frequencies between 50 and 300 Hz) was generated within tissues by induction of a periodic radiation force with a FUS transducer. The harmonic motion was estimated using cross correlation of RF ultrasonic signals acquired at different instances during the motion by using a confocal diagnostic ultrasound transducer. The technique was evaluated in vivo in rabbit muscle (14 locations) in an magnetic resonance (MR) imager for simultaneous ultrasound harmonic motion tracking and MR thermometry. The measured maximum amplitude of the induced harmonic motion before and after the lesion formation was significantly different for all the tested motion frequencies, and decreased between 17 and 81% depending on the frequency and location. During the FUS exposure a drop in the maximum amplitude value was observed and a threshold value could be associated to the formation of a thermal lesion. A series of controlled sonications was performed by stopping the exposure when the threshold value in LHM amplitude was reached and the presence of a thermal lesion was confirmed by MR imaging. LHM measurements were also used to perform a spatial scan of the tissues across the exposure region and the thermal lesions could be detected as a reduction in the maximum motion amplitude value at the sonication region.

  16. Focused Ultrasound Surgery Control Using Local Harmonic Motion: VX2 Tumor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Goertz, David; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-14

    The objective of this study was to develop a real-time method for controlling focused ultrasound surgery using ultrasound imaging. The approach uses measurements of localized harmonic motion (LHM) in order to perform controlled FUS exposures by detecting changes in the elastic properties of tissues during coagulation. Methods: Nine New Zealand rabbits with VX2 tumors implanted in the thigh were used for this study. LHM was generated within the tumors by periodic induction of radiation force using a FUS transducer (80-mm focal length, 100-mm diameter, 20-mm central hole, 1.485-MHz). Tissue motion was tracked by collecting and cross-correlating RF signals during the motion using a separate diagnostic transducer (3-kHz PRF, 5-MHz). After locating the tumor in MR images, a series of sonications were performed to treat the tumors using a reduction in LHM amplitude to control the exposure. Results: LHM was successfully used to control the sonications. A LHM amplitude threshold value was determined at which changes were considered significant and then the exposure was started and stopped when the LHM amplitude dropped below the threshold. The appearance of a lesion was then verified by MRI. The feasibility of LHM measurements to control FUS exposure was validated.

  17. In vivo monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery using local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    The present study established the feasibility of a technique for monitoring focused ultrasound (FUS) lesion formation in vivo using localized harmonic motion (LHM) measurements. Oscillatory motion (frequencies between 50 and 300 Hz) was generated within tissues by induction of a periodic radiation force with a FUS transducer. The harmonic motion was estimated using cross correlation of RF ultrasonic signals acquired at different instances during the motion by using a confocal diagnostic ultrasound transducer. The technique was evaluated in vivo in rabbit muscle (14 locations) in an magnetic resonance (MR) imager for simultaneous ultrasound harmonic motion tracking and MR thermometry. The measured maximum amplitude of the induced harmonic motion before and after the lesion formation was significantly different for all the tested motion frequencies, and decreased between 17 and 81% depending on the frequency and location. During the FUS exposure a drop in the maximum amplitude value was observed and a threshold value could be associated to the formation of a thermal lesion. A series of controlled sonications was performed by stopping the exposure when the threshold value in LHM amplitude was reached and the presence of a thermal lesion was confirmed by MR imaging. LHM measurements were also used to perform a spatial scan of the tissues across the exposure region and the thermal lesions could be detected as a reduction in the maximum motion amplitude value at the sonication region. PMID:18805626

  18. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  19. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  20. Use of stationary focused ultrasound fields for characterization of tissue and localized tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, Brian Andrew

    Ultrasound-induced blood stasis has been observed for more than 30 years. The physical understanding of the phenomenon has not been fully explored. Analytical descriptions of the acoustic interaction with spheres in suspension have been derived but the physical implications and limitations have not been demonstrated. The analytical expressions will be tested against physical observations using numerical simulations. The simulations will begin with stationary spheres and continue with the inclusion of moving spheres and a moving suspending fluid. To date, experimental observations of acoustically induced blood stasis have been either in vitro or invasive. We demonstrate ultrasound-induced blood stasis in murine normal leg muscle versus tumor-bearing legs, observed through noninvasive measurements of optical spectroscopy, and discuss possible diagnostic uses for this effect of ultrasound. We derive the optimal optical wavelengths for measuring the effects of the ultrasound at small source detector separations. Using optical oximetry performed at the optimal wavelengths, we demonstrate that effects of ultrasound can be used to differentiate tumor from normal leg muscle tissue in mice. To provide a statistical analysis of the experiments, we propose a novel diagnostic algorithm that quantitatively differentiates tumor from nontumor with maximum specificity 0.83, maximum sensitivity 0.79, and area under receiver-operating-characteristics curve 0.90. Ultrasound has long been known to cause tissue heating when applied in high intensities. More recently, interest has arisen in the area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for localized tissue heating effects, specifically thermal ablation. All present techniques employ focused traveling high intensity acoustic waves to create a region of elevated temperature. Such high intensity traveling waves can be damaging to normal tissue in the vicinity of the focal region, and have demonstrated surface burns and caused

  1. Presurgical language mapping in epilepsy: Using fMRI of reading to identify functional reorganization in a patient with long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gould, Layla; Mickleborough, Marla J S; Wu, Adam; Tellez, Jose; Ekstrand, Chelsea; Lorentz, Eric; Ellchuk, Tasha; Babyn, Paul; Borowsky, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old, right-handed patient with intractable left temporal lobe epilepsy, who previously had a partial left temporal lobectomy. The patient could talk during seizures, suggesting that he might have language dominance in the right hemisphere. Presurgical fMRI localization of language processing including reading of exception and regular words, pseudohomophones, and dual meaning words confirmed the clinical hypothesis of right language dominance, with only small amounts of activation near the planned surgical resection and, thus, minimal eloquent cortex to avoid during surgery. Postoperatively, the patient was rendered seizure-free without speech deficits. PMID:27330987

  2. Noninvasive, localized, and transient brain drug delivery using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, James J.

    In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and brain cancer caused 72,432, 19,566 and 12,886 deaths in 2006, respectively. Whereas the number of deaths due to major disorders such as heart disease, stroke, and prostate cancer have decreased since 2006, deaths attributed to AD, PD, and brain cancer have not. Treatment options for patients with CNS disorders remain limited despite significant advances in knowledge of CNS disease pathways and development of neurologically potent agents. One of the major obstacles is that the cerebral microvasculature is lined by a specialized and highly regulated blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents large agents from entering the brain extracellular space. The purpose of this dissertation is to design a noninvasive, localized, and transient BBB opening system using focused ultrasound (FUS) and determine ultrasound and microbubble conditions that can effectively and safely deliver large pharmacologically-relevant-sized agents to the brain. To meet this end, an in vivo mouse brain drug delivery system using a stereotactic-based targeting method was developed. FUS was applied noninvasively through the intact skin and skull, which allowed for long-term and high-throughput studies. With this system, more than 150 mice were exposed to one of 31 distinct acoustic and microbubble conditions. The feasibility of delivering a large MRI contrast agent was first demonstrated in vivo in both wild-type and transgenic Alzheimer's disease model (APP/PS1) mice. A wide range of acoustic and microbubble conditions were then evaluated for their ability to deliver agents to a target region. Interestingly, the possible design space of parameters was found to be vast and different conditions resulted in distinct spatial distributions and doses delivered. In particular, BBB opening was shown to be dependent on the microbubble diameter, acoustic pressure, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and pulse length (PL). Each set of

  3. Global versus local conservation focus of U.S. state agency endangered bird species lists.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jeffrey V; Robertson, Bruce; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Mehlman, David W

    2010-01-06

    The development of species priorities for conservation at local or regional scales (for example, within a state or province) poses an interesting paradox. One the one hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities may lead to greater interest in and resources directed to biodiversity conservation by local or regional institutions. On the other hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities could overlook national or global priorities. We assessed U.S. state government agency endangered-threatened bird lists to determine the comparative representation of species of global versus local conservation significance on them. State lists tended to be represented primarily by species of low global risk-low global responsibility (range: 15-100%; mean 51%) and high global risk-high global responsibility (range: 0-73%; mean 35%). In 25 states, more than half of the species on the state lists were in the low global risk-low global responsibility category. Most U.S. state agency lists represent a combined strategy of highlighting species of both local and global conservation significance. Even with this combined local-global strategy, most state lists were predominated by species that represent local but not global conservation significance. Such a strategy could have profound negative consequences for many species that are not formally recognized under national endangered species protections but that are also left off of state-level endangered species lists.

  4. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  5. ACAL National Conference (Sydney, Australia, October 9-11, 1992). Conference Papers, Vol. 3, Workshops with a Local NSW Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy & Numeracy Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This third of three volumes of the 1992 Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) Conference Papers is a special edition of "Literacy and Numeracy Exchange." It includes nine papers from workshops with a more local New South Wales focus. "Literacy, Language, and Numeracy in the Workplace in the Context of Industry Restructuring" (Ursula…

  6. Setting up Suicide Prevention Plans at the Local Level: The Methodology of Focus Groups with Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Grossi, Antonello; Venturini, Monica; Cristina, Contessa; Toniolo, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    In the prevention of suicide, there is a need to transform clinical studies into health promotion by a cooperation with territorial agencies. A survey on a group of stakeholders was performed with the methodology of focus group. The evaluation criteria used by the participants were practical and not methodological and were closely linked to the…

  7. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  8. Pre-Surgical fMRI Data Analysis Using a Spatially Adaptive Conditionally Autoregressive Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuqing; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Bartsch, Andreas J.; Johnson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial smoothing is an essential step in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. One standard smoothing method is to convolve the image data with a three-dimensional Gaussian kernel that applies a fixed amount of smoothing to the entire image. In pre-surgical brain image analysis where spatial accuracy is paramount, this method, however, is not reasonable as it can blur the boundaries between activated and deactivated regions of the brain. Moreover, while in a standard fMRI analysis strict false positive control is desired, for pre-surgical planning false negatives are of greater concern. To this end, we propose a novel spatially adaptive conditionally autoregressive model with variances in the full conditional of the means that are proportional to error variances, allowing the degree of smoothing to vary across the brain. Additionally, we present a new loss function that allows for the asymmetric treatment of false positives and false negatives. We compare our proposed model with two existing spatially adaptive conditionally autoregressive models. Simulation studies show that our model outperforms these other models; as a real model application, we apply the proposed model to the pre-surgical fMRI data of two patients to assess peri- and intra-tumoral brain activity. PMID:27042244

  9. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility.

  10. Neural substrates of vulnerability to postsurgical delirium as revealed by presurgical diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Michele; Dai, Weiying; Guttmann, Charles R G; Meier, Dominik S; Ngo, Long H; Hshieh, Tammy T; Callahan, Amy E; Fong, Tamara G; Schmitt, Eva; Dickerson, Bradford C; Press, Daniel Z; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K; Alsop, David C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant impact of postoperative delirium on surgical outcomes and the long-term prognosis of older patients, its neural basis has not yet been clarified. In this study we investigated the impact of premorbid brain microstructural integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging before surgery, on postoperative delirium incidence and severity, as well as the relationship among presurgical cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities and postoperative delirium. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging scans of 136 older (≥70 years), dementia-free subjects from the prospective Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study were analysed blind to the clinical data and delirium status. Primary outcomes were postoperative delirium incidence and severity during the hospital stay, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method. We measured cognition before surgery using general cognitive performance, a composite score based on a battery of neuropsychological tests. We investigated the association between presurgical diffusion tensor imaging parameters of brain microstructural integrity (i.e. fractional anisotropy, axial, mean and radial diffusivity) with postoperative delirium incidence and severity. Analyses were adjusted for the following potential confounders: age, gender, vascular comorbidity status, and general cognitive performance. Postoperative delirium occurred in 29 of 136 subjects (21%) during hospitalization. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, cingulum, corpus callosum, internal capsule, thalamus, basal forebrain, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes, including the hippocampus, were associated with delirium incidence and severity, after controlling for age, gender and vascular comorbidities. After further controlling for general cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and basal forebrain still remained associated with delirium

  11. Neural substrates of vulnerability to postsurgical delirium as revealed by presurgical diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Michele; Dai, Weiying; Guttmann, Charles R G; Meier, Dominik S; Ngo, Long H; Hshieh, Tammy T; Callahan, Amy E; Fong, Tamara G; Schmitt, Eva; Dickerson, Bradford C; Press, Daniel Z; Marcantonio, Edward R; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K; Alsop, David C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant impact of postoperative delirium on surgical outcomes and the long-term prognosis of older patients, its neural basis has not yet been clarified. In this study we investigated the impact of premorbid brain microstructural integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging before surgery, on postoperative delirium incidence and severity, as well as the relationship among presurgical cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities and postoperative delirium. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging scans of 136 older (≥70 years), dementia-free subjects from the prospective Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study were analysed blind to the clinical data and delirium status. Primary outcomes were postoperative delirium incidence and severity during the hospital stay, as assessed by the Confusion Assessment Method. We measured cognition before surgery using general cognitive performance, a composite score based on a battery of neuropsychological tests. We investigated the association between presurgical diffusion tensor imaging parameters of brain microstructural integrity (i.e. fractional anisotropy, axial, mean and radial diffusivity) with postoperative delirium incidence and severity. Analyses were adjusted for the following potential confounders: age, gender, vascular comorbidity status, and general cognitive performance. Postoperative delirium occurred in 29 of 136 subjects (21%) during hospitalization. Presurgical diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, cingulum, corpus callosum, internal capsule, thalamus, basal forebrain, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes, including the hippocampus, were associated with delirium incidence and severity, after controlling for age, gender and vascular comorbidities. After further controlling for general cognitive performance, diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities of the cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and basal forebrain still remained associated with delirium

  12. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all. PMID:26790462

  13. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  14. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Katie L.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering–global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all. PMID:26790462

  15. A modified presurgical orthopedic (nasoalveolar molding) device in the treatment of unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Chitravelu Siva; Prasad, N. K. K. Koteswara; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Liou, Eric Jein Wein

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) can be done effectively to reshape the nasal cartilage and mold the maxillary dentoalveolar arch before surgical cleft lip repair and primary rhinoplasty. Presurgical NAM helps as an adjunct procedure to enhance the esthetic and functional outcome of the surgical procedures. We have developed a modified NAM device to suit to the needs of the patients coming from distant places for the treatment. This device helps in reducing the number of frequent visits the patient needs to take to the craniofacial center. The purpose of this presentation is to report this treatment technique and discuss its application. PMID:27403068

  16. A modified presurgical orthopedic (nasoalveolar molding) device in the treatment of unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Chitravelu Siva; Prasad, N K K Koteswara; Chitharanjan, Arun B; Liou, Eric Jein Wein

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) can be done effectively to reshape the nasal cartilage and mold the maxillary dentoalveolar arch before surgical cleft lip repair and primary rhinoplasty. Presurgical NAM helps as an adjunct procedure to enhance the esthetic and functional outcome of the surgical procedures. We have developed a modified NAM device to suit to the needs of the patients coming from distant places for the treatment. This device helps in reducing the number of frequent visits the patient needs to take to the craniofacial center. The purpose of this presentation is to report this treatment technique and discuss its application. PMID:27403068

  17. The role of MEG in pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy: current use and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raheel; Rutka, James T

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the epileptogenic zone is a critical determinant of seizure control outcomes following surgical resection in medically refractory seizures. There has been increasing recognition of the contributive value of Magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies in the diagnostic evaluation of epilepsy. Biomagnetic signals recorded by MEG studies in combination with source modeling techniques can yield diagnostic information regarding the underlying epileptogenic zone. MEG evaluation is particularly useful in evaluation of non lesional neocortical epilepsy. In these cases, MEG spike sources can guide presurgical and perioperative invasive monitoring. The incorporation of MEG-based diagnostic information into the surgical evaluation and management plan has consistently been shown to be associated with improved seizure control outcomes.

  18. Influence of residual ridge resorption patterns on fixture placement and tooth position, Part III: Presurgical assessment of ridge augmentation requirements.

    PubMed

    Mecall, R A; Rosenfeld, A L

    1996-08-01

    Implant diagnostic methods using computed tomography with barium-coated templates have revealed the relationship between the optimal final tooth position and the residual alveolar process or ridge. While information with regard to emergence axis, anatomic limitations, fixture length, buccolingual cantilever, and prediction of the the final prosthetic design is available, presurgical information relating to the reconstruction potential of smile zone deformities remains elusive. The use of a complete provisional wax-up and the modification of a barium-coated template design can provide the implant team with presurgical information regarding the need for augmentation of hard tissue and soft tissue and the volume of tissue needed for reconstruction. This information can assist the implant team in the development of realistic treatment objectives and in more accurately addressing the needs and concerns of the patient during presurgical treatment planning.

  19. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  20. Focused acoustic beam imaging of grain structure and local Young's modulus with Rayleigh and surface skimming longitudinal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R. W.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2013-01-25

    The interaction of a focused acoustic beam with materials generates Rayleigh surface waves (RSW) and surface skimming longitudinal waves (SSLW). Acoustic microscopic investigations have used the RSW amplitude and the velocity measurements, extensively for grain structure analysis. Although, the presence of SSLW has been recognized, it is rarely used in acoustic imaging. This paper presents an approach to perform microstructure imaging and local elastic modulus measurements by combining both RSW and SSLW. The acoustic imaging of grain structure was performed by measuring the amplitude of RSW and SSLW signal. The microstructure images obtained on the same region of the samples with RSW and SSLW are compared and the difference in the contrast observed is discussed based on the propagation characteristics of the individual surface waves. The velocity measurements are determined by two point defocus method. The surface wave velocities of RSW and SSLW of the same regions of the sample are combined and presented as average Young's modulus image.

  1. Measurement of local density and magnetic field of a magnetized plasma using Raman scattering from a focused laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyung Seon; Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Kang, Teyoun; Suk, Hyyong; Hur, Min Sup

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the possibility of pin pointing the local density and magnetic field of an inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma by stimulated Raman scattering of a pump laser pulse focused on a desired position. As the Raman growth rate is proportional to the pump pulse amplitude, the spectral peak shift of the scattered signal is, though it is a spatially integrated one, expected to be determined dominantly by that from the focal position of the pump pulse. From a theoretical estimation, we found a condition of the pulse duration and plasma density for such an expectation to properly work. It was confirmed by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that as long as the pulse duration is long and the length scale of the plasma inhomogeneity is large compared to the Rayleigh length, the spectral bandwidth of the spatially integrated Raman signal can be narrow enough to distinguish the peak position with good enough resolution.

  2. Modified technique of presurgical infant maxillary orthopedics for complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Choo, Hyeran; Maguire, Meg; Low, David W

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a modified device fabrication and facial taping method that increases the efficiency and efficacy of presurgical infant maxillary orthopedic therapy for babies born with complete cleft lip and palate. Interarch and intra-arch relationships of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches were evaluated on mounted stone models before and after treatment. The palatal plate device was custom-fabricated in a manner that bypassed the need for periodic acrylic addition and removal, thereby eliminating the risk of natural maxillary growth restriction during therapy. Elastic labial tapes were fabricated and applied in a configuration that mimicked normal function of the orbicularis oris muscle. A nasal stent wire was utilized from the initiation of therapy to enhance intraoral retention and stability of the device. Examples of infants undergoing a unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treatment protocol are presented. Treatment objectives were achieved within 7 to 8 weeks of therapy for patients who had an initial alveolar cleft size more than 10 to 12 mm. The modified protocol of presurgical infant maxillary orthopedic therapy is an effective and efficient treatment modality in reversing the pre-existing orofacial dysmorphism by redirecting the infant's natural growth.

  3. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  4. Dynamic modulation of electronic properties of graphene by localized carbon doping using focused electron beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Russell, M.; Henry, M.; Kim, S. S.; Naik, R. R.; Voevodin, A. A.; Jang, S. S.; Tsukruk, V. V.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the first demonstration of controllable carbon doping of graphene to engineer local electronic properties of a graphene conduction channel using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Electrical measurements indicate that an ``n-p-n'' junction on graphene conduction channel is formed by partial carbon deposition near the source and drain metal contacts by low energy (<50 eV) secondary electrons due to inelastic collisions of long range backscattered primary electrons generated from a low dose of high energy (25 keV) electron beam (1 × 1018 e- per cm2). Detailed AFM imaging provides direct evidence of the new mechanism responsible for dynamic evolution of the locally varying graphene doping. The FEBID carbon atoms, which are physisorbed and weakly bound to graphene, diffuse towards the middle of graphene conduction channel due to their surface chemical potential gradient, resulting in negative shift of Dirac voltage. Increasing a primary electron dose to 1 × 1019 e- per cm2 results in a significant increase of carbon deposition, such that it covers the entire graphene conduction channel at high surface density, leading to n-doping of graphene channel. Collectively, these findings establish a unique capability of FEBID technique to dynamically modulate the doping state of graphene, thus enabling a new route to resist-free, ``direct-write'' functional patterning of graphene-based electronic devices with potential for on-demand re-configurability.We report on the first demonstration of controllable carbon doping of graphene to engineer local electronic properties of a graphene conduction channel using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Electrical measurements indicate that an ``n-p-n'' junction on graphene conduction channel is formed by partial carbon deposition near the source and drain metal contacts by low energy (<50 eV) secondary electrons due to inelastic collisions of long range backscattered primary electrons generated

  5. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  6. An Intelligibility Assessment of Toddlers with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Received and Did Not Receive Presurgical Infant Orthopedic Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konst, Emmy M.; Weersink-Braks, Hanny; Rietveld, Toni; Peters, Herman

    2000-01-01

    The influence of presurgical infant orthopedic treatment (PIO) on speech intelligibility was evaluated with 10 toddlers who used PIO during the first year of life and 10 who did not. Treated children were rated as exhibiting greater intelligibility, however, transcription data indicated there were not group differences in actual intelligibility.…

  7. An Examination of the Effects of Pre-Surgical Education on Patient Expectations in Total Knee Arthroplasties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez-Ray, Natasha Dawn

    2011-01-01

    As patients prepare for total-knee arthroplasty surgery, they have numerous expectations related to their long-term recovery and function. This research discerned whether the use of a pre-surgical patient education class with an additional long-term expectation module addressing recovery during the first 12 months after surgery was more effective…

  8. Beyond localization: the role of traditional neuropsychological tests in an age of imaging.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Thompson, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present two significant challenges to the rationale and role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates today. The first is a direct challenge to the model of material-specific memory that has underpinned much clinical practice over the last 50 years. The second, more fundamental, challenge goes to the very heart of the lateralizing/localizing approach that has been the cornerstone of clinical neuropsychology practice in epilepsy surgery centers to date. This review examines these challenges and suggests some ways in which the profession might respond and adapt. We conclude that noninvasive neuropsychological assessment remains a critical investigation in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery patients. Its value stretches beyond the localization of a surgically remediable seizure focus. Once a vital test, other investigations are now superior in this respect in many cases. However, new technologies have enhanced the role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment, which is now able to provide unparalleled insights and predictions into the way in which the underlying pathology, seizures, and proposed surgery shape an individual's profile of cognitive abilities. Detailed neuropsychological feedback enables the patient to make an informed decision, and forms the basis of the tailor made preemptive rehabilitation programs that can be implemented preoperatively, minimizing the most significant morbidity associated with epilepsy surgery today.

  9. Twelve years' experience with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using sonablate™ devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Nakano, Muyura; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yoshihiro; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2012-10-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0, biopsy proven, localized prostate cancer, with a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of <30 ng/ml, any Gleason score were included. All patients underwent HIFU using the Sonablate™ (S) device and were required to have a minimal follow-up of 2 years after the last HIFU session to be included in this analysis. Four different generation HIFU devices, S200, S500, S500 version 4 and S500 TCM, have been used for this study. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir+2ng/ml). Seven hundred and fifty-three men with prostate cancer were included. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Former group, 421 patients were treated with S200 and 500 from 1990 to 2005; in the Latter group, 332 patients were treated with S500 ver. 4 and TCM from 2005 to 2009. The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in the Former and Latter groups were 68 and 67 years, 11.3 and 9.7 ng/ml, 6.2 and 6.6, 167 and 101 min, and 49 and 38 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (BDFR) in the groups at 5 years was, respectively, 67% and 53%, and was 50% at 10 years in the Former group (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the Former group at 5 and 10 years were 68% and 65%, 52% and 48%, and 43% and 40%, respectively (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the Latter group at 5 years were 83%, 76%, and 42% (p<0.0001). The negative prostate biopsy rate in the Former and Latter groups was 81% and 93%, respectively. Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 45%, 38%, and 24% of patients at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years after HIFU. The results after long-term follow-up have indicated that HIFU is an efficient and safe treatment for patients with

  10. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound versus Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: A Matched-Pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Limani, Ksenija; Peltier, Alexandre; Marcelis, Quentin; Zanaty, Marc; Chamoun, Alexandre; Vanden Bossche, Marc; Roumeguère, Thierry; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate postoperative morbidity and long term oncologic and functional outcomes of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) compared to brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Material and Methods. Patients treated by brachytherapy were matched 1 : 1 with patients who underwent HIFU. Differences in postoperative complications across the two groups were assessed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum or χ (2) test. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox regression models were constructed to assess differences in survival rates between the two groups. Results. Brachytherapy was significantly associated with lower voiding LUTS and less frequent acute urinary retention (p < 0.05). Median oncologic follow-up was 83 months (13-123 months) in the HIFU cohort and 44 months (13-89 months) in the brachytherapy cohort. Median time to achieve PSA nadir was statistically shorter in the HIFU. Biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher in the brachytherapy cohort compared to HIFU cohort (68.5% versus 53%, p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in metastasis-free, cancer specific, and overall survivals was observed between the two groups. Conclusion. HIFU and brachytherapy are safe with no significant difference in cancer specific survival on long term oncologic follow-up. Nonetheless, a randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these results. PMID:26357511

  11. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound versus Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: A Matched-Pair Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Limani, Ksenija; Peltier, Alexandre; Marcelis, Quentin; Zanaty, Marc; Chamoun, Alexandre; Vanden Bossche, Marc; Roumeguère, Thierry; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate postoperative morbidity and long term oncologic and functional outcomes of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) compared to brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Material and Methods. Patients treated by brachytherapy were matched 1 : 1 with patients who underwent HIFU. Differences in postoperative complications across the two groups were assessed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum or χ2 test. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox regression models were constructed to assess differences in survival rates between the two groups. Results. Brachytherapy was significantly associated with lower voiding LUTS and less frequent acute urinary retention (p < 0.05). Median oncologic follow-up was 83 months (13–123 months) in the HIFU cohort and 44 months (13–89 months) in the brachytherapy cohort. Median time to achieve PSA nadir was statistically shorter in the HIFU. Biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher in the brachytherapy cohort compared to HIFU cohort (68.5% versus 53%, p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in metastasis-free, cancer specific, and overall survivals was observed between the two groups. Conclusion. HIFU and brachytherapy are safe with no significant difference in cancer specific survival on long term oncologic follow-up. Nonetheless, a randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these results. PMID:26357511

  12. Presurgical planning in implant restorations: correct interpretation of cone-beam computed tomography for improved imaging.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, S; Skondra, E; Roussou, I; Skondras, E V

    2012-10-01

    Contemporary implant dentistry is a primarily prosthetically driven treatment. The implant position is defined during the diagnostic phase, and the radiographic guide (template) indicates accurately the area of concern on the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT is an essential diagnostic key to a successful treatment plan in many cases. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of proper alignment of the scanning levels in CBCT in order to avoid distorted cross-sectional images. As demonstrated with two clinical cases in this preliminary study, the initial scanning images of the CBCT must be drawn parallel to the occlusal plane, as defined by the diagnostic wax-up of the final restoration. The radiographic template offers valuable information about the planned location and inclination of the implant and the restoration. Proper image reconstruction following the dental scan can contribute significantly to accurate cross-sectional images and detailed presurgical planning.

  13. The changes produced by presurgical orthopedic treatment of bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, N; Shaw, W; Volp, C

    1977-01-01

    A serial cephalometric analysis (with the aid of metallic implants) and an analysis of the models of 10 children with complete bilateral clefts, who received presurgical orthopedic treatment, was done. It revealed that such therapy can successfully reduce the protrusive deformity of the premaxilla, when forward growth of this structure is restrained so as to allow the remainder of the face to "catch up." Our other observations include the accentuation of the columella during treatment, but an absence of growth at the cleft margins. Orthopedic treatment which fails to achieve the desired aims in 12 weeks of active therapy should be discontinued then in favor of such surgical setback as may be necessary to allow a satisfactory lip repair.

  14. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained Compression of Auricular Keloid

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, M; Kundu, R; Tamrakar, AK

    2014-01-01

    Keloid is dermal lesion characterized by nodular fibroblastic proliferation, which is considered an aberration of wound healing process. It is believed to be the confused scar that does not know when to stop growing. Pressure therapy using clips or splints is widely used for the treatment of keloids; however, it is often very difficult to control the amount and direction of pressure applied. Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on the scar tissue. PMID:25184083

  15. Functional MRI in clinical practice: Assessment of language and motor for pre-surgical planning

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Ramyar; Shoar, Majid Haghighat; Hooshmand, Sina; Mahdavi, Arash; Kharrazi, Homayoon Hadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used for pre-neurosurgical planning and may eventually become a routine pre-surgical imaging modality. The validity of fMRI for clinical application depends on various factors such as proper task selection, correct statistical analysis and threshold setting with appropriate patient cooperation. This study was performed on 40 patients with different types of brain mass lesions or hippocampal sclerosis to assess the role of appropriate patient selection for achieving a reliable fMRI result. Accurate and reproducible fMRI strongly depends on the patient’s cooperation. In this study we observed that a pre-test mock fMRI session held by a radiologist may help to predict which patients are more or less suitable candidates for fMRI. PMID:26443298

  16. Measuring the biological effect of presurgical metformin treatment in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivalingam, V N; Kitson, S; McVey, R; Roberts, C; Pemberton, P; Gilmour, K; Ali, S; Renehan, A G; Kitchener, H C; Crosbie, E J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies in endometrial cancer (EC) show that metformin reduces cellular proliferation by PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that short-term presurgical metformin reduces cellular proliferation in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrioid EC, and assessed the feasibility of using phosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR proteins as tissue end points. Methods: Women with AEH or EC received metformin 850 mg twice a day or no drug in the presurgical window between diagnosis and hysterectomy. Before and after the window, tissue samples were obtained; serum markers of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance index) were determined; and anthropometrics measured (e.g. BMI). Cell proliferation (Ki-67) and PI3K-AKT-mTOR phosphostatus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and scored blinded to treatment. Results: Twenty-eight metformin-treated and 12 untreated patients, well matched for age and BMI, completed the study. Metformin treatment (median 20 days, range 7–34) was associated with a 17.2% reduction in tumour Ki-67 (95% CI −27.4, −7.0, P=0.002), in a dose-dependent manner. Tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus varied but the effects were not significant after adjusting for changes in controls. Conclusions: Short-term metformin was associated with reduced Ki-67 expression in EC. Changes in tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus were seen in both groups. Future studies should address the variability attributed to different sampling techniques including devascularisation of the uterus at hysterectomy. PMID:26794276

  17. Relations between Perceptual and Conceptual Scope: How Global versus Local Processing Fits a Focus on Similarity versus Dissimilarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Nine studies showed a bidirectional link (a) between a global processing style and generation of similarities and (b) between a local processing style and generation of dissimilarities. In Experiments 1-4, participants were primed with global versus local perception styles and then asked to work on an allegedly unrelated generation task. Across…

  18. Is an epilepsy presurgical evaluation necessary for mid-grade and high-grade brain tumors presenting with seizures?

    PubMed

    Hamer, Hajo M; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-12-01

    Patients with epilepsy caused by mid-grade and high-grade tumors do not usually undergo formal presurgical epilepsy evaluations before tumor resection. However, a minority of these patients may benefit significantly from just such a structured presurgical evaluation especially when seizure freedom or seizure reduction is a surgical aim in addition to total tumor resection. Typical cases comprise patients with multifocal tumors, tumors with bilateral extension, tumors over eloquent cortex, and the need for differentiation of spells of an uncertain nature, for example, epileptic versus psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. If they are epileptic, the definition of the epileptic lesion versus the epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex can be another reason for monitoring. In addition to noninvasive recordings, invasive studies that use subdural or depths electrodes can be of special importance in these patients, leading to an exact delineation of the epileptogenic zone, usually extending beyond the epileptic lesion, and allow safe differentiation of epileptic from eloquent cortex.

  19. [From the analogic to the digital era: technical EEG progress for presurgical investigations of refractory partial epilepsies].

    PubMed

    Gagnepain, J-P; Allouche, L; Toussaint, D; Landré, E

    2008-05-01

    Over the past two decades, exploration of epileptic patients has benefited from technological advances in electroencephalography. Computerized equipment can simultaneously retrieve cerebral electric activity and signs of the patient's ictal activity. The computer era has improved reliability, storage and analysis of the recorded data and provides easier communication tools for multidisciplinary staff and patient case studies. Therefore, an increasing number of patients could benefit from presurgical investigations and surgical treatment.

  20. A Bayesian non-parametric Potts model with application to pre-surgical FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy D; Liu, Zhuqing; Bartsch, Andreas J; Nichols, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    The Potts model has enjoyed much success as a prior model for image segmentation. Given the individual classes in the model, the data are typically modeled as Gaussian random variates or as random variates from some other parametric distribution. In this article, we present a non-parametric Potts model and apply it to a functional magnetic resonance imaging study for the pre-surgical assessment of peritumoral brain activation. In our model, we assume that the Z-score image from a patient can be segmented into activated, deactivated, and null classes, or states. Conditional on the class, or state, the Z-scores are assumed to come from some generic distribution which we model non-parametrically using a mixture of Dirichlet process priors within the Bayesian framework. The posterior distribution of the model parameters is estimated with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, and Bayesian decision theory is used to make the final classifications. Our Potts prior model includes two parameters, the standard spatial regularization parameter and a parameter that can be interpreted as the a priori probability that each voxel belongs to the null, or background state, conditional on the lack of spatial regularization. We assume that both of these parameters are unknown, and jointly estimate them along with other model parameters. We show through simulation studies that our model performs on par, in terms of posterior expected loss, with parametric Potts models when the parametric model is correctly specified and outperforms parametric models when the parametric model in misspecified. PMID:22627277

  1. [Quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy therapy: 1st revised version].

    PubMed

    Rosenow, F; Bast, T; Czech, T; Hans, V; Helmstaedter, C; Huppertz, H-J; Seeck, M; Trinka, E; Wagner, K

    2014-06-01

    In patients with pharmacorefractory epilepsy, preoperative epilepsy evaluation and subsequent epilepsy surgery lead to a significant improvement of seizure control, proportion of seizure-free patients, quality of life and social participation. The aims of preoperative epilepsy evaluation are to define the chance of complete seizure freedom and the likelihood of inducing new neurological deficits in a given patient. As epilepsy surgery is an elective procedure quality standards are particularly high. As detailed in the first edition of these practice guidelines, quality control relates to seven different domains: (1) establishing centres with a sufficient number of sufficiently and specifically trained personnel, (2) minimum technical standards and equipment, (3) continuing medical education of employees, (4) surveillance by trained personnel during the video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM), (5) systematic acquisition of clinical and outcome data, (6) the minimum number of preoperative evaluations and epilepsy surgery procedures and (7) cooperation of epilepsy centres. In the first edition of these practice guidelines published in 2000 it was defined which standards were desirable and that their implementation should be aimed for. These standards related especially to the certification required for different groups of medical doctors involved and to the minimum numbers of procedures required. In the subsequent decade quite a number of colleagues have been certified by the trinational Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft, AG) for Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis and Operative Epilepsy Treatment (http://www.ag-epilepsiechirurgie.de) and therefore, on 8 May 2013 the executive board of the AG decided to now make these standards obligatory. PMID:24861193

  2. Presurgical Rehearsals for Patients Considering “Awake” Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ramsey A.; Rogers, Sean L.; Brewer, Cristie M.; Piscitani, Franco; Shenai, Mahesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Simulated surgical environments are rapidly gaining adoption in training students, residents, and members of specialized surgical teams. However, minimal attention has been given to the use of simulated surgical environments to educate patients on surgical processes, particularly procedures that require the active participation of the patient. “Awake” neurosurgery provides a unique situation in which patients openly participate in their operation. We describe a case report, in which a 62-year-old male was referred for “awake” deep brain stimulation implantation, in relation to medically refractory Parkinson’s disease. The patient had significant concerns regarding anxiety and claustrophobia, and toleration of the “awake” procedure. Consequently, we designed a simulated OR environment and process, to recreate the physical experience of the procedure, with minimal cost or risk. This experience was crucial in determining the care plan, as after this experience, the patient opted for an “asleep” alternative. Thus, in certain settings, presurgical rehearsals may have a dramatic impact in the overall course of care. PMID:27532036

  3. Pre-surgical planning and MR-tractography utility in brain tumour resection.

    PubMed

    Romano, A; D'Andrea, G; Minniti, G; Mastronardi, L; Ferrante, L; Fantozzi, L M; Bozzao, A

    2009-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the possible identification of trajectories of fibre tracts, (2) to examine the useful of a neuronavigation system for presurgical planning, (3) to assess pre- and post-surgery patients' clinical condition and (4) to evaluate the impact of this information on surgical planning and procedure. Twenty-eight right-handed patients were prospectively and consecutively studied. All the patients were clinically assessed by a neurologist in both pre- and postsurgical phases. Separately the pyramidal tract, optic radiation and arcuate fasciculus were reconstructed. The trajectories were considered suitable for surgical planning if there were no interruptions of any of the layers at the level of the lesion. Dedicated software 'merged' the acquired images with the tractographic processing, and the whole dataset was sent to the neuronavigation system. The assessment of the 37 visualised trajectories close to the tumour resulted in a modification of the surgical approach to corticotomy in six patients (21%); the impact on the definition of the resection margins during surgery was 64%(18 cases). The overall impact percentage on the surgical procedure was 82%. In 27 cases, the symptoms had not changed. MR-tractography provides the neurosurgeon with a new anatomical view that has an impact on the surgical resection planning for brain neoplasms. PMID:19533147

  4. Focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode behind a gradient-index acoustic metalens with local resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.

  5. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  6. Disentangling Stability, Variability and Adaptability in Human Performance: Focus on the Interplay between Local Variance and Serial Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Kjerstin; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    We address the complex relationship between the stability, variability, and adaptability of psychological systems by decomposing the global variance of serial performance into two independent parts: the local variance (LV) and the serial correlation structure. For two time series with equal LV, the presence of persistent long-range correlations…

  7. Interannual variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean, focusing on the Benguela Upwelling System: Remote versus local forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachèlery, Marie-Lou; Illig, Serena; Dadou, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the respective roles of equatorial remote (Equatorial Kelvin Waves) and local atmospheric (wind, heat fluxes) forcing on coastal variability in the South-East Atlantic Ocean extending up to the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) over the 2000-2008 period. We carried out a set of six numerical experiments based on a regional ocean model, that differ only by the prescribed forcing (climatological or total) at surface and lateral boundaries. Results show that at subseasonal timescales (<100 days), the coastal oceanic variability (currents, thermocline, and sea level) is mainly driven by local forcing, while at interannual timescales it is dominated by remote equatorial forcing. At interannual timescales (13-20 months), remotely forced Coastal-Trapped Waves (CTW) propagate poleward along the African southwest coast up to the northern part of the BUS at 24°S, with phase speeds ranging from 0.8 to 1.1 m.s-1. We show that two triggering mechanisms limit the southward propagation of CTW: interannual variability of the equatorward Benguela Current prescribed at the model's southern boundary (30°S) and variability of local atmospheric forcing that modulates the magnitude of observed coastal interannual events. When local wind stress forcing is in (out) of phase, the magnitude of the interannual event increases (decreases). Finally, dynamical processes associated with CTW propagations are further investigated using heat budget for two intense interannual events in 2001 and 2003. Results show that significant temperature anomalies (±2°C), that are mostly found in the subsurface, are primarily driven by alongshore and vertical advection processes.

  8. Intrinsic spatial shift of local focus metric curves in digital inline holography for accurate 3D morphology measurement of irregular micro-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Lebrun, Denis; Brunel, Marc; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model of digital inline holography system reveals that the local focus metric curves (FMCs) of different parts of an irregular micro-object present spatial shift in the depth direction which is resulted from the depth shift. Thus, the 3D morphology of an irregular micro-object can be accurately measured using the cross correlation of the local FMCs. This method retrieves the 3D depth information directly, avoiding the uncertainty inherited from the depth position determination. Typical 3D morphology measurements, including the 3D boundary lines of tilted carbon fibers and irregular coal particles, and the 3D swimming gesture of a live Caenorhabdities elegans, are presented.

  9. Effect of Metformin on Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Proliferation in a Randomized Presurgical Trial.

    PubMed

    DeCensi, Andrea; Puntoni, Matteo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Serrano, Davide; Lazzeroni, Matteo; Vingiani, Andrea; Gentilini, Oreste; Petrera, Marilena; Viale, Giuseppe; Cuzick, Jack; Bonanni, Bernardo; Pruneri, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    Metformin is associated with lower breast cancer risk in epidemiologic studies and showed decreased proliferation in HER2-positive breast cancer in a presurgical trial. To provide insight into its preventive potential, we measured proliferation by Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of intraepithelial lesions surrounding breast cancer. We randomly assigned 200 nondiabetic patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in core biopsies to metformin, 1,700 mg or placebo once daily for 28 days before surgery. Upon surgery, five to seven specimens of cancer adjacent (≤1 cm) and distant (>1 cm) tissue were screened for LCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and ductal hyperplasia (DH). The prevalence of LCIS, DCIS, and DH was 4.5% (9/200), 67% (133/200), and 35% (69/200), respectively. Overall, metformin did not affect Ki-67 LI in premalignant disorders. The median posttreatment Ki-67 LI (IQR) in the metformin and placebo arm was, respectively, 15% (5-15) versus 5% (4-6) in LCIS (P = 0.1), 12% (8-20) versus 10% (7-24) in DCIS (P = 0.9), and 3% (1-4) versus 3% (1-4) in DH (P = 0.5). However, posttreatment Ki-67 in HER2-positive DCIS lesions was significantly lower in women randomized to metformin especially when ER was coexpressed: 22% (11-32) versus 35% (30-40) in HER2-positive DCIS (n = 22, P = .06); 12% (7-18) versus 32% (27-42) in ER-positive/HER2-positive DCIS (n = 15, P = .004). Eight of 22 (36%) HER2-positive DCIS were adjacent to HER2-negative invasive breast cancer. In tissue samples obtained following 4 weeks of study drug, proliferation was lower in HER2-positive DCIS for women randomized to metformin versus placebo. An adjuvant trial incorporating metformin in HER2-positive DCIS is warranted. PMID:26276754

  10. [Pre-surgical simulation of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm using 3D-models].

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Toshihiro; Yang, Qiang; Kaneko, Naoki; Konno, Takehiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    We have been performing pre-surgical simulations using custom-built patient-specific 3D-models. Here we report the advantageous use of 3D-models for simulating microvascular decompression(MVD)for hemifacial spasms. Seven cases of MVD surgery were performed. Two types of 3D-printers were used to fabricate the 3D-models:one using plaster as the modeling material(Z Printer®450, 3D systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA)and the other using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS)(UP! Plus 3D printer®, Beijing Tiertime Technology, Beijing). We tested three types of models. Type 1 was a plaster model of the brainstem, cerebellum, facial nerve, and the artery compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve. Part of the cerebellum was digitally trimmed off to observe "the compressing point" from the same angle as that used during actual surgery. Type 2 was a modified Type 1 in which part of the skull was opened digitally to mimic a craniectomy. Type 3 was a combined model in which the cerebellum and the artery of the Type 2 model were replaced by a soft retractable cerebellum and an elastic artery. The cerebellum was made from polyurethane and cast from a plaster prototype. To fabricate elastic arteries, liquid silicone was painted onto the surface of an ABS artery and the inner ABS model was dissolved away using solvent. In all cases, the 3D-models were very useful. Although each type has advantages, the Type-3 model was judged extremely useful for training junior surgeons in microsurgical approaches.

  11. Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study.

    PubMed

    Cei, Marco; Pardelli, Riccardo; Sani, Spartaco; Mumoli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.

  12. Disentangling stability, variability and adaptability in human performance: focus on the interplay between local variance and serial correlation.

    PubMed

    Torre, Kjerstin; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2011-04-01

    We address the complex relationship between the stability, variability, and adaptability of psychological systems by decomposing the global variance of serial performance into two independent parts: the local variance (LV) and the serial correlation structure. For two time series with equal LV, the presence of persistent long-range correlations (or 1/ƒ β noise) increases the global variance. We hypothesized that a coadjustment between these two determinants of variability constitutes a resource for adaptive systems whose appropriate functioning under critical conditions requires the outcome variance to be limited. To test this hypothesis, we looked at the bimanual coordination dynamics at comfortable (stable) and critical (close to phase transition) frequencies. Results showed that a negative correlation appeared gradually as the theoretical stability of coordination modes decreased and reached significance only in the critical condition. We propose that the emergence of a mutual adjustment between LV and serial correlations might be an indicator of effective adaptation to stabilize behavior.

  13. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors.

  14. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J.; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors

  15. Modeling localized delivery of Doxorubicin to the brain following focused ultrasound enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhan, Tam; Burgess, Alison; Lilge, Lothar; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, however it has limited efficacy in treating brain malignancies due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound induced BBB disruption (BBBD) enables efficient delivery of Dox to the brain. For future treatment planning of BBBD-based drug delivery, it is crucial to establish a mathematical framework to predict the effect of transient BBB permeability enhancement on the spatiotemporal distribution of Dox at the targeted area. The constructed model considers Dox concentrations within three compartments (plasma, extracellular, intracellular) that are governed by various transport processes (e.g. diffusion in interstitial space, exchange across vessel wall, clearance by cerebral spinal fluid, uptake by brain cells). By examining several clinical treatment aspects (e.g. sonication scheme, permeability enhancement, injection mode), our simulation results support the experimental findings of optimal interval delay between two consecutive sonications and therapeutically-sufficient intracellular concentration with respect to transfer constant Ktrans range of 0.01-0.03 min-1. Finally, the model suggests that infusion over a short duration (20-60 min) should be employed along with single-sonication or multiple-sonication at 10 min interval to ensure maximum delivery to the intracellular compartment while attaining minimal cardiotoxicity via suppressing peak plasma concentration.

  16. Serial follow-up of presurgical treatment using pasireotide long-acting release with or without octreotide long-acting release for naïve active acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jan-Shun; Tseng, Ham-Min; Chang, Tien-Chun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serial changes of GH and IGF-1 in seven patients with naïve, active acromegaly following presurgical treatment of the somatostatin analog pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) and octreotide LAR. The patients were treated with pasireotide LAR with or without octreotide LAR for two years and underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy. After treatment with the somatostatin analogs, the surgical cure rate was similar to that in patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery alone. Diabetes insipidus was not identified in any patients after the operation. Pasireotide LAR was effective on GH as well as IGF-1 suppression and tumor size decreasing when used as the primary therapy. Future large-population studies to investigate the surgical curative rate after presurgical treatment with somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly and macroadenomas close to the cavernous sinus are warranted. However, that hyperglycemia developed following pre-surgical treatment with pasireotide should take into consideration. PMID:27117887

  17. Monitoring of Serial Presurgical and Postsurgical Changes in the Serum Proteome in a Series of Patients with Calcific Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Kazumi; Yamada, Kazuo; Maniwa, Tomoko; Oda, Teiji; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Comprehensive analysis of proteome differentially expressed in response to surgery or drug treatment is useful to understand biological responses to dispensed interventions. Here we investigated expression changes in sera of patients who suffered from calcific aortic stenosis (CAS), before and after surgery for aortic valve replacement. Materials and Methods. Sera obtained before and after surgery with depletion of highly abundant proteins were analyzed with iTRAQ labeling followed by nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Results. Fifty-one proteins shared in five patients were identified with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera. Finally, 16 proteins that show statistically significant levels in patients' sera compared with those in control sera (P < 0.05) were identified. Most of the identified proteins were positive acute-phase proteins. Among three proteins other than acute-phase proteins, we confirmed increased levels of antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein in postsurgical sera by Western blot analysis using other CAS patients' sera. Furthermore, antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein were not found among proteins with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera of patients with aortic aneurysms that we identified in a previous study. Conclusions. The results indicated that antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein would become unique monitoring proteins for evaluating pathophysiological and biochemical processes occurring before and after surgery for CAS. PMID:26078484

  18. Randomized Trial of a Pre-Surgical Scheduled Reduced Smoking Intervention for Patients Newly Diagnosed with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ostroff, Jamie S.; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Li, Yuelin; Shiyko, Mariya P.; Lam, Cho Y.; Hay, Jennifer L.; Dhingra, Lara K.; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Holland, Susan M.; Manna, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer patients are advised to quit smoking to reduce treatment complications and future cancer risk. This study's main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, pre-surgical cessation intervention in newly diagnosed cancer patients scheduled for surgical hospitalization. Methods We conducted a parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of our hospital-based, tobacco cessation “best practices” treatment model (BP; cessation counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) with BP enhanced by a behavioral tapering regimen (scheduled reduced smoking; BP+SRS) administered by a handheld computer before hospitalization for surgery. Cessation outcomes were short (hospital admission and three months) and longer-term (6 months) biochemically-verified smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that BP+SRS would be superior to BP alone. One hundred eighty-five smokers were enrolled. Results Overall, 7-day-point prevalence, confirmed abstinence rates at six months for BP alone (32%) and BP+SRS (32%) were high; however, no main effect of treatment was observed. Patients who were older and diagnosed with lung cancer were more likely to quit smoking. Conclusions Compared to best practices for treating tobacco dependence, a pre-surgical, scheduled reduced smoking intervention did not improve abstinence rates among newly diagnosed cancer patients. PMID:23895203

  19. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Using Sonablate® Devices for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Localized Prostate Cancer: 18-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki

    2011-09-01

    From 1993 to 2010, we have treated 156 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 1,052 patients localized prostate cancer high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Four different HIFU devices, SonablateR-200, SonablateR-500, SonablateR-500 version 4 and Sonablate® TCM, have been used for this study. Clinical outcome of HIFU for BPH did not show any superior effects to transurethral resection of the prostate, laser surgery or transurethral vapolization of the prostate. However, HIFU appears to be a safe and minimally invasive therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially low- and intermediate-risk patients. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  20. Modulation of in vivo tumor radiation response via gold nanoshell-mediated vascular-focused hyperthermia: characterizing an integrated antihypoxic and localized vascular disrupting targeting strategy.

    PubMed

    Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Shetty, Anil; Wang, James C; Elliott, Andrew M; Schwartz, Jon; Shentu, Shujun; Park, Hee C; Deorukhkar, Amit; Stafford, R Jason; Cho, Sang H; Tunnell, James W; Hazle, John D; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    We report noninvasive modulation of in vivo tumor radiation response using gold nanoshells. Mild-temperature hyperthermia generated by near-infrared illumination of gold nanoshell-laden tumors, noninvasively quantified by magnetic resonance temperature imaging, causes an early increase in tumor perfusion that reduces the hypoxic fraction of tumors. A subsequent radiation dose induces vascular disruption with extensive tumor necrosis. Gold nanoshells sequestered in the perivascular space mediate these two tumor vasculature-focused effects to improve radiation response of tumors. This novel integrated antihypoxic and localized vascular disrupting therapy can potentially be combined with other conventional antitumor therapies. PMID:18412402

  1. Environmental education with a local focus: The development of action competency in community leaders through participation in an environmental leadership program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Karen Jean

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is a historical and theoretical examination of environmental education to promote community leadership in local environmental issues. It begins with an overview of the history of environmental education, historical perspectives of the beginning of the field, ongoing differences in perspectives of practitioners, and its relationship to the larger field of education. Using a prevalent definition of environmental education as education with an aim of promoting actions, which are environmentally responsible and careful, I examine a variety of educational approaches and their results in achieving this objective. Reasons for using a local focus in terms of promotion of community sustainability are explored, and the literature review ends with a discussion of the value of community action through participatory democratic processes. The dissertation is divided into five chapters, covering an introduction to the purpose and significance of the study, literature review, methodology, results and analysis, and conclusion and implications of the research. Two programs, one at a city or urban level and one at a state level, and outcomes for their participants are explored and compared through data collected from interviews, field observation, and program documents. Findings demonstrated the value of a local focus for environmental education programs, plus the importance of experiential learning, or learning through some sort of personal connection and involvement. Examples of the types of experiential learning involved are tours or field trips, role-playing, and games illustrating concepts. Results emphasized the importance of educational process over content, information, or factual knowledge. The urban leadership program demonstrated the value of a local focus and experiential process in increasing motivation for action. The state program demonstrated the value of education of environmental leaders in democratic processes, especially collaboration, inclusion

  2. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  3. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  4. Clinical and histopathological effects of presurgical treatment with sunitinib for renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Takeshi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Nagahara, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and histopathological effects of presurgical treatment with sunitinib on inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus. Between 2010 and 2014, we treated seven patients with renal cell carcinoma and IVC tumor thrombus presurgically with sunitinib. We retrospectively evaluated primitive tumor size, the level of tumor thrombus according to Novick’s classification, its distance above the renal vein, thrombus diameter at its widest segment, and histopathological change after sunitinib treatment. Three patients were diagnosed histologically. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal mass before sunitinib treatment was performed in two patients. One patient was diagnosed after sunitinib treatment following nephrectomy. The primitive tumors shrank upon sunitinib therapy in four cases; however, although the caval thrombus was downstaged (from level II to I) in one patient, the level of caval thrombus did not change in five patients and increased in one patient (from level III to IV). We evaluated the histopathological effects in two patients. In one patient, the IVC tumor thrombus was mostly replaced with necrotic tissue, but its thrombus level was not downstaged. In the other patient, the IVC tumor thrombus was downstaged, but tumor thrombus was not replaced with necrotic tissue and viable tumor cells remained. Presurgical treatment with sunitinib for renal cell carcinoma with IVC tumor thrombus appears to have limited effect on IVC tumor thrombus, in contrast to its effects on primitive tumor shrinkage. In the absence of evidence of presurgical benefits from prospective studies, this treatment may not be systematically advisable. PMID:27557138

  5. Presurgical management of a child with missing lower lip using a new design of fixed lower tongue crib.

    PubMed

    Safeena, S; Najmuddin, M; Reddy, K

    2012-01-01

    Missing of any perioral structure can result in imbalance of muscular forces leading to loss of structure and function along with esthetics especially in a growing individual and can result in permanent damage. Rehabilitation of such children is a challenge and requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach not only to correct the defect, but also to ensure normal development with minimal handicap. Here is a case report of a 10-year-old child with missing lower lip due to childhood infection and its presurgical management using a new design of fixed lower tongue crib used to limit tongue pressure, improve tongue position, and facilitate lower incisor retraction. A new clinical experience for lower lip missing cases in children are added, as these cases are rare. PMID:22918109

  6. Activation of signaling pathways following localized delivery of systemically administered neurotrophic factors across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Deffieux, Thomas; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Small, Scott A.; Morrison, Barclay, III; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have broad neuroprotective effects in addition to its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the efficacy of delivering exogenous BDNF to the left hippocampus is demonstrated in wild-type mice (n = 7) through the noninvasively disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) using focused ultrasound (FUS). The BDNF bioactivity was found to be preserved following delivery as assessed quantitatively by immunohistochemical detection of the pTrkB receptor and activated pAkt, pMAPK, and pCREB in the hippocampal neurons. It was therefore shown for the first time that systemically administered neurotrophic factors can cross the noninvasively disrupted BBB and trigger neuronal downstream signaling effects in a highly localized region in the brain. This is the first time that the administered molecule is tracked through the BBB and localized in the neuron triggering molecular effects. Additional preliminary findings are shown in wild-type mice with two additional neurotrophic factors such as the glia-derived neurotrophic factor (n = 12) and neurturin (n = 2). This further demonstrates the impact of FUS for the early treatment of CNS diseases at the cellular and molecular level and strengthens its premise for FUS-assisted drug delivery and efficacy.

  7. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (i) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (ii) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. PMID:25204643

  8. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (i) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (ii) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. PMID:25204643

  9. Localized delivery of doxorubicin in vivo from polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes with MR-guided focused ultrasound-mediated heating

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Terence; Bartolak-Suki, Elizabeth; Park, Eun-Joo; Karrobi, Kavon M.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes have emerged as a viable strategy for localized delivery and triggered release of chemotherapy. MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has the capability of heating tumors in a controlled manner, and when combined with thermosensitive liposomes can potentially reduce tumor burden in vivo. However, the impact of this drug delivery strategy has rarely been investigated. We have developed a unique liposome formulation modified with p(NIPAAm-co-PAA), a polymer that confers sensitivity to both temperature and pH. These polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes (PTSL) demonstrated sensitivity to focused ultrasound, and required lower thermal doses and were more cytotoxic than traditional formulations in vitro. A set of acoustic parameters characterizing optimal release from PTSL in vitro was applied in the design of a combined MRgFUS/PTSL delivery platform. This platform more effectively reduced tumor burden in vivo when compared to free drug and traditional formulations. Histological analysis indicated greater tumor penetration, more extensive ECM remodeling, and greater cell destruction in tumors administered PTSL, correlating with improved response to the therapy. PMID:25151982

  10. Damage localization for multi-story buildings focusing on shift in the center of rigidity using an adaptive extended Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Tsubasa; Mita, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Recently damage detection methods based on measured vibration data for structural health monitoring (SHM) have been intensively studied. In order to decrease the number of required sensors, however, most of their methods focus only on single dimensional systems, in spite that there are some cases that torsional vibration greatly affect for structural damage. Although some studies consider multiple dimensional systems using frame structures, usually they need lots of sensors and calculation is time-consuming. Therefore, the balance between the cost and the particularity is very important for SHM system. In this paper, a method to localize the damaged area of multi-story buildings considering torsional components is proposed to detect the damage simply and particularly. This method focuses on shift in the center of rigidity caused by induced damage. The damaged quadrant of a certain story is identified comparing story eccentric distances of before and after damage-inducing seismic events. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is utilized to identify unknown structural parameters. Using a model which has four columns in each floor, several cases are considered in the verification study to disclose the capability of our proposed method.

  11. The Use of Susceptibility-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Characterize the Safety Window of Focused Ultrasound Exposure for Localized Blood—Brain-Barrier Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsu, Po-Hong; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chen, Jin-Chung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound has been discovered to be able to locally and reversibly increase the permeability of the blood—brain barrier (BBB), which can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, side effects such as microhemorrhage, erythrocyte extravasations, or even extensive hemorrhage can also occur. Although current contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI can be used to detect the changes in BBB permeability, its efficacy in detecting tissue hemorrhage after focused-ultrasound sonication remains limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using MR susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to identify tissue hemorrhage associated with the process of BBB permeability increase and characterize the safety window of acoustic pressure level. Brains of 42 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 107 sonications either unilaterally or bilaterally. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, together with SWI were performed. Tissue damage and hemorrhage were analyzed histologically with light microscopy and staining by Evan's blue, HE staining as well as TUNEL staining. Our results showed that contrast-enhanced T1 weighted imaging is sensitive to the presence of the BBB disrupture, but was unable to differentiate from extensive tissue damage such as hemorrhage. Also, SWI proved to be a superior tool for the realtime monitoring of the presence of hemorrhage, which is essential to the clinical concerns. The safety operation window in vivo in our study indicated a pressure of 0.78 to 1.1 MPa. to increase the BBB permeability successfully without hemorrhage. Potential applications such as drug delivery in the brain might be benefited.

  12. Noninvasive localized delivery of Herceptin to the mouse brain by MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Manabu; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2006-08-01

    Antibody-based anticancer agents are promising chemotherapeutic agents. Among these agents, Herceptin (trastuzumab), a humanized anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/c-erbB2) monoclonal antibody, has been used successfully in patients with breast cancer. However, in patients with brain metastasis, the blood-brain barrier limits its use, and a different delivery method is needed to treat these patients. Here, we report that Herceptin can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the mouse central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier under image guidance by using an MRI-guided focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier disruption technique. The amount of Herceptin delivered to the target tissue was correlated with the extent of the MRI-monitored barrier opening, making it possible to estimate indirectly the amount of Herceptin delivered. Histological changes attributable to this procedure were minimal. This method may represent a powerful technique for the delivery of macromolecular agents such as antibodies to treat patients with diseases of the central nervous system. brain tumor | microbubble

  13. Localized Down-regulation of P-glycoprotein by Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hongseok; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Han, Mun; Choi, Jong-Ryul; Ahn, Sanghyun; Lee, Taekwan; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Juyoung

    2016-08-01

    Multi-drug resistant efflux transporters found in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) acts as a functional barrier, by pumping out most of the drugs into the blood. Previous studies showed focused ultrasound (FUS) induced microbubble oscillation can disrupt the BBB by loosening the tight junctions in the brain endothelial cells; however, no study was performed to investigate its impact on the functional barrier of the BBB. In this study, the BBB in rat brains were disrupted using the MRI guided FUS and microbubbles. The immunofluorescence study evaluated the expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most dominant multi-drug resistant protein found in the BBB. Intensity of the P-gp expression at the BBB disruption (BBBD) regions was significantly reduced (63.2 ± 18.4%) compared to the control area. The magnitude of the BBBD and the level of the P-gp down-regulation were significantly correlated. Both the immunofluorescence and histologic analysis at the BBBD regions revealed no apparent damage in the brain endothelial cells. The results demonstrate that the FUS and microbubbles can induce a localized down-regulation of P-gp expression in rat brain. The study suggests a clinically translation of this method to treat neural diseases through targeted delivery of the wide ranges of brain disorder related drugs.

  14. Local hyperthermia with MR-guided focused ultrasound: spiral trajectory of the focal point optimized for temperature uniformity in the target region.

    PubMed

    Salomir, R; Palussière, J; Vimeux, F C; de Zwart, J A; Quesson, B; Gauchet, M; Lelong, P; Pergrale, J; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    2000-10-01

    The objective of hyperthermia treatment is to deliver a similar therapeutic thermal dose throughout the target volume within a minimum amount of time. We describe a noninvasive approach to this goal based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with a spherical transducer that can be moved along two directions inside the bed of a clinical MR imager and that has an adjustable focal length in the third dimension. Absorption of FUS gives rise to a highly localized thermal buildup, which then spreads by heat diffusion and blood perfusion. A uniform temperature within a large target volume can be obtained using a double spiral trajectory of the transducer focal point together with constant and maximum FUS power. Differences between the real and target temperatures during the first spiral are evaluated in real time with temperature MRI and corrected for during the second spiral trajectory employing FUS focal point velocity modulation. Once a uniform temperature distribution is reached within the entire volume, FUS heating is applied only at the region's boundaries to maintain the raised temperature levels. Heat conduction, together with the design and timing of the trajectories, therefore ensures a similar thermal dose for the entire target region. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experimental results in vitro on gel phantoms, ex vivo on meat samples, and in vivo on rabbit thigh muscle. Edema in muscle was visible 1 hour after hyperthermia as a spatially uniform rise of the signal intensity in T(2)-weighted images. PMID:11042639

  15. Localized Down-regulation of P-glycoprotein by Focused Ultrasound and Microbubbles induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, HongSeok; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Han, Mun; Choi, Jong-ryul; Ahn, Sanghyun; Lee, Taekwan; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Juyoung

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant efflux transporters found in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) acts as a functional barrier, by pumping out most of the drugs into the blood. Previous studies showed focused ultrasound (FUS) induced microbubble oscillation can disrupt the BBB by loosening the tight junctions in the brain endothelial cells; however, no study was performed to investigate its impact on the functional barrier of the BBB. In this study, the BBB in rat brains were disrupted using the MRI guided FUS and microbubbles. The immunofluorescence study evaluated the expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most dominant multi-drug resistant protein found in the BBB. Intensity of the P-gp expression at the BBB disruption (BBBD) regions was significantly reduced (63.2 ± 18.4%) compared to the control area. The magnitude of the BBBD and the level of the P-gp down-regulation were significantly correlated. Both the immunofluorescence and histologic analysis at the BBBD regions revealed no apparent damage in the brain endothelial cells. The results demonstrate that the FUS and microbubbles can induce a localized down-regulation of P-gp expression in rat brain. The study suggests a clinically translation of this method to treat neural diseases through targeted delivery of the wide ranges of brain disorder related drugs. PMID:27510760

  16. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using Sonablate{trade mark, serif} devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer: 13-year experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Sunao; Kim, Hakushi; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eight hundred and eighty-four men with prostate cancer treated with Sonablate® (SB) devices were included. All patients were followed for more than 2 years. The patients were divided into three groups: in the first group, 419 patients were treated with SB200/500 from 1999 to 2006; in the second group, 263 patients were treated with SB 500 ver. 4 from 2005 to 2009: in the third group, 202 patients were treated with SB 500 TCM from 2007 up to present. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml). The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in each group were 68, 66 and 67 years, 11.2, 9.7 and 9.3 ng/ml, 6.2, 6.6 and 6.7, 167, 101 and 106 min, and 56, 48 and 36 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (bDFR) in each group at 5 years was, respectively, 54%, 61% and 84%, and was 50% at 10 years in the SB200/500 group (p<0.0001). The bDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in all patients at 10 years were 72% and 58%, 44%, respectively (p<0.0001). The BDFR in patients in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups in the SB500 TCM group at 5 years were 97%, 83%, and 74% (p=0.0056). The negative prostate biopsy rates in 3 groups were 81%, 92% and 88%, respectively. As post HIFU complications, urethral stricture, acute epididymitis and urinary incontinence were noted in 18.0%, 6.2% and 1.9%, respectively. Rectourethral fistula was occurred in 0.6% in the first HIFU cases, Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 27% of patients at 2 years after HIFU. HIFU therapy appears to be minimally invasive, efficacious, and safe for patients with localized prostate cancer. Technological advances as well as cultural and economic vectors have caused a shift from to minimally invasive techniques.

  17. Ten-year Biochemical Disease-free Survival After High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Four Different Generation Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Nakano, M.; Shoji, S.; Omata, T.; Harano, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Usui, Y.; Terachi, T.

    2010-03-09

    HIFU has been recognized as a minimally invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to assess with a long-term outcome of HIFU for prostate cancer. From January 1999, a total of 657 patients who had HIFU with at least 2 year follow-up were treated with four different types of Sonablate registered (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA) devices. Thirty-three patients were treated with Sonablate registered 200 (S200) from 1999 to 2001, 406 patients with Sonablate registered 500 (S500) from 2001 to 2005, 200 patients with Sonablate registered 500 version 4 (V4) from 2005-2008 and 19 patients with Sonablate registered 500 TCM (TCM) from 2007. Biochemical disease-free survival rate (bDFS) in all patients was 59% in 8 years. bDFS in 8 years in patients with S200 and S500 groups were 55% and 56%, and bDFS in 4 and 2 years in patients with V4 and TCM group were 72% and 84%, respectively. bDFS in low, intermediate, and high risk groups were 75%, 54%, and 43% in S200/S500 and 93%, 72%, and 58% in V4/TCM group. Negative prostate biopsy rate after HIFU was 97% in S200, 79% in S500, 94% in V4 and 100% in TCM group. HIFU as primary therapy for prostate cancer is indicated in patients with low- and intermediate-risk (T1-T2b N0M0 disease, a Gleason score of <=7, a PSA level of <20 ng/mL) and a prostate volume of less than 40 mL. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  18. Revised version of quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and surgical epilepsy therapy issued by the Austrian, German, and Swiss working group on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenow, Felix; Bast, Thomas; Czech, Thomas; Feucht, Martha; Hans, Volkmar H; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Noachtar, Soheyl; Oltmanns, Frank; Polster, Tilman; Seeck, Margitta; Trinka, Eugen; Wagner, Kathrin; Strzelczyk, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The definition of minimal standards remains pivotal as a basis for a high standard of care and as a basis for staff allocation or reimbursement. Only limited publications are available regarding the required staffing or methodologic expertise in epilepsy centers. The executive board of the working group (WG) on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment published the first guidelines in 2000 for Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. In 2014, revised guidelines were published and the WG decided to publish an unaltered English translation in this report. Because epilepsy surgery is an elective procedure, quality standards are particularly high. As detailed in the first edition of these guidelines, quality control relates to seven different domains: (1) establishing centers with a sufficient number of sufficiently and specifically trained personnel, (2) minimum technical standards and equipment, (3) continuous medical education of employees, (4) surveillance by trained personnel during video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM), (5) systematic acquisition of clinical and outcome data, (6) the minimum number of preoperative evaluations and epilepsy surgery procedures, and (7) the cooperation of epilepsy centers. These standards required the certification of the different professions involved and minimum numbers of procedures. In the subsequent decade, quite a number of colleagues were certified by the trinational WG; therefore, the executive board of the WG decided in 2013 to make these standards obligatory. This revised version is particularly relevant given that the German procedure classification explicitly refers to the guidelines of the WG with regard to noninvasive/invasive preoperative video-EEG monitoring and invasive intraoperative diagnostics in epilepsy. PMID:27354263

  19. A prospective fMRI-based technique for localising the epileptogenic zone in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hunyadi, Borbála; Tousseyn, Simon; Dupont, Patrick; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2015-06-01

    There is growing evidence for the benefits of simultaneous EEG-fMRI as a non-invasive localising tool in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. However, many EEG-fMRI studies fail due to the absence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) on EEG. Here we present an algorithm which makes use of fMRI as sole modality to localise the epileptogenic zone (EZ). Recent studies using various model-based or data-driven fMRI analysis techniques showed that it is feasible to find activation maps which are helpful in the detection of the EZ. However, there is lack of evidence that these techniques can be used prospectively, due to (a) their low specificity, (b) selecting multiple activation maps, or (c) a widespread epileptic network indicated by the selected maps. In the current study we present a method based on independent component analysis and a cascade of classifiers that exclusively detects a single map related to interictal epileptic brain activity. In order to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method, it was evaluated on a group of 18 EEG-negative patients with a single well-defined EZ and 13 healthy controls. The results show that our method provides maps which correctly indicate the EZ in several (N=4) EEG-negative cases but at the same time maintaining a high specificity (92%). We conclude that our fMRI-based approach can be used in a prospective manner, and can extend the applicability of fMRI to EEG-negative cases.

  20. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  1. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  2. Hyperkahler metrics on focus-focus fibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie

    In this thesis, we focus on the study of hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases, and practice GMN's construction of hyperkahler metric on focus-focus fibrations. We explicitly compute the action-angle coordinates on the local model of focus-focus fibration, and show its semi-global invariant should be harmonic to admit a compatible holomorphic 2-form. Then we study the canonical semi-flat metric on it. After the instanton correction inspired by physics, we get a family of the generalized Ooguri-Vafa metric on focus-focus fibrations, which becomes more local examples of explicit hyperkahler metric in four dimensional cases. In addition, we also make some exploration of the Ooguri-Vafa metric in the thesis. We study the potential function of the Ooguri-Vafa metric, and prove that its nodal set is a cylinder of bounded radius 1 < R < 1. As a result, we get that only on a finite neighborhood of the singular fibre the Ooguri-Vafa metric is a hyperkahler metric. Finally, we give some estimates for the diameter of the fibration under the Oogui-Vafa metric, which confirms that the Oogui-Vafa metric is not complete. The new family of metric constructed in the thesis, we think, will provide more examples to further study of Lagrangian fibrations and mirror symmetry in future.

  3. Dynamic changes in subcellular localization of cattle XLF during cell cycle, and focus formation of cattle XLF at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2015-09-01

    Clinically, many chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation (IR) have been applied for the treatment of various types of human and animal malignancies. These treatments kill tumor cells by causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Core factors of classical nonhomologous DNA-end joining (C-NHEJ) play a vital role in DSB repair. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the mechanisms of C-NHEJ in order to develop next-generation chemotherapeutics for cancer. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF; also called Cernunnos or NHEJ1) is the lastly identified core NHEJ factor. The localization of core NHEJ factors might play a critical role in regulating NHEJ activity. The localization and function of XLF have not been elucidated in animal species other than mice and humans. Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) are the most common and vital domestic animals in many countries. Here, we show that the localization of cattle XLF changes dynamically during the cell cycle. Furthermore, EYFP-cattle XLF accumulates quickly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB marker γH2AX. Moreover, nuclear localization and accumulation of cattle XLF at DSB sites are dependent on 12 amino acids (288-299) of the C-terminal region of XLF (XLF CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on the XLF CTR are highly conserved among domestic animals including cattle, goat and horses, suggesting that the CTR is essential for the function of XLF in domestic animals. These findings might be useful to develop the molecular-targeting therapeutic drug taking XLF as a target molecule for human and domestic animals.

  4. Dynamic changes in subcellular localization of cattle XLF during cell cycle, and focus formation of cattle XLF at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation

    PubMed Central

    KOIKE, Manabu; YUTOKU, Yasutomo; KOIKE, Aki

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, many chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation (IR) have been applied for the treatment of various types of human and animal malignancies. These treatments kill tumor cells by causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Core factors of classical nonhomologous DNA-end joining (C-NHEJ) play a vital role in DSB repair. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the mechanisms of C-NHEJ in order to develop next-generation chemotherapeutics for cancer. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF; also called Cernunnos or NHEJ1) is the lastly identified core NHEJ factor. The localization of core NHEJ factors might play a critical role in regulating NHEJ activity. The localization and function of XLF have not been elucidated in animal species other than mice and humans. Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) are the most common and vital domestic animals in many countries. Here, we show that the localization of cattle XLF changes dynamically during the cell cycle. Furthermore, EYFP-cattle XLF accumulates quickly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB marker γH2AX. Moreover, nuclear localization and accumulation of cattle XLF at DSB sites are dependent on 12 amino acids (288–299) of the C-terminal region of XLF (XLF CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on the XLF CTR are highly conserved among domestic animals including cattle, goat and horses, suggesting that the CTR is essential for the function of XLF in domestic animals. These findings might be useful to develop the molecular-targeting therapeutic drug taking XLF as a target molecule for human and domestic animals. PMID:25947322

  5. Clinical management of critically ill patients with Cushing's disease due to ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas: effectiveness of presurgical treatment with pasireotide.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, S; Messina, E; Albani, A; Ferrau, F; Barresi, V; Priola, S; Esposito, F; Angileri, F

    2016-06-01

    The management of critically ill Cushing's disease (CD) patients is extremely challenging. Pasireotide is indicated for the treatment of CD patients when pituitary surgery is unfeasible or has not been curative, but no data are available about the use of this drug as pre-operative treatment in critically ill patients. We report the effects of presurgical pasireotide therapy in CD patients in whom hypercortisolism caused life-threatening hypokalemia, alkalosis, and cardio-respiratory complications precluding surgical approach. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data of two critically ill patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, before and during first-line presurgical pasireotide treatment (600 μg s.c. bid). During the first 21 days of treatment, pasireotide therapy induced a rapid, partial decrease of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels, with the consequent normalization of serum potassium concentration and arterial blood gases parameters, in both the patients. They did not experience unmanageable side effects and underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery after 4 weeks of effective treatment. Pre-operative MRI evaluation did not show pituitary tumor shrinkage. Surgical cure of CD was obtained in the first patient, while debulking allowed the pharmacological control of hypercortisolism in the second case. We suggest that pasireotide can induce a rapid improvement of clinical and metabolic conditions in critically ill CD patients in whom surgical approach is considered hazardous and need to be delayed.

  6. Cross-correlation focus method with an electrostatic sensor array for local particle velocity measurement in dilute gas-solid two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.

  7. Focused ion beam and electron microscopy characterization of nanosharp tips and microbumps on silicon and metal thin films formed via localized single-pulse laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moening, Joseph P.; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Lawrence, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sections of laser fabricated nanosharp tips and microbumps on silicon and metal thin films are produced and examined in this work. These structures are formed with a Q-switched neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanosecond-pulse laser, emitting at its fourth harmonic of 266 nm, using a mask projection technique to generate circular laser spots, several microns in diameter. Cross-section of selected structures were produced using a focused ion beam and were characterized via electron microscopy. The diffraction patterns of the silicon samples indicate that the laser formed tip maintains the same single crystal structure as the original silicon film. Examinations of the laser formed structures in metal films confirm that the microbumps are hollow, while revealing that the vertical protrusions are solid.

  8. Localization of the immunoglobulins G, A and M, beta-trace protein and gamma-trace protein on isoelectric focusing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid by immunofixation.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, M A; Link, H

    1978-09-01

    The mobility of the immunoglobulins G, A and M, beta-trace protein and gramma-trace protein on isoleectric focusing of serum and CSF was determined by immunofixation using specific antisera. Polyclonal IgG migrated as multiple bands between pH 4.7--8.6, polyclonal IgA as multiple bands between pH 4.9--6.1 in CSF and serum. IgM could not be identified in normal CSF or serum. beta-trace protein gave three bands at pH 8.0, 8.4 and 7.4--7.5, respectively, while gamma-trace protein gave one single band at pH 9.5--greater than 9.5. Oligoclonal IgG in CSF in multiple sclerosis and neurosyphilis migrated between pH 8.6--greater than 9.5 and was easily discriminated from other proteins.

  9. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  10. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population. PMID:24346803

  11. An Evaluation of Hemi-Ablation Therapy Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in the Treatment of Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hashim Uddin; Freeman, Alex; Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex; Illing, Rowland; Emberton, Mark

    2007-05-01

    The current choice for men with localised prostate cancer lies between active surveillance and radical therapy. The best evidence for the difference between these two extremes of care is 5% in terms of cancer-related absolute mortality at 8 years. It is generally accepted that this small difference will decrease for men diagnosed in the PSA-era. Therein lays a dilemma for men. If they choose active surveillance they accept anxiety of living with a cancer diagnosis and risk of under-treatment in the long term. On the other hand, radical therapy carries significant toxicity (incontinence, impotence, rectal problems) because it treats the whole gland and damages surrounding structures in up to half of men. With increasing PSA screening practices men are diagnosed younger with lower risk disease — early stage, lower Gleason grade and lower volume of cancer. Many have unifocal or unilateral disease. We propose a new concept whereby only the tumour focus and a margin of normal tissue is treated. With emerging techniques that can accurately localise tumour in the gland and technology that can treat to within millimetre accuracy, focal therapy of prostate cancer is now possible. By treating focally, the psychological burden of active surveillance is avoided. Equally, it is proposed that toxicity will decrease whilst at the same time retaining effective cancer control.

  12. Modulation of the interstitial fluid pressure by high intensity focused ultrasound as a way to alter local fluid and solute movement: insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, E; O'Neill, B E

    2014-11-21

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operated in thermal mode has been reported to reduce interstitial fluid pressure and improve the penetration of large macromolecules and nanoparticles in tumor and normal tissue. Little is understood about how the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity as well as the interstitial macromolecule transport are affected by HIFU exposure. A mathematical model is presented here which sheds light on the initial biophysical changes brought about HIFU. Our continuum model treats tissue as an effective poro-elastic material that reacts to elevated temperatures with a rapid drop in interstitial elastic modulus. Using parameters from the literature, the model is extrapolated to derive information on the effect in tumors, and to predict its impact on the convective and diffusive transport of macromolecular drugs. The model is first solved using an analytical approximation with step-wise changes at each boundary, and then solved numerically starting from a Gaussian beam approximation of the ultrasound treatment. Our results indicate that HIFU causes a rapid drop in interstitial fluid pressure that may be exploited to facilitate convection of macromolecules from vasculature to the exposed region. However, following a short recovery period in which the interstitial fluid pressure is normalized, transport returns to normal and the advantages disappear over time. The results indicate that this effect is strongest for the delivery of large molecules and nanoparticles that are in the circulation at the time of treatment. The model may be easily applied to more complex situations involving effects on vascular permeability and diffusion. PMID:25327766

  13. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2014-11-01

    repeating seasonal patterns in air quality due to shipping, local pollution, and long-range transport.

  14. Air quality monitoring in communities of the Canadian Arctic during the high shipping season with a focus on local and marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, A. A.; Staebler, R. M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-03-01

    in air quality due to shipping, local pollution, and long-range transport.

  15. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  16. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  17. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy. PMID:27221107

  18. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  19. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  20. Public Engagement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes six articles that examine key issues facing public schools and communities related to accountability, bilingual education, immigrant education, school finance, and school choice. In addressing these issues, articles focus on the importance of community involvement and input in local school reform efforts aimed at achieving…

  1. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  2. Presurgical functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) with intravenous echo enhancing agent SonoVue enables determination of language lateralization in epilepsy patients with poor temporal bone windows.

    PubMed

    House, Patrick M; Brückner, Katja E; Lohmann, Hubertus H

    2011-03-01

    Presurgical determination of language lateralization is important for planning and outcome estimation of neurosurgical interventions in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) provides an established measure for language lateralization using the temporal bone windows for continuous recording of the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, because of insufficient temporal bone windows, fTCD cannot be applied properly in every patient. Here, we established stable and sufficient CBFV signals in both MCAs using continuous intravenous application of echo-enhancing agent SonoVue in 7 of 10 patients with poor temporal bone windows and were thus able to determine language lateralization. We conclude that the application of SonoVue can solve one principal disadvantage of fTCD and improves the applicability of the technique as a presurgical functional language lateralization procedure.

  3. Three-dimensional printed prototypes refine the anatomy of post-modified Norwood-1 complex aortic arch obstruction and allow presurgical simulation of the repair.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo; Tofeig, Magdi; Jha, Neerod Kumar; Talo, Haitham

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printed prototypes of malformed hearts have been used for education, communication, presurgical planning and simulation. We present a case of a 5-month old infant with complex obstruction at the neoaortic to transverse arch and descending aortic junction following the neonatal modified Norwood-1 procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Digital 3D models were created from a routine 64-slice CT dataset; then life-size solid and magnified hollow models were printed with a 3D printer. The solid model provided further insights into details of the anatomy, whereas the surgical approach and steps of the operation were simulated on the hollow model. Intraoperative assessment confirmed the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models. The operation was performed in accordance with preoperative simulation: sliding autologous flaps achieved relief of the obstruction without additional patching. Knowledge gained from the models fundamentally contributed to successful outcome and improved patient safety. This case study presents an effective use of 3D models in exploring complex spatial relationship at the aortic arch and in simulation-based planning of the operative procedure.

  4. Motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping in basal cell carcinoma using optical imaging modalities: initial feasibility study using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, M.; Richardson, T. J.; Craythorne, E.; Mallipeddi, R.; Coleman, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    A system has been developed to assess the feasibility of using motion tracking to enable pre-surgical margin mapping of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the clinic using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system consists of a commercial OCT imaging system (the VivoSight 1500, MDL Ltd., Orpington, UK), which has been adapted to incorporate a webcam and a single-sensor electromagnetic positional tracking module (the Flock of Birds, Ascension Technology Corp, Vermont, USA). A supporting software interface has also been developed which allows positional data to be captured and projected onto a 2D dermoscopic image in real-time. Initial results using a stationary test phantom are encouraging, with maximum errors in the projected map in the order of 1-2mm. Initial clinical results were poor due to motion artefact, despite attempts to stabilise the patient. However, the authors present several suggested modifications that are expected to reduce the effects of motion artefact and improve the overall accuracy and clinical usability of the system.

  5. Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Orthopantomography with Direct Ridge Mapping for Pre-Surgical Planning to Place Implants in Cadaveric Mandibles: An Ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, G S; Kumar, Ullash; Hilal, Mohammed; Muddugangadhar, B C; Anshuraj, Kopal; Shruthi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Implant treatment is today a common and most widely accepted prosthetic therapy worldwide. The quality and quantity of the bone available at the anticipated implant site is of prime importance. Accurate measurement of alveolar bone and adjacent anatomic structures are of paramount importance in implant insertion. Proper pre-surgical assessment requires precise radiographic visualization of anatomic structures and pathologic conditions. However, the concern for radiation exposure has also grown. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 partially or completely edentulous human cadaveric mandibles were used which were further subdivided into three further groups for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), orthopantomography (OPG), and direct measurements (DM). Mandibles were prepared for each sample and subjected to radiographs according to the respective techniques, and radiographic measurements were done using the appropriate software. The cadaveric mandibles were then sectioned, and the actual measurements were done using a digital vernier caliper. Results: Analysis of variance test revealed that there was no significant difference among the three different measurements techniques. Conclusion: A sizable portion of the CBCT measurements with respect to width showed slight overestimation when compared to DMs. There were no statistically significant differences found between CBCT, OPG, and DM when height was taken into consideration. PMID:26225103

  6. Exploring effects of presurgical weight loss among women with stage 0–II breast cancer: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Yuko; Rogers, Laura Q; Krontiras, Helen; Grizzle, William E; Frugé, Andrew D; Oster, Robert A; Umphrey, Heidi R; Jones, Lee W; Azrad, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poorer prognosis for premenopausal and postmenopausal patients; however, the aetiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical studies support weight loss via caloric restriction and increased physical activity as a possible cancer control strategy, though few clinical studies have been conducted. We undertook a feasibility trial among women recently diagnosed with stage 0–II breast cancer hypothesising that presurgical weight loss would be feasible, safe and result in favourable changes in tumour markers and circulating biomarkers. Methods and analysis A two-arm randomised controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese women, newly diagnosed with stage 0–II breast cancer and scheduled for surgery was planned. The attention control arm received upper body progressive resistance training and diet counselling to correct deficiencies in nutrient intake; the experimental arm received the same plus counselling on caloric restriction and aerobic exercise to achieve a weight loss of 0.68–0.919 kg/week. In addition to achieving feasibility benchmarks (accruing and retaining at least 80% of participants, and observing no serious adverse effects attributable to the intervention), we will explore the potential impact of an acute state of negative energy balance on tumour proliferation rates (Ki-67), as well as other tumour markers, serum biomarkers, gene expression, microbiome profiles and other clinical outcomes (eg, quality of life). Outcomes for the 2 study arms are compared using mixed models repeated-measures analyses. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was received from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institutional Review Board (Protocol number F130325009). Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Given that this is one of the first studies to investigate the impact of negative energy balance directly on tumour biology in

  7. Fast presurgical magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal tears and concurrent subchondral bone marrow lesions. Study of dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Olive, J; d'Anjou, M-A; Cabassu, J; Chailleux, N; Blond, L

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal tears and subchondral bone marrow lesions have both been described in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture, but their possible concurrence has not been evaluated. In a population of 14 dogs exhibiting signs of stifle pain with surgically confirmed cranial cruciate ligament rupture, a short presurgical 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol including dorsal proton density, dorsal T1-weighted gradient recalled echo, and sagittal fat-saturated dual echo sequences was tested to further investigate these features and illustrate meniscal tears. Interobserver agreement for detection of medial meniscal tears (k=0.83) and bone marrow lesions (k=0.87) was excellent. Consensus MR reading allowed detection of nine out of 12 surgically confirmed medial meniscal tears and there was no false positive. All dogs had cruciate ligament enthesis-related bone marrow lesions in the tibia, femur or both bones. Additionally, among the 12 dogs with confirmed medial meniscal tears, subchondral bone marrow lesions were present in the caudomedial (9 dogs) and caudoaxial (11 dogs) regions of the tibial plateau, resulting in odds ratios (13.6, p=0.12, and 38.3, p=0.04, respectively) that had large confidence intervals due to the small group size of this study. The other two dogs had neither tibial bone marrow lesions in these locations nor medial meniscal tears. These encouraging preliminary results warrant further investigation using this clinically realistic preoperative MR protocol. As direct diagnosis of meniscal tears remained challenging in dogs even with high-field MR, identification of associated signs such as subchondral bone marrow lesions might indirectly allow suspicion of an otherwise unrecognized meniscal tear.

  8. Extensive lesions in the gustatory cortex in the rat do not disrupt the retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion and do not impair unconditioned concentration-dependent licking of sucrose and quinine.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Spector, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    Although damage to gustatory cortex (GC) in the rat has been reported to severely impair, if not eliminate, retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion (CTA), it has equivocal effects on taste preference as measured by intake tests. Because intake tests can be influenced by nongustatory (e.g., postingestive) factors, we employed the brief-access taste test to assess the effects of ibotenic acid-induced lesions targeting the GC on unconditioned licking to a sucrose and then a quinine concentration series in a specialized lickometer. As a functional lesion assessment, a presurgical CTA to 0.1M NaCl was established in thirsty rats by following 15-min intake with intraperitoneal administration of either LiCl (or NaCl for control) on 2 occasions. Both conditioned sham-operated (SHAM) rats and rats with histologically confirmed extensive damage to the GC (GCX) avoided a NaCl concentration series relative to unconditioned controls in a postsurgical brief-access CTA test, with no difference between the surgical groups in their responses to NaCl or similar concentrations of KCl. GCX rats also did not differ from SHAM rats in the EC50 of concentration-response functions for sucrose or quinine. Clearly, the critical cortical area required for the retention of a presurgical CTA falls outside of the extensive area of damage, which was well centered within the conventionally defined gustatory zone of the insular cortex. The absence of an effect on unconditioned responsiveness to sucrose and quinine suggests that the damaged region is also unnecessary for the normal expression of affective licking responses to tastants. PMID:24226296

  9. Requirement of the single base insertion at the 3' end of the env-related gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus for pathogenic activity and its effect on localization of the glycoprotein product (gp55).

    PubMed Central

    Amanuma, H; Watanabe, N; Nishi, M; Ikawa, Y

    1989-01-01

    In order to obtain evidence for the essential role of the single base insertion occurring at the 3' end of the env-related gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) encoding the leukemogenic glycoprotein (gp55) a mutant SFFV genome was constructed in which the segment of the gp55 gene of the polycythemia-inducing strain of SFFV containing the single base insertion and the 6-base-pair duplication was replaced by the corresponding sequence of the Friend murine leukemia virus env gene. The mutant SFFV-Friend murine leukemia virus complex did not induce symptoms of the erythroproliferative disease in adult DBA/2 mice. During passage through newborn DBA/2 mice, the mutant virus complex invariably gave rise to weakly pathogenic variant SFFVs. All of the variant SFFVs induced in adult DBA/2 mice a transient mild splenomegaly associated with normal or slightly low hematocrit value, and they produced gp55 with a molecular weight similar to that of gp55 of the wild-type SFFV. For the two isolates of variant SFFV, the 3' portion of the viral DNA intermediate containing the 3' portion of the gp55 gene was molecularly cloned. Nucleotide sequences of these biologically active cloned DNAs were determined and showed that the variant SFFV genomes arose from the mutant SFFV genome by regaining the single base insertion, indicating that the single base insertion is essential for the biological activity of gp55. Evidence is presented indicating that the single base insertion which causes a loss of the cytoplasmic domain of the env-related protein is not related to the localization of the further-glycosylated form of gp55 in the plasma membrane but is involved with the release of gp55 from cells. Images PMID:2552155

  10. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  12. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  13. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Bob L.; Bhatia, Sanjay; Carpenter, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., > 20 mm) of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were > 20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64%) the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities. PMID:27069871

  14. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  15. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  17. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  18. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  19. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  20. Localization of Interictal Epileptiform Activity Using Magnetoencephalography with Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry in Patients with a Vagus Nerve Stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton-Kotloski, Jennifer R.; Kotloski, Robert J.; Boggs, Jane A.; Popli, Gautam; O’Donovan, Cormac A.; Couture, Daniel E.; Cornell, Cassandra; Godwin, Dwayne W.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides useful and non-redundant information in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy, and in particular, during the pre-surgical evaluation of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a common treatment for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. However, interpretation of MEG recordings from patients with a VNS is challenging due to the severe magnetic artifacts produced by the VNS. We used synthetic aperture magnetometry (g2) [SAM(g2)], an adaptive beamformer that maps the excessive kurtosis, to map interictal spikes to the coregistered MRI image, despite the presence of contaminating VNS artifact. We present a series of eight patients with a VNS who underwent MEG recording. Localization of interictal epileptiform activity by SAM(g2) is compared to invasive electrophysiologic monitoring and other localizing approaches. While the raw MEG recordings were uninterpretable, analysis of the recordings with SAM(g2) identified foci of peak kurtosis and source signal activity that was unaffected by the VNS artifact. SAM(g2) analysis of MEG recordings in patients with a VNS produces interpretable results and expands the use of MEG for the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:25505894

  1. Exploratory Focus Monitoring Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewski, Robert

    1996-07-01

    Determination of the focus of the FOC is difficult because of the lack of aberrations. For small focus errors, it is very difficult to determine the sign of any focus error. We propose to use the field dependent astigmatism to remove this degeneracy. We will perform a fine focus sweep by moving the DOB to -1mm, -0.5mm, 0.0, +0.5mm, +1mm from nominal, and take images of a star using the F486N filter and placing the star in newly-defined apertures that are close to the edges of the field, where the field-dependent astigmatism is greatest. The appearance of the star as a function of focus will be unique, and this will allow an unambiguous determination of the focus. Before this program can be run, new apertures must be defined with size 256x256, SAMPOFF=0 and SAMPOFF=768, and LINEOFF=384.

  2. BrightFocus Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  3. [Fulguration of extrasystolic ventricular focus].

    PubMed

    Velázquez Rodríguez, E; Rosas, F; Frank, R; Fontaine, G; Tonet, J; Lascault, G; Gallais, Y

    1995-01-01

    A case is presented of symptomatic premature ventricular contractions refractory to drug therapy with right bundle branch block QRS morphology and left axis deviation in a 68-year-old female without structural heart disease. Endocardial mapping localized the extrasystolic focus at meso-inferoapical region of the left ventricular septum suggesting an origin from the Purkinje network of the left posterior fascicle. Catheter ablation with direct-current energy abolished extrasystolic complexes, without complications. The patient remained asymptomatic over a follow-up of 3 months. PMID:7543744

  4. Focus, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2001

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of 2000-2001 "Focus" present a collection of papers focusing on issues related to poverty. The first issue discusses child support enforcement policy and low-income families, highlighting such issues as fragile families and child wellbeing; low-income families and the child support enforcement system; child support enforcement…

  5. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  6. Agreement, Shells, and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew; Wu, Zoe

    2002-01-01

    Reconsiders development and licensing of agreement as a syntactic projection and argues for a productive developmental relation between agreement and the category of focus. Suggests that focus projections are initially selected by a variety of functional heads with real semantic content, then, over time decays into a simple concord shell. Upon…

  7. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  8. Presurgical evaluation for partial epilepsy: Relative contributions of chronic depth-electrode recordings versus FDG-PET and scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Henry, T.R.; Risinger, M.W.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Sutherling, W.W.; Levesque, M.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1990-11-01

    One hundred fifty-three patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy underwent chronic stereotactic depth-electrode EEG (SEEG) evaluations after being studied by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and scalp-sphenoidal EEG telemetry. We carried out retrospective standardized reviews of local cerebral metabolism and scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets to determine when SEEG recordings revealed additional useful information. FDG-PET localization was misleading in only 3 patients with temporal lobe SEEG ictal onsets for whom extratemporal or contralateral hypometabolism could be attributed to obvious nonepileptic structural defects. Two patients with predominantly temporal hypometabolism may have had frontal epileptogenic regions, but ultimate localization remains uncertain. Scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets were misleading in 5 patients. For 37 patients with congruent focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal onsets and temporal hypometabolic zones, SEEG recordings never demonstrated extratemporal or contralateral epileptogenic regions; however, 3 of these patients had nondiagnostic SEEG evaluations. The results of subsequent subdural grid recordings indicated that at least 1 of these patients may have been denied beneficial surgery as a result of an equivocal SEEG evaluation. Weighing risks and benefits, it is concluded that anterior temporal lobectomy is justified without chronic intracranial recording when specific criteria for focal scalp-sphenoidal ictal EEG onsets are met, localized hypometabolism predominantly involves the same temporal lobe, and no other conflicting information has been obtained from additional tests of focal functional deficit, structural imaging, or seizure semiology.

  9. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  10. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  11. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  12. Final focus nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  13. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  14. Passive focus sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Knop, Karl

    1995-05-01

    A focus-sensor module that could take the place of the visual-image control for professional large-format cameras was fabricated. In addition, a passive focus-sensing method was shown to work at arbitrary locations and orientations in the recording plane of large-format professional cameras. A focus resolution of better than 0.1 mm and a range of measurement of +/- 5 mm at the image side were obtained at a minimum level of illuminance and with an aperture f/5.6 of the imaging lens. In the current method, three out of four images that arose from various sections of the camera's objective lens were applied for triangulation. The demonstrated approach was based on a linear photodiode array and employed one-dimensional image information for focus sensing.

  15. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  16. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  17. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  18. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  19. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  20. Focusing the parabolic antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The focused parabolic antenna has far field pattern characteristics in the radiating near field region. Therefore, it can provide fine resolutions in the across range dimensions. The technique of focusing the parabolic antenna is discussed and applied to a 2-1/2 foot parabolic antenna at X-band. The results of the pattern measurements at various ranges from 2.8 m to 5 m are provided.

  1. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  2. Fast focus field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2008-02-01

    We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

  3. Local aspects of sleep: observations from intracerebral recordings in humans.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Lino; De Gennaro, Luigi; Proserpio, Paola; Moroni, Fabio; Sarasso, Simone; Pigorini, Andrea; De Carli, Fabrizio; Ferrara, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Human sleep is considered a global phenomenon, orchestrated by central specialized neuronal networks modulating the whole-brain activity. However, recent studies point to a local regulation of sleep. Sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) features of sleep and wakefulness might be simultaneously present in different cerebral regions. Recently, intracranial EEG recording techniques, mainly applied for the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients, have provided new and interesting information on the activity of different cortical and subcortical structures during sleep in humans. In particular, it has been observed that the thalamus, during the transition between wake and sleep undergoes a deactivation process that precedes the one occurring within the cortex, with extensive cortical territories maintaining an activated pattern for several minutes after the thalamic deactivation. Very recent intracerebral EEG studies have also shown that human NREM sleep can be characterized by the coexistence of wake-like and sleep-like EEG patterns in different cortical areas. Moreover, unit-firing recordings in multiple brain regions of neurosurgical patients evidenced that most sleep slow waves and the underlying active and inactive neuronal states do occur locally. These findings add a new dimension to the concept of local sleep regulation and opens new perspectives in the interpretation of the substrates underlying behavioral states of vigilance. The implications for sleep medicine are also discussed. PMID:22877668

  4. NICMOS focus monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is used to determine and monitor the optimal focus and tilt settings for all three NICMOS cameras. It is derived from SM2/NIC 7041, but is structurally quite a bit different. This proposal is built to run NIC1/2 focus sweeps on a weekly basis, and NIC3 focus sweeps twice a week during SMOV {following the "interim" runs of the 7150}. 7043 will run for as long as it is deemed necessary to keep track of the camera focii and to monitor the dewar anomaly. After the discussion on 20/3/96, this proposal is written to run 4 complete 1-week iterations starting 3 days after the last run of the 7150 {NICMOS COARSE OPTICAL ALIGNMENT, PART 2}.

  5. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  6. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  7. Focusing on Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Laura M.; Conner, AnnaMarie

    2015-01-01

    "Collective argumentation" occurs when a group works together to arrive at a conclusion (supporting it with evidence). Simplistically, this occurs when students give answers to questions and tell how they arrived at the answer, perhaps prompted by a teacher. But collective argumentation can be much richer, with a focus on the process of…

  8. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically lowered dropout…

  9. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  10. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  11. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  12. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  13. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  14. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding, including the…

  15. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  16. Focus on stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Seifert, Udo

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the thirty papers collected in this ‘focus on’ issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

  17. Focus on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Donald S., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on issues in bilingual education. First, Elizabeth Flynn examines different kinds of bilingual programs; efforts made towards cultural pluralism in a number of countries; national benefits to be derived from bilingualism; the needs of American ethnic groups, new immigrants, and foreign students; and the pros and…

  18. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World Wide Web in…

  19. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  20. Focus on the Presidency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, Linda K.

    1996-01-01

    Uses Presidential and House of Representatives elections as basis for year-long curriculum focus on civics education, integrating print material, software, and the Internet. Describes classroom activities, Internet sites, and software described for four major areas: (1) campaigning for office; (2) moving into a new home; (3) reporting for work;…

  1. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from family, racial…

  2. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central office…

  3. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  4. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state regulations;…

  5. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  6. Focus on Efficient Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Resource Management.

    Compiled as a workshop handbook, this guide presents information to help food service program administrators comply with federal regulations and evaluate and upgrade their operations. Part I discusses requirements of the National School Lunch Program, focusing on the "offer versus serve" method of service enacted in 1976 to reduce waste. After an…

  7. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  8. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  9. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  10. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and process of…

  11. Focus on Rashomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Donald S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series is a collection of reviews, essays, and commentaries on the Japanese film Rashomon. The plot consists of an attack, a rape, and a robbery, all of which probably occurred during the Middle Ages. Each character relates his own version of what happened, or might have happened, revealing the outward and inner driving forces,…

  12. Trastuzumab Benefits Women with Locally Advanced or Inflammatory

    Cancer.gov

    Women treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin) and chemotherapy before surgery and trastuzumab again after surgery had a reduced risk of the disease recurring or progressing compared with women who received pre-surgical chemotherapy but no trastuzumab, accord

  13. Pre-surgical regional blocks in orthognathic surgery: prospective study evaluating their influence on the intraoperative use of anaesthetics and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y A; Rivera-Serrano, C M; Chen, C; Chen, Y R

    2016-06-01

    In orthognathic surgery, maxillary (CNV2) and mandibular (CNV3) divisions of the trigeminal nerve can be blocked successfully prior to surgery. In this study, it was hypothesized that regional blocks (nerve block over a particular region: bilateral CNV2 and CNV3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve) would decrease the total requirement for intraoperative anaesthetic agents and facilitate the process of hypotensive anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia containing 1/100,000 epinephrine and 10ml 0.5% levobupivacaine was injected into the planned incisions in 50 patients. Twenty-five patients (group A) underwent orthognathic surgery without regional blocks and another 25 patients (group B) underwent surgery with regional blocks. The anaesthetic protocol was the same in both groups and administered by a single anaesthesiologist. The mean arterial pressure was recorded at several points throughout the operation, as well as all the medications used. The blood loss and the amounts of medications administered were lower in group B than in group A. In patients receiving regional blocks, the amounts of fentanyl and nicardipine required were significantly lower. The use of pre-emptive anaesthesia in orthognathic surgery may reduce the overall amounts of medications required for hypotensive anaesthesia, facilitate the intraoperative control of blood pressure, and decrease intraoperative blood loss.

  14. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  15. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  16. Focus on quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchleitner, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Scholes, Gregory D.; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Wellens, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cutting-edge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.

  17. Focused on Robert E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shows a geological feature dubbed 'Robert E.' Light from the top is illuminating the feature, which is located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Several images, each showing a different part of 'Robert E' in good focus, were merged to produce this view. The area in this image, taken on Sol 15 of the Opportunity mission, is 2.2 centimeters (0.8 inches) across.

  18. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  19. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  20. Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of PIA04196 Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    Spirit used its microscopic imager to take this mosaic of the rock 'Haussmann' on martian day, or sol, 563 (August 3, 2005). The specific target is nicknamed 'Rue Legendre.' The rounded nature of the pebbles indicates that they were eroded on the surface before being embedded into the Haussmann rock. The size of the larger of the two pebbles is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches). The rock probably formed from impact ejecta, consistent with other rocks Spirit discovered during its climb to the summit of 'Husband Hill.'

  1. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  2. [Therapies by focused ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Grenier, N; Trillaud, H; Palussière, J; Mougenot, C; Quesson, B; Denis De Senneville, B; Moonen, C

    2007-11-01

    Many techniques of thermotherapy have emerged over the last several years in the field of oncology using different types of physical agents, including ultrasound. Only ultrasound can target deep seated lesions non-invasively without need for percutaneous probe insertion. Depending on their utilization, it is possible to select either thermal effects, in a continuous mode, at low temperature (allowing thermo-induced biological effects) or at high temperature (allowing thermoablation), or mechanical effects, in a pulsed mode, at low energy level (allowing biological effects) or at high energy levels (histotripsy). Thermoablation by focused ultrasound is now developing fast for applications in many organs. It gained a well defined role for the treatment of prostatic cancer and uterine leiomyoma but needs to be better evaluated in other organs such as the breast. Treatment of abdominal tumors must still be considered as experimental as long as problems related to acoustic interfaces (produced by ribs and gas) and movement correction are not resolved. Biological applications of focused ultrasound are currently being explored and have a great long term potential.

  3. Electrostatic Focusing Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Eric; Hopkins, Demitri

    2011-10-01

    We developed an electrostatic focusing lens capable of generating DD reactions, by focusing deuterium ions generated from a pointed emitter at a frozen heavy water target. Due to difficulty with the pointed emitter, we later switched to a hollow cathode design. To model the lenses, chamber, and calculate the dimensions for the design that would maximize ion energy and density, the program SIMION was used. During stable operation, vacuum was hand adjusted around 10-13 mTorr. To keep stable beam, DC voltage generator was varied between 15-25 kV. Hand adjusting was necessary, because at points in the operation the frozen heavy water would release vapor at an increased rate. This caused the pressure to rise and the beam current to spike, creating instabilities and an arc to the lens. Three methods were used to determine successful DD production. (1) Two differently shielded Geiger counters (unshielded and UHMW-PE insulated tube), (2) Spectrophotometer comparing control peaks with heavy water tests, and (3) a calibrated bubble dosimeter specific to neutrons. Analysis of the results suggest the neutrons flux varied from 532 to 1.4 × 106 neutrons/sec, and require further tests to plot and narrow results.

  4. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  5. Retroreflection Focusing Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A retroreflective type focusing schlieren system which permits the light source to be positioned on the optic side of the system is introduced. The system includes an extended light source, as opposed to a point source, located adjacent to a beam splitter which projects light through the flow field onto a reflecting grating in the form of a grid which generates sheets of light that are directed back through the flow field and the beam splitter onto a primary lens behind which is located a cut-off grid having a grid pattern which corresponds to the grid pattern of the reflecting grating. The cut-off grid is adjustably positioned behind the primary lens and an image plane for imaging the turbulence is adjustably located behind the cut-off grid.

  6. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  7. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach. PMID:25150677

  8. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  9. Evaluating dipolar source localization feasibility from intracerebral SEEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Caune, V; Ranta, R; Le Cam, S; Hofmanis, J; Maillard, L; Koessler, L; Louis-Dorr, V

    2014-09-01

    Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered as the golden standard for exploring targeted structures during pre-surgical evaluation in drug-resistant partial epilepsy. The depth electrodes, inserted in the brain, consist of several collinear measuring contacts (sensors). Clinical routine analysis of SEEG signals is performed on bipolar montage, providing a focal view of the explored structures, thus eliminating activities of distant sources that propagate through the brain volume. We propose in this paper to exploit the common reference SEEG signals. In this case, the volume propagation information is preserved and electrical source localization (ESL) approaches can be proposed. Current ESL approaches used to localize and estimate the activity of the neural generators are mainly based on surface EEG/MEG signals, but very few studies exist on real SEEG recordings, and the case of equivalent current dipole source localization has not been explored yet in this context. In this study, we investigate the influence of volume conduction model, spatial configuration of SEEG sensors and level of noise on the ESL accuracy, using a realistic simulation setup. Localizations on real SEEG signals recorded during intracerebral electrical stimulations (ICS, known sources) as well as on epileptic interictal spikes are carried out. Our results show that, under certain conditions, a straightforward approach based on an equivalent current dipole model for the source and on simple analytical volume conduction models yields sufficiently precise solutions (below 10mm) of the localization problem. Thus, electrical source imaging using SEEG signals is a promising tool for distant brain source investigation and might be used as a complement to routine visual interpretations.

  10. Focus on PTEN Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Brito, Miriam; Goulielmaki, Evangelia; Papakonstanti, Evangelia A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) as a tumor suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles, and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN, which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases. PMID:26284192

  11. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  12. Focus point supersymmetry redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Sanford, David

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from Higgs boson and supersymmetry searches at the Large Hadron Collider provide strong new motivations for supersymmetric theories with heavy superpartners. We reconsider focus point supersymmetry (FP SUSY), in which all squarks and sleptons may have multi-TeV masses without introducing fine-tuning in the weak scale with respect to variations in the fundamental SUSY-breaking parameters. We examine both FP SUSY and its familiar special case, the FP region of minimal supergravity, also known as the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (mSUGRA/CMSSM), and show that they are beautifully consistent with all particle, astroparticle, and cosmological data, including Higgs boson mass limits, null results from SUSY searches, electric dipole moments, b→sγ, Bs→μ+μ-, the thermal relic density of neutralinos, and dark matter searches. The observed deviation of the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment from its standard model value may also be explained in FP SUSY, although not in the FP region of mSUGRA/CMSSM. In light of recent data, we advocate refined searches for FP SUSY and related scenarios with heavy squarks and sleptons, and we present a simplified parameter space within mSUGRA/CMSSM to aid such analyses.

  13. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  14. Focus on sustainability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R J; Godiksen, L; Hansen, G; Gustafson, D J; Brinkerhoff, D W; Ingle, M D; Rounds, T; Wing, H

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has become one of the most critical concepts in international development and is having a dramatic impact on the way development is conceptualized and carried out. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is incorporating this concept into its programs and projects. Factors encouraging sustainability of projects and programs include host government policies that support or constrain program objectives, national and/or local commitment to project goals, managerial leadership that helps shape improved policies, collaboration at all staff levels in program management, financial resources that cover program operational costs, appropriate program technology, integration of the program with the social and cultural setting of the country, community involvement in the program, sound environmental management, technical assistance oriented to transferring skills and increasing institutional capacity, perception by the host country that the project is "effective," training provided by the project to transfer skill needed for capacity-building, integration of the program into existing institutional framework, and external political, economic and environmental factors. Impediments to sustainability are often inherent in the donor agency's programming process. This includes the implicit assumption that program objectives can be accomplished in a relatively short time frame, when in fact capacity-building requires a lengthy commitment. USAID professionals are pressured to show near-term results which emphasize outputs rather than purpose and goal-level accomplishments achievable only after extensive effort. The emphasis on obligating money and on the project paper as a sales document leads project designers to talk with a great deal more certainty about project results than is warranted by the complex development situation. Uncertainty and flexibility should be designed into projects so activities and objects can change as more

  15. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  16. Local Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P.; Yoon, S. E.; Isenburg, M.

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  17. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  18. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  19. Semantic Focus and Sentence Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Fodor, Jerry A.

    1979-01-01

    Reaction time to detect a phoneme target in a sentence was faster when the target-containing word formed part of the semantic focus of the sentence. Sentence understanding was facilitated by rapid identification of focused information. Active search for accented words can be interpreted as a search for semantic focus. (Author/RD)

  20. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  1. Localized shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Daniel A.; Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard

    2015-03-01

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, , where W x ( t) = e - iHt W x e iHt . Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in t. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The notion 'molecular electronics' has been used more frequently since the 1970s and summarizes a series of physical phenomena and ideas for their application in connection with organic molecules, oligomers, polymers, organic aggregates and solids. The properties studied in this field were connected to optical and electrical phenomena, such as optical absorption, fluorescence, nonlinear optics, energy transport, charge transfer, electrical conductance, and electron and nuclear spin-resonance. The final goal was and is to build devices which can compete or surpass some aspects of inorganic semiconductor devices. For example, on the basis of organic molecules there exist rectifiers, transistors, molecular wires, organic light emitting diodes, elements for photovoltaics, and displays. With respect to applications, one aspect of the organic materials is their broad variability and the lower effort and costs for their processability. The step from microstructures to the investigation of nanostructures is a big challenge also in this field and has lead to what nowadays is called molecular electronics in its narrow sense. In this field the subjects of the studies are often single molecules, e.g. single molecule optical spectroscopy, electrical conductance, i.e. charge transport through a single molecule, the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom, etc. A challenge here is to provide the techniques for addressing in a reproducible way the molecular scale. In another approach small molecular ensembles are studied in order to avoid artefacts from particular contact situations. The recent development of the field is presented in [1-8]. In this Focus Issue we present new results in the field of 'molecular electronics', both in its broad and specialized sense. One of the basic questions is the distribution of the energy levels responsible for optical absorption on the one hand and for the transport of charge on the other. A still unanswered question is whether the Wannier

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    represent two-photon power spectra of arbitrarily and adaptively shaped broadband laser pulses M A Montgomery and N H Damrauer Accurate and efficient implementation of the von Neumann representation for laser pulses with discrete and finite spectra Frank Dimler, Susanne Fechner, Alexander Rodenberg, Tobias Brixner and David J Tannor Coherent strong-field control of multiple states by a single chirped femtosecond laser pulse M Krug, T Bayer, M Wollenhaupt, C Sarpe-Tudoran, T Baumert, S S Ivanov and N V Vitanov Quantum-state measurement of ionic Rydberg wavepackets X Zhang and R R Jones On the paradigm of coherent control: the phase-dependent light-matter interaction in the shaping window Tiago Buckup, Jurgen Hauer and Marcus Motzkus Use of the spatial phase of a focused laser beam to yield mechanistic information about photo-induced chemical reactions V J Barge, Z Hu and R J Gordon Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection S D McGrane, R J Scharff, M Greenfield and D S Moore Mode selectivity with polarization shaping in the mid-IR David B Strasfeld, Chris T Middleton and Martin T Zanni Laser-guided relativistic quantum dynamics Chengpu Liu, Markus C Kohler, Karen Z Hatsagortsyan, Carsten Muller and Christoph H Keitel Continuous quantum error correction as classical hybrid control Hideo Mabuchi Quantum filter reduction for measurement-feedback control via unsupervised manifold learning Anne E B Nielsen, Asa S Hopkins and Hideo Mabuchi Control of the temporal profile of the local electromagnetic field near metallic nanostructures Ilya Grigorenko and Anatoly Efimov Laser-assisted molecular orientation in gaseous media: new possibilities and applications Dmitry V Zhdanov and Victor N Zadkov Optimization of laser field-free orientation of a state-selected NO molecular sample Arnaud Rouzee, Arjan Gijsbertsen, Omair Ghafur, Ofer M Shir, Thomas Back, Steven Stolte and Marc J J Vrakking Controlling the sense of molecular rotation Sharly Fleischer

  4. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

  5. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls. PMID:26866768

  6. Prognostic Role of Functional Neuroimaging after Multilobar Resection in Patients with Localization-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Bin; Seo, Dae-Won; Hong, Seung-Chyul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usage of functional neuroimaging as a prognostic tool for seizure recurrence and long-term outcomes in patients with multilobar resection, we recruited 90 patients who received multilobar resections between 1995 and 2013 with at least 1-year follow-up (mean 8.0 years). All patients were monitored using intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) after pre-surgical evaluation. Clinical data (demographics, electrophysiology, and neuroimaging) were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical outcomes were evaluated at 1, 2, 5 years after surgery, and at the end of the study. After 1 year, 56 patients (62.2%) became Engel class I and at the last follow-up, 47 patients (52.2%) remained seizure-free. Furthermore, non-localized 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), identifying hypometabolic areas not concordant with ictal onset zones, significantly correlated with seizure recurrence after 1 year. Non-lesional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and left-sided resection correlated with poor outcomes. In the last follow-up, non-localized PET and left-sided resection significantly correlated with seizure recurrence. Both localized PET and ictal-interictal SPECT subtraction co-registered to MR (SISCOM) predicted good surgical outcomes in the last follow-up (69.2%, Engel I). This study suggests that PET and SISCOM may predict postoperative outcomes for patients after multilobar epilepsy and shows comparable long-term surgical outcomes after multilobar resection. PMID:26305092

  7. Double Bifurcation of Nilpotent Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yirong; Li, Feng

    In this paper, an interesting bifurcation phenomenon is investigated — a 3-multiple nilpotent focus of the planar dynamical systems could be broken into two element focuses and an element saddle, and the limit cycles could bifurcate out from two element focuses. As an example, a class of cubic systems with 3-multiple nilpotent focus O(0, 0) is investigated, we prove that nine limit cycles with the scheme 7 ⊃ (1 ∪ 1) could bifurcate out from the origin when the origin is a weak focus of order 8. At the end of this paper, the double bifurcations of a class of Z2 equivalent cubic system with 3-multiple nilpotent focus or center O(0, 0) are investigated.

  8. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  9. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  10. Pharmacometrics: Focus on the Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, T Pene; Fossler, MJ; Schmith, VD

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacometrics, whether using simple or complex models, has contributed to rational and efficient drug development,1–3 with the main focus on early drug development.4 This article describes why opportunities more directly focused on the patient abound in late stage development, illustrating the concept with three innovative examples which focus on benefits to patients, enabling drugs that are truly efficacious to reach the market faster in diseases with high unmet medical needs, while maintaining adequate safety. PMID:26225220

  11. Focusing of baroclinic tidal energy in a canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, Vasiliy; Stashchuk, Nataliya; Inall, Mark E.; Porter, Marie; Aleynik, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Strong three-dimensional focusing of internal tidal energy in the Petite Sole Canyon in the Celtic Sea is analyzed using observational data and numerical modeling. In a deep layer (500-800 m) in the center of the canyon, shear variance was elevated by an order of magnitude. Corresponding large vertical oscillations of deep isotherms and a local maximum of horizontal velocity were replicated numerically using the MITgcm. The elevated internal tidal activity in the deep part of the canyon is explained in terms of the downward propagation and focusing of multiple internal tidal beams generated at the shelf break. The near-circular shape of the canyon head and steep bottom topography throughout the canyon (steeper than the tidal beam) create favorable conditions for the lens-like focusing of tidal energy in the canyon's center. Observations and modeling show that the energy focusing greatly intensifies local diapycnal mixing that leads to local formation of a baroclinic eddy.

  12. Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Leilei; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitali K; Pearson, John; Hiller, Jon M; Hua, Jiong; Welp, Ulrich; Brown, Dennis E; Kimball, Clyde W

    2005-07-01

    The constructive interference of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) launched by nanometric holes allows us to focus SPP into a spot of high near-field intensity having subwavelength width. Near-field scanning optical microscopy is used to map the local SPP intensity. The resulting SPP patterns and their polarization dependence are accurately described in model calculations based on a dipolar model for the SPP emission at each hole. Furthermore, we show that the high SPP intensity in the focal spot can be launched and propagated on a Ag strip guide with a 250 x 50 nm2 cross section, thus overcoming the diffraction limit of conventional optics. The combination of focusing arrays and nano-waveguides may serve as a basic element in planar nano-photonic circuits.

  13. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  14. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. PMID:24283844

  15. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

  16. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  17. Art and Place: The Local Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Stresses the importance of local arts, focusing on encouraging modern dance at the local level. Addresses issues such as audience participation, sense of ownership and community, and accessibility that accompanies local art. Considers the implications for K-12 modern dance education. (CMK)

  18. Local History: Folklore or Documented Fact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, R. Craig

    A syllabus and teaching methods for a community college local history course which focuses on primary sources about southern New Jersey are provided. Emphasis of the course is on how national issues affect local actions. Primary sources dating back to the 17th century are found in documentary collections of local and state archives. The course,…

  19. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language.

  20. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951

  1. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951

  2. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The notion 'molecular electronics' has been used more frequently since the 1970s and summarizes a series of physical phenomena and ideas for their application in connection with organic molecules, oligomers, polymers, organic aggregates and solids. The properties studied in this field were connected to optical and electrical phenomena, such as optical absorption, fluorescence, nonlinear optics, energy transport, charge transfer, electrical conductance, and electron and nuclear spin-resonance. The final goal was and is to build devices which can compete or surpass some aspects of inorganic semiconductor devices. For example, on the basis of organic molecules there exist rectifiers, transistors, molecular wires, organic light emitting diodes, elements for photovoltaics, and displays. With respect to applications, one aspect of the organic materials is their broad variability and the lower effort and costs for their processability. The step from microstructures to the investigation of nanostructures is a big challenge also in this field and has lead to what nowadays is called molecular electronics in its narrow sense. In this field the subjects of the studies are often single molecules, e.g. single molecule optical spectroscopy, electrical conductance, i.e. charge transport through a single molecule, the influence of vibrational degrees of freedom, etc. A challenge here is to provide the techniques for addressing in a reproducible way the molecular scale. In another approach small molecular ensembles are studied in order to avoid artefacts from particular contact situations. The recent development of the field is presented in [1-8]. In this Focus Issue we present new results in the field of 'molecular electronics', both in its broad and specialized sense. One of the basic questions is the distribution of the energy levels responsible for optical absorption on the one hand and for the transport of charge on the other. A still unanswered question is whether the Wannier

  4. FOCUSing on Innovative Solar Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    Rohlfing, Eric; Holman, Zak, Angel, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Many of ARPA-E’s technology programs seek to break down silos and build new technological communities around a specific energy challenge. In this video, ARPA-E’s Deputy Director for Technology Eric Rohlfing, discusses how the Full-Spectrum Optimized Conversion and Utilization of Sunlight (FOCUS) program is bringing together the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) communities to develop hybrid solar energy systems. This video features interviews with innovators from the FOCUS project team made up by Arizona State University and the University of Arizona, and showcases how the FOCUS program is combining.

  5. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  6. Best focus shift mitigation for extending the depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szucs, A.; Planchot, J.; Farys, V.; Yesilada, E.; Alleaume, C.; Depre, L.; Dover, R.; Gourgon, C.; Besacier, M.; Nachtwein, A.; Rusu, P.

    2013-04-01

    The low-k1 domain of immersion lithography tends to result in much smaller depths of focus (DoF) compared to prior technology nodes. For 28 nm technology and beyond it is a challenge since (metal) layers have to deal with a wide range of structures. Beside the high variety of features, the reticle induced (mask 3D) effects became non-negligible. These mask 3D effects lead to best focus shift. In order to enhance the overlapping DoF, so called usable DoF (uDoF), alignment of each individual features best focus is required. So means the mitigation of the best focus shift. This study investigates the impact of mask 3D effects and the ability to correct the wavefront in order to extend the uDoF. The generation of the wavefront correction map is possible by using computational lithographic such Tachyon simulations software (from Brion). And inside the scanner the wavefront optimization is feasible by applying a projection lens modulator, FlexWaveTM (by ASML). This study explores both the computational lithography and scanner wavefront correction capabilities. In the first part of this work, simulations are conducted based on the determination and mitigation of best focus shift (coming from mask 3D effects) so as to improve the uDoF. In order to validate the feasibility of best focus shift decrease by wavefront tuning and mitigation results, the wavefront optimization provided correction maps are introduced into a rigorous simulator. Finally these results on best focus shift and uDoF are compared to wafers exposed using FlexWave then measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  8. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  9. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  10. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, A. J.; Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Gañán-Calvo, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging-diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique.

  11. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  12. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  13. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-01-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  14. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  15. Multi-focus cluster labeling.

    PubMed

    Eikvil, Line; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Holden, Marit

    2015-06-01

    Document collections resulting from searches in the biomedical literature, for instance, in PubMed, are often so large that some organization of the returned information is necessary. Clustering is an efficient tool for organizing search results. To help the user to decide how to continue the search for relevant documents, the content of each cluster can be characterized by a set of representative keywords or cluster labels. As different users may have different interests, it can be desirable with solutions that make it possible to produce labels from a selection of different topical categories. We therefore introduce the concept of multi-focus cluster labeling to give users the possibility to get an overview of the contents through labels from multiple viewpoints. The concept for multi-focus cluster labeling has been established and has been demonstrated on three different document collections. We illustrate that multi-focus visualizations can give an overview of clusters along axes that general labels are not able to convey. The approach is generic and should be applicable to any biomedical (or other) domain with any selection of foci where appropriate focus vocabularies can be established. A user evaluation also indicates that such a multi-focus concept is useful.

  16. Focusing on Pronouns: Consequences of Subjecthood, Pronominalisation, and Contrastive Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated the effects of subjecthood, pronominalisation, and contrastive focus on the interpretation of pronouns in subsequent discourse. By probing the effects of these factors on real-time pronoun interpretation, we aim to contribute to our understanding of how topicality-related…

  17. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  18. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  19. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  20. Philippine Programme Initiates Local Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Describes a public health program for mothers and children developed by UNICEF workers in the Philippines that incorporates literacy and environmental awareness along with the usual focus on immunizations, nutrition, and clean water. The program contained an organic gardening project intended to empower women at the local level. (LZ)

  1. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  2. Microjetting from wave focusing on oscillating drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Etoh, T. G.; Takehara, K.

    2007-05-01

    We present experimental observations of microjetting from an oscillating drop. The jet is generated by the focusing of axisymmetric capillary waves that overturn and collide at an apex of the drop. These jets are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the original drops. We present two widely different configurations that produce such microjets. The first occurs on a satellite drop, produced by the pinch-off of a water drop from a vertical nozzle. The large oscillations following the contraction of the satellite bridge focus waves at the bottom, sending out a 30μm jet at 9.9m/s. The second jet arises when a water drop, containing surfactants, falls onto and passes through a hemispherical soap film. The gentle deformation of the drop creates a surface wave that focuses at its top, shooting out a tiny jet and entrapping a small bubble inside the drop. This jet is 16±5μm in diameter and emerges at 6.3m/s. In this configuration, the soap film wraps around the drop and acts as a sensor of the air flow, revealing that the liquid jet is preceded by a localized faster-moving air jet. The jetting in both configurations is quite robust and occurs even for slightly asymmetric conditions. These microjets appear for much lower values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers than previously observed, suggesting that free-surface jetting is not limited to the inviscid capillary-inertial regime, which has been the focus of much of the theoretical work.

  3. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  4. Staying in School. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on issues related to high Texas dropout rates among Hispanic and other minority group students and on dropout prevention strategies. "School Finance Inequities Mean Schools Are Not Ready To Teach" (Maria Robledo Montecel) deplores the recent Texas Supreme Court ruling that state educational funding is constitutional,…

  5. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk student…

  6. Strategy and Focus: Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The six articles in this focused journal issue are concerned with literature teaching on the secondary and college level. The titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "Aesthetic Reading and Teaching: 'Candide' Revisited" (Michael G. Gauthier); (2) "Discovery: The Role of Subjective Response in Initiating the Literature Discussion"…

  7. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  8. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  9. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  10. Evaluating Pragmatics-Focused Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Elizabeth; Basturkmen, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Learners often find the area of pragmatics (that is, using speech acts such as requesting, inviting, and complimenting) problematic. Teachers are urged to teach pragmatic aspects of language, and make use of authentic samples of spoken discourse to do so. However, information about the effectiveness of pragmatics-focused instruction of this nature…

  11. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content, performance, and…

  12. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  13. The Ionospheric Focused Heating experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Rodriguez, P.; Haas, D. G.; Baumback, M. M.; Romero, H. A.; Solin, D. A.; Djuth, F. T.; Duncan, L. M.; Hunton, D. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Sulzer, M. P.; Tepley, C. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Goldstein, J. A.

    1995-09-01

    The Ionospheric Focused Heating rocket was launched on May 30, 1992. The sounding rocket carried an instrument and chemical payload along a trajectory that crossed the intersection of the beams from the 430-MHz incoherent scatter radar and the 5.1-MHz high-power radio wave facility near Arecibo. The release of 30 kg of CF3Br into the F region at 285 km altitude produced an ionospheric hole that acted like a convergent lens to focus the HF transmissions. The power density inside the radio beam was raised by 12 dB immediately after the release. A wide range of new processes were recorded by in situ and ground-based instruments. Measurements by instruments flying through the modified ionosphere show small-scale microcavities (<1 m) and downshifted electron plasma (Langmuir) waves inside the artificial cavity, electron density spikes at the edge of the cavity, and Langmuir waves coincident with ion gyroradius (4 m) cavities near the radio wave reflection altitude. The Arecibo incoherent scatter radar showed 20 dB or greater enhancements in ion acoustic and Langmuir wave turbulence after the 5.1-MHz radio beam was focused by the artificial lens. Enhancements in airglow from chemical reactions and, possibly, electron acceleration were recorded with optical instruments. The Ionospheric Focused Heating experiment verified some of the preflight predictions and demonstrated the value of active experiments that combine high-power radio waves with chemical releases.

  14. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  15. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program in Action"; (3)…

  16. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  17. Supporting Task-Focused Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, Hubert; And Others

    The extension of computer based communication to the more task-focused communication required by groups involved in joint problem solving is discussed in this paper. Specifically, it addresses three areas: (1) the aspects of the joint problem solving that are most suited to computer based communication support, (2) the computer based communication…

  18. Teaching and Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles that focus on teaching and learning strategies to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Would You Read Me a Story?: In Search of Reading Strategies That Work for the Early Childhood Classroom" (Hilaria Bauer) discusses how…

  19. Focused ion beams in biology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Law-Focused Education: Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Malcolm Price Lab. School.

    This law-focused resource booklet is intended to help secondary level students learn about the civil law portion of Iowa's judicial system. The materials are designed to help students understand how to deal with conflict in a peaceful and orderly manner and how to cope with decision making in personal law situations as related to the family, the…

  1. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  2. The neural dynamics of sensory focus

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Stephen E.; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated sensory and motor system activity leads to efficient localization behaviours; but what neural dynamics enable object tracking and what are the underlying coding principles? Here we show that optimized distance estimation from motion-sensitive neurons underlies object tracking performance in weakly electric fish. First, a relationship is presented for determining the distance that maximizes the Fisher information of a neuron's response to object motion. When applied to our data, the theory correctly predicts the distance chosen by an electric fish engaged in a tracking behaviour, which is associated with a bifurcation between tonic and burst modes of spiking. Although object distance, size and velocity alter the neural response, the location of the Fisher information maximum remains invariant, demonstrating that the circuitry must actively adapt to maintain ‘focus' during relative motion. PMID:26549346

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on terahertz plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Marco; Nahata, Ajay; Akalin, Tahsin; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonics is one of the growing fields in modern photonics that has garnered increasing interest over the last few years. In this focus issue, the specific challenges concerning terahertz plasmonics have been addressed and most recent advances in this specific field have been highlighted. The articles demonstrate the diversity and the opportunities of this rich field by covering a variety of topics ranging from the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on artificially structures surfaces, 2D manipulation of surface plasmons and SPPs, plasmonic focusing, plasmonic high-Q resonators for sensing applications, plasmonically enhanced terahertz antennas to terahertz field manipulation by use of plasmonic structures. The articles substantiate the impact of plasmonics and its great innovative potential for terahertz technology. In memory of Professor Mario Sorolla Ayza.

  4. Inertial focusing cytometer with integrated optics for particle characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Kenneth T.; Petrofsky, Anne C.; Haghgooie, Ramin; Granier, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic inertial focusing has been shown as a simple and effective method to localize cells and particles within a flow cell for interrogation by an external optical system. To enable portable point of care optical cytometry, however, requires a reduction in the complexity of the large optical systems that are used in standard flow cytometers. Here, we present a new design that incorporates optical waveguides and focusing elements with an inertial focusing flow cell to make a compact robust cytometer capable of enumerating and discriminating beads, cells, and platelets. PMID:25346940

  5. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  6. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887

  7. Using Solution Focused Brief Therapy in Individual Referrals for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sue; Holdorf, Gail

    2003-01-01

    The authors work in a city local education authority Special Educational Needs Support Service with an Anti-Bullying Project that continues to develop effective approaches to dealing with bullying in schools. This paper describes the project's use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) and reports on the outcomes of a large number of…

  8. Novel routes for administering chemoprevention: local transdermal therapy to the breasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Oukseub; Khan, Seema A

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer prevention with pharmacologic agents requires that the breast be exposed to an effective drug; systemic exposure is unnecessary, and its harms lead many eligible women to decline preventive therapy. Local transdermal therapy (LTT) to the breast involves the application of active drugs to the breast skin, resulting in high concentrations in the breast but low systemic exposure. It is non-invasive, self-delivered, and not dependent on hepatic metabolism. Existing data on LTT include investigations demonstrating relief of mastalgia with topical 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, an active tamoxifen metabolite). Two presurgical window trials in women with invasive breast cancer, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) demonstrate that LTT decreases proliferation of invasive and non-invasive cancer cells to a similar degree as oral tamoxifen, with low systemic levels, and no effect on coagulation proteins. These data are promising regarding the use of LTT for the primary prevention of breast cancer, and for therapy of DCIS, since systemic exposure is not required for either of these purposes. They also suggest that an LTT approach could be developed for any small, lipophilic molecule with good dermal permeation, thus greatly expanding the menu of drugs that could be tested for breast cancer prevention. PMID:26970129

  9. The quest for customer focus.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line. PMID:15807042

  10. Tanks focus area. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, J.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program.

  11. Seizure Localization using Three-Dimensional Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W.; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG β frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

  12. Final focus system for TLC

    SciTech Connect

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A focus on human flourishing.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2010-10-01

    In this column the author focuses on the concepts of human vulnerability and human flourishing. A parable is presented highlighting the importance of now, the present, in human flourishing. A bioethical, anthropological perspective and a nursing humanbecoming perspective on human flourishing are offered. Nursing education is challenged to emphasize the nursing theories of the discipline to teach the concept of human flourishing. Parse's concept of true presence, the four postulates of humanbecoming, and the humanbecoming community change concepts illuminate a nursing theoretical understanding of human flourishing. PMID:20870999

  14. Line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  15. A focused bibliography on robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  16. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  17. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  18. Local and Global Thinking in Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…

  19. Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Thomas E.

    The book provides practical guidelines for the layman who is interested in researching, writing, and publishing local history. Two standards considered to be essential to the writing of local history are ethics and competence. The three aspects of competence which are discussed focus on researching, writing, and publishing. Chapter I identifies…

  20. Considerations for numerical modeling of the pulmonary circulation--a review with a focus on pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kheyfets, V O; O'Dell, W; Smith, T; Reilly, J J; Finol, E A

    2013-06-01

    Both in academic research and in clinical settings, virtual simulation of the cardiovascular system can be used to rapidly assess complex multivariable interactions between blood vessels, blood flow, and the heart. Moreover, metrics that can only be predicted with computational simulations (e.g., mechanical wall stress, oscillatory shear index, etc.) can be used to assess disease progression, for presurgical planning, and for interventional outcomes. Because the pulmonary vasculature is susceptible to a wide range of pathologies that directly impact and are affected by the hemodynamics (e.g., pulmonary hypertension), the ability to develop numerical models of pulmonary blood flow can be invaluable to the clinical scientist. Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating disease that can directly benefit from computational hemodynamics when used for diagnosis and basic research. In the present work, we provide a clinical overview of pulmonary hypertension with a focus on the hemodynamics, current treatments, and their limitations. Even with a rich history in computational modeling of the human circulation, hemodynamics in the pulmonary vasculature remains largely unexplored. Thus, we review the tasks involved in developing a computational model of pulmonary blood flow, namely vasculature reconstruction, meshing, and boundary conditions. We also address how inconsistencies between models can result in drastically different flow solutions and suggest avenues for future research opportunities. In its current state, the interpretation of this modeling technology can be subjective in a research environment and impractical for clinical practice. Therefore, considerations must be taken into account to make modeling reliable and reproducible in a laboratory setting and amenable to the vascular clinic. Finally, we discuss relevant existing models and how they have been used to gain insight into cardiopulmonary physiology and pathology.

  1. Isoelectric focusing of urinary metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Felley-Bosco, E; Hunziker, P E; Savolainen, H

    1990-05-01

    Isoelectric focusing of human urinary metallothionein at a pH range of 4.8 to 7.0 yielded a single protein band with a pI of 5.57 which co-migrated with authentic purified metallothionein I from human liver. Minimum pretreatment of the urine samples (160 ml) was needed. The preparatory steps included sample concentration with the original protein, enriched from 69 +/- 23 micrograms/ml to 2.0 +/- 1.4 mg/ml (+/- SD; n = 9), followed by heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 5 min (2.4 +/- 1.7 mg protein/ml). After focusing, the gels were stained with silver and the lanes were scanned with a laser scanner. Peak areas were used for quantitation with commercial beta 2-microglobulin as a standard. The urinary metallothionein ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 nmol/mmol creatinine, which is comparable with values reached by radio-immunoassay.

  2. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  3. Development of a Focusing DIRC

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, J.; Bedajanek, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Suzuki, K.; Schwiening, J.; Uher, J.; Va'vra, J.; /SLAC

    2006-12-12

    Benefiting from the recent introduction of new fast vacuum-based photon detectors with a transit time spread of {sigma}{sub TTS} {approx} 30-150 ps, we are developing a novel RICH detector capable of correcting the chromatic error through good time measurements; we believe that this is the first time such a technique has been demonstrated. We have built and successfully tested a particle identification detector called ''Focusing DIRC''. The concept of the prototype is based on the BaBar DIRC, with several important improvements: (a) much faster pixelated photon detectors based on Burle MCP-PMTs and Hamamatsu MaPMTs, (b) a focusing mirror which allows the photon detector to be smaller and less sensitive to background in future applications, (c) electronics allowing the measurement of single photon timing to better than {sigma} {approx} 100-200ps, which allows a correction of the chromatic error. The detector was tested in a SLAC 10GeV/c electron test beam. This detector concept could be used for particle identification at Super B-factory, ILC, GlueX, Panda, etc.

  4. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  5. Future focus for professional development.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole K; Coplit, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Professional development has evolved from individually focused sabbaticals and professional leaves to institutionally focused programs with an interest in developing faculty members' ability to teach in various environments as well as to succeed in the many endeavors they undertake. We address various issues related to professional development in the medical school arena. Professional development in medical school takes place in a context where faculty are stretched to engage in research and service not only for their own sake but also to financially support their institutions. This obligates professional developers to acknowledge and address the environments in which teaching faculty work, and to use approaches to professional development that honor the time and efforts of teaching faculty. These approaches may be brief interventions that make use of principles of education, and may include online offerings. Professional development will be most effective when professional developers acknowledge that most faculty members aspire to excellence in teaching, but they do so in an environment that pushes them to address competing concerns. Offering professional development opportunities that fit within the workplace environment, take little time, and build upon faculty's existing knowledge will assist in enhancing faculty success.

  6. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  7. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  8. Energy-Based Adaptive Focusing: Optimal Ultrasonic Focusing Using Magnetic Resonance Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrat, B.; Pernot, M.; Montaldo, G.; Fink, M.; Tanter, M.

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive focusing of ultrasonic waves is performed under the guidance of a Magnetic Resonance (MR) system. The technique is based on the maximization of the ultrasonic wave intensity at a target point. The wave intensity is indirectly estimated from the local tissue motion induced at the chosen focus by the acoustic radiation force of the ultrasonic beam. A motion sensitive MR sequence is used to measure the resulting local tissue displacements. Based on the transmission of a set of spatially coded ultrasonic waves, a non iterative inversion process is used to estimate the phase aberrations induced by the propagation medium and to maximize the acoustical intensity at the target. Both programmable and physical aberrating layers introducing strong distortions (up to 2π radians) are recovered within acceptable errors (<0.8 rad). This non invasive technique is shown to accurately correct the phase aberrations in a phantom gel with negligible heat deposition and limited acquisition time. These refocusing performances demonstrate a major potential in the field of MR-Guided Ultrasound Therapy in particular for transcranial brain HIFU.

  9. Country news: focus on Moldova.

    PubMed

    Kunz, K

    1996-09-01

    Moldova, like other newly independent states (NIS), is in urgent need of health education materials that address reproductive health and family planning concerns in the local language. The lack of such information has been cited as a major factor in the alarming rise in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission in Eastern Europe. A recent family health education mission to Moldova developed a strategy for a successful campaign. Health care professionals will be the first target group. A series of seminars and workshops will be directed at sex education teachers, hospital personnel, mass media representatives, and other relevant groups. In addition, four weekly television programs on breast feeding, infertility, STDs, and reproductive health are scheduled and simple informational brochures will be distributed. The plan will be linked to Healthy Lifestyle initiatives in the state.

  10. Focusing ecological research for conservation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Ecologists are increasingly actively involved in conservation. We identify five key topics from a broad sweep of ecology that merit research attention to meet conservation needs. We examine questions from landscape ecology, behavioral ecology, ecosystem dynamics, community ecology, and nutrient cycling related to key topics. Based on literature review and publication trend assessment, consultation with colleagues, and roundtable discussions at the 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology, focused research on the following topics could benefit conservation while advancing ecological understanding: 1. Carbon sequestration, requiring increased linkages to biodiversity conservation; 2. Ecological invasiveness, challenging our ability to find solutions to ecological aliens; 3. Individual variation, having applications in the conservation of rare species; 4. Movement of organisms, integrating ecological processes across landscapes and scales and addressing habitat fragmentation; and 5. Trophic-level interactions, driving ecological dynamics at the ecosystem-level. Addressing these will require cross-disciplinary research under the overarching framework of conservation ecology.

  11. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal; Lear, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC. PMID:21152128

  12. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  13. Micron-focused ion beamlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-01

    A multiple beam electrode system (MBES) is used to provide focused ion beamlets of elements from a compact microwave plasma. In this study, a honeycomb patterned plasma electrode with micron size apertures for extracting ion beamlets is investigated. The performance of the MBES is evaluated with the help of two widely adopted and commercially available beam simulation tools, AXCEL-INP and SIMION, where the input parameters are obtained from our experiments. A simple theoretical model based upon electrostatic ray optics is employed to compare the results of the simulations. It is found that the results for the beam focal length agree reasonably well. Different geometries are used to optimize the beam spot size and a beam spot ˜5-10 μm is obtained. The multiple ion beamlets will be used to produce microfunctional surfaces on soft matter like polymers. Additionally, the experimental set-up and plans are presented in the light of above applications.

  14. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  15. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  16. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment.

  17. Hormone Purification by Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1985-01-01

    Various ground-based research approaches are being applied to a more definitive evaluation of the natures and degrees of electroosmosis effects on the separation capabilities of the Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) process. A primary instrumental system for this work involves rotationally stabilized, horizontal electrophoretic columns specially adapted for the IEF process. Representative adaptations include segmentation, baffles/screens, and surface coatings. Comparative performance and development testing are pursued against the type of column or cell established as an engineering model. Previously developed computer simulation capabilities are used to predict low-gravity behavior patterns and performance for IEF apparatus geometries of direct project interest. Three existing mathematical models plus potential new routines for particular aspects of simulating instrument fluid patterns with varied wall electroosmosis influences are being exercised.

  18. Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

  19. Signal focusing through active transport.

    PubMed

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing-faster and more precise signaling-are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  20. Subcycle Pulsed Focused Vector Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Qiang; Zheng Jian; Becker, Wilhelm

    2006-12-22

    An accurate description of a subcycle pulsed beam (SCPB) is presented based on the complex-source model. The fields are exact solutions of Maxwell's equations and applicable to a focused pulsed beam with a pulse duration down to and below one cycle of the carrier wave and with arbitrary polarization state. Depending on the pulse duration, the pulse is blueshifted, and its wings are chirped. This effect, which we refer to as 'self-induced blueshift' goes beyond the carrier-envelope description. The corresponding phase is a temporal analog of the Gouy phase. The energy gain of a relativistic electron swept over by an SCPB is very sensitive to the proper form chosen to describe the pulse.

  1. Centripetal focusing of gyrotactic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Cencini, M; Franchino, M; Santamaria, F; Boffetta, G

    2016-06-21

    A suspension of gyrotactic microalgae Chlamydomonas augustae swimming in a cylindrical water vessel in solid-body rotation is studied. Our experiments show that swimming algae form an aggregate around the axis of rotation, whose intensity increases with the rotation speed. We explain this phenomenon by the centripetal orientation of the swimming direction towards the axis of rotation. This centripetal focusing is contrasted by diffusive fluxes due to stochastic reorientation of the cells. The competition of the two effects lead to a stationary distribution, which we analytically derive from a refined mathematical model of gyrotactic swimmers. The temporal evolution of the cell distribution, obtained via numerical simulations of the stochastic model, is in quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements in the range of parameters explored. PMID:27060672

  2. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  3. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  4. Focused rigidity casts: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dagg, A R; Chockalingam, N; Branthwaite, H

    2013-02-01

    Focused rigidity casts (FRCs) are a novel treatment made from polymer semi-flexible cast material, used in the management of plantar foot ulceration to offload the site of ulceration. Current anecdotal evidence suggests that use of FRCs helps achieve quicker healing time. While FRCs were first used in the treatment of fractures, previous reports suggest that the FRC may be effective in the treatment of plantar foot ulceration. Although there is a paucity of evidence to support the use of FRCs in the treatment of foot ulceration, current evidence demonstrates a decrease in both wound healing time and plantar pressure. The aim of the paper is to examine the importance of offloading plantar ulcerations and introduce FRCs.

  5. Variable focus crystal diffraction lens

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R.K.

    1988-11-01

    A new method has been developed to control the shape of the surface of a diffracting crystal that will allow it to function as a variable focus crystal diffraction lens, for focusing photon beams from a synchrotron source. The new method uses thermal gradients in the crystal to control the shape of the surface of the crystal in two dimensions and allows one to generate both spherical and ellipsoidal surface shapes. In this work the thermal gradient was generated by core drilling two sets of cooling channels in a silicon crystal so that cooling or heating fluids could be circulated through the crystal at two different levels. The first set of channels is close to the surface of the crystal where the photon beam strikes it. The second set of channels is equal distant from the back surface. If a concave surface is desired, the fluid in the channels just below the surface exposed to the beam is cooler than the fluid circulating through the channels near the back surface. If a convex surface is desired, then the cooling fluid in the upper channels near the surface exposed to the incident photon beam, is warmer than the fluid in the lower channels. The focal length of the crystal lens is varied by varying the thermal gradient in the crystal. This approach can also be applied to the first crystal in a high power synchrotron beam line to eliminate the bowing and other thermal distortions of the crystal caused by the high heat load. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  7. 3D source localization of interictal spikes in epilepsy patients with MRI lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Worrell, Gregory A.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; He, Bin

    2006-08-01

    indicate that FINE provides a more satisfactory fitting of the scalp potential measurements than MUSIC in all patients. The present results suggest that FINE provides a useful brain source imaging technique, from clinical EEG recordings, for identifying and localizing epileptogenic regions in epilepsy patients with focal partial seizures. The present study may lead to the establishment of a high-resolution source localization technique from scalp-recorded EEGs for aiding presurgical planning in epilepsy patients.

  8. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  9. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  10. Design of a Variable Thickness Plate to Focus Bending Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Cabell, Randolph H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a thin plate whose thickness is tailored in order to focus bending waves to a desired location on the plate. Focusing is achieved by smoothly varying the thickness of the plate to create a type of lens, which focuses structural-borne energy. Damping treatment can then be positioned at the focal point to efficiently dissipate energy with a minimum amount of treatment. Numerical simulations of both bounded and unbounded plates show that the design is effective over a broad frequency range, focusing traveling waves to the same region of the plate regardless of frequency. This paper also quantifies the additional energy dissipated by local damping treatment installed on a variable thickness plate relative to a uniform plate.

  11. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    PubMed

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper. PMID:19413164

  12. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  15. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  16. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  17. High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Nakano, Mayura; Hongo, Satoko; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yohishiro; Satoh, Takefumi; Baba, Shiro; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-intensity focused ultrasound, which was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach, have increased its popularity. High-intensity focused ultrasound is currently utilized the most in Europe and Japan, but has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, USA, for this indication. The purpose of the present report is to review the scientific foundation of high-intensity focused ultrasound technology and the clinical outcomes achieved with commercially available devices. Recently published articles were reviewed to evaluate the current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound as a primary or salvage treatment option for localized prostate cancer. Improvements in the clinical outcome as a result of technical, imaging and technological advancements are described herein. A wide range of treatment options for organ-confined prostate cancer is available. However, high-intensity focused ultrasound is an attractive choice for men willing to choose less invasive options, although establishing the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound requires longer follow-up periods. Technological advances, together with cultural and economic factors, have caused a dramatic shift from traditional open, radical prostatectomy to minimally invasive techniques. High-intensity focused ultrasound is likely to play a significant role in the future of oncology practice. PMID:22188161

  18. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  19. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  20. The Unfocused Focus Group: Benefit or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  4. Discussion on Recipe for Design of a Compact Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-02-13

    On the first day of the Nanobeam Workshop [1], several participants commented that they were having difficulties designing a Raimondi-Seryi final focus system with local chromaticity correction [2], and requested a recipe for tuning such a lattice to cancel higher-order aberrations. In response, such a recipe was written and distributed to those interested on the following day. The text of this recipe is reproduced in Sections 1 and 2 with only minor style and language corrections.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  6. Making global solidarity local.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to strengthen services for local immigrants, Catholic organizations throughout Ohio are turning to the newcomers' home countries to learn more about their culture and needs. The outreach has helped these ministries to address the challenges immigrants face and to provide services in a culturally appropriate way. This intensified focus on the newcomers' plight began in earnest in 2001, when three northeastern Ohio dioceses created a collaborative to address the social, pastoral, and legal needs of their "new neighbors". The dioceses established a centrally located site to provide a wide range of services; but, early on, the collaborative recognized that access to health care was a particular challenge for the immigrants. Wanting to fully understand the newcomers' origins before developing health care solutions for them, representatives from the collaborative visited countries from which many immigrants migrate to Ohio. The trips were instructive: The visitors not only learned about the cultural idiosyncrasies of each area they visited; they also discovered how church organizations there developed solutions to their own health care access problems. The Ohio collaborative has used this wisdom to tailor its health care offerings to meet the unique needs of area immigrants. The ongoing relationship between Catholic organizations in the United States and those abroad continues to yield valuable insights that benefit the immigrant community.

  7. Is focused parathyroidectomy appropriate for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Woong; Rhee, Yumie; Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Cho Rok; Kang, Sang-Wook; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study. PMID:27617249

  8. Is focused parathyroidectomy appropriate for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Woong; Rhee, Yumie; Ban, Eun Jeong; Lee, Cho Rok; Kang, Sang-Wook; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study.

  9. Focus takes time: structural effects on reading.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Previous eye-tracking work has yielded inconsistent evidence regarding whether readers spend more or less time encoding focused information compared with information that is not focused. We report the results of an eye-tracking experiment that used syntactic structure to manipulate whether a target word was linguistically defocused, neutral, or focused, while controlling for possible oculomotor differences across conditions. As the structure of the sentence made the target word increasingly more focused, reading times systematically increased. We propose that the longer reading times for linguistically focused words reflect deeper encoding, which explains previous findings showing that readers have better subsequent memory for focused versus defocused information.

  10. Parents' Views on Preschool Care and Education in Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devjak, Tatjana; Bercnik, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    In this text, the authors are analyzing preschool care and education in local community. They are focusing on the problem of information transfer between the kindergarten, parents and local community, as well as the model of relationship participation. Cooperation between parents, kindergarten and local community is an important element in the…

  11. MR Anatomy of Deep Brain Nuclei with Special Reference to Specific Diseases and Deep Brain Stimulation Localization

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Ryan; Vattoth, Surjith

    2014-01-01

    Summary Diseases affecting the basal ganglia and deep brain structures vary widely in etiology and include metabolic, infectious, ischemic, and neurodegenerative conditions. Some neurologic diseases, such as Wernicke encephalopathy or pseudohypoparathyroidism, require specific treatments, which if unrecognized could lead to further complications. Other pathologies, such as hypertrophic olivary degeneration, if not properly diagnosed may be mistaken for a primary medullary neoplasm and create unnecessary concern. The deep brain structures are complex and can be difficult to distinguish on routine imaging. It is imperative that radiologists first understand the intrinsic anatomic relationships between the different basal ganglia nuclei and deep brain structures with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. It is important to understand the "normal" MR signal characteristics, locations, and appearances of these structures. This is essential to recognizing diseases affecting the basal ganglia and deep brain structures, especially since most of these diseases result in symmetrical, and therefore less noticeable, abnormalities. It is also crucial that neurosurgeons correctly identify the deep brain nuclei presurgically for positioning deep brain stimulator leads, the most important being the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson syndromes and the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus for essential tremor. Radiologists will be able to better assist clinicians in diagnosis and treatment once they are able to accurately localize specific deep brain structures. PMID:24571832

  12. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially-locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, "local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate]." This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835-871 (2012)], relying on the "spectral flow technique" or "quasi-adiabatic continuation" [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique "bulk ground state" or "topological quantum order." We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  13. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  14. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    Field observations from tsunami events show that sometimes the maximum tsunami amplitude might not occur for the first wave, such as the maximum wave from the 2011 Japan tsunami reaching to Papeete, Tahiti as a fourth wave 72 min later after the first wave. This might mislead local authorities and give a wrong sense of security to the public. Recently, Okal and Synolakis (2016, Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735) discussed "the factors contributing to the sequencing of tsunami waves in the far field." They consider two different generation mechanisms through an axial symmetric source -circular plug; one, Le Mehaute and Wang's (1995, World Scientific, 367 pp.) formalism where irritational wave propagation is formulated in the framework of investigating tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and two, Hammack's formulation (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) which introduces deformation at the ocean bottom and does not represent an immediate deformation of the ocean surface, i.e. time dependent ocean surface deformation. They identify the critical distance for transition from the first wave being largest to the second wave being largest. To verify sequencing for a finite length source, Okal and Synolakis (2016) is then used NOAA's validated and verified real time forecasting numerical model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng., 124, 157-171) through Synolakis et al. (2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228). As a reference, they used the parameters of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile earthquake over real bathymetry, variants of this source (small, big, wide, thin, and long) over a flat bathymetry, and 2010 Chile and 211 Japan tsunamis over both real and flat bathymetries to explore the influence of the fault parameters on sequencing. They identified that sequencing more influenced by the source width rather than the length. We extend Okal and Synolakis (2016)'s analysis to an initial N-wave form (Tadepalli

  15. Parent Leadership and Family Involvement (Special Focus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.; Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This "Special Focus" issue of "America's Family Support Magazine," focuses on parent leadership and family involvement. Articles pertaining to this focus include: (1) "Forging Equal Partnerships" (Ahsan); (2) "Who Best Represents the Voice of Parents?" (Foster); (3) "Parent Leadership Training Programs" (Baum); (4) "Parents as Family Support…

  16. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  17. Biodiversity conservation in local planning.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R; Groom, Martha; Hess, George R; Steelman, Toddi; Stokes, David L; Thompson, Jan; Bowman, Troy; Fricke, Laura; King, Brandon; Marquardt, Ryan

    2009-02-01

    Local land-use policy is increasingly being recognized as fundamental to biodiversity conservation in the United States. Many planners and conservation scientists have called for broader use of planning and regulatory tools to support the conservation of biodiversity at local scales. Yet little is known about the pervasiveness of these practices. We conducted an on-line survey of county, municipal, and tribal planning directors (n =116) in 3 geographic regions of the United States: metropolitan Seattle, Washington; metropolitan Des Moines, Iowa; and the Research Triangle, North Carolina. Our objectives were to gauge the extent to which local planning departments address biodiversity conservation and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder conservation actions in local planning. We found that biodiversity conservation was seldom a major consideration in these departments. Staff time was mainly devoted to development mandates and little time was spent on biodiversity conservation. Regulations requiring conservation actions that might benefit biodiversity were uncommon, with the exception of rules governing water quality in all 3 regions and the protection of threatened and endangered species in the Seattle region. Planning tools that could enhance habitat conservation were used infrequently. Collaboration across jurisdictions was widespread, but rarely focused on conservation. Departments with a conservation specialist on staff tended to be associated with higher levels of conservation actions. Jurisdictions in the Seattle region also reported higher levels of conservation action, largely driven by state and federal mandates. Increased funding was most frequently cited as a factor that would facilitate greater consideration of biodiversity in local planning. There are numerous opportunities for conservation biologists to play a role in improving conservation planning at local scales.

  18. Localized coherence of freak waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.

  19. Local scale effects of disease on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Behrens, Michael D; Sax, Dov F

    2009-06-01

    To date, ecologists and conservation biologists have focused much of their attention on the population and ecosystem effects of disease at regional scales and the role that diseases play in global species extinction. Far less research has been dedicated to identifying the effects that diseases can have on local scale species assemblages. We examined the role of infectious disease in structuring local biodiversity. Our intention was to illustrate how variable outcomes can occur by focusing on three case studies: the influence of chestnut blight on forest communities dominated by chestnut trees, the influence of red-spot disease on urchin barrens and kelp forests, and the influence of sylvatic plague on grassland communities inhabited by prairie dogs. Our findings reveal that at local scales infectious disease seems to play an important, though unpredictable, role in structuring species diversity. Through our case studies, we have shown that diseases can cause drastic population declines or local extirpations in keystone species, ecosystem engineers, and otherwise abundant species. These changes in local diversity may be very important, particularly when considered alongside potentially corresponding changes in community structure and function, and we believe that future efforts to understand the importance of disease to species diversity should have an increased focus on these local scales. PMID:19921487

  20. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Imber, Brandon S.; Raygor, Kunal P.; Honma, Susanne M.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Mantle, Mary; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The efficacy of epilepsy surgery depends critically upon successful localization of the epileptogenic zone. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) enables non-invasive detection of interictal spike activity in epilepsy, which can then be localized in three dimensions using magnetic source imaging (MSI) techniques. However, the clinical value of MEG in the pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation is not fully understood, as studies to date are limited by either a lack of long-term seizure outcomes or small sample size. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of focal epilepsy patients who received MEG for interictal spike mapping followed by surgical resection at our institution. Results We studied 132 surgical patients, with mean post-operative follow-up of 3.6 years (minimum 1 year). Dipole source modelling was successful in 103 (78%) patients, while no interictal spikes were seen in others. Among patients with successful dipole modelling, MEG findings were concordant with and specific to: i) the region of resection in 66% of patients, ii) invasive electrocorticography (ECoG) findings in 67% of individuals, and iii) the MRI abnormality in 74% of cases. MEG showed discordant lateralization in ~5% of cases. After surgery, 70% of all patients achieved seizure-freedom (Engel class I outcome). Whereas 85% of patients with concordant and specific MEG findings became seizure-free, this outcome was achieved by only 37% of individuals with MEG findings that were non-specific or discordant with the region of resection (χ2 = 26.4, p < 0.001). MEG reliability was comparable in patients with or without localized scalp EEG, and overall, localizing MEG findings predicted seizure freedom with an odds ratio of 5.11 (2.23–11.8, 95% CI). Significance MEG is a valuable tool for non-invasive interictal spike mapping in epilepsy surgery, including patients with non-localized findings on long-term EEG monitoring, and localization of the epileptogenic zone using MEG is associated

  1. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  2. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  3. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  4. Local network assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  5. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  6. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  7. Flat-Lens Focusing of Electron Beams in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Cao, Xiyuan; Guo, Ran; Zhang, Yanyan; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T.; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Junjie

    2016-09-01

    Coupling electron beams carrying information into electronic units is fundamental in microelectronics. This requires precision manipulation of electron beams through a coupler with a good focusing ability. In graphene, the focusing of wide electron beams has been successfully demonstrated by a circular p-n junction. However, it is not favorable for information coupling since the focal length is so small that the focal spot locates inside the circular gated region, rather than in the background region. Here, we demonstrate that an array of gate-defined quantum dots, which has gradually changing lattice spacing in the direction transverse to propagation, can focus electrons outside itself, providing a possibility to make a coupler in graphene. The focusing effect can be understood as due to the gradient change of effective refractive indices, which are defined by the local energy band in a periodic potential. The strong focusing can be achieved by suitably choosing the lattice gradient and the layer number in the incident direction, offering an effective solution to precision manipulation of electron beams with wide electron energy range and high angular tolerance.

  8. Flat-Lens Focusing of Electron Beams in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Cao, Xiyuan; Guo, Ran; Zhang, Yanyan; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Coupling electron beams carrying information into electronic units is fundamental in microelectronics. This requires precision manipulation of electron beams through a coupler with a good focusing ability. In graphene, the focusing of wide electron beams has been successfully demonstrated by a circular p-n junction. However, it is not favorable for information coupling since the focal length is so small that the focal spot locates inside the circular gated region, rather than in the background region. Here, we demonstrate that an array of gate-defined quantum dots, which has gradually changing lattice spacing in the direction transverse to propagation, can focus electrons outside itself, providing a possibility to make a coupler in graphene. The focusing effect can be understood as due to the gradient change of effective refractive indices, which are defined by the local energy band in a periodic potential. The strong focusing can be achieved by suitably choosing the lattice gradient and the layer number in the incident direction, offering an effective solution to precision manipulation of electron beams with wide electron energy range and high angular tolerance. PMID:27628099

  9. Flat-Lens Focusing of Electron Beams in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Cao, Xiyuan; Guo, Ran; Zhang, Yanyan; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Junjie

    2016-09-15

    Coupling electron beams carrying information into electronic units is fundamental in microelectronics. This requires precision manipulation of electron beams through a coupler with a good focusing ability. In graphene, the focusing of wide electron beams has been successfully demonstrated by a circular p-n junction. However, it is not favorable for information coupling since the focal length is so small that the focal spot locates inside the circular gated region, rather than in the background region. Here, we demonstrate that an array of gate-defined quantum dots, which has gradually changing lattice spacing in the direction transverse to propagation, can focus electrons outside itself, providing a possibility to make a coupler in graphene. The focusing effect can be understood as due to the gradient change of effective refractive indices, which are defined by the local energy band in a periodic potential. The strong focusing can be achieved by suitably choosing the lattice gradient and the layer number in the incident direction, offering an effective solution to precision manipulation of electron beams with wide electron energy range and high angular tolerance.

  10. Flat-Lens Focusing of Electron Beams in Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yang; Cao, Xiyuan; Guo, Ran; Zhang, Yanyan; Che, Zhiyuan; Yannick, Fouodji T.; Zhang, Weiping; Du, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Coupling electron beams carrying information into electronic units is fundamental in microelectronics. This requires precision manipulation of electron beams through a coupler with a good focusing ability. In graphene, the focusing of wide electron beams has been successfully demonstrated by a circular p-n junction. However, it is not favorable for information coupling since the focal length is so small that the focal spot locates inside the circular gated region, rather than in the background region. Here, we demonstrate that an array of gate-defined quantum dots, which has gradually changing lattice spacing in the direction transverse to propagation, can focus electrons outside itself, providing a possibility to make a coupler in graphene. The focusing effect can be understood as due to the gradient change of effective refractive indices, which are defined by the local energy band in a periodic potential. The strong focusing can be achieved by suitably choosing the lattice gradient and the layer number in the incident direction, offering an effective solution to precision manipulation of electron beams with wide electron energy range and high angular tolerance. PMID:27628099

  11. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  12. Making a semi-convex Focus area in a Focus+Glue+Context map, considering map visibility and transport access points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirako, Y.; Yamamoto, D.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously implemented the Focus+Glue+Context map system EMMA that provides local detailed data in Focus, global context data in Context, and connection data between both in the same view. Introducing the Glue area between Focus and Context makes it possible to provide uniform scaling for the two latter areas. This paper enhances EMMA through the implementation of a Focus creation function that considers transportation access points, such as stations and bus stops. The enhanced EMMA searches a route from the current location to the transportation access point, and allows users to identify the spatial relationship between the various locations in a small-scale Context, and view the route from the current location to the transportation access points in a large-scale Focus. However, if Focus is too large because of unnecessary areas used to identify the route, some parts of Context might be hidden by Focus. The proposed system solves this problem by implementing the following functions: (1) it searches stations that are adjacent to the current location and makes a semiconvex Focus that includes the current location and those stations in order for Focus to include really necessary areas. (2) It reduces Focus distortion by setting a fixed point as the center of the Focus area. (3) It smoothens the Focus shape in order to improve visibility in the Glue area. We developed a prototype of the proposed system that implements these functions.

  13. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for local tumor hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Lele, P P

    1989-05-01

    Scanned, intensity-modulated, focused ultrasound (SIMFU) presently is the modality of choice for localized, controlled heating of deep as well as superficial tumors noninvasively. With the present SIMFU system, it was possible to heat 88 per cent of deep tumors up to 12 cm in depth and 15 cm in diameter, to 43 degrees C in 3 to 4 minutes. The infiltrative tumor margins could be heated to the desired therapeutic temperature. The temperature outside the treatment field fell off sharply. Excellent objective responses were obtained without local or systemic toxicity. Multiinstitutional clinical trials of local hyperthermia by this promising technique are clearly warranted.

  14. Quantum localization in open chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Hur, G; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-09-01

    We study a quasibound state of a delta -kicked rotor with absorbing boundaries focusing on the nature of the dynamical localization in open quantum systems. The localization lengths xi of lossy quasibound states located near the absorbing boundaries decrease as they approach the boundary while the corresponding decay rates Gamma are dramatically enhanced. We find the relation xi approximately Gamma(-1/2) and explain it based upon the finite time diffusion, which can also be applied to a random unitary operator model. We conjecture that this idea is valid for the system exhibiting both the diffusion in classical dynamics and the exponential localization in quantum mechanics.

  15. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    PubMed

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  16. The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.

  17. Educating Local Audiences about Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, H. M.; Satterfield, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will focus on best practices for educating local audiences about climate science and the importance of providing the larger climate context during extreme weather events, when audiences are particularly interested in the climate connection. In their role as Station Scientists, local television meteorologists serve an important function in educating viewers about climate change and its' associated impacts. Through its' Climate Matters program, Climate Central works to support local television meteorologists in their outreach efforts. Launched in 2010 with support from the National Science Foundation, the program has grown into a network that includes more than 150 weathercasters from across the country. Climate Matters delivers information on climate at the regional and local level, providing ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses that put climate change into a local context.

  18. Bringing Flexibility & Focus to Education Law: Supporting State and Local Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers tips on how states may receive ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) flexibility. To receive flexibility through waivers of NCLB (No Child Left Behind) requirements, a state must develop a rigorous and comprehensive plan addressing the three critical areas that are designed to improve educational outcomes for all…

  19. Evaluation of local density enhancement of microcapsules in artificial blood vessel during exposure to focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Masuda, Kohji; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Yuto; Kato, Toshikazu; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We have proposed a physical DDS (Drug Delivery System) which makes use of microcapsules of μm size, which may contain a specified drug and also are easily affected by ultrasound exposure near their resonant frequency, to release various kinds of medications. These capsules are easily detected and actuated by ultrasound. However, because of the diffusion of capsules after injection into human body, it was difficult to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery. Thus we have considered a method for controlling the density of capsules in flow which uses acoustic radiation force, which moves the capsules to balance flow resistance. We have experimented with trapping microcapsules or microbubbles in flow of an artificial blood vessel. We have evaluated the effect of radiation force by measuring the trapped area of capsules or bubbles for various frequencies, sound pressures, and exposure times of sinusoidal ultrasound. The trapped area of capsules or bubbles increased with sound pressure and exposure time, and decreased with frequency. From those results, we have derived optimal conditions for trapping the capsules or bubbles.

  20. Into the Field: A Guide to Locally Focused Teaching. Nature Literacy Series, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orion Society, Great Barrington, MA.

    This book contains three essays on teaching outdoors about the natural world and engaging students in the natural and cultural history of their communities. An introduction, "To Learn from Wood and Stone" (Ann Zwinger), discusses the opportunities that arise when a teacher makes connections between the classroom world and the world outside.…

  1. Characterization of long-range functional connectivity in epileptic networks by neuronal spike-triggered local field potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopour, Beth A.; Staba, Richard J.; Stern, John M.; Fried, Itzhak; Ringach, Dario L.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Quantifying the relationship between microelectrode-recorded multi-unit activity (MUA) and local field potentials (LFPs) in distinct brain regions can provide detailed information on the extent of functional connectivity in spatially widespread networks. These methods are common in studies of cognition using non-human animal models, but are rare in humans. Here we applied a neuronal spike-triggered impulse response to electrophysiological recordings from the human epileptic brain for the first time, and we evaluate functional connectivity in relation to brain areas supporting the generation of seizures. Approach. Broadband interictal electrophysiological data were recorded from microwires adapted to clinical depth electrodes that were implanted bilaterally using stereotactic techniques in six presurgical patients with medically refractory epilepsy. MUA and LFPs were isolated in each microwire, and we calculated the impulse response between the MUA on one microwire and the LFPs on a second microwire for all possible MUA/LFP pairs. Results were compared to clinical seizure localization, including sites of seizure onset and interictal epileptiform discharges. Main results. We detected significant interictal long-range functional connections in each subject, in some cases across hemispheres. Results were consistent between two independent datasets, and the timing and location of significant impulse responses reflected anatomical connectivity. However, within individual subjects, the spatial distribution of impulse responses was unique. In two subjects with clear seizure localization and successful surgery, the epileptogenic zone was associated with significant impulse responses. Significance. The results suggest that the spike-triggered impulse response can provide valuable information about the neuronal networks that contribute to seizures using only interictal data. This technique will enable testing of specific hypotheses regarding functional connectivity

  2. [Identification of a new focus of schistosoma mansoni. (Municipality of Nova Lima, MG, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guerra, H L; Guimarães, C T; França, M A; Rocha, R S; Katz, N

    1991-01-01

    The detection of a new transmission focus of schistosomiasis in Nova Lima town, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is reported. The search of snail intermediate hosts in Banqueta do Bananal a small locality of Boa Vista neighbourhood detected 356 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata, with a infection rate of 8.4%. In hundred-sixty-two patients stool examinations (Kato-Katz method) were done, showing ninety-one patients with eggs of Schistosoma mansoni in their feces. The integrated action of local residents and the local administration resulted in the elimination of the focus.

  3. Local adaptation in the ventral photoreceptors of Limulus

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Local adaptation was demonstrated in the ventral photoreceptors of Lumulus using either flashes or continuous illumination. Spots of light locally desensitized the region of the photoreceptor on which they were focused. In dark-adapted photoreceptors where "quantum bumps" were clearly discernible, local adaptation of the quantum bumps was observed. Local adaptation could induce differences of threshold of 1 decade over distances of 50-80 mum. With continuous local illumination these gradients could be maintained from 2 s to 30 min. In addition, the decrease in time scale associated with light adaptation was also found to be localized to the region of illumination. PMID:1194890

  4. Enhanced thermal self-focusing of a Gaussian laser beam in a collisionless plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Devki Nandan; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-12-15

    Theory given by Wang-Zhou [Phys. Plasmas 18, 043101 (2011)] for the thermal self-focusing of a Gaussian laser beam in a collisionless plasma is revisited by including the effect of a localized upward plasma-density ramp. As the equilibrium electron density is an increasing function of the distance of propagation of the laser beam, the diffraction length decreases rapidly as the beam penetrates deeper into the plasma and the diffraction effect becomes reduced; thus, the laser becomes more focused. A significant enhancement in laser thermal self-focusing in a collisionless plasma is consequently observed if a localized plasma density ramp is introduced.

  5. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liakus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  6. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions. PMID:20935986

  7. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  8. Numerical simulation of spherical plasma focus diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Masugata, K.; Yatsui, K.

    1995-06-01

    A self-magnetically insulated, three-dimensionally-focused ion-beam diode, spherical plasma focus diode (SPFD), is studied by numerical simulation using a two-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell computer code. The calculated results of the diode impedance, the ion-current efficiency, and the focusing characteristics of the ion beam are presented. These results, except the data of the ion-beam current, are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  10. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  11. Low voltage operation of plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S K; Banerjee, P; Das, R; Deb, P; Prabahar, T; Das, B K; Adhikary, B; Shyam, A

    2010-08-01

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 muF capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar. PMID:20815602

  12. Low voltage operation of plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S. K.; Banerjee, P.; Das, R.; Deb, P.; Prabahar, T.; Das, B. K.; Adhikary, B.; Shyam, A.

    2010-08-15

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 {mu}F capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  13. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2003-05-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The NTX final focus system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final focus lattice consists of four pulsed quadrupole magnets. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. We will present experimental results from NTX on beam envelope and phase space distributions, and compare these results with particle simulations using the particle-in-cell code WARP.

  14. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    PubMed

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  15. Model Offices: Flexible Options, Local Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 17 articles that focus on model local offices of the employment security (ES) and training systems. The articles are arranged in three parts. Part I, on developing new initiatives, contains the following five articles: "A Public Employment Service for the 1990s" (Elizabeth Dole); "The Revitalization of the…

  16. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  17. Special Focus: Stimulating Manufacturing Excellence in SMEs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childe, Steve; Edmonson, D. R.; Lowe, A. J.; Ridgway, K.; Nelder, Geoff; Skandalakis, Alex; Hamblin, David; Willcock, John

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Childe); "Local Universities as a Resource for Local SMEs (Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)" (Edmondson); "University of Sheffield's Technical Audit Programme" (Lowe, Ridgway); "Benchmarking as the Gateway to Knowledge Transfer for SMEs" (Nelder, Skandalakis); and "Assessing the Likely Effectiveness of Intervention…

  18. Challenges in quantitative single molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shivanandan, A; Deschout, H; Scarselli, M; Radenovic, A

    2014-10-01

    Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), which can provide up to an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution over conventional fluorescence microscopy, has the potential to be a highly useful tool for quantitative biological experiments. It has already been used for this purpose in varied fields in biology, ranging from molecular biology to neuroscience. In this review article, we briefly review the applications of SMLM in quantitative biology, and also the challenges involved and some of the solutions that have been proposed. Due to its advantages in labeling specificity and the relatively low overcounting caused by photoblinking when photo-activable fluorescent proteins (PA-FPs) are used as labels, we focus specifically on Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), even though the ideas presented might be applicable to SMLM in general. Also, we focus on the following three quantitative measurements: single molecule counting, analysis of protein spatial distribution heterogeneity and co-localization analysis.

  19. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  20. Introduction to Focus Issue: Mesoscales in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendral, Juan A.; Criado, Regino; Leyva, Inmaculada; Buldú, Javier M.; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Although the functioning of real complex networks is greatly determined by modularity, the majority of articles have focused, until recently, on either their local scale structure or their macroscopical properties. However, neither of these descriptions can adequately describe the important features that complex networks exhibit due to their organization in modules. This Focus Issue precisely presents the state of the art on the study of complex networks at that intermediate level. The reader will find out why this mesoscale level has become an important topic of research through the latest advances carried out to improve our understanding of the dynamical behavior of modular networks. The contributions presented here have been chosen to cover, from different viewpoints, the many open questions in the field as different aspects of community definition and detection algorithms, moduli overlapping, dynamics on modular networks, interplay between scales, and applications to biological, social, and technological fields.

  1. Introduction to focus issue: mesoscales in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, Juan A; Criado, Regino; Leyva, Inmaculada; Buldú, Javier M; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Although the functioning of real complex networks is greatly determined by modularity, the majority of articles have focused, until recently, on either their local scale structure or their macroscopical properties. However, neither of these descriptions can adequately describe the important features that complex networks exhibit due to their organization in modules. This Focus Issue precisely presents the state of the art on the study of complex networks at that intermediate level. The reader will find out why this mesoscale level has become an important topic of research through the latest advances carried out to improve our understanding of the dynamical behavior of modular networks. The contributions presented here have been chosen to cover, from different viewpoints, the many open questions in the field as different aspects of community definition and detection algorithms, moduli overlapping, dynamics on modular networks, interplay between scales, and applications to biological, social, and technological fields. PMID:21456843

  2. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  3. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  4. FOCUS on excellence: making a difference through global initiatives.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Ericson, Kathleen; McCarthy, Marie; Jones, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence (COE) designation in the category of"student learning and professional development" has hallmarked Regis College as having nursing programs that create environments for students to excel academically, professionally, and personally. As a designated COE nursing program, our efforts have focused on creating and sustaining a curriculum that has a strong enculturation of diversity, with numerous local, regional, national, and international learning experiences. Examples of learning opportunities through global outreach health initiatives are included, demonstrating how the COE designation has provided recognition and led to further opportunities for faculty and students to become involved in health-related activities. PMID:23586201

  5. Experimental demonstration of realizability of optical focus wave modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reivelt, Kaido; Saari, Peeter

    2002-11-01

    The homogeneous scalar wave equation has a number of so-called localized wave (LW) solutions, instantaneous, Gaussian pulselike intensity distribution of which propagates without any spread or distortions in free space. Despite the undoubtedly intriguing properties and considerable effort that has been made to implement such wave fields, in the optical domain only their limiting case-the so-called Bessel-X pulses-has been experimentally launched so far. In this paper we report on experimental evidence of the optical realizability of the ``fundamental'' special case of the LW's-the focus wave modes.

  6. Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2012-09-01

    NREL has developed and maintains a variety of infrastructure analysis models for the U.S. Department of Energy. Business case analysis has recently been added to this tool set. This presentation focuses on cash flow analysis. Cash flows depend upon infrastructure costs, optimized spatially and temporally, and assumptions about financing and revenue. NREL has incorporated detailed metrics on financing and incentives into the models. Next steps in modeling include continuing to collect feedback on regional/local infrastructure development activities and 'roadmap' dynamics, and incorporating consumer preference assumptions on infrastructure to provide direct feedback between vehicles and station rollout.

  7. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  8. Inside out: Focusing as a Therapeutic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katje

    2006-01-01

    The author explores Focusing (E. Gendlin, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1967, 1968, 1981, 1989, 1996, 2004) as a psychotherapeutic modality and presents background that led to the development of Focusing, its rationale and theoretical orientation, and supporting research. The author also provides a detailed and experiential illustration of the…

  9. School-focused Inservice: Descriptions and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howey, Kenneth R., Ed.; And Others

    The characteristics and structures of school-focused inservice teacher education are explored by educators and researchers in 16 essays. An introductory article gives the rationale for more and better school-focused inservice education, particularly because of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142). School-focused…

  10. Accuracy of Information Processing under Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper reports the results of an experiment on the accuracy of information processing during attention focused arousal under two conditions: single estimation and double estimation. The attention of 187 college students was focused by a task requiring high level competition for a monetary prize ($10) under severely limited time conditions. The…

  11. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  12. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  13. How I Learned to Conduct Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel

    2011-01-01

    The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…

  14. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-04-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n{sub p} much greater than electron beam density, n{sub b}) or underdense (n{sub p} less than 2 n{sub b}). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated.

  15. On FOCUS: Photographs and Writings by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmeyer, Beatriz; McGrail, Loren

    Project FOCUS is aimed at enhancing literacy education for non-native speakers of English through the use of photography. It was offered as an elective course within a family literacy program for Hispanic adults. This collection of writings and photographs originated in the program. The collection begins with an overview of Project FOCUS, personal…

  16. Focus Groups with Linguistically Marginalized Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardi, Marco M.

    The focus group method has rapidly gained credibility among researchers in many fields, including public health researchers. The increased use of focus groups by public health researchers has underscored the demonstrable need for the capacity to apply this method of research among populations with limited abilities in or cultural resistance to…

  17. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  18. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  19. Using Focused Conversation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spee, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Focused conversation is a method of collecting observations, emotions, interpretations, and decisions from groups that have shared a significant experience. This article reports how the author used focused conversation to discuss the events of September 11 with students in three sections of a master's-level organizational change class in the week…

  20. Focus Group Report: Seminar in College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Glenna C.; And Others

    This paper presents the report of a University of Maryland focus group evaluating a seminar in teaching designed for undergraduate teaching fellows in engineering. The course's purpose was to provide the fellows the opportunity to apply teaching theory to practice. Focus groups were conducted in order to evaluate the course and the teaching…

  1. Scanning and focusing mechanisms of METEOSAT radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouan, J.

    1977-01-01

    Two mechanisms, both of screw-jack type are described. The scanning mechanism, an oil lubricated and sealed unit drives and accurately positions the telescope of the METEOSAT radiometer. The dry lubricated focusing mechanism is used to adjust the focus of this telescope. The METEOSAT program is nearly completed, and the first flight model will be launched at the end of the year.

  2. Focused force angioplasty Theory and application

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, Ronald J.; Ischinger, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    Focused force angioplasty is a technique in which the forces resulting from inflating an angioplasty balloon in a stenosis are concentrated and focused at one or more locations within the stenosis. While the technique has been shown to be useful in resolving resistant stenoses, its real value may be in minimizing the vascular trauma associated with balloon angioplasty and subsequently improving the outcome.

  3. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  4. Auto-focusing method for remote gaze tracking camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Chul Woo; Gwon, Su Yeong; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Heekyung; Cha, Jihun

    2012-06-01

    Gaze tracking determines what a user is looking at; the key challenge is to obtain well-focused eye images. This is not easy because the human eye is very small, whereas the required resolution of the image should be large enough for accurate detection of the pupil center. In addition, capturing a user's eye image by a remote gaze tracking system within a large working volume at a long Z distance requires a panning/tilting mechanism with a zoom lens, which makes it more difficult to acquire focused eye images. To solve this problem, a new auto-focusing method for remote gaze tracking is proposed. The proposed approach is novel in the following four ways: First, it is the first research on an auto-focusing method for a remote gaze tracking system. Second by using user-dependent calibration at initial stage, the weakness of the previous methods that use facial width in captured image to estimate Z distance between a user and camera, wherein each person has the individual variation of facial width, is solved. Third, the parameters of the modeled formula for estimating the Z distance are adaptively updated using the least squares regression method. Therefore, the focus becomes more accurate over time. Fourth, the relationship between the parameters and the face width is fitted locally according to the Z distance instead of by global fitting, which can enhance the accuracy of Z distance estimation. The results of an experiment with 10,000 images of 10 persons showed that the mean absolute error between the ground-truth Z distance measured by a Polhemus Patriot device and that estimated by the proposed method was 4.84 cm. A total of 95.61% of the images obtained by the proposed method were focused and could be used for gaze detection.

  5. Treatment Approaches for Presurgical Anxiety: A Health Care Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Nancy Jones; And Others

    To test the differential effectiveness of preoperative instruction (factual information, emotional expression, and trust relationship), mastery modeling, and coping modeling, 100 children, aged 7-12, were studied. Subjects from two hospitals were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one control group: alone (the control group, N=20);…

  6. Presurgical assessment and therapy of microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, C; Costa, S; Terzano, P; Martinelli, G N; Comerci, G; Guerra, B; Martellini, L

    1995-11-01

    Retrievable pathological specimens and clinical data on 70 patients with microinvasive carcinoma diagnosed on surgical specimens from cone biopsy or hysterectomy (Stage IA) were reviewed and compared to pertinent findings in the literature with the intent of evaluating diagnostic criteria and defining pathological features that may influence the outcome by therapy. Emphasis was given to the preoperative assessment emphasizing that both an accurate colposcopic evaluation and a detailed pathological analysis may reliably point to a conservative therapeutic approach. Increasing depth of stromal invasion was associated with lesion width as well as with endocervical extension, as measured on colposcopy, microcolpohisteroscopy, and histology. Lymph-vascular space involvement was significantly related to depth of invasion. Two patients of 28 with dissected nodes had node metastases as well as lymph-vascular space involvement. Both developed a pelvic recurrence. One had a > 1- to < or = 3-mm invasion depth, the other a > 3- to < or = 5-mm lesion invasion. While advocating a conservative procedure for Stage IA1, we suggest discrimination with regard to Stage IA2 because we believe that lymph-vascular involvement should be meticulously evaluated. In fact, > 1- to < or = 3-mm lesions without lymph-vascular space involvement can be conservatively treated, while for any other lesion falling within the Stage IA2 category a modified radical histerectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy should be recommended.

  7. Recommendations for the presurgical psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sogg, Stephanie; Lauretti, Jennifer; West-Smith, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial factors have significant potential to affect long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, including emotional adjustment, adherence to the recommended postoperative lifestyle regimen, weight loss outcomes, and co-morbidity improvement and or resolution. Thus, it is recommended that bariatric behavioral health clinicians with specialized knowledge and experience be involved in the evaluation and care of patients both before and after surgery. The evaluating clinician plays a number of important roles in the multidisciplinary treatment of the bariatric patient. Central among these is the role of identifying factors that may pose challenges to optimal surgical outcome and providing recommendations to the patient and bariatric team on how to address these issues. This document outlines recommendations for the psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery patients, appropriate qualifications of those conducting these evaluations, communication of evaluation results and suggested treatment plan, and the extension of behavioral healthcare of the bariatric patient to the entire span of the surgical and postsurgical process.

  8. [Presurgical and postsurgical orthotic management of the rheumatoid foot].

    PubMed

    Carl, H D; Swoboda, B

    2012-10-01

    Foot complaints remain frequent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) even in the era of biological anti-rheumatic drugs. Orthotic management of rheumatoid foot disorders is able to improve mobility and thus the quality of life in RA patients. This article highlights the preoperative and postoperative orthotic management of the rheumatoid arthritic foot.

  9. Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas in children: presurgical evaluation with imaging.

    PubMed

    Chateil, J-F; Brun, M; Vergnes, P; Andrieu de Lewis, P; Pérel, Y; Diard, F

    2002-02-01

    Cystic lymphangiomas are benign vascular tumors which are most often seen in young children. They are considered to be congenital malformations stemming from sequestration of lymphatic tissue. The authors report 15 cases of abdominal location and detail the findings of imaging in the etiologic and topographic diagnosis of these lesions. The initial incidents were essentially the discovery of a palpable abdominal mass, and more rarely, an acute gastrointestinal complication. There was also one case of prenatal diagnosis. Plain films provide only indirect signs related to the displacement of neighboring organs. Ultrasonography permits the etiologic diagnosis by showing an often voluminous, septated cyst. The intra- or retroperitoneal location of the lesion is sometimes difficult to determine by sonography, in which case CT scanning is usually adequate. For abdominal locations, percutaneous sclerosis is not available, and surgical removal is the only treatment for this disorder. The topography of the lesion and the involvement of retroperitoneal structures is important to determine.

  10. Automated focusing in bright-field microscopy for tuberculosis detection

    PubMed Central

    OSIBOTE, O.A.; DENDERE, R.; KRISHNAN, S.; DOUGLAS, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Automated microscopy to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slides would enable laboratories in countries with a high tuberculosis burden to cope efficiently with large numbers of smears. Focusing is a core component of automated microscopy, and successful autofocusing depends on selection of an appropriate focus algorithm for a specific task. We examined autofocusing algorithms for bright-field microscopy of Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smears. Six focus measures, defined in the spatial domain, were examined with respect to accuracy, execution time, range, full width at half maximum of the peak and the presence of local maxima. Curve fitting around an estimate of the focal plane was found to produce good results and is therefore an acceptable strategy to reduce the number of images captured for focusing and the processing time. Vollath's F4 measure performed best for full z-stacks, with a mean difference of 0.27 μm between manually and automatically determined focal positions, whereas it is jointly ranked best with the Brenner gradient for curve fitting. PMID:20946382

  11. 3D flow focusing for microfluidic flow cytometry with ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Daghighi, Yasaman; van de Vondervoort, Mia; Kolios, Michael C.; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a flow cytometer that detects unique acoustic signature waves generated from single cells due to interactions between the cells and ultrasound waves. The generated acoustic waves depend on the size and biomechanical properties of the cells and are sufficient for identifying cells in the medium. A microfluidic system capable of focusing cells through a 10 x 10 μm ultrasound beam cross section was developed to facilitate acoustic measurements of single cells. The cells are streamlined in a hydro-dynamically 3D focused flow in a 300 x 300 μm channel made using PDMS. 3D focusing is realized by lateral sheath flows and an inlet needle (inner diameter 100 μm). The accuracy of the 3D flow focusing is measured using a dye and detecting its localization using confocal microscopy. Each flowing cell would be probed by an ultrasound pulse, which has a center frequency of 375 MHz and bandwidth of 250 MHz. The same probe would also be used for recording the scattered waves from the cells, which would be processed to distinguish the physical and biomechanical characteristics of the cells, eventually identifying them. This technique has potential applications in detecting circulating tumor cells, blood cells and blood-related diseases.

  12. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle focusing and separation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for a variety of manipulations of diamagnetic (or non-magnetic) micro-particles/cells in microfluidics, including sorting, focusing, and enriching. By utilizing size dependent magnetophoresis velocity, most of the existing techniques employ single phase ferrofluids to push the particles towards the channel walls. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for focusing and separating diamagnetic micro-particles by using the laminar fluid interface of two co-flowing fluids-a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid. Next to the microfluidic channel, microscale magnets are fabricated to generate strong localized magnetic field gradients and forces. Due to the magnetic force, diamagnetic particles suspended in the ferrofluid phase migrate across the ferrofluid stream at the size-dependent velocities. Because of the low Reynolds number and high Péclet number associated with the flow, the fluid interface is sharp and stable. When the micro-particles migrate to the interface, they are accumulated near the interface, resulting in effective focusing and separation of particles. We investigated several factors that affect the focusing and separation efficiency, including susceptibility of the ferrofluid, distance between the microfluidic channel and microscale magnet, and width of the microfluidic channel. This concept can be extended to multiple fluid interfaces. For example, a complete separation of micro-particles was demonstrated by using a three-stream multiphase flow configuration. PMID:27190567

  13. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against) are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed). These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance, and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces. PMID:21833266

  14. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics FOCUS ON MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.

    2009-07-01

    being introduced for driving flows and manipulating suspended particles (e.g. DNA). In addition, the subject of mixing and the study of transport processes coupling diffusion and convection is a necessary component of many studies aimed at lab-on-a-chip environments. At the other extreme from mixing there is interest in the precise placement of particles in microfluidic flows. Although the majority of microfluidic studies focus on the consequences of low Reynolds number motions, the flows can frequently have large enough particle-scale Reynolds numbers that inertial effects can appear. Also, chemical gradients, via osmotic effects, can be significant, and, where surface effects are significant, particle deposition can occur. Multiphase flows constitute another major area of microfluidic research. For example, there has been great interest in using drops as individual containers since both the chemical composition inside and outside the drop can be controlled. Also, the interface between the two phases provides both a natural chemical barrier (surfactants are generally added to reduce the probability of coalescence between drops) as well as potentially being the site for reactions or localized organization of particles suspended in solution. Thus, there is interest in both the controlled breakup of liquid threads, the dynamics of such a thread, which can fold or buckle, and application of these processes to fabricating new materials. Not surprisingly the themes mentioned in this short summary are just a small window into the myriad of ideas being investigated in the research world of small-scale flows that is the playground of micro- and nanofluidics. We are grateful to all of the contributors for their efforts and to the referees, whose feedback has added value to every contribution. We hope you, as readers, will find benefit in the many ideas discussed in this Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics, which represents a sampling of current activity, including experiment

  16. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  17. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  18. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  19. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  20. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  1. Local anesthesia: a review.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Sykes, P; Kubota, Y; Matsuura, H; Lipp, M

    1992-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely administered drugs in dentistry. Significant advances have been made in past decades that have greatly increased both the safety and the efficacy of these important drugs. This paper reviews the history of local anesthesia, pharmacokinetics and clinical implications, techniques, complications, and future directions in the quest for more effective pain control in dentistry.

  2. Local health traditions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, D

    1988-03-01

    A very systematic study made in Karjat, Maharasht (a tribal area in India) has found that in comparison with the official health care and primary health centers, the traditional health practices are far more comprehensive. However, although the local traditions are comprehensive in their 'scope', they nevertheless reveal several weaknesses when subjected to critical evaluation by the science of Ayurveda. For example, whereas some remedies are found to be sound, there are others that are incomplete, and some appear to be totally distorted. Similarly, the diagnostic abilities of local practitioners, while sound in some cases, are in several others found to be inadequate. As to the use of local herbs, whereas the local tradition has an amazing knowledge of local flora--the knowledge about properties of plants is in many cases incomplete. There are several reasons that may explain how and why these weaknesses have set in. 1st, the local traditions are 'oral' and in the natural course of things, oral traditions the world over have been found to decay over time. A 2nd, external, reason for the current decay of local traditions is the derision, neglect, and oppression they have suffered due to the intolerance of western scientific tradition. A 3rd reason for weaknesses in the local health stream is the breakdown of active links, during the last few centuries, with the mainstream science of Ayurveda.

  3. Local Power: Tribe & Township.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Padi; Moloi, Dudley

    1995-01-01

    Examines the service infrastructure of a rural township in South Africa and the struggle to acquire services like water and electricity. Discusses the interaction of a system of transitional local councils and tribal authorities in the face of local government elections. (LZ)

  4. Focused Ion beam source method and Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    1998-08-17

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  5. MRI-guided focused ultrasound treatments.

    PubMed

    Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-02-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) allows noninvasive focal delivery of energy deep into soft tissues. The focused energy can be used to modify and eliminate tissue for therapeutic purposes while the energy delivery is targeted and monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI compatible methods to deliver these exposures have undergone rapid development over the past 10 years such that clinical treatments are now routinely performed. This paper will review the current technical and clinical status of MRI-guided focused ultrasound therapy and discuss future research and development opportunities.

  6. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  7. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  8. Local shear stress and its correlation with local volume fraction in concentrated non-Brownian suspensions: lattice Boltzmann simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ki; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2014-12-01

    The local shear stress of non-Brownian suspensions was investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the smoothed profile method. Previous studies have only focused on the bulk rheology of complex fluids because the local rheology of complex fluids was not accessible due to technical limitations. In this study, the local shear stress of two-dimensional solid particle suspensions in Couette flow was investigated with the method of planes to correlate non-Newtonian fluid behavior with the structural evolution of concentrated particle suspensions. Shear thickening was successfully captured for highly concentrated suspensions at high particle Reynolds number, and both the local rheology and local structure of the suspensions were analyzed. It was also found that the linear correlation between the local particle stress and local particle volume fraction was dramatically reduced during shear thickening. These results clearly show how the change in local structure of suspensions influences the local and bulk rheology of the suspensions. PMID:25615103

  9. Extraordinary infections: a focus on bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, J; Downs, K; Dotson, D

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of biological or chemical terrorist attacks presents a very real threat. Current preparedness efforts are ongoing at federal, state, and local levels. A National Pharmaceutical Stockpile containing antibiotics, antidotes, and other pharmaceutical supplies has been established and continues to be developed. To provide enhanced local response capabilities, Metropolitan Medical Response Systems are being formed. Pharmacists are needed by their communities to become involved with preparedness efforts. PMID:11029861

  10. Near-field coupling of metal nanoparticles under tightly focused illumination.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Parramon, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    The influence of strongly focused radiation on the electromagnetic interaction of metal particles is studied. The near-field distribution of silver dimers is calculated by combining a multiple scattering approach and the multipolar expansion of focused beams based on the Richards-Wolf description of diffracting systems. The results show that tight focusing can induce larger maximum field enhancement and stronger localization of the near field than can plane wave illumination. Additional plasmonic resonances can be obtained due to the presence of different polarization contributions at focus.

  11. Near-field coupling of metal nanoparticles under tightly focused illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho-Parramon, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    The influence of strongly focused radiation on the electromagnetic interaction of metal particles is studied. The near-field distribution of silver dimers is calculated by combining a multiple scattering approach and the multipolar expansion of focused beams based on the Richards--Wolf description of diffracting systems. The results show that tight focusing can induce larger maximum field enhancement and stronger localization of the near field than can plane wave illumination. Additional plasmonic resonances can be obtained due to the presence of different polarization contributions at focus.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    tractable to support a comprehensive analysis of functional performance at the systems level. Analogously, experimental work increasingly probes the system dynamics simultaneously at multiple levels from cell to whole organ. Here an invaluable contribution of physics to the experimental characterization of large scale activity in cardiac and neuronal tissues is the currently emerging high level of quantitative precision and control. Long-term high precision recording of large scale activity patterns of neural and cardiac tissues increasingly supports the formulation of quantitative phenomenological theories of complex dynamical states as well the realization of algorithms for manipulating and controlling them. Both quantitative phenomenology and control are not only essential for bridging theory and experiment in complex systems; they are also indispensable for turning scientific insight into diagnostic progress and improved treatment for the affected heart and mind. The present Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects well the richness and excitement of this currently rapidly evolving field. It combines theoretical and experimental approaches and covers analyses ranging from the organ level over investigations of model systems to the biophysics of individual cells. The articles below represent the first contributions to this collection and further additions will appear in the near future. Focus on Heart and Mind Contents 'Heart' contributions Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues Sung-Jae Woo, Jin Hee Hong, Tae Yun Kim, Byung Wook Bae and Kyoung J Lee Epicardial wavefronts arise from widely distributed transient sources during ventricular fibrillation in the isolated swine heart J M Rogers, G P Walcott, J D Gladden, S B Melnick, R E Ideker and M W Kay Efficient control of spiral wave location in an excitable medium with localized heterogeneities J Schlesner, V S Zykov, H Brandtst

  13. A Week-Long Focus on Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stuart; Ross, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Presents a way to dispel common misconceptions about the Third World by organizing a schoolwide event that focuses on the successes of people in developing nations, and the lessons students can learn from their experiences and achievements. (CCM)

  14. A focus on shape coexistence in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. L.; Heyde, K.

    2016-02-01

    The present collection of articles focuses on new directions and developments under the title of shape coexistence in nuclei, following our 2011 Reviews of Modern Physics article (K Heyde and J L Wood).

  15. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-04

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  16. Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-05-20

    Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.

  17. Hydrodynamic focusing of a particle flux

    SciTech Connect

    Makhviladze, G.M.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-12-01

    Based on numerical integration of the equations of mechanics of multiphase media, an effect of focusing of a particle flux generated by a source located on the upper wall of a closed vessel has been revealed and investigated.

  18. Regulatory focus in predictions about others.

    PubMed

    Woltin, Karl-Andrew; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Based on social projection research, four studies investigated whether people rely on their own regulatory focus when making predictions about others. Chronic (Study 1) and induced (Study 2) regulatory focus shaped estimations of others' strategic promotion or prevention inclinations and choices between enriched (fitting promotion) and impoverished options (fitting prevention). Providing indirect process evidence via boundary conditions, participants only relied on their induced regulatory focus in predictions of others' inclinations to seek romantic alternatives to the extent that this did not run counter to stereotypic gender beliefs (Study 3). In addition, participants only relied on their induced regulatory focus in preference predictions concerning promotion and prevention products when they lacked idiosyncratic target knowledge (Study 4). These effects were not mediated by mood, judgment-certainty, perceived task-enjoyment, or task-difficulty. Implications of these findings for social projection research as well as possible interpersonal consequences are delineated.

  19. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  20. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.