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Sample records for pretreatment prevents disruption

  1. Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye

    SciTech Connect

    Bynke, G.

    1983-06-01

    Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

  2. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  3. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond. PMID:26442242

  4. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond.

  5. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Affan T.; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation – used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets – is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet – an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond. PMID:26442242

  6. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    DOEpatents

    Neavel, Richard C.; Brunson, Roy J.; Chaback, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  7. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens.

  8. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  9. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupt conditioned avoidance responding in phencyclidine-pretreated or amphetamine-pretreated rats by selectively weakening motivational salience of conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; He, Wei; Mead, Alexa

    2009-02-01

    The rat conditioned avoidance response model is a well-established preclinical behavioral model predictive of antipsychotic efficacy. All clinically approved antipsychotic drugs disrupt conditioned avoidance responding - a feature that distinguishes them from other psychotherapeutics. We previously showed that the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol disrupts avoidance responding by progressively attenuating the motivational salience of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in normal rats. In this study, using two pharmacological rat models of schizophrenia [e.g. phencyclidine (PCP) or amphetamine sensitization], we examined whether atypicals such as olanzapine or risperidone disrupt avoidance responding through the same behavioral mechanism. Rats were first pretreated with PCP, amphetamine, or saline under one of two different injection schedules for either 1 or 3 weeks. They were then trained to acquire avoidance responding to two types of CS (CS1 and CS2) that differed in their ability to predict the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. Finally, rats were tested repeatedly under olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or risperidone (0.33 mg/kg, subcutaneously) daily for 5 or 7 consecutive days. We found that repeated olanzapine or risperidone treatment produced a progressive across-session decline in avoidance responding to both CS1 and CS2. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupted the CS2 (a less salient CS) avoidance to a greater extent than the CS1 avoidance. Pretreatment with PCP and amphetamine did not affect the disruptive effect of olanzapine or risperidone on avoidance responding. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the atypical drugs olanzapine and risperidone, like the typical drug haloperidol, also disrupt avoidance responding primarily by attenuating the motivational salience of the CS.

  10. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  11. Removal performance of nitrogen and endocrine-disrupting pesticides simultaneously in the enhanced biofilm system for polluted source water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-10-01

    The removal performances of nitrogen and trace levels of endocrine-disrupting pesticides (cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos) were studied in the enhanced biofilm pretreatment system at various substrates concentrations and dissolve oxygen (DO) niches. No significant change of EDPs removal occurred with the increased feed of ammonia nitrogen in aerobic batch tests or nitrate in anaerobic batch reactors, but significantly enhanced via reed addition both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Simultaneously enhanced denitrification and EDPs removal were achieved in the anoxic niche with reed addition. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that new bands appeared, and some bands became more intense with the reed addition. Sequences analysis showed that the dominant species belonged to Methylophilaceae, Hyphomicrobium, Bacillus and Thauera, which were related to the nitrogen or EDPs removals. In addition, the growth of functional heterotrophic microbes may be promoted via reed addition. PMID:25164348

  12. Examining Dosage Effects on Prevention Outcomes: Results from a Multi-Modal Longitudinal Preventive Intervention for Young Disruptive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlebois, Pierre; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Normandeau, Sylvie; Boudreau, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the predictive effect of disruptive boys' attendance to a prevention program (i.e., dosage) on post-intervention academic achievement and behavior and (b) the potential moderating effects of child and family characteristics in this context. The 3-year intervention program included reading, self-regulation, and social…

  13. Chemical and biological assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a full scale dairy manure anaerobic digester with thermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Aga, Diana S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are important sources of estrogens and their conjugates, which are introduced into the environment through manure land application. In this study, concentrations of estrogens were measured in an anaerobic co-digestion system with thermal pasteurization pretreatment. Free estrogens (estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (E2α), 17β-estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3)) were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and conjugated estrogens (sulfate- and glucuronide-conjugates) were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Additionally, yeast estrogen screen assay was used to determine the estrogenic potential of the manure. The total hormone concentrations (mainly E1, E2α, E2β, and sulfated estrogens) were observed at concentrations up to a total of 7100ng/L in the liquid fraction, while free estrogen levels were 630ng/kg in the solid fraction of the untreated manure. The total hormone concentration did not decrease significantly during digestion, however, the relative composition of the estrogens changed from E2α (65%) being the predominant species before digestion to mostly E1 (72%) after digestion. This conversion process has important implications because E1 is more estrogenic than E2α. Total E2 equivalents associated with E1, E2α and E2β concentrations as determined by GC/MS indicate that E1 is the most important contributor to the endocrine-disruption activity of the treated manure.

  14. Chemical and biological assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a full scale dairy manure anaerobic digester with thermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Aga, Diana S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are important sources of estrogens and their conjugates, which are introduced into the environment through manure land application. In this study, concentrations of estrogens were measured in an anaerobic co-digestion system with thermal pasteurization pretreatment. Free estrogens (estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (E2α), 17β-estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3)) were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and conjugated estrogens (sulfate- and glucuronide-conjugates) were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Additionally, yeast estrogen screen assay was used to determine the estrogenic potential of the manure. The total hormone concentrations (mainly E1, E2α, E2β, and sulfated estrogens) were observed at concentrations up to a total of 7100ng/L in the liquid fraction, while free estrogen levels were 630ng/kg in the solid fraction of the untreated manure. The total hormone concentration did not decrease significantly during digestion, however, the relative composition of the estrogens changed from E2α (65%) being the predominant species before digestion to mostly E1 (72%) after digestion. This conversion process has important implications because E1 is more estrogenic than E2α. Total E2 equivalents associated with E1, E2α and E2β concentrations as determined by GC/MS indicate that E1 is the most important contributor to the endocrine-disruption activity of the treated manure. PMID:26849346

  15. Pretreatment with memantine prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced by intrahippocampal okadaic acid administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Torrez, Vitor Rocco; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral okadaic acid (OA) administration induces Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like phenotype in rats. Alterations in glutamate levels associated with hyperactivation of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) signaling pathway downstream Tau phosphorylation may participate in the genesis of this pathological phenotype. Here, we examined the efficacy of memantine (MN) pretreatment on reducing OA-induced AD-like phenotypes in rats. Wistar rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of MN for 3 days and then given an intrahippocampal infusion of OA. Animals were divided into four groups: control (CO), MN, OA and MN/OA. Spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory performance were assessed by open field and Morris water maze respectively. Additionally, we measured glutamate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the immunocontent of Cdk5, p35, p25 and phosphorylated Tau (pTauSer199/202) in the hippocampus. Spontaneous locomotion did not differ between groups. The OA group showed a significant decrease in spatial memory performance compared to all groups. The OA infusion also increased CSF glutamate levels and the immunocontents of Cdk5, p25 and pTauSer199/202 in the hippocampus. Conversely, pretreatment with MN prevented OA-induced spatial memory deficits and the increment of CSF glutamate level; which paralleled with normal immunocontents of Cdk5, p25 and pTau- Ser199/202 proteins. There were positive correlations between spatial memory performance and the neurochemical parameters. In summary, pretreatment with MN prevents spatial memory deficits induced by intrahippocampal OA administration in rats. The prevention of increase CSF glutamate levels, along with the reduced hippocampal phosphorylation of TauSer199/202 by Cdk5/p25 signaling pathway, are the mechanisms proposed to participate in the prophylactic effects of MN in this AD-like model.

  16. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process. PMID:24713111

  17. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Wei

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  18. Disruption of calpain reduces lipotoxicity-induced cardiac injury by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengcun; Zhang, Lulu; Ni, Rui; Cao, Ting; Zheng, Dong; Xiong, Sidong; Greer, Peter A.; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and obesity are prevalent in westernized countries. In both conditions, excessive fatty acid uptake by cardiomyocytes induces cardiac lipotoxicity, an important mechanism contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study investigated the effect of calpain disruption on cardiac lipotoxicity. Cardiac-specific capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates (male, age of 4 weeks) were fed a high fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 20 weeks. HFD increased body weight, altered blood lipid profiles and impaired glucose tolerance comparably in both capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Calpain activity, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas, collagen deposition and triglyceride were significantly increased in HFD-fed mouse hearts, and these were accompanied by myocardial dysfunction and up-regulation of hypertrophic and fibrotic collagen genes as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. These effects of HFD were attenuated by disruption of calpain in capns1 knockout mice. Mechanistically, deletion of capns1 in HFD-fed mouse hearts and disruption of calpain with calpain inhibitor-III, silencing of capn1, or deletion of capns1 in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes prevented endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, cleavage of caspase-12 and junctophilin-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress diminished palmitate-induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cardiomyocytes. In summary, disruption of calpain prevents lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and cardiac injury in mice fed a HFD. The role of calpain is mediated, at least partially, through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, calpain/endoplasmic reticulum stress may represent a new mechanism and potential therapeutic targets for cardiac lipotoxicity. PMID:27523632

  19. Pathways Explaining the Reduction of Adult Criminal Behaviour by a Randomized Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify the pathways through which a preventive intervention targeting young low-SES disruptive boys could result in lower crime involvement during adulthood. Method: The preventive intervention was implemented when the children were between 7 and 9 years and included three components (i.e. social skills, parental…

  20. UVB pretreatment of rat bone marrow allografts. Prevention of GVHD and induction of allochimerism and donor-specific unresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.A.; Pepino, P.; Wasfie, T.; Stegall, M.D.; Marboe, C.; Hardy, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation has been used to pretreat blood and islets to prevent subsequent graft rejection. In this study the optimal dose of UVB irradiation of bone marrow was determined in syngeneic recipients and was subsequently applied to in-vitro treatment of bone marrow allografts. UVB pretreatment of donor bone marrow inoculum led to complete prevention of GVHD in allogeneic rat recipients without major marrow or other toxicity. Long-standing recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM became stable adult chimeras. The recipients of allogeneic BM were populated by donor-type peripheral blood lymphocytes and did not reject host or donor-type heart grafts. The BM allograft recipients were immunocompetent as measured by their ability to normally reject third-party cardiac allografts. We suggest that the prevention of GVHD and induction of stable chimerism in adult recipients of allogeneic UVB-BM may be mediated by suppressor mechanisms.

  1. Disruption of running activity rhythm following restricted feeding in female mice: Preventive effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kazumi; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Biological rhythms are critical in the etiology of mood disorders; therefore, effective mood disorder treatments should address rhythm disturbances. Among the variables synchronized with the light-dark cycle, spontaneous activity in rodents is useful for investigating circadian rhythms. However, previous studies have focused only on the increase of wheel-running activity under restricted feeding conditions, while little information is available on circadian rhythm of running activity. In this study, chronometrical analysis was used to assess whether circadian rhythms during wheel-running are altered by restricted feeding and affected by antidepressant drugs. Wheel revolutions were automatically recorded and analyzed using cosinor-rhythmometry in 8-week old ICR albino mice. When feeding was restricted to 1 h per day (21:00-22:00), wheel-running rhythms were reliably disrupted. Female mice exhibited marked alterations in the pattern and extent of wheel-running beginning on day 1. Subchronic treatment with imipramine or paroxetine, as well as tandospirone and (-)-DOI, prevented wheel-running rhythm disruption. Thus, altering the circadian activity rhythms of female mice on a 1-h feeding schedule may be useful for investigating disturbances in biological rhythms.

  2. Pre-treatment with LCZ696, an orally active angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, prevents ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Yu; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Kukida, Masayoshi; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Higaki, Akinori; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to prevent ischemic brain damage after stroke. Natriuretic peptides, which are increased by a neprilysin inhibitor, are also reported to protect against brain damage. Therefore, we investigated the possible protective effect of valsartan (VAL) compared with LCZ696 (VAL+ neprilysin inhibitor; 1:1) after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with VAL (3mg/kg per day) or LCZ696 (6mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks before MCA occlusion. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by telemetry. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ischemic area was evaluated by triphenytetrasodium chloride staining, and oxidative stress was determined by dihydroethidium staining. Blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different before and after treatment. Pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL reduced the ischemic area, and this effect of LCZ696 was more marked than that of VAL pre-treatment. The decrease in CBF in the peripheral region of the ischemic area was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL, without any significant effect on CBF in the core region. VAL or LCZ696 pre-treatment significantly decreased the increase of superoxide anion production in the cortex on the ischemic side. However, no significant difference in CBF and superoxide anion production was observed between VAL and LCZ696 pre-treatment. The preventive effect of LCZ696 on ischemic brain damage after stroke was more marked than that of VAL. LCZ696 could be used as a new approach to prevent brain damage after stroke. (246 words). PMID:26057694

  3. Comparative Study of Atropine Combined with Sodium Nitroprusside Pretreatment to Prevent Trigemino Cardiac Reflex after Trigeminal Ganglion Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhan-Ying; Cai, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Rong-Wei; Pang, Qing-Gui; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    the same group were observed between T1 and T2, to the group A, B and D, means of HR (p>0.05 vs. T1) indicated significant differences, however, there was no significant difference in group C (p>0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of post-compression tachycardia was observed in each group. Conclusion By comparison, it seemed that 0.004mg/kg atropine pretreatment before PCTG was more reasonable for preventing significant haemodynamic changes. PMID:27134974

  4. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  5. Estrogens prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian disruption has become a significant factor contributing to the epidemics of obesity and insulin resistance. However, interventions to treat metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions are limited. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, produces important antiobesity and antidiabetic ef...

  6. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  7. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  8. Prevention of skin tumorigenesis and impairment of epidermal cell proliferation by targeted aquaporin-3 gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Verkman, A S

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein expressed strongly at the plasma membranes of basal epidermal cells in skin. We found that human skin squamous cell carcinoma strongly overexpresses AQP3. A novel role for AQP3 in skin tumorigenesis was discovered using mice with targeted AQP3 gene disruption. We found that AQP3-null mice were remarkably resistant to the development of skin tumors following exposure to a tumor initiator and phorbol ester promoter. Though tumor initiator challenge produced comparable apoptotic responses in wild-type and AQP3-null mice, promoter-induced cell proliferation was greatly impaired in the AQP3-null epidermis. Reductions of epidermal cell glycerol, its metabolite glycerol-3-phosphate, and ATP were found in AQP3 deficiency without impairment of mitochondrial function. Glycerol supplementation corrected the reduced proliferation and ATP content in AQP3 deficiency, with cellular glycerol, ATP, and proliferative ability being closely correlated. Our data suggest involvement of AQP3-facilitated glycerol transport in epidermal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by a novel mechanism implicating cellular glycerol as a key determinant of cellular ATP energy. AQP3 may thus be an important determinant in skin tumorigenesis and hence a novel target for tumor prevention and therapy. PMID:17967887

  9. NFkB disrupts tissue polarity in 3D by preventing integration of microenvironmental signals.

    PubMed

    Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Xiong, Gaofeng; Furuta, Saori; Han, Ju; Kuhn, Irene; Akavia, Uri-David; Pe'er, Dana; Bissell, Mina J; Xu, Ren

    2013-11-01

    The microenvironment of cells controls their phenotype, and thereby the architecture of the emerging multicellular structure or tissue. We have reported more than a dozen microenvironmental factors whose signaling must be integrated in order to effect an organized, functional tissue morphology. However, the factors that prevent integration of signaling pathways that merge form and function are still largely unknown. We have identified nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) as a transcriptional regulator that disrupts important microenvironmental cues necessary for tissue organization. We compared the gene expression of organized and disorganized epithelial cells of the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series: the non-malignant S1 cells that form polarized spheres ('acini'), the malignant T4-2 cells that form large tumor-like clusters, and the 'phenotypically reverted' T4-2 cells that polarize as a result of correction of the microenvironmental signaling. We identified 180 genes that display an increased expression in disorganized compared to polarized structures. Network, GSEA and transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that NFkB is a common activator for the 180 genes. NFkB was found to be activated in disorganized breast cancer cells, and inhibition of microenvironmental signaling via EGFR, beta1 integrin, MMPs, or their downstream signals suppressed its activation. The postulated role of NFkB was experimentally verified: Blocking the NFkB pathway with a specific chemical inhibitor or shRNA induced polarization and inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in 3D cultures. These results may explain why NFkB holds promise as a target for therapeutic intervention: Its inhibition can reverse the oncogenic signaling involved in breast cancer progression and integrate the essential microenvironmental control of tissue architecture.

  10. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  11. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  12. Combining School and Family Interventions for the Prevention and Early Intervention of Disruptive Behavior Problems in Children: A Public Health Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Splett, Joni D.; Robeson, Elise N.; Offutt, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention or reduction of early aggressive and disruptive behavior has important educational and mental health implications. Disruptive behavior problems contribute to loss of instruction time in the classroom, frustration for children and families, and considerable societal burden associated with antisocial acts, including delinquency and…

  13. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…

  14. Lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice are prevented by chronic pre-treatment of esculetin.

    PubMed

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Keshavlal, Gohil Pratik; Bezbaruah, Babul B; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Munde, Nitin; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-01-12

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Esculetin (ESC), a coumarin derived potent antioxidant, also possessing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity. This study investigated the effect of ESC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice. ESC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 14 days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 15th day. Behavioural paradigms such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were employed to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice post-LPS injection. Hippocampal cytokines, MDA and GSH level, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured. ESC pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviour by modulating EPM and OFT parameters. Moreover, LPS-induced increase in immobility time in FST and TST were also prevented significantly (P<0.05) by ESC (50mg/kg). ESC pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and oxidative stress as well as plasma CORT level. In conclusion, the results suggest that ESC prevented LPS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour which may be governed by inhibition of cytokine production, oxidative stress and plasma CORT level. The results support the potential usefulness of ESC in the treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.

  15. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  16. Fluoxetine prevents the disruptive effects of fenfluramine on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-second schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Richards, J B; Sabol, K E; Seiden, L S

    1993-12-01

    This study compared the effects of fenfluramine and fluoxetine on the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement. Fluoxetine, a clinically effective antidepressant, increases extracellular serotonin (5-HT) by blocking the uptake of 5-HT after release. Fenfluramine increases extracellular 5-HT through transporter-mediated release (although it also blocks 5-HT uptake). The following characteristics were identified. First, fenfluramine and fluoxetine had two different effects on the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s schedule. Fluoxetine had an antidepressant-like effect by increasing reinforcement rate without disrupting the interresponse time distribution. Fenfluramine's effect on the differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 72-s schedule was not antidepressant-like: it did not increase the reinforcement rate, whereas it did disrupt the interresponse time distribution. Second, when fluoxetine and fenfluramine were given in combination, fluoxetine prevented the disruptive effects of fenfluramine. This result is consistent with fluoxetine's ability to block fenfluramine-induced 5-HT release, and supports the argument that the uptake transporter mediates fenfluramine's effects on both 5-HT release and behavior. Putative behavioral mechanisms (waiting capacity and temporal discrimination) which may mediate the acute effects of fluoxetine are discussed.

  17. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  18. MAPK interacts with occludin and mediates EGF-induced prevention of tight junction disruption by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Seth, Ankur; Elias, Bertha; Naren, Anjaparavanda P; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2006-01-01

    The MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway is a major intracellular signalling pathway involved in EGF (epithelial growth factor) receptor-mediated cell growth and differentiation. A novel function of MAPK activity in the mechanism of EGF-mediated protection of TJs (tight junctions) from H2O2 was examined in Caco-2 cell monolayers. EGF-mediated prevention of H2O2-induced increase in paracellular permeability was associated with the prevention of H2O2-induced Tyr-phosphorylation, Thr-dephosphorylation and cellular redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 (zonula occludin-1). EGF also prevented H2O2-induced disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the dissociation of occludin and ZO-1 from the actin-rich detergent-insoluble fractions. MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase, where ERK stands for extracellular signal related kinase) inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, completely blocked these protective effects of EGF on TJs. EGF rapidly increased the levels of phosphorylated MEK (p-MEK) in detergent-soluble fractions and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in detergent-insoluble fractions. p-ERK was colocalized and co-immunoprecipitated with occludin. GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assay showed that the C-terminal tail of occludin binds to p-ERK in Caco-2 cell extracts. Pair-wise binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrated that ERK1 directly interacts with the C-terminal tail of occludin. Therefore the present study shows that ERK interacts with the C-terminal region of occludin and mediates the prevention of H2O2-induced disruption of TJs by EGF. PMID:16134968

  19. Deletion of capn4 Protects the Heart Against Endotoxemic Injury by Preventing ATP Synthase Disruption and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Superoxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Zheng, Dong; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Yong; Chen, Ruizhen; Sun, Tao; Wang, Wang; Fan, Guo-Chang; Greer, Peter A.; Gardiner, Richard B.; Peng, Tianqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Our recent study has demonstrated that inhibition of calpain by transgenic over-expression of calpastatin reduces myocardial pro-inflammatory response and dysfunction in endotoxemia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. In this study, we employed cardiomyocyte-specific capn4 knockout mice to investigate whether and how calpain disrupts ATP synthase and induces mitochondrial superoxide generation during endotoxemia. Method and Results Cardiomyocyte-specific capn4 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Four hours later, calpain-1 protein and activity were increased in mitochondria of endotoxemic mouse hearts. Mitochondrial calpain-1 co-localized with and cleaved ATP synthase-α (ATP5A1), leading to ATP synthase disruption and a concomitant increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during LPS stimulation. Deletion of capn4 or up-regulation of ATP5A1 increased ATP synthase activity, prevented mitochondrial ROS generation, and reduced pro-inflammatory response and myocardial dysfunction in endotoxemic mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, LPS induced mitochondrial superoxide generation which was prevented by over-expression of mitochondria-targeted calpastatin or ATP5A1. Up-regulation of calpain-1 specifically in mitochondria sufficiently induced superoxide generation and pro-inflammatory response, both of which were attenuated by ATP5A1 over-expression or mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetics, mito-TEMPO. Conclusions Cardiomyocyte-specific capn4 knockout protects the heart against LPS-induced injury in endotoxemic mice. LPS induces calpain-1 accumulation in mitochondria. Mitochondrial calpain-1 disrupts ATP synthase, leading to mitochondrial ROS generation, which promotes pro-inflammatory response and myocardial dysfunction during endotoxemia. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which calpain mediates myocardial dysfunction in sepsis. PMID

  20. Chronic NT69L potently prevents drug-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition without causing tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Briody, Siobhan; Boules, Mona; Oliveros, Alfredo; Fauq, Irfan; Richelson, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    NT69L is a neurotensin receptor agonist with antipsychotic-like activity. NT69L blocks apomorphine-induced climbing in rats with no effect on stereotypic behavior, attenuates d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and blocks pharmacologically-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Repeated administration of NT69L results in tolerance to some, but not to all of its effects. Because schizophrenic patients require long term treatment, chronic (21-day) administration of NT69L was tested in PPI with comparisons to chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats received acute or 21 daily, subcutaneous injections of NT69L (1.0 mg/kg). On days one and 21 the NT69L injection was followed 30 min later by treatment with either saline; the dopamine agonist, d-amphetamine (5.0 mg/kg); or the serotonin 5-HT2A psychotomimetic receptor agonist [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane] DOI (0.5 mg/kg). Experiments were repeated with either haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or clozapine (20 mg/kg) in place of NT69L. Acute injection of NT69L significantly blocked d-amphetamine and DOI disruption of PPI. As with the acute injection, 21 daily administrations of NT69L also blocked d-amphetamine- and DOI-induced disruption of PPI. The data show that animals do not develop tolerance to the antipsychotic-like effects of NT69L when tested in the PPI of the startle response. The persistent efficacy of NT69L with chronic treatment provides further support for the therapeutic use of neurotensin agonists to treat schizophrenia and possibly other disorders that are characterized by PPI deficits. The modulatory role of NT69L on the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission systems both of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is discussed. PMID:19800922

  1. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning

    PubMed Central

    Nokia, Miriam S.; Mikkonen, Jarno E.; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4–8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs. PMID:23316148

  2. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 2: morphological and structural substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, naturally mass-produced form of stored solar energy. Thermochemical pretreatment processes have been developed to address the challenge of biomass recalcitrance, however the optimization, cost reduction, and scalability of these processes remain as obstacles to the adoption of biofuel production processes at the industrial scale. In this study, we demonstrate that the type of reactor in which pretreatment is carried out can profoundly alter the micro- and nanostructure of the pretreated materials and dramatically affect the subsequent efficiency, and thus cost, of enzymatic conversion of cellulose. Results Multi-scale microscopy and quantitative image analysis was used to investigate the impact of different biomass pretreatment reactor configurations on plant cell wall structure. We identify correlations between enzymatic digestibility and geometric descriptors derived from the image data. Corn stover feedstock was pretreated under the same nominal conditions for dilute acid pretreatment (2.0 wt% H2SO4, 160°C, 5 min) using three representative types of reactors: ZipperClave® (ZC), steam gun (SG), and horizontal screw (HS) reactors. After 96 h of enzymatic digestion, biomass treated in the SG and HS reactors achieved much higher cellulose conversions, 88% and 95%, respectively, compared to the conversion obtained using the ZC reactor (68%). Imaging at the micro- and nanoscales revealed that the superior performance of the SG and HS reactors could be explained by reduced particle size, cellular dislocation, increased surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation generated within the biomass particles during pretreatment. Conclusions Increased cellular dislocation, surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation revealed by direct observation of the micro- and nanoscale change in accessibility explains the superior performance of reactors that augment pretreatment with physical energy. PMID:24690534

  3. Disrupting prefrontal cortex prevents performance gains from sensory-motor training.

    PubMed

    Filmer, Hannah L; Mattingley, Jason B; Marois, René; Dux, Paul E

    2013-11-20

    Humans show large and reliable performance impairments when required to make more than one simple decision simultaneously. Such multitasking costs are thought to largely reflect capacity limits in response selection (Welford, 1952; Pashler, 1984, 1994), the information processing stage at which sensory input is mapped to a motor response. Neuroimaging has implicated the left posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (pLPFC) as a key neural substrate of response selection (Dux et al., 2006, 2009; Ivanoff et al., 2009). For example, activity in left pLPFC tracks improvements in response selection efficiency typically observed following training (Dux et al., 2009). To date, however, there has been no causal evidence that pLPFC contributes directly to sensory-motor training effects, or the operations through which training occurs. Moreover, the left hemisphere lateralization of this operation remains controversial (Jiang and Kanwisher, 2003; Sigman and Dehaene, 2008; Verbruggen et al., 2010). We used anodal (excitatory), cathodal (inhibitory), and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to left and right pLPFC and measured participants' performance on high and low response selection load tasks after different amounts of training. Both anodal and cathodal stimulation of the left pLPFC disrupted training effects for the high load condition relative to sham. No disruption was found for the low load and right pLPFC stimulation conditions. The findings implicate the left pLPFC in both response selection and training effects. They also suggest that training improves response selection efficiency by fine-tuning activity in pLPFC relating to sensory-motor translations.

  4. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  5. School Outcomes of Aggressive-Disruptive Children: Prediction From Kindergarten Risk Factors and Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1–4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7–10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes. PMID:23386568

  6. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes.

  7. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes. PMID:23386568

  8. The ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint prevents rereplication in mammalian cells when licensing control is disrupted.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbo; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Chiba, Takuya; Olson, Erin; Sun, Peiqing; Wu, Xiaohua

    2007-11-19

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is tightly controlled by a licensing mechanism, ensuring that each origin fires once and only once per cell cycle. We demonstrate that the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR)-mediated S phase checkpoint acts as a surveillance mechanism to prevent rereplication. Thus, disruption of licensing control will not induce significant rereplication in mammalian cells when the ATR checkpoint is intact. We also demonstrate that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is the initial signal that activates the checkpoint when licensing control is compromised in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that uncontrolled DNA unwinding by minichromosome maintenance proteins upon Cdt1 overexpression is an important mechanism that leads to ssDNA accumulation and checkpoint activation. Furthermore, we show that replication protein A 2 and retinoblastoma protein are both downstream targets for ATR that are important for the inhibition of DNA rereplication. We reveal the molecular mechanisms by which the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint pathway prevents DNA rereplication and thus significantly improve our understanding of how rereplication is prevented in mammalian cells. PMID:18025301

  9. Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoyang; Huang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, agricultural, and forest residues, are potential resources for the production of bioethanol. The current biochemical process of converting biomass to bioethanol typically consists of three main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. For this process, pretreatment is probably the most crucial step since it has a large impact on the efficiency of the overall bioconversion. The aim of pretreatment is to disrupt recalcitrant structures of cellulosic biomass to make cellulose more accessible to the enzymes that convert carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. This paper reviews several leading acidic, neutral, and alkaline pretreatments technologies. Different pretreatment methods, including dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), steam explosion pretreatment (SEP), organosolv, liquid hot water (LHW), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), sodium hydroxide/lime pretreatments, and ozonolysis are intensively introduced and discussed. In this minireview, the key points are focused on the structural changes primarily in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the above leading pretreatment technologies.

  10. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. PMID:26802118

  11. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided.

  12. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J; Snarr, Brendan D; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J; Lee, Mark J; Jennings, Laura K; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A; Parsek, Matthew R; Sheppard, Donald C; Wozniak, Daniel J; Howell, P Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  13. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  14. Disruption of the Colonization Resistance Syndrome in Humans in Altered Habitats and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ilyin, V. K.; Kiryukhina, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of human subjects to environments with modified parameters is associated with reduced colonization resistance of the intestine and epithelial tissue, which leads to dysbiotic changes. Probiotics – preparations based on protective microflora – are used to correct dysbacteriosis of different etiologies and localizations. However, the effectiveness of probiotics largely depends on the adhesive ability of a probiotic strain and lack of competitive relations with the indigenous microflora, which can be achieved by individual selection of a preparation. We propose to use autochtonous microflora as a probiotic drug to optimize the prevention and treatment results. A personalized approach to probiotic selection will improve therapy efficiency and reduce the risk of adverse effects in each individual patient. PMID:25093106

  15. Cellulose pretreatments of lignocellulosic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, J.; Westgate, P.; Kohlmann, K.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose in inedible plant materials, forestry residues, and municipal wastes must be pretreated to disrupt its physical structure, thereby making its hydrolysis to glucose practical. Developments since 1991 are summarized.

  16. Targeted disruption of CD1d prevents NKT cell development in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guan; Artiaga, Bianca L.; Hackmann, Timothy J.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Walters, Eric M; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Driver, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in mice genetically lacking natural killer T (NKT) cells show that these lymphocytes make important contributions to both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the usefulness of murine models to study human NKT cells is limited by the many differences between mice and humans, including that their NKT cell frequencies, subsets and distribution are dissimilar. A more suitable model may be swine that share many metabolic, physiological and growth characteristics with humans and are also similar for NKT cells. Thus, we analyzed genetically modified pigs made deficient for CD1d that is required for the development of Type I invariant NKT (iNKT) cells that express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and Type II NKT cells that use variable TCRs. Peripheral blood analyzed by flow cytometry and interferon-γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immuno spot (ELISPOT) assays demonstrated that CD1d-knockout pigs completely lack iNKT cells while other leukocyte populations remain intact. CD1d and NKT cells have been shown to be involved in shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota in mice. Therefore, we also compared the fecal microbiota profile between pigs expressing and lacking NKT cells. However, no differences were found between pigs lacking or expressing CD1d. Our results are the first to show that knocking-out CD1d prevents the development of iNKT cells in a non-rodent species. CD1d-deficient pigs should offer a useful model to more accurately determine the contribution of NKT cells for human immune responses. They also have potential for understanding how NKT cells impact the health of commercial swine. PMID:25930071

  17. Disruption of NF-κB1 prevents bone loss caused by mechanical unloading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Wataru; Alles, Neil; Nagano, Kenichi; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Osawa, Kenji; Yasuda, Hisataka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Ohya, Keiichi; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical unloading, such as in a microgravity environment in space or during bed rest (for patients who require prolonged bed rest), leads to a decrease in bone mass because of the suppression of bone formation and the stimulation of bone resorption. To address the challenges presented by a prolonged stay in space and the forthcoming era of a super-aged society, it will be important to prevent the bone loss caused by prolonged mechanical unloading. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors are activated by mechanical loading and inflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to elucidate the role of NF-κB pathways in bone loss that are caused by mechanical unloading. Eight-week-old wild-type (WT) and NF-κB1-deficient mice were randomly assigned to a control or mechanically unloaded with tail suspension group. After 2 weeks, a radiographic analysis indicated a decrease in bone mass in the tibias and femurs of the unloaded WT mice but not in the NF-κB1-deficient mice. An NF-κB1 deficiency suppressed the unloading-induced reduction in bone formation by maintaining the proportion and/or potential of osteoprogenitors or immature osteoblasts, and by suppression of bone resorption through the inhibition of intracellular signaling through the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoclast precursors. Thus, NF-κB1 is involved in two aspects of rapid reduction in bone mass that are induced by disuse osteoporosis in space or bed rest. PMID:23322687

  18. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Prevents Disruption of Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice after UV-B Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Chisato; Morifuji, Masashi; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Yamaji, Taketo; Asami, Yukio; Itou, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation causes skin barrier defects. Based on earlier findings that milk phospholipids containing high amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) improved the water content of the stratum corneum (SC) in normal mice, here we investigated the effects of dietary milk SM on skin barrier defects induced by a single dose of UV-B irradiation in hairless mice. Nine week old hairless mice were orally administrated SM (146 mg/kg BW/day) for a total of ten days. After seven days of SM administration, the dorsal skin was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Administration of SM significantly suppressed an increase in transepidermal water loss and a decrease in SC water content induced by UV-B irradiation. SM supplementation significantly maintained covalently-bound ω-hydroxy ceramide levels and down-regulated mRNA levels of acute inflammation-associated genes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of loricrin and transglutaminase-3 mRNA were observed in the SM group. Our study shows for the first time that dietary SM modulates epidermal structures, and can help prevent disruption of skin barrier function after UV-B irradiation. PMID:26302442

  19. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Prevents Disruption of Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice after UV-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Oba, Chisato; Morifuji, Masashi; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Yamaji, Taketo; Asami, Yukio; Itou, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation causes skin barrier defects. Based on earlier findings that milk phospholipids containing high amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) improved the water content of the stratum corneum (SC) in normal mice, here we investigated the effects of dietary milk SM on skin barrier defects induced by a single dose of UV-B irradiation in hairless mice. Nine week old hairless mice were orally administrated SM (146 mg/kg BW/day) for a total of ten days. After seven days of SM administration, the dorsal skin was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Administration of SM significantly suppressed an increase in transepidermal water loss and a decrease in SC water content induced by UV-B irradiation. SM supplementation significantly maintained covalently-bound ω-hydroxy ceramide levels and down-regulated mRNA levels of acute inflammation-associated genes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of loricrin and transglutaminase-3 mRNA were observed in the SM group. Our study shows for the first time that dietary SM modulates epidermal structures, and can help prevent disruption of skin barrier function after UV-B irradiation. PMID:26302442

  20. The Role of Friends' Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children's Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good…

  1. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  2. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption.

  3. Biomass pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  4. Ebselen pretreatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury and prevents hyperglycemia by improving hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell survival in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Kang, S; Kim, D S; Shin, B K; Moon, N R; Daily, J W

    2014-08-01

    Transient carotid artery occlusion causes ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury resulting in neuron and pancreatic β-cell death with consequential post-stroke hyperglycemia, which can lead to diabetes and may accelerate the development of Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against the I/R injury and destruction of neurons. However, it is unknown whether the protection against I/R injury extends to the pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we investigated whether treatment with ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic, prevents neuronal and β-cell death following I/R in gerbils susceptible to stroke. After 28 days post artery occlusion, there was widespread neuronal cell death in the CA1 of the hippocampus and elevated IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Pretreatment with ebselen prevented the death by 56% and attenuated neurological damage (abnormal eyelid drooping, hair bristling, muscle tone, flexor reflex, posture, and walking patterns). Ischemic gerbils also exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity which induced post-stroke hyperglycemia associated with decreased β-cell mass due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Ebselen prevented the increased β-cell apoptosis, possibly by decreasing IL-1β and TNF-α in islets. Ischemia also attenuated hepatic insulin signaling, and expression of GLUT2 and glucokinase, whereas ebselen prevented the attenuation and suppressed gluconeogenesis by decreasing PEPCK expression. In conclusion, antioxidant protection by ebselen attenuated I/R injury of neurons and pancreatic β-cells and prevented subsequent impairment of glucose regulation that could lead to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24807533

  5. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  6. Lime Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160°C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure ~200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65°C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below ~18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above ~18% lignin).

  7. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26544861

  8. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia.

  9. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  10. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  11. Histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists accelerate skin barrier repair and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption in a dry environment.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Y; Denda, M; Hirao, T

    2001-02-01

    Keratinocytes have histamine H1 and H2 receptors, but their functions are poorly understood. To clarify the role of histamine receptors in the epidermis, we examined the effects of histamine receptor antagonists and agonists applied epicutaneously on the recovery of skin barrier function disrupted by tape stripping in hairless mice. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and cimetidine accelerated the recovery of skin barrier function, but histamine and histamine H2 receptor agonist dimaprit delayed the barrier repair. Application of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser, also delayed the recovery. Imidazole, an analog of histamine, had no effect. The histamine H1 receptor antagonists diphenhydramine and tripelennamine accelerated the recovery. Histamine H3 receptor agonist Nalpha-methylhistamine and antagonist thioperamide had no effect. In addition, topical application of famotidine or diphenhydramine prevented epidermal hyperplasia in mice with skin barrier disrupted by acetone treatment in a dry environment (humidity < 10%) for 4 d. In conclusion, both the histamine H1 and H2 receptors in the epidermis are involved in skin barrier function and the cutaneous condition of epidermal hyperplasia.

  12. Efficacy of pre-treatment with lufenuron for the prevention of Microsporum canis infection in a feline direct topical challenge model.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Schenker, Rudolf; Blum, Jenifer L; Volk, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    Oral lufenuron is reportedly an effective treatment for some cats with dermatophytosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if lufenuron, when used as a pre-treatment prior to challenge exposure, would be protective against the development of infection after the direct topical application of fungal macrocondia (Microsporum canis spores). Three groups (n = 6/group) of juvenile cats were treated with either monthly oral lufenuron (30 or 133 mg/kg) or placebo. After 2 months of treatment, kittens were challenged using 10(5)Microsporum canis spores applied to the skin under occlusion. Cats were examined weekly and the following data collected: Wood's lamp examination; scoring for scale/crust, erythema and induration; lesion size; and the development of satellite lesions. Fungal cultures were performed bi-weekly. All cats became infected; the infections progressed, and then regressed, in a similar fashion in all groups. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in weekly infection scores between treated and untreated cats throughout the study. Treated cats did not recover faster than untreated cats. We conclude that oral lufenuron at the dosing schedule and conditions used in this study did not prevent dermatophytosis or alter the course of infection by direct topical challenge. PMID:15585010

  13. Pretreatment with antibody to eosinophil major basic protein prevents hyperresponsiveness by protecting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C M; Fryer, A D; Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Costello, R W

    1997-01-01

    In antigen-challenged guinea pigs there is recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs and to airway nerves, decreased function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic autoreceptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness. A rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein was used to determine whether M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction, and the subsequent hyperresponsiveness, are due to antagonism of the M2 receptor by eosinophil major basic protein. Guinea pigs were sensitized, challenged with ovalbumin and hyperresponsiveness, and M2 receptor function tested 24 h later with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Antigen-challenged guinea pigs were hyperresponsive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves compared with controls. Likewise, loss of M2 receptor function was demonstrated since the agonist pilocarpine inhibited vagally-induced bronchoconstriction in control but not challenged animals. Pretreatment with rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein prevented hyperresponsiveness, and protected M2 receptor function in the antigen-challenged animals without inhibiting eosinophil accumulation in the lungs or around the nerves. Thus, hyperresponsiveness is a result of inhibition of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function by eosinophil major basic protein in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. PMID:9410903

  14. Mechanism of Breast Cancer Preventive Action of Pomegranate: Disruption of Estrogen Receptor and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Animesh; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    A pomegranate emulsion (PE), containing various bioactive phytochemicals, has recently been found to exert substantial chemopreventive effect against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats via antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of action are not completely understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PE treatment on intratumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β,β-catenin and cyclin D1 during DMBA rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumor sections were harvested from a chemopreventive study in which PE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 g/kg) exhibited inhibition of mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of ER-α, ER-β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques. PE downregulated the expression of intratumor ER-α and ER-β and lowered ER-α:ER-β ratio. PE also decreased the expression, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, an essential transcriptional cofactor for Wnt signaling. Moreover, PE suppressed the expression of cell growth regulatory protein cyclin D1, which is a downstream target for both ER and Wnt signaling. Our current results in conjunction with our previous findings indicate that concurrent disruption of ER and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways possibly contributes to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects involved in PE-mediated chemoprevention of DMBA-inflicted rat mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26703530

  15. Efficacy of Short-Term High-Dose Statin Pretreatment in Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Updated Study-Level Meta-Analysis of 13 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Ji-hyun; Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Jo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been conflicting results across the trials that evaluated prophylactic efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pre-treatment for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date meta-analysis regarding the efficacy of high-dose statin pre-treatment in preventing CIAKI. Methods and Results Randomized-controlled trials comparing high-dose statin versus low-dose statin or placebo pre-treatment for prevention of CIAKI in patients undergoing CAG were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIAKI within 2–5days after CAG. The relative risk (RR) with 95% CI was the effect measure. This analysis included 13 RCTs with 5,825 total patients; about half of them (n = 2,889) were pre-treated with high-dose statin (at least 40 mg of atorvastatin) before CAG, and the remainders (n = 2,936) pretreated with low-dose statin or placebo. In random-effects model, high-dose statin pre-treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CIAKI (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.57, p<0.001, I2 = 8.2%, NNT 16), compared with low-dose statin or placebo. The benefit of high-dose statin was consistent in both comparisons with low-dose statin (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.34–0.65, p<0.001, I2 = 28.4%, NNT 19) or placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.58, p<0.001, I2 = 0.0%, NNT 16). In addition, high-dose statin showed significant reduction of CIAKI across various subgroups of chronic kidney disease, acute coronary syndrome, and old age (≥60years), regardless of osmolality of contrast or administration of N-acetylcystein. Conclusions High-dose statin pre-treatment significantly reduced overall incidence of CIAKI in patients undergoing CAG, and emerges as an effective prophylactic measure to prevent CIAKI. PMID:25369120

  16. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  17. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  18. Light exposure at night disrupts host/cancer circadian regulatory dynamics: impact on the Warburg effect, lipid signaling and tumor growth prevention.

    PubMed

    Blask, David E; Dauchy, Robert T; Dauchy, Erin M; Mao, Lulu; Hill, Steven M; Greene, Michael W; Belancio, Victoria P; Sauer, Leonard A; Davidson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays an important role in temporally organizing and coordinating many of the processes governing cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in synchrony with the daily light/dark cycle which may contribute to endogenous cancer prevention. Bioenergetic substrates and molecular intermediates required for building tumor biomass each day are derived from both aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) and lipid metabolism. Using tissue-isolated human breast cancer xenografts grown in nude rats, we determined that circulating systemic factors in the host and the Warburg effect, linoleic acid uptake/metabolism and growth signaling activities in the tumor are dynamically regulated, coordinated and integrated within circadian time structure over a 24-hour light/dark cycle by SCN-driven nocturnal pineal production of the anticancer hormone melatonin. Dim light at night (LAN)-induced melatonin suppression disrupts this circadian-regulated host/cancer balance among several important cancer preventative signaling mechanisms, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the host and runaway aerobic glycolysis, lipid signaling and proliferative activity in the tumor. PMID:25099274

  19. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet.

  20. Disruptive Behavior: Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bernard; Thomson, Scott

    1976-01-01

    Delinquency and vandalism are serious problems in secondary schools today. These problems, coupled with the fear of retaliation and the complications of the present legal system, are examined for causes and possible solutions in this newsletter article. Some causes of this delinquency are listed as: (1) alienation from society due to economic…

  1. High-content positional biosensor screening assay for compounds to prevent or disrupt androgen receptor and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set

  2. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  3. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  4. Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-24

    In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)more » spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.« less

  5. Understanding disruptions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2011-10-01

    Disruptions in tokamaks are known since 1963 but even now some aspects of them remain a mystery. This talk describes progress made recently in understanding disruptions. A major step forward occurred in 2007 when the importance of galvanic contact of the plasma with the wall in plasma dynamics was pointed out. The toroidal asymmetry of plasma current, observed in JET vertical disruptions, was explained by the theory of the wall touching kink mode. The currents shared by the plasma with the wall and responsible for the asymmetry were identified as generated by the kink mode. Such currents are referred to as Hiro currents. They have shown exceptional consistency with the entire JET disruption data base (more than 5500 cases) and ruled out the long lasting interpretation based on ``halo currents,'' which contradict experiments even in the sign of the measured asymmetry. Accordingly, the sideways forces are understood and their scaling from JET to ITER was justified. Hiro currents provide also a plausible explanation of the current spike at the beginning of the disruptions. The important role of the plasma edge and its interaction with the wall was revealed. Based on this new understanding of disruptions, dedicated experiments on the current spike (J-TEXT, Wuhan, China) and runaway prevention by the repetitive triggering of kink modes (T-10, AUG, Tore Supra) were motivated and are in progress. Accordingly, the need for new, adaptive grid approaches to numerical simulations of disruptions became evident. In addition to the core MHD, simulations of realistic wall geometry, disruption specific plasma edge physics, plasma-wall interaction, and energetic particles need be developed. The first results of simulations of the fast MHD regime, Hiro current generation, and slower plasma decay due to a wall touching kink mode made with the new DSC code are presented. This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  7. Circadian Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are a prominent and critical feature of cells, tissues, organs, and behavior that help an organism function most efficiently and anticipate things such as food availability. Therefore, it is not surprising that disrupted circadian rhythmicity, a prominent feature of modern-day society, promotes the development and/or progression of a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory, metabolic, and alcohol-associated disorders. This article will discuss the influence of interplay between alcohol consumption and circadian rhythmicity and how circadian rhythm disruption affects immune function and metabolism as well as potential epigenetic mechanisms that may be contributing to this phenomenon. PMID:24313168

  8. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  9. Exposure and response prevention with or without parent management training for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by disruptive behavior: a multiple-baseline across-responses design study.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Gorman, Bernard S; Scahill, Lawrence; Findley, Diane; McGuire, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders may have important implications for exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatments of children with OCD. Child noncompliance and parent-child conflict may interfere with performance of exposure activities and completion of therapeutic homework assignments, thus diminishing response to treatment. We investigated whether response to exposure and response prevention (ERP) can be enhanced if disruptive behavior is treated first with parent management training (PMT). A multiple-baseline across-responses design was used to investigate the effects of ERP with or without PMT in six children (age range 9-14 years) with OCD and disruptive behavior. Weekly ratings of OCD were conducted for four weeks to establish baseline. After that, children were randomly assigned to receive six weekly sessions of PMT and then twelve weekly sessions of ERP (ERP-plus-PMT condition) or to receive ERP after a six week waiting period (ERP-only condition). The outcome assessments were conducted weekly using the Child Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) administered by an experienced clinician, who was blind to treatment assignment. Three subjects in the ERP-plus-PMT condition evidenced a 39 percent reduction in the CY-BOCS score versus a 10 percent reduction in three subjects in the ERP-only condition. The results of our single-subject study suggest the feasibility and positive effects of combining ERP with PMT for children with OCD complicated by disruptive behavior.

  10. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  11. Disruption angles

    SciTech Connect

    Minten, A.

    1985-06-25

    This investigation has been stimulated by the question, to what extent beam disruption of two penetrating SLC bunches will modify the initial angular distribution of the incident beam, and whether the tails of the outgoing beam will be significantly enhanced and will lead to increased losses in the vicinity of the detector. We try to answer this question in three steps. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Pretreatment Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A.; Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

  13. Does Pre-Treatment with High Dose Atorvastatin Prevent Microvascular Dysfunction after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Ki; Nam, Chang-Wook; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Chung, Woo-Young; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Fearon, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is controversy surrounding whether or not high dose statin administration before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreases peri-procedural microvascular injury. We performed a prospective randomized study to investigate the mechanisms and effects of pre-treatment high dose atorvastatin on myocardial damage in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing PCI. Subjects and Methods Seventy seven patients with NSTE-ACS were randomly assigned to either the high dose group (atorvastatin 80 mg loading 12 to 24 h before PCI with a further 40 mg loading 2 h before PCI, n=39) or low dose group (atorvastatin 10 mg administration 12 to 24 h before PCI, n=38). Index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured after stent implantation. Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after PCI. Results The baseline characteristics were not different between the two patient groups. Compared to the low dose group, the high dose group had lower post PCI IMR (14.1±5.0 vs. 19.2±9.3 U, p=0.003). Post PCI CK-MB was also lower in the high dose group (median: 1.40 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR: 0.75 to 3.45] vs. 4.00 [IQR: 1.70 to 7.37], p=0.002) as was the post-PCI CRP level (0.09 mg/dL [IQR: 0.04 to 0.16] vs. 0.22 [IQR: 0.08 to 0.60], p=0.001). Conclusion Pre-treatment with high dose atorvastatin reduces peri-PCI microvascular dysfunction verified by post-PCI IMR and exerts an immediate anti-inflammatory effect in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27482255

  14. Cellulosic Biomass Pretreatment and Sugar Yields as a Function of Biomass Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Stavila, Vitalie; Knierim, Bernhard; George, Anthe; Auer, Manfred; Adams, Paul D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    Three lignocellulosic pretreatment techniques (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid and ionic liquid) are compared with respect to saccharification efficiency, particle size and biomass composition. In particular, the effects of switchgrass particle size (32–200) on each pretreatment regime are examined. Physical properties of untreated and pretreated samples are characterized using crystallinity, surface accessibility measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. At every particle size tested, ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment results in greater cell wall disruption, reduced crystallinity, increased accessible surface area, and higher saccharification efficiencies compared with dilute acid and AFEX pretreatments. The advantages of using IL pretreatment are greatest at larger particle sizes (>75 µm). PMID:24971883

  15. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  16. Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-24

    In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  17. Technology disrupted

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheodorou, Y.

    2007-02-15

    Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Disruption of Early Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling Prevents Classical Activation of Dendritic Cells in Lung-Associated Lymph Nodes and Development of Protective Immunity against Cryptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jintao; Eastman, Alison J.; Flaczyk, Adam; Neal, Lori M.; Zhao, Guolei; Carolan, Jacob; Malachowski, Antoni N.; Stolberg, Valerie R.; Yosri, Mohammed; Chensue, Stephen W.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Osterholzer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapies have been increasingly used to treat inflammatory diseases and are associated with increased risk of invasive fungal infections, including Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, we investigated the mechanism by which disruption of early TNF-α signaling results in the development of nonprotective immunity against C. neoformans. We found that transient depletion of TNF-α inhibited pulmonary fungal clearance and enhanced extrapulmonary dissemination of C. neoformans during the adaptive phase of the immune response. Higher fungal burdens in TNF-α-depleted mice were accompanied by markedly impaired Th1 and Th17 responses in the infected lungs. Furthermore, early TNF-α depletion also resulted in disrupted transcriptional initiation of the Th17 polarization program and subsequent upregulation of Th1 genes in CD4+ T cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN) of C. neoformans-infected mice. These defects in LALN T cell responses were preceded by a dramatic shift from a classical toward an alternative activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the LALN of TNF-α-depleted mice. Taken together, our results indicate that early TNF-α signaling is required for optimal DC activation, and the initial Th17 response followed by Th1 transcriptional prepolarization of T cells in the LALN, which further drives the development of protective immunity against cryptococcal infection in the lungs. Thus, administration of anti-TNF-α may introduce a particularly greater risk for newly acquired fungal infections that require generation of protective Th1/Th17 responses for their containment and clearance. PMID:27406560

  19. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  20. Diverse animal models to examine potential role(s) and mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tumor progression and prevention: Do they have tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic property?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2011-01-01

    Acting as hormone mimics or antagonists in the interaction with hormone receptors, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potentials of disturbing the endocrine system in sex steroid hormone-controlled organs and tissues. These effects may lead to the disruption of major regulatory mechanisms, the onset of developmental disorders, and carcinogenesis. Especially, among diverse EDCs, xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A, dioxins, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, have been shown to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) and to modulate cellular functions induced by ERs. Furthermore, they appear to be closely related with carcinogenicity in estrogen-dependant cancers, including breast, ovary, and prostate cancers. In in vivo animal models, prenatal exposure to xenoestrogens changed the development of the mouse reproductive organs and increased the susceptibility to further carcinogenic exposure and tumor occurence in adults. Unlike EDCs, which are chemically synthesized, several phytoestrogens such as genistein and resveratrol showed chemopreventive effects on specific cancers by contending with ER binding and regulating normal ER action in target tissues of mice. These results support the notion that a diet containing high levels of phytoestrogens can have protective effects on estrogen-related diseases. In spite of the diverse evidences of EDCs and phytoestrogens on causation and prevention of estrogen-dependant cancers provided in this article, there are still disputable questions about the dose-response effect of EDCs or chemopreventive potentials of phytoestrogens. As a wide range of EDCs including phytoestrogens have been remarkably increasing in the environment with the rapid growth in our industrial society and more closely affecting human and wildlife, the potential risks of EDCs in endocrine disruption and carcinogenesis are important issues and needed to be verified in detail. PMID:22232634

  1. Vitamin E pretreatment prevents the immunotoxicity of dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb in vitro: A comparative age-related assessment in mice and chick.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Bano, Farhad; Mohanty, Banalata

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides used for crop protection cause life-threatening diseases affecting the immune system of non-target organisms including birds and mammals. Functionality of immune system is age-dependent; early- as well as old-life stages are more susceptible to toxic exposures because of less competent immune system. Vitamins are so far known to reduce toxic effect of several pesticides and/or xenobiotics. The present in vitro study elucidated immunotoxicity of fungicide mancozeb through comparable stages of immune system maturation in mice (1, 3, and 12months) and chicks (4, 8, and 11weeks). In vitro splenocytes viability on exposure to mancozeb was quantitatively assessed by MTT assay and qualitatively by acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double fluorescence staining. Mancozeb exposure dose dependently (250, 500, 1000, 2500, 5000 and 10,000ng/ml) decreased the splenocytes viability. The in vitro preventive effect of Vitamin E has also been explored on toxicity induced by mancozeb. The increased susceptibility observed both in early and aged groups was due to less/decline competence of the immune system. PMID:26778438

  2. Perinatal Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Blockade Prevents Peripheral Nerve Disruption in a Mouse Model Reminiscent of Benign World Health Organization Grade I Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Crimmins, Jason T.; Monk, Kelly R.; Williams, Jon P.; Fitzgerald, Maureen E.; Tedesco, Susan; Ratner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Benign peripheral nerve tumors called neurofibromas are a major source of morbidity for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In a mouse model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of human EGFR in Schwann cells, nerves develop hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, collagen deposition, disruption of axon-glial interactions, characteristics of neurofibroma and are hypoalgesic. Administration of the EGFR antagonist cetuximab (IMC-C225) for 2 weeks beginning at birth in CNPase-hEGFR mice normalized all pathologies at 3 months of age as evaluated by hotplate testing or histology and by electron microscopy. Mast cell chemoattractants brain-derived neurotrophic factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-β1, which may account for mast cell accumulation and fibrosis, were reduced by cetuximab. Later treatment was much less effective. A birth to 2-week pulse of cetuximab blocked hEGFR phosphorylation and Schwann cell proliferation in perinatal mutant nerve, so CNPase-hEGFR Schwann cell numbers correlate with the cetuximab effect. A >250-fold enlarged population of EGFR+/p75+ cells was detected in newborn Nf1+/− mouse nerves. These results suggest the existence of an EGFR+ cell enriched in the perinatal period capable of driving complex changes characteristic of neurofibroma formation. PMID:16651634

  3. Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Louis F.

    1981-01-01

    An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

  4. Facile pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Xia, Shu-Qian; Ma, Pei-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, three kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were facilely prepared and used in the pretreatment of corncob, including monocarboxylic acid/choline chloride, dicarboxylic acid/choline chloride and polyalcohol/choline chloride. The enhanced delignification and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency were found to be related to the acid amount, acid strength and the nature of hydrogen bond acceptors. The XRD, SEM and FT-IR results consistently indicated that the structures of corncob were disrupted by the removal of lignin and hemicellulose in the pretreatment process. In addition, the optimal pretreatment temperature and time were 90°C and 24h, respectively. This study explored the roles of various DESs combinations, pretreatment temperature and time to better utilize the DESs in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27468171

  5. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than

  6. Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Víctor M; Modol, Laura; Navarro, Xavier; Cobianchi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Activity treatments, such as treadmill exercise, are used to improve functional recovery after nerve injury, parallel to an increase in neurotrophin levels. However, despite their role in neuronal survival and regeneration, neurotrophins may cause neuronal hyperexcitability that triggers neuropathic pain. In this work, we demonstrate that an early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR), performed during the first week (iTR1) or during the first 2 weeks (iTR2) after section and suture repair of the rat sciatic nerve, significantly reduced the hyperalgesia developing rapidly in the saphenous nerve territory and later in the sciatic nerve territory after regeneration. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in sensory neurons and spinal cord was reduced in parallel. iTR prevented the extension of collateral sprouts of saphenous nociceptive calcitonin gene-related peptide fibers within the adjacent denervated skin and reduced NGF expression in the same skin and in the L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Injury also induced Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) upregulation in DRG, and K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 (KCC2) downregulation in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. iTR normalized NKCC1 and boosted KCC2 expression, together with a significant reduction of microgliosis in L3-L5 dorsal horn, and a reduction of BDNF expression in microglia at 1 to 2 weeks postinjury. These data demonstrate that specific activity protocols, such as iTR, can modulate neurotrophins expression after peripheral nerve injury and prevent neuropathic pain by blocking early mechanisms of sensitization such as collateral sprouting and NKCC1/KCC2 disregulation. PMID:26090759

  7. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens.

    PubMed

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-05-25

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity.

  8. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  9. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  10. Disruptive Pedagogies: How Teacher Educators Disrupt Homophobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsbree, Anne Rene

    This study examined how teacher educators made sense of their efforts to disrupt homophobia in the classroom. Participants were teacher educators who were collaboratively designing and constructing a video product to be used in teacher education classrooms to help teachers understand, recognize, and disrupt homophobia. The study involved…

  11. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation.

  12. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. PMID:25257071

  13. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin protects the genital mucosal epithelial barrier from disruption and blocks replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor H; Nazli, Aisha; Dizzell, Sara E; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Protects the Genital Mucosal Epithelial Barrier from Disruption and Blocks Replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor H.; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  15. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    DOEpatents

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  16. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment of eucalyptus wood for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Ground eucalyptus wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions with different mixing ratios under various conditions. The changes in the composition and structure of the biomass were investigated; and the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the pretreated biomass was evaluated. [EMIM]OAc-DMSO pretreatment had a relatively mild effect on the composition of the biomass, but excessively high pretreatment temperatures led to massive loss of xylan after pretreatment. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass was significantly improved with increased pretreatment temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the disruption of cellulose crystal structure by [EMIM]OAc at a sufficiently high temperature was primarily responsible for the remarkable improvement in the digestibility. Appropriate addition of DMSO could help minimize the consumption of [EMIM]OAc without impairing the performance of the ionic liquid, and contribute to the improvement in pretreatment efficiency due to the viscosity reduction effect on the pretreatment liquor. PMID:23685645

  17. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural. PMID:26547502

  18. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  19. On Disruption of Fear Memory by Reconsolidation Blockade: Evidence from Cannabidiol Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Cristina A J; Gazarini, Lucas; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Guimarães, Francisco S; Bertoglio, Leandro J

    2012-01-01

    The search for reconsolidation blockers may uncover clinically relevant drugs for disrupting memories of significant stressful life experiences, such as those underlying the posttraumatic stress disorder. Considering the safety of systemically administered cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa, to animals and humans, the present study sought to investigate whether and how this phytocannabinoid (3–30 mg/kg intraperitoneally; i.p.) could mitigate an established memory, by blockade of its reconsolidation, evaluated in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in rats. We report that CBD is able to disrupt 1- and 7-days-old memories when administered immediately, but not 6 h, after their retrieval for 3 min, with the dose of 10 mg/kg being the most effective. This effect persists in either case for at least 1 week, but is prevented when memory reactivation was omitted, or when the cannabinoid type-1 receptors were antagonized selectively with AM251 (1.0 mg/kg). Pretreatment with the serotonin type-1A receptor antagonist WAY100635, however, failed to block CBD effects. These results highlight that recent and older fear memories are equally vulnerable to disruption induced by CBD through reconsolidation blockade, with a consequent long-lasting relief in contextual fear-induced freezing. Importantly, this CBD effect is dependent on memory reactivation, restricted to time window of <6 h, and is possibly dependent on cannabinoid type-1 receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. We also observed that the fear memories disrupted by CBD treatment do not show reinstatement or spontaneous recovery over 22 days. These findings support the view that reconsolidation blockade, rather than facilitated extinction, accounts for the aforementioned CBD results in our experimental conditions. PMID:22549120

  20. Interception and disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Given sufficient warning we might try to avert a collision with a comet or asteroid by using beamed energy or by using the kinetic energy of an interceptor rocket. If motivated by the opportunity to convert the object into a space asset, perhaps a microgravity mine for construction materials or spacecraft fuels, we might try a rendezvous to implant a propulsion system of some sort. But the most cost-effective means of disruption is a nuclear explosive. In this paper, I discuss optimal tactics for terminal intercept, which can be extended to remote-interdiction scenarios as well. I show that the optimal mass ratio of an interceptor rock carrying a nuclear explosive depends mainly on the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the assailant-object closing velocity. I compare the effectiveness of stand-off detonation, surface burst, and penetration, for both deflection and pulverization, concluding that a penetrator has no clear advantage over a surface-burst device for deflection, but is a distinctly more capable pulverizer. The advantage of a stand-off device is to distribute the impulse more evenly over the surface of the object and to prevent fracture, an event which would greatly complicate the intercept problem. Finally, I present some results of a model for gravitationally bound objects and obtain the maximum non-fracturing deflection speed for a variety of object sizes and structures. For a single engagement, I conclude that the non-fracturing deflection speed obtainable with a stand-off device is about four times the speed obtainable with a surface-burst device. Furthermore, the non-fracturing deflection speed is somewhat dependent on the number of competent components of the object, the speed for a 13 component object being about twice that for a 135 component object.

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Disruption of Novel Object Recognition: Relevance for Psychostimulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Reilley, Kate J.; McLaughlin, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists are potentially valuable as therapeutics for the treatment of psychostimulant reward as they suppress dopamine signaling in reward circuitry to repress drug seeking behavior. However, KOR agonists are also associated with sedation and cognitive dysfunction. The extent to which learning and memory disruption or hypolocomotion underlie KOR agonists’ role in counteracting the rewarding effects of psychostimulants is of interest. C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with vehicle (saline, 0.9%), the KOR agonist (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1- pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488), or the peripherally-restricted agonist D-Phe-D-Phe-D-lle-D-Arg- NH2 (ffir-NH2), through central (i.c.v.) or peripheral (i.p.) routes of administration. Locomotor activity was assessed via activity monitoring chambers and rotorod. Cognitive performance was assessed in a novel object recognition task. Prolonged hypolocomotion was observed following administration of 1.0 and 10.0, but not 0.3 mg/kg U50,488. Central, but not peripheral, administration of ffir-NH2 (a KOR agonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier) also reduced motor behavior. Systemic pretreatment with the low dose of U50,488 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired performance in the novel object recognition task. Likewise, ffir-NH2 significantly reduced novel object recognition after central (i.c.v.), but not peripheral (i.p.), administration. U50,488- and ffir-NH2-mediated deficits in novel object recognition were prevented by pretreatment with KOR antagonists. Cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was subsequently assessed and was reduced by pretreatment with U50,488 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.). Together, these results suggest that the activation of centrally-located kappa opioid receptors may induce cognitive and mnemonic disruption independent of hypolocomotor effects which may contribute to the KOR-mediated suppression of psychostimulant reward. PMID:22900234

  3. Pretreatment of rice straw by a hot-compressed water process for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Hot-compressed water (HCW) is among several cost-effective pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present work investigated the characteristics of HCW pretreatment of rice straw including sugar production and inhibitor formation in the liquid fraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated material. Pretreatment was carried out at a temperature ranging from 140 to 240 degrees C for 10 or 30 min. Soluble oligosaccharides were found to constitute almost all the components of total sugars in the liquid fraction. The maximal production of total glucose at 180 degrees C and below accounted for 4.4-4.9% of glucan in raw material. Total xylose production peaked at 180 degrees C, accounting for 43.3% of xylan in raw material for 10-min pretreatment and 29.8% for 30-min pretreatment. The production of acetic acid increased at higher temperatures and longer treatment time, indicating more significant disruption of lignocellulosic structure, and furfural production achieved the maximum (2.8 mg/ml) at 200 degrees C for both 10-min and 30-min processes. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw was no less than 85% at 180 degrees C and above for 30-min pretreatment and at 200 degrees C and above for 10-min pretreatment. Considering sugar recovery, inhibitor formation, and process severity, it is recommended that a temperature of 180 degrees C for a time of 30 min can be the most efficient process for HCW pretreatment of rice straw.

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of these different forms of sleep disruption show deranged physiology from subcellular levels to complex affective behavior. In keeping with the multifaceted influence of sleep on health and well-being, we illustrate how the duration of sleep, its timing, and continuity can affect cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, metabolic and hormone regulation, mood, and vigilance. Recent brain imaging studies provide some clues on mechanisms underlying the most common cause of disrupted sleep (insomnia). These insights should ultimately result in adequate interventions to prevent and treat sleep disruption because of their high relevance to our most prevalent health problems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Disruption of the duration, timing, and continuity of sleep affects cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, appetite regulation, hormone production, vigilance, and reward functions. PMID:26468189

  6. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  7. Control of Disruptive Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, S. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In tokamak devices, at critical values of discharge parameters (n_ e, q(a), beta) the plasma can suddenly be terminated. The process is called a disruption. It is a major limitation in the operation of tokamaks, not only because of the limitation it imposes on the operation parameter space, but also due to the severe thermal and electromechanical loadings on the vessel. These difficulties and implications for fusion reactors have attracted increasing attention and a variety of approaches in the attempt to avoid, reduce or overcome the problem have been investigated. The growth of a magnetic perturbation is believed to be responsible for the disruptive process, and previous experiments have examined the effect on this perturbation of magnetic feedback. In DITE experiments have been done to extend this work by using a more sophisticated feedback loop. The detector-coils and feedback saddle-coils (configured to treat the m = 21, n = 1 structure which is dominant in disruption precursors) were mounted inside the vacuum vessel and fast programmable loop-gain and loop-phase controllers were used. Open-loop experiments contained studies of mode locking and plasma response to applied (2,1) fields. The feedback work explored the effect on disruption precursors over a large area in parameter space and was the first to address in detail the effect of feedback on disruptions. Both open-loop and feedback experiments were conducted on Ohmic discharges and discharges with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). The experiments have demonstrated disruption precursor control in both types of discharge. Disruptions were studied in Ohmic plasmas. They were postponed and the density limit was extended.

  8. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  9. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  10. Enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover by an integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Miao, Yelian; Jiang, Xuejian; Xu, Zidong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-04-01

    An integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment was applied to corn stover prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The effects of NaOH concentration in the pretreatment on crystalline structure, chemical composition, and reducing-sugar yield of corn stover were investigated, and the mechanism of increasing reducing-sugar yield by the pretreatment was discussed. The experimental results showed that the crystalline structure of corn stover was disrupted, and lignin was removed, while cellulose and hemicellulose were retained in corn stover by the pretreatment with 1% NaOH in 1 h. The reducing-sugar yield from the pretreated corn stovers increased from 20.2% to 46.7% when the NaOH concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The 1% NaOH pretreated corn stover had a holocellulose conversion of 55.1%. The increase in reducing-sugar yield was related to the crystalline structure disruption and delignification of corn stover. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the corn stover to sugars.

  11. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process

  12. The Disruptive Child's Play Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleck, Robert T.; Bleck, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects of the Disruptive Child's Play Group (DCPG) on the self-concept of children with disruptive behavior problems. Results indicated that counselors using structured play can have positive effects on the attitudes of disruptive children. The DCPG significantly increased self-concept scores of disruptive children. (RC)

  13. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  14. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

  15. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  16. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  17. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  18. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context. PMID:22130341

  19. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  1. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  2. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  3. Malaysian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Norzila; Reupert, Andrea; Sharma, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate Malaysian primary pre-service teachers' perceptions of students' disruptive behaviour and their self-reported strategies to prevent and to manage such behaviours. Results indicate that Malaysian pre-service teachers understand disruptive behaviours to be those that disrupt the learning and…

  4. Why disrupt homeostasis? Reasons given for not eating when hungry and not stopping when full.

    PubMed

    Outland, Lauren; Rust, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting homeostasis has negative health outcomes, yet disruption routinely occurs with weight homeostasis. This cross-sectional study of nurses found a majority overriding hunger and fullness cues due to situational, dieting, and emotional reasons. Because either splurging or starving can lead to excess weight, preventing homeostasis disruption through intuitive eating is healthier and more holistic. PMID:23774724

  5. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated with Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster…

  6. Quick profile-reoriganization driven by helical field perturbation for suppressing tokamak major disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.; Matsuoka, K.; Hirokura, S.; Kitagawa, S.; Mohri, A.; Tanahashi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Toi, K.

    1986-09-01

    Disruptive behavior of magnetic field configuration leading to tokamak major disruption is found to be controlled by a mild mini-disruption which is induced by the compact external modular multipole-field coils with m=3/n=2 dominant helical field component in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. This mini-disruption ergodizes the m=2/n=1 magnetic island quickly but mildly and then prevents the profile of electron temperature from flattening. This quick profile-reorganization is effective to avoid the two-step disruption (pre- and major disruptions) responsible for the catastrophic current termination.

  7. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. PMID:26282766

  8. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass.

  9. Resveratrol protects against 2-bromopropane-induced apoptosis and disruption of embryonic development in blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. In the present work, we show that 2-BP induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, and inhibits cell proliferation. Both effects are suppressed by resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 2-BP-treated blastocysts displayed lower levels of implantation (compared to controls) when plated on culture dishes in vitro, and a reduced ability to proceed to later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented 2-BP-induced disruption of embryonic development, both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation of these processes revealed that 2-BP directly promotes ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and activation of caspase-3, whereas resveratrol effectively blocks 2-BP-induced ROS production and the accompanying apoptotic biochemical changes. Our results collectively imply that 2-BP triggers the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway via ROS generation, and the antioxidant activity of resveratrol prevents 2-BP-induced toxicity. PMID:21954340

  10. Resveratrol Protects against 2-Bromopropane-Induced Apoptosis and Disruption of Embryonic Development in Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP) is used as an alternative to ozone-depleting cleaning solvents. Previously, we reported that 2-BP has cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and is associated with defects in subsequent development. In the present work, we show that 2-BP induces apoptosis in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, and inhibits cell proliferation. Both effects are suppressed by resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 2-BP-treated blastocysts displayed lower levels of implantation (compared to controls) when plated on culture dishes in vitro, and a reduced ability to proceed to later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented 2-BP-induced disruption of embryonic development, both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation of these processes revealed that 2-BP directly promotes ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and activation of caspase-3, whereas resveratrol effectively blocks 2-BP-induced ROS production and the accompanying apoptotic biochemical changes. Our results collectively imply that 2-BP triggers the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic pathway via ROS generation, and the antioxidant activity of resveratrol prevents 2-BP-induced toxicity. PMID:21954340

  11. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  12. Tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide a powerful probe of many astrophysical processes. They occur when the powerful tidal field around a black hole disrupts a passing star which is subsequently accreted. The resulting signal is a powerful X-ray, UV/opt and possibly even radio source, that provides us with a view of accretion aroud supermassive black holes from switch-on to switch-off over the timescale of years. TDEs probe accretion physics, the ubquity of black holes in galactic nuclei and dynamics in their cores, offering a novel route to addressing these issues. I will review observations of TDEs over the past decade, outlining how samples of candidates have been gradually building, and how they can be identified against other more common transient events. I will also discuss the implications of the discovery of a population of TDEs apparently launching relativisitc jets, and how these powerful transients may be detected in upcoming X-ray to radio surveys.

  13. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Bonnie HY; Wan, Hin T; Law, Alice YS

    2011-01-01

    In the past 200 years, an enormous number of synthetic chemicals with diverse structural features have been produced for industrial, medical and domestic purposes. These chemicals, originally thought to have little or no biological toxicity, are widely used in our daily lives as well as are commonly present in foods. It was not until the first World Wildlife Federation Wingspread Conference held in 1994 were concerns about the endocrine disrupting (ED) effects of these chemicals articulated. The potential hazardous effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health and ecological well-being are one of the global concerns that affect the health and propagation of human beings. Considerable numbers of studies indicated that endocrine disruption is linked to “the developmental basis of adult disease,” highlighting the significant effects of EDC exposure on a developing organism, leading to the propensity of an individual to develop a disease or dysfunction in later life. In this review, we intend to provide environmental, epidemiological and experimental data to associate pollutant exposure with reproductive disorders, in particular on the development and function of the male reproductive system. Possible effects of pollutant exposure on the processes of embryonic development, like sex determination and masculinization are described. In addition, the effects of pollutant exposure on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, testicular signaling, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are also discussed. PMID:22319671

  14. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  15. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  16. [Children's disruptive behavior].

    PubMed

    Aronen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    During normal development, a child learns to regulate her/his aggressions and follow the social norms of her/his community.This learning takes place in interaction with the environment. Risk factors associated with the child, parenthood and environment underlie the disruptive behavior. If a child of preschool/school age exhibits age group deviant difficulties in the management of aggression, defiant, rule-breaking behavior or difficulties in social relationships, there is every reason to get worried and to evaluate the child's symptoms and situation. The earlier the support and therapy is provided, the better are the possibilities to influence the prognosis of conduct disorders. PMID:27382832

  17. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  18. Partial Triceps Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Foulk, David M.; Galloway, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    Partial triceps tendon disruptions are a rare injury that can lead to debilitating outcomes if misdiagnosed or managed inappropriately. The clinician should have a high index of suspicion when the mechanism involves a fall onto an outstretched arm and there is resultant elbow extension weakness along with pain and swelling. The most common location of rupture is at the tendon-osseous junction. This case report illustrates a partial triceps tendon disruption with involvement of, primarily, the medial head and the superficial expansion. Physical examination displayed weakness with resisted elbow extension in a flexed position over 90°. Radiographs revealed a tiny fleck of bone proximal to the olecranon, but this drastically underestimated the extent of injury upon surgical exploration. Magnetic resonance imaging is essential to ascertain the percentage involvement of the tendon; it can be used for patient education and subsequently to determine treatment recommendations. Although excellent at finding associated pathology, it may misjudge the size of the tear. As such, physicians must consider associated comorbidities and patient characteristics when formulating treatment plans. PMID:23016005

  19. Climate disruption and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-07-28

    'Global warming' may be a familiar term, but it is seriously misleading. Human actions are causing a massive disruption to the planet's climate that is severe, rapid, very variable over space and time, and highly complex. The biosphere itself is complex and its responses to even simple changes are difficult to predict in detail. One can likely only be certain that many changes will be unexpected and some unfortunate. Even the simple, slow warming of the climate will produce complex consequences to species numbers and distributions because of how species depend on each other. An alternative approach to worrying about details is to concentrate on understanding the most significant ecological changes, ones that are irreversible--so-called 'tipping points'. Once such a point has been passed, even if society managed to restore historical climatic conditions, it might not restore the historical ecological patterns. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the loss of species, for we cannot recreate them. Climate disruptions may cause the loss of a large fraction of the planet's biodiversity, even if the only mechanism were to be species ranges moving uphill as temperatures rise.

  20. Hydrophilic bile acids protect human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from disruption by unconjugated bilirubin: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Inês; Correia, Leonor; Silva, Rui F. M.; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kim, Kwang S.; Brites, Dora; Brito, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid and its main conjugate glycoursodeoxycholic acid are bile acids with neuroprotective properties. Our previous studies demonstrated their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in neural cells exposed to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as in severe jaundice. In a simplified model of the blood-brain barrier, formed by confluent monolayers of a cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, UCB has shown to induce caspase-3 activation and cell death, as well as interleukin-6 release and a loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. Here, we tested the preventive and restorative effects of these bile acids regarding the disruption of blood-brain barrier properties by UCB in in vitro conditions mimicking severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and using the same experimental blood-brain barrier model. Both bile acids reduced the apoptotic cell death induced by UCB, but only glycoursodeoxycholic acid significantly counteracted caspase-3 activation. Bile acids also prevented the upregulation of interleukin-6 mRNA, whereas only ursodeoxycholic acid abrogated cytokine release. Regarding barrier integrity, only ursodeoxycholic acid abrogated UCB-induced barrier permeability. Better protective effects were obtained by bile acid pre-treatment, but a strong efficacy was still observed by their addition after UCB treatment. Finally, both bile acids showed ability to cross confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. Collectively, data disclose a therapeutic time-window for preventive and restorative effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and glycoursodeoxycholic acid against UCB-induced blood-brain barrier disruption and damage to human brain microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:25821432

  1. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment.

  2. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies.

  3. Enhancement of pigment extraction from B. braunii pretreated using CO2 rapid depressurization.

    PubMed

    Uquiche, Edgar; Antilaf, Ivette; Millao, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of compounds from microalgae requires cell disruption as a pretreatment to increase extraction yield. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with a significant content of carotenoids and other antioxidant compounds, such as chlorophylls. Cell disruption of B. braunii using CO2 rapid depressurization was studied as a pretreatment for the extraction of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. We studied the effect of temperature (21-49°C) and pressure (6-13MPa) during static compression on pigment recovery with supercritical CO2 at 40°C, 30MPa and solvent flow of 4.7LNPT/min. Within the experimental region, the extraction yield of carotenoids and chlorophylls increased by 2.4- and 2.2-fold respectively. Static compression conditions of high pressure and low temperature increased the extraction of carotenoids and especially chlorophylls. We selected 21°C and 13MPa as the cell disruption condition, which produced 1.91g/kg d.s. of carotenoids and 14.03mg/kg d.s. of chlorophylls. Pretreated microalga gave a 10-fold higher chlorophyll extraction yield compared to the untreated sample. While for carotenoids and tocopherols were 1.25 and 1.14-fold higher, respectively. Additionally, antioxidant activity of pretreated microalga (33.22mmol TE/kg oil) was significantly higher than the value for the untreated samples (29.11mmol TE/kg oil) (p≤0.05). Confocal microscopy images showed morphological differences between micro-colonies with and without disruption treatment, suggesting that partial cell disruption by rapid depressurization improved the extraction of microalga compounds. PMID:26991281

  4. Selective Disruption of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Signaling via Phosphoinositide-dependent Kinase-1 Prevents the Protective Effect of IGF-1 on Human Cancer Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Alberobello, A. Teresa; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Marasco, Daniela; Doti, Nunzianna; Ruvo, Menotti; Bianco, Roberto; Tortora, Giampaolo; Esposito, Iolanda; Fiory, Francesca; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling system exerts a broad antiapoptotic function and plays a crucial role in resistance to anticancer therapies. Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to IGF-1 rapidly and transiently induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). This was paralleled by Akt/protein kinase B and protein kinase C-ζ phosphorylation, at Thr308 and Thr410, respectively. IGF-1 treatment also enhanced PDK1 interaction with IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in intact MCF-7 cells. Pulldown assays revealed that PDK1 bound IGF-1R in vitro and that the region encompassing amino acids 51–359 of PDK1 was necessary for the interaction. Synthetic peptides corresponding to IGF-1R C terminus amino acids 1295–1337 (C43) and to PDK1 amino acids 114–141 reduced in vitro IGF-1R/PDK1 interaction in a concentration-dependent manner. Loading of fluoresceinated-C43 (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-C43) into MCF-7 cells significantly reduced IGF-1R/PDK1 interaction and phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates. Moreover, FITC-C43 intracellular loading reverted the protective effect of IGF-1 on growth factor deprivation-induced cell death. Finally, the inhibition of IGF-1R/PDK1 interaction and signaling by FITC-C43 was accompanied by 2-fold enhanced killing capacity of cetuximab in human GEO colon adenocarcinoma cells and was sufficient to restore cell death in cetuximab-resistant cell clones. Thus, disruption of PDK1 interaction with IGF-1R reduces IGF-1 survival effects in cancer cells and may enhance cell death by anticancer agents. PMID:20044479

  5. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing sources (PSES). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of this... source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of... the pollution prevention allowable discharge pretreatment standard by submitting to the local...

  6. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for existing sources (PSES). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b... existing source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable... intent to achieve the pollution prevention allowable discharge pretreatment standard by submitting to...

  7. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  8. Disruptive Youth Programs in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peggy G.

    This document describes the work of the Pupil Services Branch of the Maryland State Department of Education in its efforts to assist school districts and individual schools in the state in examining the causes of student disruption and in developing programs that are aimed at impacting disruptive students and creating more effective schools. A…

  9. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  10. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  11. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  12. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  13. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  14. Disruption of Membranes of Extracellular Vesicles Is Necessary for ELISA Determination of Urine AQP2: Proof of Disruption and Epitopes of AQP2 Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nameta, Masaaki; Saijo, Yoko; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Katsuragi, Kiyonori; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Sasaki, Sei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is present in urine extracellular vesicles (EVs) and is a useful biomarker for water balance disorders. We previously found that pre-treatment of urine with alkali/detergent or storage at −25 °C is required for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement. We speculated that disruptions of EVs membranes are necessary to allow for the direct contact of antibodies with their epitopes. Human urine EVs were prepared using an ultracentrifugation method. Urine EV samples were stored at different temperatures for a week. Electron microscopy showed abundant EVs with diameters of 20–100 nm, consistent with those of exosomes, in normal urine, whereas samples from alkali/detergent pre-treated urine showed fewer EVs with large swollen shapes and frequent membrane disruptions. The abundance and structures of EVs were maintained during storage at −80 °C, but were severely damaged at −25 °C. Binding and competitive inhibition assays showed that epitopes of monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antibody were the hydrophilic Loop D and C-terminus of AQP2, respectively, both of which are present on the inner surface of EVs. Thus, urine storage at −25 °C or pre-treatment with alkali/detergent disrupt EVs membranes and allow AQP2 antibodies to bind to their epitopes located inside EVs. PMID:27681727

  15. Tidal disruption event demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb < 10-1 yr (37 d), and 84 per cent having longer time-scales. Many residual rate discrepancies can be explained if surveys are biased against TDEs with these longer tfb, which seems very plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  16. When Disruptive Approaches Meet Disruptive Technologies: Learning at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research on constructivism in learning and selection of learning strategies. Suggests linking constructivism with instructional technologies for continuing medical education in order to "disrupt" reactive, habitual ways of learning and encourage active engagement. (SK)

  17. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  18. Classification of disruptions in PBX

    SciTech Connect

    Itami, K.; Jahns, G.; Yamada, H.; McGuire, K.

    1985-09-01

    Disruptions in beam-heated plasmas on PBX were studied by classifying precursor oscillations detected by a soft x-ray imaging system and Mirnov coils. A data base consisting of 80 discharges was constructed. In low I/sub p/ operation, attainable ..beta../sub T/ values are limited by disruptions preceded by m = 1 activity at the center and coupled an m/n = even/1 mode. In high I/sub p/ and high ..beta../sub T/ operation with high indentation, the sawtooth activity disappears. At these disruptions the plasma loses vertical position or distorts on a relatively fast time scale (<100 microseconds).

  19. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  20. Pretreatment of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity in the range of 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed carbon dioxide 2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H sub 2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commerically-available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above caused an initial dip in observed CO or O sub 2 loss or CO sub 2 formation in a test gas mixture of 1 percent CO and 0.5 percent O sub 2 in a He gas matrix before a steady-state yield was obtained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the surface of the catalyst and was readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the test gas mixture. It was also found that too much moisture resulted in a lower overall yield of CO sub 2. Under similar conditions, it is hypothesized that the effect of the humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the surface of the catalyst. The effect of having high concentration of CO sub 2 in the test gas mixture upon the loss of CO and O sub 2 as well as the effect of periods of relaxation of the catalyst under non-test gas conditions was studied. The purpose of these studies was to gain an insight into the mechanism of CO oxidation on this type of catalyst.

  1. Near-infrared fluorescent imaging of cerebral thrombi and blood-brain barrier disruption in a mouse model of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Eog; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Jaffer, Farouc A; Weissleder, Ralph; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2005-02-01

    An intravital microscopy imaging method was developed to visualize active cerebral thrombus and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using Near Infrared Fluorescent (NIRF) probes. A circular craniotomy was made in CD-1 mice. Thrombi were formed by applying 10%-FeCl3 to the entire exposed superior sagittal sinus (SSS, 5 mm), or to the posterior 2.5 mm of the SSS for 5 mins. Control animals were pretreated with heparin (50 U/kg) before thrombus induction. Three hours after thrombus formation, a FXIIIa-targeted NIRF imaging probe (A15) was intravenously injected, and the SSS was imaged by intravital microscopy. This was followed by injection of indocyanine green (ICG) to assess BBB permeability. The A15 optical probe bound to thrombus, and the fluorescent signal emitted by the bound agent corresponded well with histologically confirmed thrombus. A15 initially remained intravascular, followed by excretion and subsequent decrease in all tissues except for thrombus, where it was retained. The subsequent ICG was also intravascular immediately after injection, but then began to leak into the cerebral parenchyma at 3 to 5 mins. The sites of leakage were adjacent to thrombosed areas. Heparin pretreatment prevented thrombus formation and reduced ICG leakage significantly. This demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous in vivo monitoring of thrombus and BBB permeability in an animal model of cerebral venous thrombosis.

  2. Dilute Acid and Autohydrolysis Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210°C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such “steam gun” devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems.

  3. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  4. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  5. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  6. Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.

  7. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. PMID:25812996

  8. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    DOEpatents

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  9. Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope.

  10. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20161077

  11. A Dark Year for Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Main-sequence disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes result in the production of an extended, geometrically thin debris stream winding repeatedly around the black hole. In the absence of black hole spin, in-plane relativistic precession causes this stream to intersect with itself after a single winding. In this paper we show that relativistic precessions arising from black hole spin can induce deflections out of the original orbital plane that prevent the stream from self-intersecting even after many windings. This naturally leads to a “dark period” in which the flare is not observable for some time, persisting for up to a dozen orbital periods of the most bound material, which translates to years for disruptions around black holes with masses ∼ {10}7{M}ȯ . When the stream eventually self-intersects, the distance from the black hole and the angle at which this collision occurs determine the rate of energy dissipation. We find that more-massive black holes ({M}{{h}}≳ {10}7{M}ȯ ) tend to have more violent stream self-intersections, resulting in prompt accretion. For these tidal disruption events (TDEs), the accretion rate onto the black hole should still closely follow the original fallback rate after a fixed delay time {t}{delay}, {\\dot{M}}{acc}(t+{t}{delay})={\\dot{M}}{fb}(t). For lower black hole masses ({M}{{h}}≲ {10}6), we find that flares are typically slowed down by about an order of magnitude, resulting in the majority of TDEs being sub-Eddington at peak. This also implies that current searches for TDEs are biased toward prompt flares, with slowed flares likely having been unidentified.

  12. Supercritical ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y.C.T.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A pretreatment technique using ammonia in a supercritical or near-critical fluid state was shown to substantially enhance the susceptibility of polysaccharides in lignocellulosics to subsequent hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei cellulase. Near-theoretical conversion of cellulose and 70-80% conversion of hemicellulose to sugars from supercritical ammonia pretreated hardwoods or agricultural byproducts were obtained with a small dosage of cellulase. This technique was less effective toward softwoods. The pretreatment results are discussed in light of the properties of supercritical fluids.

  13. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  14. Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  15. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  16. Online Education Cast as "Disruptive Innovation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based forces of "disruptive innovation" are gathering around public education and will overhaul the way K-12 students learn--with potentially dramatic consequences for established public schools, according to an upcoming book that draws parallels to disruptions in other industries. In his "Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation…

  17. Hydrothermal pre-treatment of rapeseed straw.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Manuel J; Cara, Cristóbal; Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-04-01

    As a first step for ethanol production from alternative raw materials, rapeseed straw was studied for fermentable sugar production. Liquid hot water was used as a pre-treatment method and the influence of the main pre-treatment variables was assessed. Experimental design and response surface methodology were applied using pre-treatment temperature and process time as factors. The pretreated solids were further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and the corresponding yields were used as pre-treatment performance evaluation. Liquid fractions obtained from pre-treatment were also characterized in terms of sugars and no-sugar composition. A mathematical model describing pre-treatment effects is proposed. Results show that enzymatic hydrolysis yields near to 100% based on pretreated materials can be achieved at 210-220 degrees C for 30-50 min, equivalent to near 70% of glucose present in the raw material. According to the mathematical model, a softer pre-treatment at 193 degrees C for 27 min results in 65% of glucose and 39% of xylose available for fermentation.

  18. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  19. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver.

    PubMed

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-02-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:27111891

  20. Disruption of zinc homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. D.; Crafford, A. M.; Markesbery, W. R.; Lovell, M. A.

    2002-04-01

    The basic hypothesis being tested is that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the delicate balance of brain Zn is disrupted and may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuron degeneration. Micro-PIXE measurements reveal a significant elevation of Zn in senile plaques (SP) in AD brain compared with adjacent neuropil and a significant increase in AD neuropil compared to control neuropil. The observation of elevated Zn in SP is of interest because the amyloid precursor protein contains a Zn binding site that may prevent normal cleavage leading to the generation of a toxic fragment of beta amyloid, the constituent of SP. The potential of using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a complimentary microprobe technique is also presented.

  1. Tidal disruption of dissipative planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, H.; Boss, A. P.

    1985-07-01

    A self-consistent numerical model is developed for the tidal disruption of a solid planetesimal. The planetesimal is treated as a highly viscous, slightly compressible fluid whose disturbed parts are an inviscid, pressureless fluid undergoing distortion and disruption. The distortions were constrained to being symmetrical above and below the equatorial plane. The tidal potential is expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, which eliminates the center of mass acceleration effects, permitting definition of equations of motion in a noninertial frame. Consideration is given to viscous dissipation and to characteristics of the solid-atmosphere boundary. The model is applied to sample cases in one, two and three dimensions.

  2. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Disruption avoidance through active magnetic feedback in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Zanca, Paolo; Yanovskiy, Vadim; Finotti, Claudio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Piron, Chiara; Carraro, Lorella; Franz, Paolo; RFX Team

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions avoidance and mitigation is a fundamental need for a fusion relevant tokamak. In this paper a new experimental approach for disruption avoidance using active magnetic feedback is presented. This scheme has been implemented and tested on the RFX-mod device operating as a circular tokamak. RFX-mod has a very complete system designed for active mode control that has been proved successful for the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs). In particular the current driven 2/1 mode, unstable when the edge safety factor, qa, is around (or even less than) 2, has been shown to be fully and robustly stabilized. However, at values of qa (qa > 3), the control of the tearing 2/1 mode has been proved difficult. These results suggested the idea to prevent disruptions by suddenly lowering qa to values around 2 where the tearing 2/1 is converted to a RWM. Contrary to the universally accepted idea that the tokamaks should disrupt at low qa, we demonstrate that in presence of a well designed active control system, tokamak plasmas can be driven to low qa actively stabilized states avoiding plasma disruption with practically no loss of the plasma internal energy.

  4. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  5. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. PMID:26080028

  6. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs.

  7. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  8. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Protects from Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, Uwe; Szabo, Attila; Hamar, Peter; Müller, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Lutz, Jens; Philipp, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In vivo administration of low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rodents can protect these animals from subsequently administrated, usually lethal doses of endotoxin or LPS. In this study we tested the effects of LPS pretreatment on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Male C57/B1 mice were pretreated with different doses of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline on days −4 and −3. The right kidney was removed, and the vessels of the left kidney were clamped for 30 or 45 minutes on day 0. Creatinine levels and survival of animals were monitored. To test the involvement of cytokines, additional animals were harvested before (“time 0”) and 15 minutes, 1, 2, 8, and 16 hours after reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interferon (IFN)-γ messenger RNA (mRNA)). In controls, renal ischemia of 30 minutes was nonlethal, whereas 73% of the animals died within 48 ± 18 hours, after 45 minutes of ischemia. All different doses of LPS protected the animals from lethal renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Starting at similar levels, serum creatinine increased significantly in controls but not in LPS-pretreated animals over time. As early as 2 hours after reperfusion, tubular cell damage was significantly more pronounced in controls than in LPS-treated mice. In controls, tubules deteriorated progressively until 8 hours of reperfusion. At this time, more than 50% of tubular cells were destroyed. This destruction was accompanied by a pronounced leukocytic infiltration, predominantly by macrophages. In contrast, LPS pretreatment prevented the destruction of kidney tissue and infiltration by leukocytes. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay revealed significantly more apoptotic cells in

  10. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  11. The Convergence of Environmental Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Marshall I.

    1970-01-01

    Considers reasons for water, air, and land pollution in the Soviet Union, incentives to pollute under socialism and the advantages socialism has for environmental management. Concludes that industrialization, not private enterprise, causes environmental disruption, and that strongly centralized planned economics do not necessarily avoid…

  12. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  13. Workshop on Stellar Tidal Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Glennys R.

    2012-04-01

    The past year has seen major advances in the observational status of Stellar Tidal Disruption, with the discovery of two strong optical candidates in archived SDSS data and the real-time X-ray detection of Swift J1644+57, plus rapid radio and optical follow-up establishing it as a probable Tidal Disruption Flare (TDF) in ``blazar mode''. These observations motivated a workshop devoted to discussion of such events and of the theory of their emission and flare rate. Observational contributions included a presentation of Swift J2058+05 (a possible second example of a TDF in blazar mode), reports on the late-time evolution and X-ray variability of the two Swift events, and a proposal that additional candidates may be evidenced by spectral signatures in SDSS. Theory presentations included models of radio emission, theory of light curves and the proposal that GRB101225A may be the Galactic tidal disruption of a neutron star, an interpretation of Swift J1644+57 as due to the disruption of a white dwarf instead of main-sequence star, calculation of the dependence of the TDF rate on the spin of the black hole, and analysis of the SDSS events, fitting their SEDs to profiles of thoretical emission from accretion disks and showing that their luminosity and rate are consistent with the proposal that TDEs can be responsible for UHECR acceleration.

  14. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  16. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    PubMed

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  17. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in § 442... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  18. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of this section, any... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in § 442... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  19. Effect of L-ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Fischer (F344/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1993-12-31

    Some studies have indicated that cadmium-induced lethality and selective injurious effects to specific tissues, such as testes or liver, can be prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid). However, the basis of this tolerance is unclear. We examined the effects of ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) rats. Cadmium treatment alone (25 mumol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) proved lethal, causing a 93% mortality within 72 h, but in rats pretreated with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg, s.c. 24, 12 and 1 h) cadmium-induced lethality was nearly prevented. Hepatic lesions, including hepatocellular necrosis, induced by cadmium were at least partially ameliorated by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Ascorbic acid pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions nor on cadmium content in testes, liver, kidney and urine. Ascorbic acid alone modestly increased hepatic metallothionein (MT), but not renal MT and had no effect on induction of hepatic or renal MT by cadmium. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in rats exposed to cadmium alone decreased markedly. Moreover, the level of TCBP decreased unexpectedly in ascorbic acid pretreated rats as compared with control. These results indicate that ascorbic acid pretreatment decreases the toxicity of cadmium in the rat without markedly modifying its toxicokinetics or markedly stimulating MT synthesis. PMID:8303714

  20. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L.; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A.; Federici, Lauren M.; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT (a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5 days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ∼40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. PMID:26476009

  1. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. PMID:26476009

  2. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC.

  3. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  4. Engineering of a high-throughput screening system to identify cellulosic biomass, pretreatments, and enzyme formulations that enhance sugar release.

    PubMed

    Studer, Michael H; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; Brethauer, Simone; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    The recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the only abundant, sustainable feedstock for making liquid fuels, is a primary obstacle to low cost biological processing, and development of more easily converted plants and more effective enzymes would be of great benefit. Because no single parameter describes recalcitrance, superior variants can only be identified by measuring sugar release from plants subjected to pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, genetic modifications of plants coupled with molecular engineering of deconstruction proteins and definition of pretreatment conditions create a very large sample set, and previous methods for biomass pretreatment at elevated temperatures and pressures prevented use of a fully integrated high-throughput (HTP) screening pipeline. Herein, we report on the engineering of a novel HTP pretreatment system employing a 96 well-plate format that withstands extreme pretreatment conditions for rapid screening of biomass-enzyme-pretreatment combinations. This includes the development of new approaches to steam heating and water quenching the system that result in much faster heat up and cool down than previously possible and show consistent temperature histories across the multiwell plate. Coupled pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the well plate pretreatment system is shown to be consistent among the many wells in the device and also with performance of conventional tubular reactors.

  5. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  6. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future.

  7. Diagnosis and therapy for the disruptive physician.

    PubMed

    Kissoon, Niranjan; Lapenta, Susan; Armstrong, George

    2002-01-01

    A disruptive physician can alienate staff, drive away patients, and even land your organization in a lawsuit. Consider some practical advice on how to identify and deal with disruptive physicians. PMID:11806231

  8. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT) pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar) and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum). Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum), and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan). Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly different, suggesting that

  9. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness.

  10. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  11. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  12. Revision Hope: Writing Disruption in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Uses Roland Barthes's metaphor of the "punctum" to explore the transformative potential of disruptions. Argues that writing teachers have been trained to read disruption in texts and classrooms as "evidence of poor taste or failed pedagogy," but that disruptions delay closure and thereby create spaces wherein theories and relationships can be…

  13. Powerful peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment process for the efficient chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Uju; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a new method for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) using a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment with ionic liquid (IL)-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of LBs with PAA disrupted the lignin fractions, enhanced the dissolution of LB and led to a significant increase in the initial rate of the IL-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of Bagasse with PAA prior to its 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis, led to an improvement in the cellulose conversion from 20% to 70% in 1.5h. Interestingly, the 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride ([Bmpy][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis of Bagasse gave a cellulose conversion greater than 80%, with or without the PAA pretreatment. For LB derived from seaweed waste, the cellulose conversion reached 98% in 1h. The strong hydrolysis power of [Bmpy][Cl] was attributed to its ability to transform cellulose I to II, and lowering the degree of polymerization of cellulose. PMID:27174616

  14. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  15. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic) hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs. PMID:25334065

  16. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  17. Pretreating cellulosic substrates and producing sugar therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.

    1980-12-02

    Saccharification of mineral acid-pretreated oakwood chips with cellulase (I) from Trichoderma viride resulted in manufacture of glucose (II) in high yield. The II was obtained in 90.4% yield when the chips were pretreated with 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 189/sup 0/ and saccharified with I for 48 hours. The method is also applicable to cellulosic wastes such as waste newspapers, and the product may be further fermented to produce ethanol for fuel use.

  18. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. Coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g. acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Prabha, Swayam; Hurren, Rose; Rutledge, Angela C.; Lee, Anna Y.; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Sun, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming; Skrtic, Marko; Seneviratne, Ayesh; Cusimano, Maria; Jhas, Bozhena; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Cho, Eunice E.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Gebbia, Marinella; Urbanus, Malene; Eppert, Kolja; Dissanayake, Dilan; Jonet, Alexia; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoming; Datti, Alessandro; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Wrana, Jeff; Rogers, Ian; Sonnet, Pascal; Ellis, William Y.; Corey, Seth J.; Eaves, Connie; Minden, Mark D.; Wang, Jean C.Y.; Dick, John E.; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and AML stem cells in a panel of leukemia cell lines and in mice. Using a yeast genome-wide functional screen for mefloquine sensitizers, we identified genes associated with the yeast vacuole, the homolog of the mammalian lysosome. Consistent with this, we determined that mefloquine disrupts lysosomes, directly permeabilizes the lysosome membrane, and releases cathepsins into the cytosol. Knockdown of the lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 resulted in decreased cell viability, as did treatment of AML cells with known lysosome disrupters. Highlighting a potential therapeutic rationale for this strategy, leukemic cells had significantly larger lysosomes compared with normal cells, and leukemia-initiating cells overexpressed lysosomal biogenesis genes. These results demonstrate that lysosomal disruption preferentially targets AML cells and AML progenitor cells, providing a rationale for testing lysosomal disruption as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:23202731

  20. Hypoxic preconditioning decreases nuclear factor κB activity via Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ren; Liu, Qian; Khoury, Joseph; Li, Yue-Jin; Han, Xiao-Hui; Li, Jing; Ibla, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB is a key mediator of inflammation during conditions of hypoxia. Here, we used models of hypoxic pre-conditioning as mechanism to decrease nuclear factor κB activity induced by hypoxia. Our initial studies suggested that Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 may be induced by hypoxic pre-conditioning and possibly involved in the regulation of nuclear factor κB. In this study we used Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 exogenous over-expression and knock-down to determine its effect on ataxia telangiectasia mutated--nuclear factor κB activation cascade. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic pre-conditioning significantly increased the expression of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 at mRNA and protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. Over-expression of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 significantly attenuated the hypoxia-mediated ataxia telangiectasia mutated phosphorylation and prevented its cytoplasm translocation where it functions to activate nuclear factor κB. We further determined that Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 activated the protein phosphatase 2A, preventing the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine-1981, the main regulatory site of ataxia telangiectasia mutated activity. Cellular levels of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 protein significantly decreased nuclear factor κB activation profiles and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypoxic pre-conditioning decreases the activation of nuclear factor κB through the transcriptional induction of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1.

  1. Probiotics Prevent Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Induction of Ileal Mucosal Glutathione Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Sandström, Per A.; Trulsson, Lena M.; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Timmerman, Harro M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Söderholm, Johan D.

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and 51Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4±33.5 vs. placebo 223.7±93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), 51Cr-EDTA flux (16.7±10.1 vs. 32.1±10.0 cm/s10−6; P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42±0.13 vs. 1.62±0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33±1.47 vs. 8.82±1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33±1.47 vs. 10.70±1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88±1.21 vs. placebo 1.94±0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0

  2. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, Jacob I.

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  3. Environmental disruption or environmental improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    Paul Ehrich's concern for environmental disruption (Social Sci. Quarterly, 62, No. 1, 1981) are challenged here by Simon as unsubstantiated scare rhetoric. The refutation focuses on whether Ehrlich disregards history and oversimplifies the relationship between ecology and the social sciences. Simon notes that although historical data is shown to contradict Ehrlich's past predictions, his style of using soft data and identifying with the lay reader finds a receptive audience among those seeking understandable and value-free answers. 24 references, 6 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  4. Circadian Disruption in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie G; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that abnormalities in circadian rhythms might prove causally or pathophysiologically significant in psychiatric illness. The circadian regulation of hormonal and behavioral timekeeping processes is often altered in patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, and a susceptibility to rhythm instability may contribute to the functional impairment. For some patients, interventions that stabilize or resynchronize circadian rhythms prove therapeutically effective. Circadian disruption in the clinical profiles of most psychiatric illnesses and the treatment efficacy of chronobiological interventions suggest that attention to circadian phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders may help to uncover shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26568124

  5. Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Sunwoo, Changshin; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has gained attention for production of biofuels. In this study, pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia was adopted for pretreatment of biomass for ethanol production. A central composite design of response surface methodology was used for optimization of the pretreatment condition of rapeseed straw, with respect to catalyst concentration, pretreatment time, and pretreatment temperature. The most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia was 19.8% of ammonia water, 14.2 h of pretreatment time, and a pretreatment temperature of 69.0 °C. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions, 60.7% of theoretical glucose was obtained, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. SEM results showed that SAA pretreatment of rapeseed straw resulted in increased surface area and pore size, as well as enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

  6. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  7. Transgenerational neuroendocrine disruption of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with dysfunctions of metabolism, energy balance, thyroid function and reproduction, and an increased risk of endocrine cancers. These multifactorial disorders can be ‘programmed’ through molecular epigenetic changes induced by exposure to EDCs early in life, the expression of which may not manifest until adulthood. In some cases, EDCs have detrimental effects on subsequent generations, which indicates that traits for disease predisposition may be passed to future generations by nongenomic inheritance. This Review discusses current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie sexual differentiation of reproductive neuroendocrine systems in mammals and summarizes the literature on transgenerational epigenetic effects of representative EDCs: vinclozolin, diethylstilbesterol, bisphenol A and polychlorinated biphenyls. The article differentiates between context-dependent epigenetic transgenerational changes—namely, those that require environmental exposure, either via the EDC itself or through behavioral or physiological differences in parents—and germline-dependent epigenetic mechanisms. These processes, albeit discrete, are not mutually exclusive and can involve similar molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications and may predispose exposed individuals to transgenerational disruption of reproductive processes. New insights stress the crucial need to develop a clear understanding of how EDCs may program the epigenome of exposed individuals and their descendants. PMID:21263448

  8. Introduction: circadian rhythm and its disruption: impact on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F; Gladanac, Bojana

    2014-08-01

    Almost all forms of life have predictable daily or circadian rhythms in molecular, endocrine, and behavioral functions. In mammals, a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates the timing of these rhythms. Daily light exposure that affects the retina of the eye directly influences this area, which is required to align endogenous processes to the appropriate time of day. The present "Views and Reviews" articles discuss the influence of circadian rhythms, especially nightly secretion of melatonin, on reproductive function and parturition. In addition, an examination is made of problems that arise from recurrent circadian rhythm disruption associated with changes in light exposure patterns common to modern day society. Finally, a possible solution to prevent disruptions in circadian phase markers by filtering out short wavelengths from nocturnal light is reviewed.

  9. Silences and moral narratives: infanticide as reproductive disruption.

    PubMed

    Aengst, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Infanticide is a widespread practice, yet few ethnographic and theoretical works examine this. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Indian Himalayas, I argue that infanticide is a form of reproductive disruption that elicits both public moral judgments and private silences. In this Himalayan context, the stigmas of abortion and premarital sex prevent community acknowledgement of infanticide and baby abandonment. Unmarried women hide their pregnancies, deliver and abandon their babies, and later are rushed to the hospital with postdelivery complications. While biomedical doctors deal with the debris of infanticide (postpartum hemorrhage), there is no formal accounting of the practice. I argue that by regarding infanticide as a form of reproductive disruption, we can open up women's narratives of pain and suffering that are silenced because of moral repugnance.

  10. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  11. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  12. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buchta, William C; Riegel, Arthur C

    2015-12-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extrasynaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts.

  13. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buchta, William C; Riegel, Arthur C

    2015-12-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extrasynaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts. PMID:25704202

  14. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Buchta, William C.; Riegel, Arthur C.

    2016-01-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extra-synaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts. PMID:25704202

  15. Primary realignment of the disrupted prostatomembranous urethra.

    PubMed

    Devine, C J; Jordan, G H; Devine, P C

    1989-05-01

    Urethral scarring resulting in stricture formation can be avoided or minimized by proper treatment after injury. On presentation of the trauma patient, the possibility of such injury must be suspected and the urethra evaluated prior to any attempts at catheter placement. Diversion in all cases of posterior urethral injury should be by a suprapubic tube, with any urinary extravasation drained at the site of the injury. If the patient's general condition allows it, the disrupted urethra should be realigned by a catheter after the puboprostatic ligaments have been divided. These measures allow the prostate to return to the urogenital diaphragm without tension and in line with the distal urethra. Until the prostate is released, no amount of traction will reapproximate the urethra, and after it is released, traction is not necessary. The suprapubic catheter provides diversion, preventing further complications caused by urinary extravasation; urethral alignment minimizes subsequent stricture formation. When the stricture develops, if it is urodynamically significant, it can be repaired in 4 to 6 months. If one is fortunate, the stricture will be short and amenable to internal urethrotomy. If not, open reconstruction will be greatly facilitated by the attempts to guide the distracted ends of the urethra together. PMID:2711547

  16. Corn fiber, cobs and stover: enzyme-aided saccharification and co-fermentation after dilute acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Van Eylen, David; van Dongen, Femke; Kabel, Mirjam; de Bont, Jan

    2011-05-01

    Three corn feedstocks (fibers, cobs and stover) available for sustainable second generation bioethanol production were subjected to pretreatments with the aim of preventing formation of yeast-inhibiting sugar-degradation products. After pretreatment, monosaccharides, soluble oligosaccharides and residual sugars were quantified. The size of the soluble xylans was estimated by size exclusion chromatography. The pretreatments resulted in relatively low monosaccharide release, but conditions were reached to obtain most of the xylan-structures in the soluble part. A state of the art commercial enzyme preparation, Cellic CTec2, was tested in hydrolyzing these dilute acid-pretreated feedstocks. The xylose and glucose liberated were fermented by a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. In the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation system employed, a concentration of more than 5% (v/v) (0.2g per g of dry matter) of ethanol was reached. PMID:21392979

  17. Pretreatment of synthetic vascular grafts with heparin before implantation, a simple technique to reduce the risk of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gerrah, Rabin; Sunstrom Pa-C, Rachel E; Hohimer, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    Thrombosis of synthetic grafts commonly used in cardiovascular surgery is a major complication. We examined whether pretreatment of the graft with heparin reduces the risk of early thrombosis. A circuit was assembled to compare two pairs of shunts simultaneously in the same animal. The study shunts were pretreated with heparin. After 2 hours of circulation, clot formation was evaluated by image analysis techniques. The pretreated grafts had fewer blood clots adhered to the surface by direct visual inspection. The image analysis showed 5 vs. 39 clots, 0.01% vs. 1.8% clotted area, and 62 vs. 5630 clot pixel area between the treated and non-treated grafts respectively, p < 0.05. Pretreatment of the synthetic graft with heparin prior to implantation reduces the risk of early clot formation. This simple practice might be helpful to prevent initial thrombosis of the graft and later occlusion.

  18. Naloxone potentiates the disruptive effects of mescaline on operant responding in the rat.

    PubMed

    Commissaris, R L; Moore, K E; Rech, R H

    1980-10-01

    Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a lever on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant schedule for food reinforcement. Administration of mescaline (4.0--10.0 mg/kg) immediately before the start of the operant session resulted in a cessation of responding for some portion of the 40-min period ("hallucinatory pause"). The duration of this pause was found to be dose-dependent. Although administration of naloxone alone (1.0-8.0 mg/kg, five minutes prior to the start of the session) had no effect on FR-40 responding per se, pretreatment with this agent significantly potentiated the disruptive effects of mescaline. This potentiation by naloxone was further shown to be dose-dependent. These data suggest that the effects of the phenethylamine hallucinogen mescaline are potentiated by pretreatment with the narcotic antagonist naloxone.

  19. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  20. Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Charles E; Dale, Bruce E; Elander, Richard T; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R; Lee, Y Y

    2005-12-01

    For the first time, a single source of cellulosic biomass was pretreated by leading technologies using identical analytical methods to provide comparative performance data. In particular, ammonia explosion, aqueous ammonia recycle, controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, and lime approaches were applied to prepare corn stover for subsequent biological conversion to sugars through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, and Texas A&M University. An Agricultural and Industrial Advisory Board provided guidance to the project. Pretreatment conditions were selected based on the extensive experience of the team with each of the technologies, and the resulting fluid and solid streams were characterized using standard methods. The data were used to close material balances, and energy balances were estimated for all processes. The digestibilities of the solids by a controlled supply of cellulase enzyme and the fermentability of the liquids were also assessed and used to guide selection of optimum pretreatment conditions. Economic assessments were applied based on the performance data to estimate each pretreatment cost on a consistent basis. Through this approach, comparative data were developed on sugar recovery from hemicellulose and cellulose by the combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations when applied to corn stover. This paper introduces the project and summarizes the shared methods for papers reporting results of this research in this special edition of Bioresource Technology.

  1. Current concepts in neuroendocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    León-Olea, Martha; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Orlando, Edward F; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  2. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  3. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  4. Evaluation of hydrotropic pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Leena P; Kiran Kumar, M; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from biomass is considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. The presence of lignin poses a significant challenge for obtaining biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. Part of that problem involves understanding fundamental aspects of lignin structure which can provide a pathway for the development of improved technologies for biomass conversion. Hydrotropic pretreatment has several attractive features that make it an attractive alternative for biofuel production. This review highlights the recent developments on hydrotropic pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass on a molecular structure basis for recalcitrance, with emphasis on lignin concerning chemical structure, transformation and recalcitrance. The review also evaluates the hydrotropic delignification in comparison to alkaline delignification on lignin reduction and surface coverage by lignin. The effect of hydrotrope pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification has also been discussed. PMID:27013188

  5. Resistance to disruption in a classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E; Neal, Carrie M; Ahearn, William H; Wheeler, Emily E; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B; Dube, William V

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 7-s VI 30-s schedule for 6 participants with developmental disabilities. Resistance to disruption was measured by presenting a distracting item. Response rates in the disruption components were compared to within-session response rates in prior baseline components. Results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory for 5 of 6 participants.

  6. Traffic disruption and recovery in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.

    2014-05-01

    We study the impact of disruptions on road networks, and the recovery process after the disruption is removed from the system. Such disruptions could be caused by vehicle breakdown or illegal parking. We analyze the transient behavior using domain wall theory, and compare these predictions with simulations of a stochastic cellular automaton model. We find that the domain wall model can reproduce the time evolution of flow and density during the disruption and the recovery processes, for both one-dimensional systems and two-dimensional networks.

  7. Resistance to disruption in a classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E; Neal, Carrie M; Ahearn, William H; Wheeler, Emily E; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B; Dube, William V

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 7-s VI 30-s schedule for 6 participants with developmental disabilities. Resistance to disruption was measured by presenting a distracting item. Response rates in the disruption components were compared to within-session response rates in prior baseline components. Results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory for 5 of 6 participants. PMID:21709794

  8. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

  9. Addressing reverse osmosis fouling within water reclamation--a side-by-side comparison of low-pressure membrane pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Kent, Fraser C; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2011-06-01

    A tertiary membrane filtration (TMF) pilot operating on secondary effluent and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were setup in a side-by-side study as pretreatments for two identical reverse osmosis pilot systems. The water quality of the permeate from both low-pressure membrane pretreatment systems and the fouling rate of the reverse osmosis systems were compared to assess the capabilities of the two low-pressure membrane pretreatments to prevent organic fouling of the reverse osmosis systems. Both pretreatment pilots were setup using typical operating conditions (i.e., solids retention time and mixed-liquor suspended solids). A consistent difference in water quality and reverse osmosis performance was demonstrated during the 12-month study. The MBR permeate consistently had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, but higher color and specific UV absorbance compared with the permeate from the TMF pretreatment. The pretreatment with the MBR gave an average reverse osmosis fouling rate over the entire study (0.27 Lmh/bar.month) that was less than half of the value found for the reverse osmosis with TMF pretreatment (0.60 Lmh/bar.month). A correlation of reverse osmosis feed TOC concentration with average reverse osmosis fouling rate also was established, independent of the pretreatment method used. Results from a cleaning analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transformed infrared reflectometry confirmed that the foulants were primarily organic in nature. It is concluded that, for this type of application and setup, MBR systems present an advantage over tertiary membrane polishing of secondary effluent for reverse osmosis pretreatment.

  10. Modeling of a continuous pretreatment reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berson, R Eric; Dasari, Rajesh K; Hanley, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are employed to predict flow characteristics in a continuous auger driven reactor designed for the dilute acid pretreatment of biomass. Slurry containing a high concentration of biomass solids exhibits a high viscosity, which poses unique mixing issues within the reactor. The viscosity increases significantly with a small increase in solids concentration and also varies with temperature. A well-mixed slurry is desirable to evenly distribute acid on biomass, prevent buildup on the walls of the reactor, and provides an uniform final product. Simulations provide flow patterns obtained over a wide range of viscosities and pressure distributions, which may affect reaction rates. Results provide a tool for analyzing sources of inconsistencies in product quality and insight into future design and operating parameters.

  11. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG prevents enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-induced changes in epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Henry, K C; Donato, K A; Shen-Tu, G; Gordanpour, M; Sherman, P M

    2008-04-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 intimately attaches to intestinal epithelial monolayers and produces attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. In addition, EHEC infection causes disruptions of intercellular tight junctions, leading to clinical sequelae that include acute diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Current therapy remains supportive since antibiotic therapy increases the risk of systemic complications. This study focused on the potential therapeutic effect of an alternative form of therapy, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, to attenuate EHEC-induced changes in paracellular permeability in polarized MDCK-I and T84 epithelial cell monolayers. Changes in epithelial cell morphology, electrical resistance, dextran permeability, and distribution and expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 were assessed using phase-contrast, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy and macromolecular flux. This study demonstrated that pretreatment of polarized MDCK-I and T84 cells with the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG reduced morphological changes and diminished the number of A/E lesions induced in response to EHEC O157:H7 infection. With probiotic pretreatment there was corresponding attenuation of the EHEC-induced drop in electrical resistance and the increase in barrier permeability assays. In addition, L. rhamnosus GG protected epithelial monolayers against EHEC-induced redistribution of the claudin-1 and ZO-1 tight junction proteins. In contrast to the effects seen with the live probiotic, heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG had no effect on EHEC binding and A/E lesion formation or on disruption of the barrier function. Collectively, these findings provide in vitro evidence that treatment with the probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG could prove to be an effective management treatment for preventing injury of the epithelial cell barrier induced by A/E bacterial enteropathogens.

  13. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

    2014-05-01

    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method

  14. Adolescent nicotine exposure disrupts context conditioning in adulthood in rats.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Barnet, Robert C; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2010-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of smoking among adolescents, few studies have assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood. In particular, it remains unclear whether adolescent nicotine exposure has effects on hippocampus-dependent learning that persist into adulthood. The present experiment examined whether there were effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on context conditioning, a form of learning dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus, when tested during adulthood. Rats were exposed to nicotine during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 28-42) via osmotic minipump (0, 3.0 or 6.0mg/kg/day). Context conditioning occurred in early adulthood (PD 65-70). Animals were exposed to an experimental context and were given 10 unsignaled footshocks or no shock. Additional groups were included to test the effects of adolescent nicotine on delay conditioning, a form of learning that is not dependent upon the hippocampus. Conditioning was assessed using a lick suppression paradigm. For animals in the context conditioning groups, adolescent nicotine resulted in significantly less suppression of drinking in the presence of context cues compared with vehicle-pretreated animals. For animals in the delay conditioning groups, there was a trend for adolescent nicotine (3.0mg/kg/day) to suppress drinking compared to vehicle-pretreated animals. There were no differences in extinction of contextual fear or cued fear between rats previously exposed to vehicle or nicotine. The data indicate that adolescent nicotine administration impairs context conditioning when animals are trained and tested as adults. The present data suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may disrupt hippocampus-dependent learning when animals are tested during adulthood.

  15. Effect of disruption of actin filaments by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin on insulin secretion in HIT-T15 cells and pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Rungger-Brändle, E; Just, I; Jonas, J C; Aktories, K; Wollheim, C B

    1994-01-01

    To examine their role in insulin secretion, actin filaments (AFs) were disrupted by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin that ADP-ribosylates G-actin. Ribosylation also prevents polymerization of G-actin to F-actin and inhibits AF assembly by capping the fast-growing end of F-actin. Pretreatment of HIT-T15 cells with the toxin inhibited stimulated insulin secretion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The toxin did not affect cellular insulin content or nonstimulated secretion. In static incubation, toxin treatment caused 45-50% inhibition of secretion induced by nutrients alone (10 mM glucose + 5 mM glutamine + 5 mM leucine) or combined with bombesin (phospholipase C-activator) and 20% reduction of that potentiated by forskolin (stimulator of adenylyl cyclase). In perifusion, the stimulated secretion during the first phase was marginally diminished, whereas the second phase was inhibited by approximately 80%. Pretreatment of HIT cells with wartmannin, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, caused a similar pattern of inhibition of the biphasic insulin release as C2 toxin. Nutrient metabolism and bombesin-evoked rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ were not affected by C2 toxin, indicating that nutrient recognition and the coupling between receptor activation and second messenger generation was not changed. In the toxin-treated cells, the AF web beneath the plasma membrane and the diffuse cytoplasmic F-actin fibers disappeared, as shown both by staining with an antibody against G- and F-actin and by staining F-actin with fluorescent phallacidin. C2 toxin dose-dependently reduced cellular F-actin content. Stimulation of insulin secretion was not associated with changes in F-actin content and organization. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin E and B, which shorten AFs, inhibited the stimulated insulin release by 30-50% although differing in their effects on F-actin content. In contrast to HIT-T15 cells, insulin secretion was potentiated in isolated rat islets after disruption of

  16. Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Kenneth P.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

  17. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  18. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  19. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils.

  20. CHOLINE PARTIALLY PREVENTS THE IMPACT OF ETHANOL ON THE LIPID RAFT DEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ningfeng; Bamford, Penny; Jones, Jace; He, Min; Kane, Maureen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, the leading known cause of mental retardation, is caused by alcohol exposure during pregnancy. One mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity is the disruption of the function of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1). These functions include enhancement of neurite outgrowth, trafficking through lipid rafts, and signal transduction. Recent data have shown that choline supplementation of rat pups reduces the effects of ethanol on neurobehavior. We sought to determine if choline could prevent the effect of ethanol on L1 function using a simple experimental system. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured with and without supplemental choline, and the effects on L1 signaling, lipid raft distribution and neurite outgrowth were measured in the presence or absence of ethanol. Results Choline significantly reduced the effect of ethanol on L1 signaling, the distribution of L1 in lipid rafts and L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. However, choline supplemented ethanol exposed cultures remained significantly different than controls. Conclusions Choline pretreatment of CGN significantly reduces the disruption of L1 function by ethanol, but does not completely return L1 function to baseline. This experimental system will enable discovery of the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of choline. PMID:25421509

  1. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  2. Electrolytic pretreatment unit gaseous effluent conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The electrolytic pretreatment of urine is an advanced process that eliminates the need for handling and storing the highly corrosive chemicals that are normally used in water reclamation systems. The electrolytic pretreatment process also converts the organic materials in urine to gases (N2 and O2) that can be used to replenish those lost to space by leakage, venting, and air lock operations. The electrolytic process is more than a pretreatment, since it decreases the urine solids content by approximately one third, thus reducing the load and eventual solids storage requirements of the urine processing system. The evolved gases from the pretreatment step cannot, however, be returned directly to the atmosphere of a spacecraft without first removing several impurities including hydrogen, chlorine, and certain organic compounds. A treatment concept was developed that would decrease the impurities in the gas stream that emanates from an electrolysis unit to levels sufficiently low to allow the conditioned gas stream to be safely discharged to a spacecraft atmosphere. Two methods were experimentally demonstrated that can accomplish the desired cleanup. The bases of the two methods are, repectively: (1) raw urine scrubbing and (2) silica gel sorption.

  3. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

  4. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge.

  5. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  6. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Smarr, Melissa M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease with lasting implications for many women's fertility, somatic health, and overall quality of life. Growing evidence suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be etiologically involved in the development and severity of disease. We weigh the available human evidence focusing on EDCs and endometriosis, restricting to research that has individually quantified chemical concentrations for women, included a comparison group of unaffected women, and used multivariable analytic techniques. Evidence supporting an environmental etiology for endometriosis includes metals/trace elements, dioxins, and other persistent organic pollutants, as well as nonpersistent chemicals, such as benzophenones and phthalates. To address the equivocal findings for various EDCs, future research directions for filling data gaps include [1] use of integrated clinical and population sampling frameworks allowing for incorporation of new diagnostic modalities; [2] the collection of various biologic media, including target tissues for quantifying exposures; [3] study designs that offer various comparison groups to assess potentially shared etiologies with other gynecologic disorders; and [4] novel laboratory and statistical approaches that fully explore all measured EDCs for the assessment of mixtures and low dose effects and the use of directed acyclic graphs and supporting causal analysis for empirically delineating relationships between EDCs and endometriosis. PMID:27424048

  7. Allosteric Inhibition Through Core Disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, James R.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-05

    Although inhibitors typically bind pre-formed sites on proteins, it is theoretically possible to inhibit by disrupting the folded structure of a protein or, in the limit, to bind preferentially to the unfolded state. Equilibria defining how such molecules act are well understood, but structural models for such binding are unknown. Two novel inhibitors of {beta}-lactamase were found to destabilize the enzyme at high temperatures, but at lower temperatures showed no preference for destabilized mutant enzymes versus stabilized mutants. X-ray crystal structures showed that both inhibitors bound to a cryptic site in {beta}-lactamase, which the inhibitors themselves created by forcing apart helixes 11 and 12. This opened up a portion of the hydrophobic core of the protein, into which these two inhibitors bind. Although this binding site is 16 {angstrom} from the center of the active site, the conformational changes were transmitted through a sequence of linked motions to a key catalytic residue, Arg244, which in the complex adopts conformations very different from those in catalytically competent enzyme conformations. These structures offer a detailed view of what has heretofore been a theoretical construct, and suggest the possibility for further design against this novel site.

  8. Endocrine disrupters: a human risk?

    PubMed

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M

    2005-12-01

    Endocrine disrupters (EDs) alter normal hormonal regulation and may be naturally occurring or environmental contaminants. Classically, EDs act genomically, with agonistic or antagonistic effects on steroid receptors and may alter reproductive function and/or cause feminisation by binding to oestrogen or androgen receptors; their binding to the thyroid receptor may dysregulate the neuroendocrine system. Recently, it has been shown that EDs can also act by non-genomic mechanisms, altering steroid synthesis (inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoforms) or steroid metabolism. The alkylphenol and phthalate plasticisers inhibit the inactivation of oestrogens by sulphation (via SULT 1A1 and 1E1 isoforms) and so cause a rise in levels of the free active endogenous oestrogens. A range of ED effects have been shown in mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibia and aquatic invertebrates but it is not yet clear whether these processes also occur in human beings. It is evident that EDs, as well as altering reproduction, can cause changes in neurosteroid levels and so have the potential to affect immune function, behaviour and memory. This may be of long-term concern since traces of EDs such as plasticisers, brominated fire retardants, sunscreen agents and cosmetic ingredients are widely distributed in the environment and in human biofluids. PMID:16271281

  9. 40 CFR 427.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  15. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  19. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  2. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  7. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  11. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  12. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  13. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  14. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.114 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  15. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  17. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  20. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  1. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  3. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  4. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  5. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  6. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  7. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  8. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  9. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  10. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  11. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  12. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  13. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  14. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  15. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  17. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  18. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  1. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  2. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  3. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  4. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  5. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  6. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  7. Customized optimization of cellulase mixtures for differently pretreated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Jung; Jung, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hee Jin; Park, Hyong Seok; Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-05-01

    Lignocellulose contains a large amount of cellulose but is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis, which yields sugars for fuels or chemicals. Various pretreatment methods are used to improve the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in lignocellulose. Depending on the lignocellulose types and pretreatment methods, biomass compositions and physical properties significantly vary. Therefore, customized enzyme mixtures have to be employed for the efficient hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose. Here, using three recombinant model enzymes consisting of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and xylanase with a fixed amount of β-glucosidase, the optimal formulation of enzyme mixtures was designed for two differently pretreated rice straws (acid-pretreated or alkali-pretreated rice straw) by the mixture design methodology. As a result, different optimal compositions for the enzyme mixtures were employed depending on the type of pretreatment of rice straw. These results suggest that customized enzyme mixtures for pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are necessary to obtain increased sugar yields and should be considered in the industrial utilization of lignocellulose. PMID:25547288

  8. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  13. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  2. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  7. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  9. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  10. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  11. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  14. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  17. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  18. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  19. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  20. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  2. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  3. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  4. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes...

  5. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes...

  6. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes...

  7. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes...

  8. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes...

  9. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  14. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  1. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  2. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  3. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  4. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  6. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  7. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  8. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  9. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  11. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  13. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  14. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  18. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  20. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  4. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  5. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  7. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  8. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  12. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  13. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  18. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  20. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  1. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  2. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  3. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  4. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  5. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  6. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  7. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  8. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  9. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  10. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  11. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  12. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  13. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  14. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A T W M; Zeeman, G

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a goal to improve the digestibility of the lignocellulosic biomass. Each pretreatment has its own effect(s) on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; the three main components of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews the different effect(s) of several pretreatments on the three main parts of the lignocellulosic biomass to improve its digestibility. Steam pretreatment, lime pretreatment, liquid hot water pretreatments and ammonia based pretreatments are concluded to be pretreatments with high potentials. The main effects are dissolving hemicellulose and alteration of lignin structure, providing an improved accessibility of the cellulose for hydrolytic enzymes.

  15. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  6. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  7. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  8. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  9. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  10. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  11. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  12. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  13. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  2. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  3. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  5. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  7. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  8. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  9. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  10. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for high total sugar recovery in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Oxalic acid was evaluated as an alternative reagent to mineral inorganic acid in pretreatment of corncob to achieve high xylose yield in addition to highly digestible solid residue. A quadratic polynomial model of xylose formation was developed for optimization of pretreatment process by the response surface methodology based on the impact factors of pretreatment temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest xylose yield was 94.3 % that was obtained under the pretreatment condition of 140 °C for 40 min with 0.5 wt% oxalic acid at a solid loading of 7.5 %. Under these conditions, the xylose yield results of verification experiments were very close to the model prediction, which indicated that the model was applicable. The solid residue generated under this condition also demonstrated a satisfactory enzymatic digestibility and fermentability. PMID:26494137

  11. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  12. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  13. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  14. Disruptive innovations for designing and diffusing evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2012-09-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic and preventive intervention programs (EBIs) have been growing exponentially. Yet EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically reexamine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by reexamining the traditional biomedical model for validating, implementing, and diffusing EBI products and science. The model of disruptive innovations suggests that we reengineer EBIs on the basis of their most robust features in order to serve more people in less time and at lower cost. A disruptive innovation provides a simpler and less expensive alternative that meets the essential needs for the majority of consumers and is more accessible, scalable, replicable, and sustainable. Examples of disruptive innovations from other fields include minute clinics embedded in retail chain drug stores, $2 generic eyeglasses, automated teller machines, and telemedicine. Four new research approaches will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing monitoring data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

  15. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  16. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  17. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  18. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  19. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  20. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....