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Sample records for pretreatment prevents disruption

  1. Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye

    SciTech Connect

    Bynke, G.

    1983-06-01

    Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

  2. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  3. Structuring the Classroom to Prevent Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Specific suggestions to help teachers structure the classroom to prevent disruptive behaviors are offered in the areas of physical arrangement and "traffic rules" time management, assignments, grouping practices, classroom atmosphere, and professional demeanor. (DB)

  4. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond.

  5. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    DOEpatents

    Neavel, Richard C.; Brunson, Roy J.; Chaback, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  6. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  7. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Floyd, F.M.

    1984-05-22

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500/sup 0/ to about 700/sup 0/ F.

  8. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupt conditioned avoidance responding in phencyclidine-pretreated or amphetamine-pretreated rats by selectively weakening motivational salience of conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; He, Wei; Mead, Alexa

    2009-02-01

    The rat conditioned avoidance response model is a well-established preclinical behavioral model predictive of antipsychotic efficacy. All clinically approved antipsychotic drugs disrupt conditioned avoidance responding - a feature that distinguishes them from other psychotherapeutics. We previously showed that the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol disrupts avoidance responding by progressively attenuating the motivational salience of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in normal rats. In this study, using two pharmacological rat models of schizophrenia [e.g. phencyclidine (PCP) or amphetamine sensitization], we examined whether atypicals such as olanzapine or risperidone disrupt avoidance responding through the same behavioral mechanism. Rats were first pretreated with PCP, amphetamine, or saline under one of two different injection schedules for either 1 or 3 weeks. They were then trained to acquire avoidance responding to two types of CS (CS1 and CS2) that differed in their ability to predict the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. Finally, rats were tested repeatedly under olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or risperidone (0.33 mg/kg, subcutaneously) daily for 5 or 7 consecutive days. We found that repeated olanzapine or risperidone treatment produced a progressive across-session decline in avoidance responding to both CS1 and CS2. Olanzapine and risperidone disrupted the CS2 (a less salient CS) avoidance to a greater extent than the CS1 avoidance. Pretreatment with PCP and amphetamine did not affect the disruptive effect of olanzapine or risperidone on avoidance responding. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the atypical drugs olanzapine and risperidone, like the typical drug haloperidol, also disrupt avoidance responding primarily by attenuating the motivational salience of the CS.

  9. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5 to about 80/sup 0/ C.

  10. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  11. Prevention of Barrier Disruption by Heme Oxygenase-1 in Intestinal Bleeding Model.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Reiko; Akagi, Masaaki; Hatori, Yuta; Inouye, Sachiye

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of free heme, the local level of which was increased by bleeding, on the intestinal barrier function, using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Our results show that the addition of hemin to the culture medium markedly disrupted the barrier function, which was significantly improved by glutamine supplementation. Although hemin treatment caused the increased expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inhibition of HO activity resulted in the aggravation of hemin-induced barrier dysfunction. Up-regulation of HO-1 by pretreatment with a low concentration of hemin almost completely prevented hemin-induced barrier dysfunction. Taken together, these observations indicate that an abnormally high level of intracellular free heme causes barrier dysfunction, probably through the modulation of proteins forming tight junctions.

  12. Illusory movements prevent cortical disruption caused by immobilization.

    PubMed

    Roll, R; Kavounoudias, A; Albert, F; Legré, R; Gay, A; Fabre, B; Roll, J P

    2012-08-01

    Enforced limb disuse strongly disrupts the cortical networks that are involved in sensorimotor activities. This disruption causes a cortical reorganization that may be functionally maladaptive. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether it is possible to prevent this reorganization by compensating for the lack of actual kinesthetic perception with illusory movements induced by "neuromimetic" proprio-tactile feedback that is artificially delivered during immobilization. Sixteen healthy volunteers were equipped for five days with full-hand ortheses that prevented them from performing finger and hand movements but allowed for kinesthetic and tactile sensations. Eight participants received a twice-daily proprio-tactile treatment consisting of the perception of kinesthetic sensations resembling those felt during actual movements generated by miniature vibrators set in the ortheses at the finger and wrist levels. Eight untreated participants received no stimulation. The effects of hand immobilization and treatment were assessed by fMRI during a calibrated voluntary hand movement task and hand tactile stimulation before cast placement and immediately after cast removal. We found that the sensorimotor network was preserved in subjects who underwent this treatment during hand immobilization, while the sensorimotor network of untreated subjects was significantly altered. These findings suggest that sensory feedback and associated movement perception may counteract disuse-induced cortical plastic changes through recruitment of a large part of the cortical network used for actual performed movement. The possibility of guiding cortical plasticity with proprioceptive augmented feedback is potentially relevant for rehabilitation efforts.

  13. Elastin Calcification and its Prevention with Aluminum Chloride Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Vyavahare, Narendra; Ogle, Matthew; Schoen, Frederick J.; Levy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Elastin, an abundant structural protein present in the arterial wall, is prone to calcification in a number of disease processes including porcine bioprosthetic heart valve calcification and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of elastin calcification are not completely elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrated calcification of purified elastin in rat subdermal implants (Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg after 21 days versus control, unimplanted Ca2+ = 0.16 ± 0.04 μg/mg). X-ray diffraction analysis along with resolution enhanced FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the mineral phase to be a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. We investigated the time course of calcification, the effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking on calcification, and mechanisms of inhibition of elastin calcification by pretreatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Glutaraldehyde pretreatment did not affect calcification (Ca2+ = 89.06 ± 17.93 μg/mg for glutaraldehyde crosslinked elastin versus Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg for uncrosslinked elastin). This may be explained by radioactive (3H) glutaraldehyde studies showing very low reactivity between glutaraldehyde and elastin. Our results further demonstrated that AlCl3 pretreatment of elastin led to complete inhibition of elastin calcification using 21-day rat subdermal implants, irrespective of glutaraldehyde crosslinking (Ca2+ = 0.73–2.15 μg/mg for AlCl3 pretreated elastin versus 89.73 ± 9.84 for untreated elastin). The AlCl3 pretreatment caused irreversible binding of aluminum ions to elastin, as assessed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, aluminum ion binding altered the spatial configuration of elastin as shown by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies, suggesting a net structural change including a reduction in the extent of β sheet structures and an increase in coil-turn conformations. Thus, it is concluded that purified elastin calcifies in rat

  14. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  15. Removal performance of nitrogen and endocrine-disrupting pesticides simultaneously in the enhanced biofilm system for polluted source water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-10-01

    The removal performances of nitrogen and trace levels of endocrine-disrupting pesticides (cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos) were studied in the enhanced biofilm pretreatment system at various substrates concentrations and dissolve oxygen (DO) niches. No significant change of EDPs removal occurred with the increased feed of ammonia nitrogen in aerobic batch tests or nitrate in anaerobic batch reactors, but significantly enhanced via reed addition both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Simultaneously enhanced denitrification and EDPs removal were achieved in the anoxic niche with reed addition. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that new bands appeared, and some bands became more intense with the reed addition. Sequences analysis showed that the dominant species belonged to Methylophilaceae, Hyphomicrobium, Bacillus and Thauera, which were related to the nitrogen or EDPs removals. In addition, the growth of functional heterotrophic microbes may be promoted via reed addition.

  16. Pretreatment with ascorbic acid prevents lethal gastrointestinal syndrome in mice receiving a massive amount of radiation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Manabu; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Majima, Takashi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji

    2010-01-01

    While bone marrow or stem cell transplantation can rescue bone marrow aplasia in patients accidentally exposed to a lethal radiation dose, radiation-induced irreversible gastrointestinal damage (GI syndrome) is fatal. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced GI syndrome in mice. Ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to mice for 3 days, and then the mice underwent whole body irradiation (WBI). Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 24 h after irradiation rescued mice receiving a WBI dose of less than 12 Gy. No mice receiving 14 Gy-WBI survived, because of radiation-induced GI syndrome, even if they received BMT. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid significantly suppressed radiation-induced DNA damage in the crypt cells and prevented denudation of intestinal mucosa; therefore, ascorbic acid in combination with BMT rescued mice after 14 Gy-WBI. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that irradiation up-regulated expressions of apoptosis-related genes in the small intestine, including those related to the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway as well as the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway, and down-regulated expressions of these genes in ascorbic acid-pretreated mice. Thus, pretreatment with ascorbic acid may effectively prevent radiation-induced GI syndrome.

  17. Preventing disruptive behavior in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M

    2004-06-01

    A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.

  18. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2016-05-18

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  19. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process. PMID:24713111

  20. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive intervention study.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG) intervention, a universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior, and facilitating positive prosocial peer interactions. Friends' disruptive behavior was assessed from age 7-10 years. Participants' experimentation with tobacco was assessed annually from age 10-13. Reduced rates in tobacco experimentation and friends' disruptive behavior were found among GBG children, as compared to controls. Support for friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator in the link between intervention status and tobacco experimentation was found. These results remained after controlling for friends' and parental smoking status, and child ADHD symptoms. The results support the role of friends' disruptive behavior in preadolescents' tobacco experimentation.

  1. Vitamin E pretreatment prevents histopathological effects in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) acutely exposed to cylindrospermopsin.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Moreno, Isabel M; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2016-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin frequently involved in blooms with a predominantly extracellular availability, which makes it easily taken up by a variety of aquatic organisms. CYN is a potent protein and glutathione synthesis inhibitor, and also induces genotoxicity, oxidative stress and several histopathological lesions. The present study investigates the protective role of a vitamin E pretreatment (700 mg vit E/kg fish bw/day, for 7 days) on the histopathological alterations induced in different organs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) acutely exposed to a single oral dose of 400 µg pure CYN/kg bw fish. The major histological changes observed were degenerative glucogenic process and loss of the hepatic structure in the liver, glomerulopathy and tubular tumefaction in the kidney, myofibrolysis and edema in the heart, catarrhal enteritis and necrosis in the gastrointestinal tract, hyperemic processes in the gill lamellae, and high basophilia, degeneration and tumefaction of granular neurons in the brain. Vitamin E pretreatment was effective in preventing or ameliorating the abovementioned alterations induced by CYN. In addition, a morphometric study indicated that the average nuclear diameter of hepatocytes, and cross-sections of proximal and distal convoluted tubules, together with the cardiac fiber and capillaries diameters represent a useful tool to evaluate the damage induced by CYN. This is the first study reporting vitamin E prevention of histopathological damage in tissues (liver, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal tract, gills and brain) of fish intoxicated with CYN. Therefore, vitamin E can be considered a useful chemoprotectant in the treatment of histopathological changes induced in CYN-intoxicated fish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1469-1485, 2016.

  2. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Wei

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  3. Selective HDAC6 inhibition prevents TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinyan; Ma, Zhongsen; Shetty, Sreerama; Ma, Mengshi; Fu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Lung endothelial damage contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. New strategies against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction may provide therapeutic benefits against lung vascular injury. Cell-cell junctions and microtubule cytoskeleton are basic components in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. HDAC6, a deacetylase primarily localized in the cytoplasm, has been reported to modulate nonnuclear protein function through deacetylation. Both α-tubulin and β-catenin are substrates for HDAC6. Here, we examined the effects of tubastatin A, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor, on TNF-α induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A blocked TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell hyperpermeability, which was associated with increased α-tubulin acetylation and microtubule stability. Tubastatin A pretreatment inhibited TNF-α-induced endothelial cell contraction and actin stress fiber formation with reduced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A also induced β-catenin acetylation in human lung endothelial cells, which was associated with increased membrane localization of β-catenin and stabilization of adherens junctions. HDAC6 knockdown by small interfering RNA also prevented TNF-α-induced barrier dysfunction and increased α-tubulin and β-catenin acetylation in endothelial cells. Furthermore, in a mouse model of endotoxemia, tubastatin A was able to prevent endotoxin-induced deacetylation of α-tubulin and β-catenin in lung tissues, which was associated with reduced pulmonary edema. Collectively, our data indicate that selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A is a potent approach against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction.

  4. Developmental origins of disruptive behaviour problems: the 'original sin' hypothesis, epigenetics and their consequences for prevention.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews publications on developmental trajectories of disruptive behaviour (DB) problems (aggression, opposition-defiance, rule breaking, and stealing-vandalism) over the past decade. Prior to these studies two theoretical models had strongly influenced research on DB: social learning and disease onset. According to these developmental perspectives, children learn DB from their environment and onset of the disease is triggered by accumulated exposition to disruptive models in the environment, including the media. Most of the evidence came from studies of school age children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies tracing developmental trajectories of DB from early childhood onwards suggest an inversed developmental process. DB are universal during early childhood. With age, children learn socially acceptable behaviours from interactions with their environment. A 'disease' status is given to children who fail to learn the socially acceptable behaviours. The mechanisms that lead to deficits in using socially accepted behaviours are strongly intergenerational, based on complex genetic and environmental contributions, including epigenetic mechanisms. Prevention of these deficits requires early, intensive and long-term support to parents and child. Newly discovered epigenetic mechanisms suggest that intensive perinatal interventions will have impacts on numerous aspects of physical and mental health, including DB. This review also concludes that: a) subtypes of disruptive behaviours should not be aggregated because they have different developmental trajectories and require specific corrective interventions; b) the overt-covert and destructive-nondestructive dimensions appear the most useful to create DB subtypes; c) overt DB onset before covert DB because the latter require more brain maturation; d) DB subtype taxonomies are more useful for clinicians than developmental taxonomies because the latter are post mortem diagnoses and clinicians' retrospective

  5. Administration of Melatonin and Metformin Prevents Deleterious Effects of Circadian Disruption and Obesity in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anthony P; Hoang, Jonathan; Vongbunyong, Kenny; Nguyen, Andrew; Rakshit, Kuntol; Matveyenko, Aleksey V

    2016-12-01

    Circadian disruption and obesity synergize to predispose to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), signifying that therapeutic targeting of both circadian and metabolic dysfunctions should be considered as a potential treatment approach. To address this hypothesis, we studied rats concomitantly exposed to circadian disruption and diet-induced obesity (CDO), a rat model recently shown to recapitulate phenotypical aspects of obese T2DM (eg, circadian disruption, obesity, insulin resistance, and islet failure). CDO rats were subsequently treated daily (for 12 wk) by timed oral gavage with vehicle, melatonin (a known chronobiotic), metformin, or combination treatment of both therapeutics. Melatonin treatment alone improved circadian activity rhythms, attenuated induction of β-cell failure, and enhanced glucose tolerance. Metformin alone did not modify circadian activity but enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Importantly, the combination of melatonin and metformin had synergistic actions to modify progression of metabolic dysfunction in CDO rats through improved adiposity, circadian activity, insulin sensitivity, and islet cell failure. This study suggests that management of both circadian and metabolic dysfunctions should be considered as a potential preventative and therapeutic option for treatment of obesity and T2DM.

  6. Incorporation of endocrine disruption into chemical hazard scoring for pollution prevention and current list of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Whaley, D A; Keyes, D; Khorrami, B

    2001-11-01

    Research continues to support the theory of endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruption is defined as the ability of a chemical contaminating the workplace or the environment to interfere with homeostasis, development, reproduction, and/or behavior in a living organism or it's offspring. Certain classes of environmentally persistent chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and some pesticides can adversely effect the endocrine systems of aquatic life and terrestrial wildlife. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTN), developed a method for hazard scoring chemicals for the aquatic ecosystem. The Indiana Clean Manufacturing Technology and Safe Materials Institute at Purdue University (CMTI) later expanded the scoring system to include terms for worker hazard as well as terms for contamination of soil and air quality, and for stratospheric ozone depletion. We call the CMTI chemical hazard score the Purdue score. At West Virginia University, two improvements of the Purdue chemical hazard score are developed, a normalizing of the term for soil contamination, and addition of hazard score terms for ecosystem endocrine disruption. The results of incorporating endocrine disruption terms into the hazard scoring equations resulted in increased hazard rankings, often substantially increased, for 26 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 200 Superfund chemicals. Because data suggesting human endocrine disruption from such chemicals is still controversial, no endocrine disruptor term has been added to the human toxicity portions of the chemical hazard scoring system at this time. The third product of this work is assembly of a current consolidated list of (1) established or probable, mostly synthetic, industrial chemical and medication EDCs and (2) suspect (less certain) synthetic and natural (phytoestrogen) possible endocrine disrupting chemicals, with the goal of contributing to future development of quantitative structure activity

  7. Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. Results After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p < 0.05) and therefore had a greater weight loss (p < 0.05). The treatment with Saccharomyces boulardii did not reverse this effect (p > 0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p < 0.05). There were no differences in mucosal lesions, intestinal permeability and sIgA secretion (p > 0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. Conclusions S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil. PMID:24721659

  8. Pre-treatment with LCZ696, an orally active angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, prevents ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Yu; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Kukida, Masayoshi; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Higaki, Akinori; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-09-05

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to prevent ischemic brain damage after stroke. Natriuretic peptides, which are increased by a neprilysin inhibitor, are also reported to protect against brain damage. Therefore, we investigated the possible protective effect of valsartan (VAL) compared with LCZ696 (VAL+ neprilysin inhibitor; 1:1) after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with VAL (3mg/kg per day) or LCZ696 (6mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks before MCA occlusion. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by telemetry. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ischemic area was evaluated by triphenytetrasodium chloride staining, and oxidative stress was determined by dihydroethidium staining. Blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different before and after treatment. Pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL reduced the ischemic area, and this effect of LCZ696 was more marked than that of VAL pre-treatment. The decrease in CBF in the peripheral region of the ischemic area was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL, without any significant effect on CBF in the core region. VAL or LCZ696 pre-treatment significantly decreased the increase of superoxide anion production in the cortex on the ischemic side. However, no significant difference in CBF and superoxide anion production was observed between VAL and LCZ696 pre-treatment. The preventive effect of LCZ696 on ischemic brain damage after stroke was more marked than that of VAL. LCZ696 could be used as a new approach to prevent brain damage after stroke. (246 words).

  9. Disruption of running activity rhythm following restricted feeding in female mice: Preventive effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kazumi; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Biological rhythms are critical in the etiology of mood disorders; therefore, effective mood disorder treatments should address rhythm disturbances. Among the variables synchronized with the light-dark cycle, spontaneous activity in rodents is useful for investigating circadian rhythms. However, previous studies have focused only on the increase of wheel-running activity under restricted feeding conditions, while little information is available on circadian rhythm of running activity. In this study, chronometrical analysis was used to assess whether circadian rhythms during wheel-running are altered by restricted feeding and affected by antidepressant drugs. Wheel revolutions were automatically recorded and analyzed using cosinor-rhythmometry in 8-week old ICR albino mice. When feeding was restricted to 1 h per day (21:00-22:00), wheel-running rhythms were reliably disrupted. Female mice exhibited marked alterations in the pattern and extent of wheel-running beginning on day 1. Subchronic treatment with imipramine or paroxetine, as well as tandospirone and (-)-DOI, prevented wheel-running rhythm disruption. Thus, altering the circadian activity rhythms of female mice on a 1-h feeding schedule may be useful for investigating disturbances in biological rhythms.

  10. Comparative Study of Atropine Combined with Sodium Nitroprusside Pretreatment to Prevent Trigemino Cardiac Reflex after Trigeminal Ganglion Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhan-Ying; Cai, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Rong-Wei; Pang, Qing-Gui; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    the same group were observed between T1 and T2, to the group A, B and D, means of HR (p>0.05 vs. T1) indicated significant differences, however, there was no significant difference in group C (p>0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of post-compression tachycardia was observed in each group. Conclusion By comparison, it seemed that 0.004mg/kg atropine pretreatment before PCTG was more reasonable for preventing significant haemodynamic changes. PMID:27134974

  11. Resolvin D1 prevents TNF-α-mediated disruption of salivary epithelial formation

    PubMed Central

    Odusanwo, Olutayo; Chinthamani, Sreedevi; McCall, Andrew; Duffey, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of salivary glands resulting in impaired secretory function. Our present studies indicate that chronic exposure of salivary epithelium to TNF-α and/or IFN-γ alters tight junction integrity, leading to secretory dysfunction. Resolvins of the D-series (RvDs) are endogenous lipid mediators derived from DHA that regulate excessive inflammatory responses leading to resolution and tissue homeostasis. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that activation of the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 in salivary epithelium prevents and/or resolves the TNF-α-mediated disruption of acinar organization and enhances monolayer formation. Our results indicate that 1) the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 is present in fresh, isolated cells from mouse salivary glands and in cell lines of salivary origin; and 2) the agonist RvD1 (100 ng/ml) abolished tight junction and cytoskeletal disruption caused by TNF-α and enhanced cell migration and polarity in salivary epithelium. These effects were blocked by the ALX/FPR2 antagonist butyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe. The ALX/FPR2 receptor signals via modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways since, in our study, blocking PI3K activation with LY294002, a potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, prevented RvD1-induced cell migration. Furthermore, Akt gene silencing with the corresponding siRNA almost completely blocked the ability of Par-C10 cells to migrate. Our findings suggest that RvD1 receptor activation promotes resolution of inflammation and tissue repair in salivary epithelium, which may have relevance in the restoration of salivary gland dysfunction associated with Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:22237406

  12. Pre-treatment of rats with ad-hepcidin prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong Ming; Luo, Qian Qian; Sheng, Yuan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Xu, Yan Xin; Ke, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Our recent investigation showed that hepcidin can reduce iron in the brain of iron-overloaded rat by down-regulating iron-transport proteins. It has also been demonstrated that iron is a major generator of reactive oxygen species. We therefore hypothesized that hepcidin could prevent iron accumulation and thus reduce iron-mediated oxidative stress in iron-overloaded rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of pre-treatment of rats with recombinant-hepcidin-adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) on the contents of iron, dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane in the brain. Hepcidin expression was detected by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Iron contents were measured using Perl's staining as well as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an ELISA kit, respectively. We found that hepcidin contents in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of rats treated with ad-hepcidin are 3.50, 2.98, 2.93 and 4.07 fold of those of the control rats respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the increased iron as well as dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane levels in all four brain regions, induced by injection of iron dextran, could be effectively prevented by pre-treatment of the rats with ad-hepcidin. We concluded that pre-treatment with ad-hepcidin could increase hepcidin expression and prevent the increase in iron and reduce reactive oxygen species in the brain of iron-overloaded rats.

  13. Eugenia jambolana Pretreatment Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats: Evidence from Biochemical, Molecular, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  14. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  15. Estrogens prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian disruption has become a significant factor contributing to the epidemics of obesity and insulin resistance. However, interventions to treat metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions are limited. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, produces important antiobesity and antidiabetic ef...

  16. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  17. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  18. Epinephrine and phenylephrine pretreatments for preventing postreperfusion syndrome during adult liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho-Geol; Jung, Chul-Woo; Lee, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Youn-Joung

    2012-12-01

    Acute hypotension after reperfusion of the liver graft occurs frequently during liver transplantation. A randomized, prospective trial was performed to test the effects of epinephrine and phenylephrine pretreatments for attenuating postreperfusion syndrome (PRS). Ninety-three adult liver recipients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous bolus of 10 μg of epinephrine, 100 μg of phenylephrine, or normal saline (the control group) at the time of graft reperfusion. The occurrence of PRS, the use of vasoactive drugs, and the postoperative courses were compared. The epinephrine and phenylephrine groups showed PRS less frequently (39% and 48%) than the control group (77%, P = 0.006) as well as higher mean arterial pressures (MAPs) immediately after reperfusion (P < 0.05). An overshoot of MAP was observed in one-third of the pretreated patients with minimal heart rate changes. Only 2 patients in each pretreatment group showed an increase in MAP that was greater than 20% of the baseline value. The intraoperative epinephrine and dopamine requirements were significantly lower in both pretreatment groups. Perioperative laboratory data, postoperative stays, and in-hospital mortality rates were similar for the 3 groups. In conclusion, pretreatment with 10 μg of epinephrine or 100 μg of phenylephrine significantly reduces the occurrence of PRS and vasopressor requirements without immediate or delayed adverse effects in adult liver transplantation.

  19. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  20. Bromobenzene-induced lethal toxicity in mouse is prevented by pretreatment with zinc sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Fukuishi, Nobuyuki; Nagatsu, Akito; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Onosaka, Satomi

    2016-07-25

    In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of zinc (Zn) against bromobenzene (BB) -induced lethal toxicity. We used Zn because this element is known to be an inducer of metallothionein (MT), which is in turn known to serve as an endogenous scavenger of free radicals. We administered Zn (as ZnSO4) at 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once-daily for 3 successive days prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of 1.2 g/kg BB in male ddY mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with Zn completely abolished the BB-induced mortality of mice until 48 h. We also found that pretreatment of mice with Zn significantly decreased the functional marker levels and reduced the histological damage both in liver and kidney as assessed at 18 h post-BB. We also showed that pretreatment with Zn enhanced antioxidative activity, resulting in decreased lipid peroxidation in both liver and kidney. Moreover, BB-induced calcium levels were downregulated by pretreatment with Zn. In addition, Zn-induced MT was decreased in Zn + BB-treated animals, implying that MT was consumed by BB-induced radicals. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with Zn protects mice from BB-induced lethal toxicity by decreasing oxidative stress in liver and kidney, presumably by induction of MT, which scavenges radicals induced by BB exposure.

  1. Randomized prevention trial for early conduct problems: effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Burton, Jennifer; Supplee, Lauren

    2007-09-01

    Despite knowledge of early pathways to conduct problems, few preventive interventions are specifically designed to modify disruptive behavior in toddlerhood. One potential prevention target is proactive and positive parenting, which is associated with reduced risk of conduct problems in preschoolers. This randomized trial with 120 low-income 2-year-old boys examined whether a brief family-centered intervention that reduces disruptive behavior (D. Shaw, T. Dishion, L. Supplee, F. Gardner, & K. Arnds, 2006) also leads to increases in proactive and positive parenting. It also explored whether change in parenting predicts change in disruptive behavior. In the intervention group, proactive and positive parenting skills increased among parents of 3-year-olds. Change in proactive and positive parenting of 2- to 3-year-old toddlers correlated with change in child disruptive behavior, although the mediation effect of positive parenting was of only borderline significance. Findings suggest that even within a brief and multifaceted preventive intervention, change in proactive parenting skills contributes modestly but significantly to change in child problem behavior.

  2. Prevention of etomidate-related myoclonus in anesthetic induction by pretreatment with magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Un, Bulent; Ceyhan, Dilek; Yelken, Birgul

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Etomidate frequently leads to myoclonic jerks during anesthetic induction. This study aimed to detect if pretreatment with magnesium decreases myoclonus incidence. METHODS: A hundred ASA (the American Society of Anesthesiologists) I-II patients were included and randomized into 2 groups. Three minutes before etomidate induction of anesthesia (by 0.3 mg/kg intravenous etomidate), Group M received 2.48 mmol (60 mg) intravenous magnesium sulphate and Group P received equal volume of intravenous saline. Myoclonus was evaluated as “present/absent”. RESULTS: The rate of myoclonus was significantly lower in Group M than in Group P (p < 0.01). Hemodynamic parameters revealed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose magnesium pretreatment before etomidate induction of anesthesia significantly reduces unwanted myoclonic jerks and also protects the hemodynamic stability. PMID:22973352

  3. NFkB disrupts tissue polarity in 3D by preventing integration of microenvironmental signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Furuta, Saori; Han, Ju; Kuhn, Irene; Akavia, Uri-David; Pe'er, Dana; Bissell, Mina J

    2013-01-01

    The microenvironment of cells controls their phenotype, and thereby the architecture of the emerging multicellular structure or tissue. We have reported more than a dozen microenvironmental factors whose signaling must be integrated in order to effect an organized, functional tissue morphology. However, the factors that prevent integration of signaling pathways that merge form and function are still largely unknown. We have identified nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) as a transcriptional regulator that disrupts important microenvironmental cues necessary for tissue organization. We compared the gene expression of organized and disorganized epithelial cells of the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series: the non-malignant S1 cells that form polarized spheres (‘acini’), the malignant T4-2 cells that form large tumor-like clusters, and the ‘phenotypically reverted’ T4-2 cells that polarize as a result of correction of the microenvironmental signaling. We identified 180 genes that display an increased expression in disorganized compared to polarized structures. Network, GSEA and transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that NFkB is a common activator for the 180 genes. NFkB was found to be activated in disorganized breast cancer cells, and inhibition of microenvironmental signaling via EGFR, beta1 integrin, MMPs, or their downstream signals suppressed its activation. The postulated role of NFkB was experimentally verified: Blocking the NFkB pathway with a specific chemical inhibitor or shRNA induced polarization and inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in 3D cultures. These results may explain why NFkB holds promise as a target for therapeutic intervention: Its inhibition can reverse the oncogenic signaling involved in breast cancer progression and integrate the essential microenvironmental control of tissue architecture. PMID:24243820

  4. Donor pretreatment with carbon monoxide prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury following heart transplantation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fujisaki, Noritomo; Kohama, Keisuke; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamashita, Hayato; Ishikawa, Michiko; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Yamada, Taihei; Lee, Sungsoo; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Kohei; Kotani, Joji; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-01-01

    Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion. In addition, Affymetrix gene array analysis of mRNA transcripts was performed on the heart graft tissue prior to implantation. Recipients of grafts from CO-exposed donors had lower levels of serum troponin I and creatine phosphokinase; less upregulation of mRNA for interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α; and fewer infiltrating cells. Although donor pretreatment with CO altered the expression of 49 genes expressly represented on the array, we could not obtain meaningful data to explain the mechanisms by which CO potentiated the protective effects. Pretreatment with CO gas before organ procurement effectively protected cardiac grafts from ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. A clinical report review indicated that CO-poisoned organ donors may be comparable to non-poisoned donors. PMID:27867479

  5. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  6. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  7. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex.

  8. Combining School and Family Interventions for the Prevention and Early Intervention of Disruptive Behavior Problems in Children: A Public Health Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Splett, Joni D.; Robeson, Elise N.; Offutt, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention or reduction of early aggressive and disruptive behavior has important educational and mental health implications. Disruptive behavior problems contribute to loss of instruction time in the classroom, frustration for children and families, and considerable societal burden associated with antisocial acts, including delinquency and…

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice are prevented by chronic pre-treatment of esculetin.

    PubMed

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Keshavlal, Gohil Pratik; Bezbaruah, Babul B; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Munde, Nitin; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-01-12

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Esculetin (ESC), a coumarin derived potent antioxidant, also possessing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity. This study investigated the effect of ESC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice. ESC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 14 days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 15th day. Behavioural paradigms such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were employed to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice post-LPS injection. Hippocampal cytokines, MDA and GSH level, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured. ESC pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviour by modulating EPM and OFT parameters. Moreover, LPS-induced increase in immobility time in FST and TST were also prevented significantly (P<0.05) by ESC (50mg/kg). ESC pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and oxidative stress as well as plasma CORT level. In conclusion, the results suggest that ESC prevented LPS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour which may be governed by inhibition of cytokine production, oxidative stress and plasma CORT level. The results support the potential usefulness of ESC in the treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.

  10. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…

  11. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  12. Salt-induced abnormalities on root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa: prevention by inositol pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Jolly; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2010-09-01

    Salt-induced growth reduction of plants is a well-known phenomenon which poses major problem in crop productivity in places where vast majority of land plants are affected by salt. In this report, studies were carried out to reveal the effect of salt injury on the cell division pattern in roots and the role of myo-inositol in preventing the salt-induced ion disequilibrium on the chromosome and DNA degradation in roots. Present study revealed induction of various chromosomal abnormalities on the root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa by treatment with different concentrations of NaCl (0-500 mM) for 24 h as also the amelioration of such effect by prior treatment of the roots with different concentration of myo-inositol (0-300 mM). Results showed that a narrow albeit definite range of extracellular myo-inositol (100-150 mM) is effective in preventing internucleosomal fragmentation which is the early response in roots under salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Oryza (OsINO1) as well as Porteresia (PcINO1) cytosolic L: -myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase coding genes can withstand and retain their chromosomal and DNA integrity in 100 mM NaCl solution and can subsequently prevent DNA fragmentation, caused by intracellular endonuclease activity at this salt concentration.

  13. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  14. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 2: morphological and structural substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, naturally mass-produced form of stored solar energy. Thermochemical pretreatment processes have been developed to address the challenge of biomass recalcitrance, however the optimization, cost reduction, and scalability of these processes remain as obstacles to the adoption of biofuel production processes at the industrial scale. In this study, we demonstrate that the type of reactor in which pretreatment is carried out can profoundly alter the micro- and nanostructure of the pretreated materials and dramatically affect the subsequent efficiency, and thus cost, of enzymatic conversion of cellulose. Results Multi-scale microscopy and quantitative image analysis was used to investigate the impact of different biomass pretreatment reactor configurations on plant cell wall structure. We identify correlations between enzymatic digestibility and geometric descriptors derived from the image data. Corn stover feedstock was pretreated under the same nominal conditions for dilute acid pretreatment (2.0 wt% H2SO4, 160°C, 5 min) using three representative types of reactors: ZipperClave® (ZC), steam gun (SG), and horizontal screw (HS) reactors. After 96 h of enzymatic digestion, biomass treated in the SG and HS reactors achieved much higher cellulose conversions, 88% and 95%, respectively, compared to the conversion obtained using the ZC reactor (68%). Imaging at the micro- and nanoscales revealed that the superior performance of the SG and HS reactors could be explained by reduced particle size, cellular dislocation, increased surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation generated within the biomass particles during pretreatment. Conclusions Increased cellular dislocation, surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation revealed by direct observation of the micro- and nanoscale change in accessibility explains the superior performance of reactors that augment pretreatment with physical energy. PMID:24690534

  15. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs.

  16. Pre-treatment with simvastatin prevents the induction of diet-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomidis, Nikolaos; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Misiakos, Evangelos; Rizos, Ioannis; Verikokos, Christos; Perrea, Despina N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antiatherosclerotic activities of simvastatin in rabbits. Twenty-two, male, New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups: Control group (group C); cholesterol group (group A), in which the rabbits were fed a commercial rabbit chow supplemented with 0.5% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks and then fed with normal chow for an additional 8 weeks; and a treatment group (group B), in which the rabbits initially received standard commercial rabbit chow along with being administered simvastatin for 8 weeks, following which they consumed a high-cholesterol diet for a further 8 weeks. The rabbits pre-treated with simvastatin presented significantly lower serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when compared with the non simvastatin-treated cholesterol-fed animals. Furthermore, none of the rabbits in the simvastatin group presented with atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. Thus, simvastatin was demonstrated to exhibit preventive properties against the formation of atherosclerosis in the atherosclerosis model in the current study, predominantly via its hypolipidemic activity. PMID:28101339

  17. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  18. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes.

  19. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided.

  20. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  1. Disruption of Growth Hormone Receptor Prevents Calorie Restriction from Improving Insulin Action and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Bonkowski, Michael S.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Arum, Oge; Rocha, Juliana S.; Al Regaiey, Khalid A.; Westbrook, Reyhan; Spong, Adam; Panici, Jacob; Masternak, Michal M.; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Most mutations that delay aging and prolong lifespan in the mouse are related to somatotropic and/or insulin signaling. Calorie restriction (CR) is the only intervention that reliably increases mouse longevity. There is considerable phenotypic overlap between long-lived mutant mice and normal mice on chronic CR. Therefore, we investigated the interactive effects of CR and targeted disruption or knock out of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) in mice on longevity and the insulin signaling cascade. Every other day feeding corresponds to a mild (i.e. 15%) CR which increased median lifespan in normal mice but not in GHRKO mice corroborating our previous findings on the effects of moderate (30%) CR on the longevity of these animals. To determine why insulin sensitivity improves in normal but not GHRKO mice in response to 30% CR, we conducted insulin stimulation experiments after one year of CR. In normal mice, CR increased the insulin stimulated activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IR/IRS/PI3K/AKT) in liver and muscle. Livers of GHRKO mice responded to insulin by increased activation of the early steps of insulin signaling, which was dissipated by altered PI3K subunit abundance which putatively inhibited AKT activation. In the muscle of GHRKO mice, there was elevated downstream activation of the insulin signaling cascade (IRS/PI3K/AKT) in the absence of elevated IR activation. Further, we found a major reduction of inhibitory Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1 seen exclusively in GHRKO muscle which may underpin their elevated insulin sensitivity. Chronic CR failed to further modify the alterations in insulin signaling in GHRKO mice as compared to normal mice, likely explaining or contributing to the absence of CR effects on insulin sensitivity and longevity in these long-lived mice. PMID:19234595

  2. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J; Snarr, Brendan D; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J; Lee, Mark J; Jennings, Laura K; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A; Parsek, Matthew R; Sheppard, Donald C; Wozniak, Daniel J; Howell, P Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics.

  3. Use of 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet-A pretreated platelet concentrates to prevent alloimmunization against class I major histocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Grana, N.H.; Kao, K.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The use of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UV-A irradiation to inactivate contaminating donor leukocytes in platelet concentrates and to prevent primary alloimmunization against donor class I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens in mice was investigated. CBA/CaH-T6J mice with the H2k haplotype and BALB/cByJ mice with the H2d haplotype were used as donors and recipients, respectively. The mixed leukocyte reaction between these two strains of mice showed that treatment of spleen cells with 500 ng/mL 8-MOP and 5J/cm2 UV-A inhibited 99% of responder and 92% of stimulator function. There was no measurable loss of platelet aggregating activity after the treatment. After two weekly transfusions of platelets without any treatment, 93% of control mice (n = 15) developed anti-H2k antibody. In contrast, only 33% of mice (n = 15) receiving platelets treated with 8-MOP and UV-A became alloimmunized. After six weekly platelet transfusions, all mice became alloimmunized. Nevertheless, the mean titers of anti-H2k antibody in sera of the treated groups were significantly lower than the control groups. One hour posttransfusion recoveries of 51Cr-labeled donor platelets were also higher in mice transfused with the treated platelets. Thus, the pretreatment of platelet concentrates with 8-MOP and UV-A irradiation effectively reduced the alloantigenicity of class I MHC molecules. The implication of this finding in relation to the mechanism by which donor leukocytes allosensitize recipients is discussed.

  4. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Fong, Louise Y Y; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J; Guttridge, Denis C; Farber, John L

    2008-03-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced forestomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive biomarkers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B p65 and leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2-/- forestomachs displayed strong LTA(4)H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alternative pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer.

  5. Cellulose pretreatments of lignocellulosic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, J.; Westgate, P.; Kohlmann, K.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose in inedible plant materials, forestry residues, and municipal wastes must be pretreated to disrupt its physical structure, thereby making its hydrolysis to glucose practical. Developments since 1991 are summarized.

  6. Deletion of Atoh1 disrupts Sonic Hedgehog signaling in the developing cerebellum and prevents medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Flora, Adriano; Klisch, Tiemo J; Schuster, Gabriele; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2009-12-04

    Granule neuron precursors (GNPs) are the most actively proliferating cells in the postnatal nervous system, and mutations in pathways that control the GNP cell cycle can result in medulloblastoma. The transcription factor Atoh1 has been suspected to contribute to GNP proliferation, but its role in normal and neoplastic postnatal cerebellar development remains unexplored. We show that Atoh1 regulates the signal transduction pathway of Sonic Hedgehog, an extracellular factor that is essential for GNP proliferation, and demonstrate that deletion of Atoh1 prevents cerebellar neoplasia in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Our data shed light on the function of Atoh1 in postnatal cerebellar development and identify a new mechanism that can be targeted to regulate medulloblastoma formation.

  7. Cigarette smoke-induced disruption of bronchial epithelial tight junctions is prevented by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Mise, Nikica; Jia, Jie; Genoyer, Emmanuelle; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    The airway epithelium constitutes an essential immunological and cytoprotective barrier to inhaled insults, such as cigarette smoke, environmental particles, or viruses. Although bronchial epithelial integrity is crucial for airway homeostasis, defective epithelial barrier function contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tight junctions at the apical side of epithelial cell-cell contacts determine epithelial permeability. Cigarette smoke exposure, the major risk factor for COPD, is suggested to impair tight junction integrity; however, detailed mechanisms thereof remain elusive. We investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 affected tight junction integrity. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) and differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs) to CSE significantly disrupted tight junction integrity and barrier function. Specifically, CSE decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and tight junction-associated protein levels. Zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and ZO-2 protein levels were significantly reduced and dislocated from the cell membrane, as observed by fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. These findings were reproduced in isolated bronchi exposed to CSE ex vivo, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry. Combined treatment of 16HBE14o(-) cells or pHBECs with CSE and TGF-β1 restored ZO-1 and ZO-2 levels. TGF-β1 cotreatment restored membrane localization of ZO-1 and ZO-2 protein and prevented CSE-mediated TEER decrease. In conclusion, CSE led to the disruption of tight junctions of human bronchial epithelial cells, and TGF-β1 counteracted this CSE-induced effect. Thus, TGF-β1 may serve as a protective factor for bronchial epithelial cell homeostasis in diseases such as COPD.

  8. The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevent bone loss through preferential disruption of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Iezaki, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takamori, Misa; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although naturally occurring polyamines are indispensable for a variety of cellular events in eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological significance in bone remodelling to date. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological properties of several natural polyamines on the functionality and integrity of bone in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) and subsequent oral supplementation with either spermidine or spermine for determination of the bone volume together with different parameters regarding bone formation and resorption by histomorphometric analyses in vivo. Pre-osteoclasts were cultured with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), with or without spermidine and spermine to determine cellular maturation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction in vitro. KEY RESULTS Spermidine or spermine, given in drinking water for 28 days, significantly prevented the increased osteoclast surface/bone surface ratio and the reduced bone volume following OVX in mice. Either spermidine or spermine significantly inhibited the increased number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells in osteoclasts cultured with RANKL in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell survival. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevented OVX-induced bone loss through the disruption of differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts, rather than affecting osteoblasts. The supplementation with these natural polyamines could be beneficial for the prophylaxis as well as therapy of metabolic bone diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22250848

  9. Pretreatment with human serum butyrylcholinesterase alone prevents cardiac abnormalities, seizures, and death in Göttingen minipigs exposed to sarin vapor.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashima; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Hastings, Nicholas B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2011-12-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a prophylactic countermeasure against organophosphorus nerve agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to a lethal dose of sarin (GB) vapor. Male Göttingen minipigs were subjected to: air exposure, GB vapor exposure, or pretreatment with Hu BChE followed by GB vapor exposure. Hu BChE was administered by i.m. injection 24 h prior to exposure to 4.1 mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 60 min. Electrocardiograms (ECG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and pupil size were recorded throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB present. Untreated animals exposed to GB vapor exhibited cardiac abnormalities and generalized seizures, ultimately succumbing to respiratory failure. Pretreatment with 3.0 or 6.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE delayed blood gas and acid-base disturbances and the onset of cardiac and neural toxic signs, but failed to increase survivability. Pretreatment with 7.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE, however, completely prevented toxic signs, with blood chemistry and ECG and EEG parameters indistinguishable from control during and after GB exposure. GB bound in plasma was 200-fold higher than plasma from pigs that did not receive Hu BChE, suggesting that Hu BChE scavenged GB in blood and prevented it from reaching other tissues. Thus, prophylaxis with Hu BChE alone not only increased survivability, but also prevented cardiac abnormalities and neural toxicity in minipigs exposed to a lethal dose of GB vapor.

  10. The Role of Friends' Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children's Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good…

  11. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    PubMed Central

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23956771

  12. Biomass pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  13. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  14. Lime Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160°C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure ~200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65°C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below ~18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above ~18% lignin).

  15. Lime pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160 degrees C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure approximately 200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65 degrees C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below approximately 18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above approximately 18% lignin).

  16. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia.

  17. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26544861

  18. Disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase prevents β-adrenergic receptor cardiomyopathy: a novel approach to β-adrenergic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Vatner, Stephen F; Vatner, Dorothy E

    2014-11-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockade is widely used to treat heart failure, since the adverse effects of chronic β-AR stimulation are central to the pathogenesis of this disease state. Transgenic (Tg) mice, where β-AR signaling is chronically enhanced by overexpression of cardiac β₂-ARs, is a surrogate for this mechanism, since these mice develop cardiomyopathy as reflected by reduced left ventricular (LV) function, increased fibrosis, apoptosis, and myocyte hypertrophy. We hypothesized that disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), which is in the β-AR signaling pathway in the heart, but exerts only a minor β-AR blocking effect, could prevent the cardiomyopathy in β₂-AR Tg mice without the negative effects of full β-AR blockade. Accordingly, we mated β₂-AR Tg mice with AC5 knockout (KO) mice. The β₂-AR Tg × AC5 KO bigenic mice prevented the cardiomyopathy as reflected by improved LV ejection fraction, reduced apoptosis, fibrosis, and myocyte size and preserved exercise capacity. The rescue was not simply due to a β-blocking effect of AC5 KO, since neither baseline LV function nor the response to isoproterenol was diminished substantially compared with the negative inotropic effects of β-blockade. However, AC5 disruption in β₂-AR Tg activates the antioxidant, manganese superoxide dismutase, an important mechanism protecting the heart from cardiomyopathy. These results indicate that disruption of AC5 prevents the cardiomyopathy induced by chronically enhanced β-AR signaling in mice with overexpressed β₂-AR, potentially by enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and apoptosis, suggesting a novel, alternative approach to β-AR blockade.

  19. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI) can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs) of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation). But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1). The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 11 (CCL-11) were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1) and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11). Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia. PMID:27340563

  20. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  1. Pretreatment with antibody to eosinophil major basic protein prevents hyperresponsiveness by protecting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C M; Fryer, A D; Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Costello, R W

    1997-01-01

    In antigen-challenged guinea pigs there is recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs and to airway nerves, decreased function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic autoreceptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness. A rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein was used to determine whether M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction, and the subsequent hyperresponsiveness, are due to antagonism of the M2 receptor by eosinophil major basic protein. Guinea pigs were sensitized, challenged with ovalbumin and hyperresponsiveness, and M2 receptor function tested 24 h later with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Antigen-challenged guinea pigs were hyperresponsive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves compared with controls. Likewise, loss of M2 receptor function was demonstrated since the agonist pilocarpine inhibited vagally-induced bronchoconstriction in control but not challenged animals. Pretreatment with rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein prevented hyperresponsiveness, and protected M2 receptor function in the antigen-challenged animals without inhibiting eosinophil accumulation in the lungs or around the nerves. Thus, hyperresponsiveness is a result of inhibition of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function by eosinophil major basic protein in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. PMID:9410903

  2. The improved dissolution and prevention of ampoule breakage attained by the introduction of pretreatment into the production process of the lyophilized formulation of recombinant human Interleukin-11 (rhIL-11).

    PubMed

    Hirakura, Yutaka; Kojima, Seiki; Okada, Akira; Yokohama, Shigeharu; Yokota, Shoji

    2004-11-22

    Lyophilized protein formulations sometimes pose problems such as the formation of a cloudy solution upon reconstitution. Ampoule or vial breakage can also occur during the production processes of lyophilized pharmaceutical products. Various efforts have been made to overcome those difficult problems. In this study, we introduce a particular temperature program into the production process of a recombinant human Interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) lyophilized formulation containing sodium phosphates (Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, pH 7.0) and glycine in an attempt to improve its dissolution properties and to prevent ampoule breakage from occurring. The formulation was pretreated by nucleating ice and maintaining the solution overnight at a temperature of -6 degrees C. The solution was then completely frozen at a lower temperature. This pretreatment proved successful in not only producing a lyophilized cake which readily disintegrated and dissolved in the reconstitution media, but also prevented ampoule breakage from occurring during the production processes. In contrast, a lyophilized cake produced without the pretreatment created a cloudy solution particularly when reconstituted using water for injection contaminated with aluminum (Al3+), although the solution became transparent within 20-30 min. The pretreatment induced the crystallization of sodium dibasic phosphate (Na2HPO4) in the freeze-concentrate whereas direct freezing without the pretreatment did not crystallize the salt. Thermal analyses (DSC and TMA) showed that amorphous sodium dibasic phosphate in the freeze-concentrate became crystallized upon heating, accompanied by an increase in volume, which probably caused the ampoule breakage that occurred without the pretreatment. Although power X-ray diffraction (PXRD) experiments suggested that, with or without the pretreatment, glycine assumed the beta-form and sodium phosphate stayed amorphous in the final products, an electrostatic interaction between dibasic phosphate anions and

  3. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A2AR blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A2ARs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB1Rs was assessed by using the CB1R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB1R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A2ARs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB1R drugs is desired.

  4. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  5. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  6. Disruptive Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This paper attempts to develop guidelines relating to the problem of disruptive pupils in the classroom. A disruptive student is defined as one who interferes with the learning process. He is often male, physically aggressive, verbally hostile, over-age and frequently absent. The study examines the overlap between disruptive behavior and emotional…

  7. Targeted regulation of self-peptide presentation prevents type I diabetes in mice without disrupting general immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Yi, Woelsung; Seth, Nilufer P; Martillotti, Tom; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Denzin, Lisa K

    2010-04-01

    Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is directly catalyzed by the MHCII-like molecule HLA-DM (DM). Another MHCII-like molecule, HLA-DO (DO), associates with DM, thereby modulating DM function. The biological role of DO-mediated regulation of DM activity in vivo remains unknown; however, it has been postulated that DO expression dampens presentation of self antigens, thereby preventing inappropriate T cell activation that ultimately leads to autoimmunity. To test the idea that DO modulation of the MHCII self-peptide repertoire mediates self tolerance, we generated NOD mice that constitutively overexpressed DO in DCs (referred to herein as NOD.DO mice). NOD mice are a mouse model for type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease mediated by the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Our studies showed that diabetes development was completely blocked in NOD.DO mice. Similar to NOD mice, NOD.DO animals selected a diabetogenic T cell repertoire, and the numbers and function of Tregs were normal. Indeed, immune system function in NOD.DO mice was equivalent to that in NOD mice. NOD.DO DCs, however, presented an altered MHCII-bound self-peptide repertoire, thereby preventing the activation of diabetogenic T cells and subsequent diabetes development. These studies show that DO expression can shape the overall MHCII self-peptide repertoire to promote T cell tolerance.

  8. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance.

  9. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  10. Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; ...

    2015-11-24

    In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)more » spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.« less

  11. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  12. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  13. Understanding disruptions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2011-10-01

    Disruptions in tokamaks are known since 1963 but even now some aspects of them remain a mystery. This talk describes progress made recently in understanding disruptions. A major step forward occurred in 2007 when the importance of galvanic contact of the plasma with the wall in plasma dynamics was pointed out. The toroidal asymmetry of plasma current, observed in JET vertical disruptions, was explained by the theory of the wall touching kink mode. The currents shared by the plasma with the wall and responsible for the asymmetry were identified as generated by the kink mode. Such currents are referred to as Hiro currents. They have shown exceptional consistency with the entire JET disruption data base (more than 5500 cases) and ruled out the long lasting interpretation based on ``halo currents,'' which contradict experiments even in the sign of the measured asymmetry. Accordingly, the sideways forces are understood and their scaling from JET to ITER was justified. Hiro currents provide also a plausible explanation of the current spike at the beginning of the disruptions. The important role of the plasma edge and its interaction with the wall was revealed. Based on this new understanding of disruptions, dedicated experiments on the current spike (J-TEXT, Wuhan, China) and runaway prevention by the repetitive triggering of kink modes (T-10, AUG, Tore Supra) were motivated and are in progress. Accordingly, the need for new, adaptive grid approaches to numerical simulations of disruptions became evident. In addition to the core MHD, simulations of realistic wall geometry, disruption specific plasma edge physics, plasma-wall interaction, and energetic particles need be developed. The first results of simulations of the fast MHD regime, Hiro current generation, and slower plasma decay due to a wall touching kink mode made with the new DSC code are presented. This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  14. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  15. Industrial Pretreatment Program | NPDES | New England | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    The Industrial Pretreatment Program prevents the discharge of pollutants to Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) which will interfere with the operations of the POTW or its use and disposal of municipal biosolids.

  16. Disruptive Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David H., Ed.

    A committee was formed to explore ways of helping school districts develop more effective programs for disruptive students. Committee findings revealed the need for the development of local guidelines to satisfy each school district's needs and for reliable feedback. Therefore, this report reflects efforts to sample various local approaches to the…

  17. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  18. Exposure and response prevention with or without parent management training for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by disruptive behavior: a multiple-baseline across-responses design study.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Gorman, Bernard S; Scahill, Lawrence; Findley, Diane; McGuire, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders may have important implications for exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatments of children with OCD. Child noncompliance and parent-child conflict may interfere with performance of exposure activities and completion of therapeutic homework assignments, thus diminishing response to treatment. We investigated whether response to exposure and response prevention (ERP) can be enhanced if disruptive behavior is treated first with parent management training (PMT). A multiple-baseline across-responses design was used to investigate the effects of ERP with or without PMT in six children (age range 9-14 years) with OCD and disruptive behavior. Weekly ratings of OCD were conducted for four weeks to establish baseline. After that, children were randomly assigned to receive six weekly sessions of PMT and then twelve weekly sessions of ERP (ERP-plus-PMT condition) or to receive ERP after a six week waiting period (ERP-only condition). The outcome assessments were conducted weekly using the Child Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) administered by an experienced clinician, who was blind to treatment assignment. Three subjects in the ERP-plus-PMT condition evidenced a 39 percent reduction in the CY-BOCS score versus a 10 percent reduction in three subjects in the ERP-only condition. The results of our single-subject study suggest the feasibility and positive effects of combining ERP with PMT for children with OCD complicated by disruptive behavior.

  19. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...

  20. Pretreatment Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A.; Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

  1. Does Pre-Treatment with High Dose Atorvastatin Prevent Microvascular Dysfunction after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Ki; Nam, Chang-Wook; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Chung, Woo-Young; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Fearon, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is controversy surrounding whether or not high dose statin administration before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreases peri-procedural microvascular injury. We performed a prospective randomized study to investigate the mechanisms and effects of pre-treatment high dose atorvastatin on myocardial damage in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing PCI. Subjects and Methods Seventy seven patients with NSTE-ACS were randomly assigned to either the high dose group (atorvastatin 80 mg loading 12 to 24 h before PCI with a further 40 mg loading 2 h before PCI, n=39) or low dose group (atorvastatin 10 mg administration 12 to 24 h before PCI, n=38). Index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured after stent implantation. Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after PCI. Results The baseline characteristics were not different between the two patient groups. Compared to the low dose group, the high dose group had lower post PCI IMR (14.1±5.0 vs. 19.2±9.3 U, p=0.003). Post PCI CK-MB was also lower in the high dose group (median: 1.40 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR: 0.75 to 3.45] vs. 4.00 [IQR: 1.70 to 7.37], p=0.002) as was the post-PCI CRP level (0.09 mg/dL [IQR: 0.04 to 0.16] vs. 0.22 [IQR: 0.08 to 0.60], p=0.001). Conclusion Pre-treatment with high dose atorvastatin reduces peri-PCI microvascular dysfunction verified by post-PCI IMR and exerts an immediate anti-inflammatory effect in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27482255

  2. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  3. Mating disruption for navel orangeworm in Central California: Year 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of mating disruption on the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was examined during a three-year study conducted in 336 ha of commercial almonds in Fresno County (west central San Joaquin Valley). In the first year, pre-treatment (mating disruption) l...

  4. Intrapartum Pubic Symphysis Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Pires, RES; Labronici, PJ; Giordano, V; Kojima, KE; Kfuri, M; Barbisan, M; Wajnsztejn, A; de Andrade, MAP

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, high progesterone and relaxin levels produce physiological ligament relaxation on the pelvis. Therefore, moderate pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joints relaxing provide birth canal widening, thereby facilitating vaginal delivery. Sometimes, functional pain or pelvic instability may occur during pregnancy or puerperium, which is defined as symptomatic pelvic girdle relaxation. In rare cases, a pubic symphysis disruption can occur during the labor, causing severe pain and functional limitations. The early recognition of this injury is crucial to prevent complications and improve clinical and functional outcomes. This study reports an acute symphyseal disruption resulting from childbirth in a primiparous patient who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws. After a 6 months follow-up, the patient presented no pain and satisfactory functional recovery. PMID:27057391

  5. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  6. Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-24

    In this study, comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220–270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8–90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  7. Steroids pretreatment in assisted reproduction cycles.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, V; Streda, R; Mardesic, T; Tosner, J; Heracek, J

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to present an overview of trials and appreciate the relevant data on the effect of steroids pretreatment (oral contraceptives, 17β-estradiol and estradiol valerate) in assisted reproduction cycles. The subject of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics during steroids pretreatment cycles focused on the prevention of ovarian cysts, the positive contraceptive effect on the onset of regular period during long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocol. In gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist protocol the review is interested in supporting ovarian stimulation in low responders, the idea of cycle scheduling and improving treatment outcomes. The method is a review from MEDLINE/Pubmed database between 1994 and July 2012. We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (n=3069 patients). One trail (n=83 patients) assessed GnRH agonist protocol with or without steroids pretreatment, 8 trials (n=1884 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols with or without steroids pretreatment and 6 trials (n=1102 patients) assessed GnRH antagonist protocols versus agonist ones with steroid pretreatment. Data demonstrates that oral contraceptives offer the effective prevention of functional ovarian cysts, the predictable onset of period during desensitisation. Existing data suggest that pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills or estradiol valerate give no advantage concerning number of oocytes or pregnancy rate. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills aiming to avoid weekend oocytes retrievals has to be more elucidated. In low responders oral contraceptive pill pretreatment may be beneficial in improving ovarian responses by reducing the amount of gonadotropins and the number of days required for ovarian stimulation. Current research indicates that also 17β-estradiol may be encouraging pretreatment in low responders and in cycle scheduling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  8. Disruption of Early Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling Prevents Classical Activation of Dendritic Cells in Lung-Associated Lymph Nodes and Development of Protective Immunity against Cryptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jintao; Eastman, Alison J.; Flaczyk, Adam; Neal, Lori M.; Zhao, Guolei; Carolan, Jacob; Malachowski, Antoni N.; Stolberg, Valerie R.; Yosri, Mohammed; Chensue, Stephen W.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Osterholzer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapies have been increasingly used to treat inflammatory diseases and are associated with increased risk of invasive fungal infections, including Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, we investigated the mechanism by which disruption of early TNF-α signaling results in the development of nonprotective immunity against C. neoformans. We found that transient depletion of TNF-α inhibited pulmonary fungal clearance and enhanced extrapulmonary dissemination of C. neoformans during the adaptive phase of the immune response. Higher fungal burdens in TNF-α-depleted mice were accompanied by markedly impaired Th1 and Th17 responses in the infected lungs. Furthermore, early TNF-α depletion also resulted in disrupted transcriptional initiation of the Th17 polarization program and subsequent upregulation of Th1 genes in CD4+ T cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN) of C. neoformans-infected mice. These defects in LALN T cell responses were preceded by a dramatic shift from a classical toward an alternative activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the LALN of TNF-α-depleted mice. Taken together, our results indicate that early TNF-α signaling is required for optimal DC activation, and the initial Th17 response followed by Th1 transcriptional prepolarization of T cells in the LALN, which further drives the development of protective immunity against cryptococcal infection in the lungs. Thus, administration of anti-TNF-α may introduce a particularly greater risk for newly acquired fungal infections that require generation of protective Th1/Th17 responses for their containment and clearance. PMID:27406560

  9. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  10. Vitamin E pretreatment prevents the immunotoxicity of dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb in vitro: A comparative age-related assessment in mice and chick.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Bano, Farhad; Mohanty, Banalata

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides used for crop protection cause life-threatening diseases affecting the immune system of non-target organisms including birds and mammals. Functionality of immune system is age-dependent; early- as well as old-life stages are more susceptible to toxic exposures because of less competent immune system. Vitamins are so far known to reduce toxic effect of several pesticides and/or xenobiotics. The present in vitro study elucidated immunotoxicity of fungicide mancozeb through comparable stages of immune system maturation in mice (1, 3, and 12months) and chicks (4, 8, and 11weeks). In vitro splenocytes viability on exposure to mancozeb was quantitatively assessed by MTT assay and qualitatively by acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double fluorescence staining. Mancozeb exposure dose dependently (250, 500, 1000, 2500, 5000 and 10,000ng/ml) decreased the splenocytes viability. The in vitro preventive effect of Vitamin E has also been explored on toxicity induced by mancozeb. The increased susceptibility observed both in early and aged groups was due to less/decline competence of the immune system.

  11. Diverse animal models to examine potential role(s) and mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tumor progression and prevention: Do they have tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic property?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2011-01-01

    Acting as hormone mimics or antagonists in the interaction with hormone receptors, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potentials of disturbing the endocrine system in sex steroid hormone-controlled organs and tissues. These effects may lead to the disruption of major regulatory mechanisms, the onset of developmental disorders, and carcinogenesis. Especially, among diverse EDCs, xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A, dioxins, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, have been shown to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) and to modulate cellular functions induced by ERs. Furthermore, they appear to be closely related with carcinogenicity in estrogen-dependant cancers, including breast, ovary, and prostate cancers. In in vivo animal models, prenatal exposure to xenoestrogens changed the development of the mouse reproductive organs and increased the susceptibility to further carcinogenic exposure and tumor occurence in adults. Unlike EDCs, which are chemically synthesized, several phytoestrogens such as genistein and resveratrol showed chemopreventive effects on specific cancers by contending with ER binding and regulating normal ER action in target tissues of mice. These results support the notion that a diet containing high levels of phytoestrogens can have protective effects on estrogen-related diseases. In spite of the diverse evidences of EDCs and phytoestrogens on causation and prevention of estrogen-dependant cancers provided in this article, there are still disputable questions about the dose-response effect of EDCs or chemopreventive potentials of phytoestrogens. As a wide range of EDCs including phytoestrogens have been remarkably increasing in the environment with the rapid growth in our industrial society and more closely affecting human and wildlife, the potential risks of EDCs in endocrine disruption and carcinogenesis are important issues and needed to be verified in detail. PMID:22232634

  12. Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Louis F.

    1981-01-01

    An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

  13. Biomolecular Interaction Assays Identified Dual Inhibitors of Glutaminase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase That Disrupt Mitochondrial Function and Prevent Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Fang, Jinzhang; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Yan; Ruan, Jennifer Jin; Chen, Zhao; Hou, Wei; Yang, Gensheng; Su, Weike; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    2017-02-07

    Glutaminase (KGA/isoenzyme GAC) is an emerging and important drug target for cancer. Traditional methods for assaying glutaminase activity are coupled with several other enzymes. Such coupled assays do not permit the direct and stringent characterization of specific glutaminase inhibitors. Ebselen was identified as a potent 9 nM KGA inhibitor in the KGA/glutamate oxidase (GO)/horse radish peroxidase (HRP) coupled assay but showed very weak activity in inhibiting the growth of glutamine-dependent cancer cells. For rigorous characterization, we developed a direct kinetic binding assay for KGA using bio-layer interferometry (BLI) as the detection method; Ebselen was identified as a GDH inhibitor but not a KGA inhibitor. Furthermore, we designed and synthesized several benzo[d][1,2]selenazol-3(2H)-one dimers which were subjected to SAR analysis by several glutaminolysis specific biochemical and cell based assays. Novel glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or dual KGA/GDH inhibitors were discovered from the synthetic compounds; the dual inhibitors completely disrupt mitochondrial function and demonstrate potent anticancer activity with a minimum level of toxicity.

  14. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than

  15. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors.

  16. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  17. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  18. The preventive effect of NR2B and NR2D-containing NMDAR antagonists on Aβ-induced LTP disruption in the dentate gyrus of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Deng, Tianxiang; Xue, Zhancheng; Chen, Xiaowei; Chang, Lan; Wang, Qinwen

    2013-12-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) potently inhibits the synaptic plasticity subsequently causing the cognitive deficits. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is thought to be an important cellular mechanism underlying memory formation. Different NR2 subunits are involved in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. In the present study, we investigated the roles of NR2B and NR2D-containing NMDAR on Aβ(1-42)-induced LTP deficits in the hippocampal slices of rats by using selective NMDAR antagonists. First, we found that Aβ(1-42) significantly inhibited the LTP in the dentate gyrus of slices as reported before. Following that the Aβ(1-42)-induced LTP inhibition was prevented by the pre-perfusion of the specific NR2B-containing NMDAR antagonists ifenprodil (approximately >200-fold selectivity for NR2B) and Ro25-6981 (>3,000-fold selectivity for NR2B), as well as PPDA, a specific NR2D receptor antagonist. Meanwhile, the antagonists on their own had no or only partial effects on the normal LTP in the same dose condition. These findings not only support the effects of NR2B and NR2D subunits on Aβ(1-42)-induced LTP deficits, but also imply that preferentially targeting NR2B- and NR2D-containing NMDARs may provide an effective means to prevent cognitive deficits in the early AD.

  19. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  20. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  1. Disrupting the rhythm of depression: design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial on preventing relapse using brief cognitive therapy with or without antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maintenance treatment with antidepressants is the leading strategy to prevent relapse and recurrence in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) who have responded to acute treatment with antidepressants (AD). However, in clinical practice most patients (up to 70-80%) are not willing to take this medication after remission or take too low dosages. Moreover, as patients need to take medication for several years, it may not be the most cost-effective strategy. The best established effective and available alternative is brief cognitive therapy (CT). However, it is unclear whether brief CT while tapering antidepressants (AD) is an effective alternative for long term use of AD in recurrent depression. In addition, it is unclear whether the combination of AD to brief CT is beneficial. Methods/design Therefore, we will compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of brief CT while tapering AD to maintenance AD and the combination of CT with maintenance AD. In addition, we examine whether the prophylactic effect of CT was due to CT tackling illness related risk factors for recurrence such as residual symptoms or to its efficacy to modify presumed vulnerability factors of recurrence (e.g. rigid explicit and/or implicit dysfunctional attitudes). This is a multicenter RCT comparing the above treatment scenarios. Remitted patients on AD with at least two previous depressive episodes in the past five years (n = 276) will be recruited. The primary outcome is time related proportion of depression relapse/recurrence during minimal 15 months using DSM-IV-R criteria as assessed by the Structural Clinical Interview for Depression. Secondary outcome: economic evaluation (using a societal perspective) and number, duration and severity of relapses/recurrences. Discussion This will be the first trial to investigate whether CT is effective in preventing relapse to depression in recurrent depression while tapering antidepressant treatment compared to

  2. Disruption of intermolecular disulfide bonds in PDGF-BB dimers by N-acetyl-L-cysteine does not prevent PDGF signaling in cultured hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Meurer, Steffen K.; Gressner, Axel M.; Weiskirchen, Ralf . E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis through its induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and enhancement of collagen synthesis. Reactive oxygen species have been found to be essential second messengers in the signaling of both major fibrotic growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), in cultured HSC and liver fibrosis. The non-toxic aminothiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular activation and attenuates experimental fibrosis in liver. Prior reports show that NAC is capable of reducing the effects of TGF-{beta} in biological systems, in cultured endothelial cells, and HSC through its direct reducing activity upon TGF-{beta} molecules. We here analyzed the effects of NAC on PDGF integrity, receptor binding, and downstream signaling in culture-activated HSC. We found that NAC dose-dependently induces disintegration of PDGF in vitro. However, even high doses (>20 mM) were not sufficient to prevent the phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor type {beta}, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF monomer is still active. The described antifibrotic effects are therefore mainly attributable to the structural impairment of TGF-{beta} signaling components reported previously.

  3. Assessing pretreatment reactor scaling through empirical analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; ...

    2016-10-10

    was within the near-optimal space for total sugar yield for the LHR. This indicates that the ASE is a good tool for cost effectively finding near-optimal conditions for operating pilot-scale systems, which may be used as starting points for further optimization. Additionally, using a severity-factor approach to optimization was found to be inadequate compared to a multivariate optimization method. As a result, the ASE and the LHR were able to enable significantly higher total sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis relative to the ZCR, despite having similar optimal conditions and total xylose yields. This underscores the importance of incorporating mechanical disruption into pretreatment reactor designs to achieve high enzymatic digestibilities.« less

  4. Assessing pretreatment reactor scaling through empirical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-10-10

    within the near-optimal space for total sugar yield for the LHR. This indicates that the ASE is a good tool for cost effectively finding near-optimal conditions for operating pilot-scale systems, which may be used as starting points for further optimization. Additionally, using a severity-factor approach to optimization was found to be inadequate compared to a multivariate optimization method. As a result, the ASE and the LHR were able to enable significantly higher total sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis relative to the ZCR, despite having similar optimal conditions and total xylose yields. This underscores the importance of incorporating mechanical disruption into pretreatment reactor designs to achieve high enzymatic digestibilities.

  5. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  6. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  7. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation.

  8. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  9. Activation of classical estrogen receptor subtypes reduces tight junction disruption of brain endothelial cells under ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Minsuk; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic stroke, which induces oxidative stress in the brain, disrupts tight junctions (TJs) between brain endothelial cells, resulting in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain edema. Estrogen reduces oxidative stress and protects brain endothelial cells from ischemic insult. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of estrogen on TJ disruption and to examine the roles of classical estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα- and ERβ, in estrogen effects in brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. Estrogen pretreatment prevented OGD/R-induced decreases in cell viability and TJ protein levels. ERα- and ERβ-specific agonists also reduced TJ disruption. Knockdown of ERα or ERβ expression partially inhibited the effects of estrogen, but completely reversed the effects of corresponding ER subtype-specific agonists on the outcomes of OGD/R. During the early reperfusion period, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/vascular endothelial growth factor was associated with decreased expression of occludin and claudin-5, respectively, and these changes in TJ protein levels were differentially regulated by ER subtype-specific agonists. Our results suggest that ERα and ERβ activation reduce TJ disruption via inhibition of signaling molecules after ischemic injury and that targeting each ER subtype can be a useful strategy for protecting the BBB from ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women.

  10. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    DOEpatents

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  11. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenlin; Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; Ong, Markus; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  12. 40 CFR 442.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.25 Pretreatment standards for existing... existing source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable... intent to achieve the pollution prevention allowable discharge pretreatment standard by submitting to...

  13. 40 CFR 442.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.25 Pretreatment standards for existing... existing source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable... intent to achieve the pollution prevention allowable discharge pretreatment standard by submitting to...

  14. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology.

  15. Is your hospital safe? Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2008-01-01

    The author defines disruptive behavior; distinguishes among disruptive, impaired, and incompetent behavior; describes the prevalence of disruptive behavior; and identifies some recommendations to prevent and resolve disruptive behavior in hospitals. The proactive prevention and management of workplace bullying have implications on managing costs, quality, and satisfaction in hospitals among patients, families, staff, and physicians. The author describes an evidence-based framework and recommends that hospital administrators use it to design an organizational approach to promoting a work environment that is psychologically and physiologically safe and that enables staff to focus on delivering high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying care.

  16. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  17. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  18. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  19. Improved pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using enzymatically-generated peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Jing, Qing; AlDajani, Waleed Wafa; Duncan, Shona; Tschirner, Ulrike; Schilling, Jonathan; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2011-04-01

    Release of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is inefficient because lignin, an aromatic polymer, blocks access of enzymes to the sugar polymers. Pretreatments remove lignin and disrupt its structure, thereby enhancing sugar release. In previous work, enzymatically generated peracetic acid was used to pretreat aspen wood. This pretreatment removed 45% of the lignin and the subsequent saccharification released 97% of the sugars remaining after pretreatment. In this paper, the amount of enzyme needed is reduced tenfold using first, an improved enzyme variant that makes twice as much peracetic acid and second, a two-phase reaction to generate the peracetic acid, which allows enzyme reuse. In addition, the eight pretreatment cycles are reduced to only one by increasing the volume of peracetic acid solution and increasing the temperature to 60 °C and the reaction time to 6h. For the pretreatment step, the weight ratio of peracetic acid to wood determines the amount of lignin removed.

  20. Biomass shock pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  1. The ITPA disruption database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; Kawano, Y.; Lehnen, M.; Lister, J. B.; Pautasso, G.; Riccardo, V.; Tanna, R. L.; Thornton, A. J.; ITPA Disruption Database Participants, The

    2015-06-01

    A multi-device database of disruption characteristics has been developed under the auspices of the International Tokamak Physics Activity magneto-hydrodynamics topical group. The purpose of this ITPA disruption database (IDDB) is to find the commonalities between the disruption and disruption mitigation characteristics in a wide variety of tokamaks in order to elucidate the physics underlying tokamak disruptions and to extrapolate toward much larger devices, such as ITER and future burning plasma devices. In contrast to previous smaller disruption data collation efforts, the IDDB aims to provide significant context for each shot provided, allowing exploration of a wide array of relationships between pre-disruption and disruption parameters. The IDDB presently includes contributions from nine tokamaks, including both conventional aspect ratio and spherical tokamaks. An initial parametric analysis of the available data is presented. This analysis includes current quench rates, halo current fraction and peaking, and the effectiveness of massive impurity injection. The IDDB is publicly available, with instruction for access provided herein.

  2. Interception and disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Given sufficient warning we might try to avert a collision with a comet or asteroid by using beamed energy or by using the kinetic energy of an interceptor rocket. If motivated by the opportunity to convert the object into a space asset, perhaps a microgravity mine for construction materials or spacecraft fuels, we might try a rendezvous to implant a propulsion system of some sort. But the most cost-effective means of disruption is a nuclear explosive. In this paper, I discuss optimal tactics for terminal intercept, which can be extended to remote-interdiction scenarios as well. I show that the optimal mass ratio of an interceptor rock carrying a nuclear explosive depends mainly on the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the assailant-object closing velocity. I compare the effectiveness of stand-off detonation, surface burst, and penetration, for both deflection and pulverization, concluding that a penetrator has no clear advantage over a surface-burst device for deflection, but is a distinctly more capable pulverizer. The advantage of a stand-off device is to distribute the impulse more evenly over the surface of the object and to prevent fracture, an event which would greatly complicate the intercept problem. Finally, I present some results of a model for gravitationally bound objects and obtain the maximum non-fracturing deflection speed for a variety of object sizes and structures. For a single engagement, I conclude that the non-fracturing deflection speed obtainable with a stand-off device is about four times the speed obtainable with a surface-burst device. Furthermore, the non-fracturing deflection speed is somewhat dependent on the number of competent components of the object, the speed for a 13 component object being about twice that for a 135 component object.

  3. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Disruption of Novel Object Recognition: Relevance for Psychostimulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Reilley, Kate J.; McLaughlin, Jay P.

    2012-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists are potentially valuable as therapeutics for the treatment of psychostimulant reward as they suppress dopamine signaling in reward circuitry to repress drug seeking behavior. However, KOR agonists are also associated with sedation and cognitive dysfunction. The extent to which learning and memory disruption or hypolocomotion underlie KOR agonists’ role in counteracting the rewarding effects of psychostimulants is of interest. C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with vehicle (saline, 0.9%), the KOR agonist (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1- pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488), or the peripherally-restricted agonist D-Phe-D-Phe-D-lle-D-Arg- NH2 (ffir-NH2), through central (i.c.v.) or peripheral (i.p.) routes of administration. Locomotor activity was assessed via activity monitoring chambers and rotorod. Cognitive performance was assessed in a novel object recognition task. Prolonged hypolocomotion was observed following administration of 1.0 and 10.0, but not 0.3 mg/kg U50,488. Central, but not peripheral, administration of ffir-NH2 (a KOR agonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier) also reduced motor behavior. Systemic pretreatment with the low dose of U50,488 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired performance in the novel object recognition task. Likewise, ffir-NH2 significantly reduced novel object recognition after central (i.c.v.), but not peripheral (i.p.), administration. U50,488- and ffir-NH2-mediated deficits in novel object recognition were prevented by pretreatment with KOR antagonists. Cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was subsequently assessed and was reduced by pretreatment with U50,488 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.). Together, these results suggest that the activation of centrally-located kappa opioid receptors may induce cognitive and mnemonic disruption independent of hypolocomotor effects which may contribute to the KOR-mediated suppression of psychostimulant reward. PMID:22900234

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  5. Confronting the disruptive physician.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    1997-01-01

    Ignoring disruptive behavior is no longer an option in today's changing health care environment. Competition and managed care have caused more organizations to deal with the disruptive physician, rather than look the other way as many did in years past. But it's not an easy task, possibly the toughest of your management career. How should you confront a disruptive physician? By having clearly stated expectations for physician behavior and policies in place for dealing with problem physicians, organizations have a context from which to address the situation.

  6. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  7. Lycium barbarum Extracts Protect the Brain from Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Cerebral Edema in Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Di; Li, Suk-Yee; Yeung, Chung-Man; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP), a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. Methods C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB) extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after MCAO. Results LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. Conclusions Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke. PMID:22438957

  8. EDU pretreatment decreases polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into rat lung airways.

    PubMed

    Bassett, D J; Elbon, C L; Ishii, Y; Yang, H; Otterbein, L; Boswell, G A; Kerr, J S

    1994-07-01

    Pretreatment with the heterocyclic compound EDU (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolindinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea) has previously been shown to reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration into the airways of ozone-exposed rats. The present study further examined the effects of 1 and 2 days EDU pretreatment on rat lung inflammatory responses by determining PMN infiltration in response to intratracheal instillation with the chemoattractant formyl-norleucine-leucine-phenylalanine (fNLP). Maximal recovery of PMNs by bronchoalveolar lavage was observed 4 hr after fNLP instillation with no alteration in the numbers of recoverable macrophages and lymphocytes. Although 1-day pretreatment with EDU did not affect PMN recovery from fNLP-instilled rat lungs, 2 days of EDU pretreatment prevented PMN infiltration as indicated by PMN recoveries that were similar to those obtained from saline-instilled lungs. Measurements of lung-marginated and interstitial pools of inflammatory cells using collagenase tissue digestion demonstrated no effect of 2 days EDU pretreatment. Although 2 days EDU pretreatment alone did not alter blood PMN content, lung permeability, and the lavage recoveries of inflammatory cells, blood PMN responses to chemotactic stimuli in vitro were impaired. In addition, EDU was shown to directly inhibit PMN chemotaxis and superoxide anion generation in vitro. These data demonstrated that EDU acts by interfering with PMN activation and migration rather than by decreasing PMN availability. EDU, by modulating the inflammatory response, represents a useful compound for preventing PMN-associated amplification of acute lung injuries.

  9. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  10. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  11. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  12. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process

  13. Enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover by an integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Miao, Yelian; Jiang, Xuejian; Xu, Zidong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-04-01

    An integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment was applied to corn stover prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The effects of NaOH concentration in the pretreatment on crystalline structure, chemical composition, and reducing-sugar yield of corn stover were investigated, and the mechanism of increasing reducing-sugar yield by the pretreatment was discussed. The experimental results showed that the crystalline structure of corn stover was disrupted, and lignin was removed, while cellulose and hemicellulose were retained in corn stover by the pretreatment with 1% NaOH in 1 h. The reducing-sugar yield from the pretreated corn stovers increased from 20.2% to 46.7% when the NaOH concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The 1% NaOH pretreated corn stover had a holocellulose conversion of 55.1%. The increase in reducing-sugar yield was related to the crystalline structure disruption and delignification of corn stover. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the corn stover to sugars.

  14. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  15. 40 CFR 442.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.26 Pretreatment standards for new sources... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in § 442... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  16. 40 CFR 442.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.26 Pretreatment standards for new sources... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in § 442... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  17. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  18. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  19. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  20. Malaysian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Norzila; Reupert, Andrea; Sharma, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate Malaysian primary pre-service teachers' perceptions of students' disruptive behaviour and their self-reported strategies to prevent and to manage such behaviours. Results indicate that Malaysian pre-service teachers understand disruptive behaviours to be those that disrupt the learning and teaching…

  1. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated with Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster…

  2. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  3. The disruptive radiologist.

    PubMed

    Ulreich, Sidney; Harris, Robert D; Sze, Gordon; Moriarity, Andrew K; Bluth, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Radiologists interact with many individuals during daily practice, including patients, technologists, and other physicians. Some interactions may potentially negatively affect patient care and are termed "disruptive" behaviors. These actions are not uncommon and may begin during training, long before a radiologist enters clinical practice. The causes of disruptive behavior are multifactorial, and it is important that educators and radiologists in practice alike be able to identify them and respond accordingly. An escalated approach for both trainees and practicing radiologists is recommended, with substantial penalties after each incident that can include termination of employment. Training programs and practices must have clearly defined methods for confronting this potentially time-consuming and difficult issue.

  4. Quick profile-reoriganization driven by helical field perturbation for suppressing tokamak major disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.; Matsuoka, K.; Hirokura, S.; Kitagawa, S.; Mohri, A.; Tanahashi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Toi, K.

    1986-09-01

    Disruptive behavior of magnetic field configuration leading to tokamak major disruption is found to be controlled by a mild mini-disruption which is induced by the compact external modular multipole-field coils with m=3/n=2 dominant helical field component in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. This mini-disruption ergodizes the m=2/n=1 magnetic island quickly but mildly and then prevents the profile of electron temperature from flattening. This quick profile-reorganization is effective to avoid the two-step disruption (pre- and major disruptions) responsible for the catastrophic current termination.

  5. Boomtowns and Lifeworld Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Lynn; Albrect, Stan

    Three intermountain communities in Colorado and Utah were studied to determine the impact of rapid development on residents of rural communities, especially on their views of the world and their personal well-being, and to assess the degree to which energy boomtowns experience the social disruption suggested in the classical boomtown studies. Two…

  6. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass.

  7. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  8. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

    1991-01-01

    Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests was received and installation initiated. Four coal samples were obtained from the Penn State Sample Bank. Continuous flow pretreatment procedures were reestablished. Extraction yields after pretreatment of the new sample of Illinois No. 6 coal are in agreement with previous results even though the particle size is considerably larger. Purification of the model compound {beta}-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether has been completed. However, {alpha}-naphthylmethyl phenyl ether has been found to undergo acid catalyzed rearrangement during purification on silica. An alternative method for purification is being examined. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. [Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Milena; Murias, Marek

    2008-11-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the issues of chemicals that disrupt the normal function of endocrine system, namely xenoestrogens. These chemicals can mimic the activity of endogenous estrogens, antagonize their interaction with estrogen receptors or disrupt the synthesis, metabolism and functions of endogenous female hormones. Due to the fact that they act thanks to many different mechanisms, it is very difficult to estimate their estrogenic activity by means of a simple tests. The important issue remains the fact that xenoestrogens may have a positive or negative influence on the function of the endocrine system. It seems to be very important that there are many sources of xenoestrogens, that is not only vegetables and fruit (phytoestrogens), but also metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb), dental appliances (alkilphenols), food containers or blood containers (PVC--polyvinyl chloride, DEHP--di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), cosmetics (parabens) and pesticides (DDT--dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethylane, endosulfane).

  10. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J D

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  11. Cellulose extraction from Zoysia japonica pretreated by alumina-doped MgO in AMIMCl.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-26

    In this study, alumina-doped MgO was produced as a solid alkali for lignocellulose pretreatment. Pretreatment with alumina-doped MgO disrupted the lignocellulose structure and significantly reduced the lignin content of the Z. japonica. After pretreatment, Z. japonica showed significant solubility in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The similar high solubility of pretreated Z. japonica samples by original alumina-doped MgO and used alumina-doped MgO also proved that alumina-doped MgO had strong stability, which can be recycled and used repeatedly. The regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose according to FTIR and NMR analyses. Compared to microcrystalline cellulose, only the crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose decreased.

  12. Prevention of Cutaneous Penetration and CD1c+ Uptake of Pollen Allergens by a Barrier-Enhancing Formulation.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina Claudia; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Rippke, Frank; Filbry, Alexander; Bohnsack, Kerstin; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pollen proteins can penetrate the impaired skin barrier of atopic patients and exacerbate their disease. In the presented study the effect of a topically applied barrier-enhancing formulation was investigated for its preventive effect on the uptake of pollen allergens into CD1c+ epidermal cells. The pollen proteins were fluorescence labelled and applied on barrier-disrupted excised human skin. CD1c+ cells were selected after magnetic cell sorting and analysed using laser scanning microscopy. In untreated disrupted skin, 81% of the CD1c+ cells contained the fluorescence-labelled pollen allergens. In formulation-pretreated skin only 12% of the CD1c+ cells showed an uptake of pollen allergens. These results encourage the treatment of atopic patients with barrier-enhancing formulations to reduce the impact of pollen on air-exposed skin areas and hence the exacerbation of cutaneous symptoms.

  13. A Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, pretreatment in mice prevented influenza virus replication accompanied with GM-CSF expression and increase in several defensin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Dan, Katsuaki; Akiyoshi, Hiroko; Munakata, Kaori; Hasegawa, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, Hochuekkito (TJ-41), with an influenza virus-preventing effect had life-extending effectiveness, and immunological responses other than interferon (IFN)-α release were examined. TJ-41 (1 g/kg) was given to C57BL/6 male mice orally once a day for 2 weeks. Mice were then intranasally infected with influenza virus. After infection, virus titers and various parameters, mRNA levels and protein expression, for immunoresponses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or removed lung homogenate, were measured by plaque assay, quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. IFN-α and -β levels of TJ-41-treated mice were higher than those of the control. Toll-like receptor TLR7 and TLR9 mRNAs were elevated after infection, but retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-1) family mRNA levels, RIG-1, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 and Leishmania G protein 2 showed no response in either TJ-41 or control groups. Interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 mRNA levels to stimulate type I (α/β) IFN were increased, but IRF-7 did not change. Only granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after Hochuekkito treatment was significantly elevated 2 and 3 days after infection. The mRNA levels of 7 defensins after infection increased compared to preinfection values. The key roles of TJ-41 were not only stimulation of type I IFN release but also GM-CSF-derived anti-inflammation activity. Furthermore, defensin (antimicrobial peptide) mRNA levels increased by infection and were further enhanced by TJ-41 treatment. Defensin might prevent influenza virus replication.

  14. Protective effects of resveratrol on ethanol-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells and disruption of embryonic development in mouse blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Shiao, Nion-Heng; Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2007-12-05

    Previous studies have established that ethanol induces apoptosis, but the precise molecular mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we show that 0.3-1.0% (w/v) ethanol induces apoptosis in mouse blastocysts and that resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, ethanol-treated blastocysts show normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro but a reduced ability to reach the later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented ethanol-induced disruption of embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro cell-based assay, we further found that ethanol increases the production of reactive oxygen species in ESC-B5 embryonic stem cells, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) and NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis. These changes were blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol. Based on these results, we propose a model for the protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced cell injury in blastocysts and ESC-B5 cells.

  15. Biological pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin Yunqin; Wang Dehan; Wang Lishang

    2010-09-01

    High efficient resource recovery from pulp and paper sludge (PPS) has been the focus of attention. The objective of this research was to develop a bio-pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion of PPS to improve the methane productivity. Active and inactive mushroom compost extracts (MCE) were used for pretreating PPS, followed by anaerobic digestion with monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1-L capacity with 700 ml useful capacity. Optimal amount of active MCE for organics' solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 250 A.U./gVS( sludge). Under this condition, the PPS floc structure was well disrupted, resulting in void rate and fibre size diminishment after pretreatment. In addition, SCOD and VS removal were found to be 56% and 43.6%, respectively, after anaerobic digestion, being the peak value of VFA concentration determined as 1198 mg acetic acid L(-1). The anaerobic digestion efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment conditions was 0.23 m(3) CH4/kgVS(add), being 134.2% of the control. The results indicated that MCE bio-pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally sound method for producing methane from PPS.

  16. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jan B; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Elder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall. PMID:18471316

  17. Alkali pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Wu, Shaoquan; Wang, Chunmin

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an alkali pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) to improve the methane productivity. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution were used to pretreat PPS, and then followed by AD of PPS and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1L capacity with 700 mL worked. Optimal amount of sodium hydroxide for organics solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 8 g NaOH/100g TS(sludge). Under this condition, the PPS flocs structure was well disrupted resulting in the void rate and fiber size decreased after pretreatment, and SCOD increased up to 83% as well as the peak value of VFA concentration attained 1040 mg acetic acid/L during AD. The AD efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment condition was 0.32 m(3) CH(4)/kg VS(removal), 183.5% of the control. The results indicated that alkali/NaOH pretreatment could be an effective method for improving methane yield with PPS.

  18. Influence of hydrothermal pretreatment on microalgal biomass anaerobic digestion and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Ferrer, Ivet

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass grown in wastewater treatment raceway ponds may be valorised producing bioenergy through anaerobic digestion. However, pretreatment techniques seem to be necessary for enhancing microalgae methane yield. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatment was studied prior to batch and continuous reactors. The pretreatment increased organic matter solubilisation (8-13%), anaerobic digestion rate (30-90%) and final methane yield (17-39%) in batch tests. The highest increase was attained with the pretreatment at 130 °C for 15 min, which was attested in a laboratory-scale continuous reactor operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days with an average organic loading rate of 0.7 g VS/L·day. The methane yield increased from 0.12 to 0.17 L CH₄/g VS (41%) in the pretreated digester as compared to the control. Microscopic images of microalgal biomass showed that pretreated cells had unstructured organelles and disrupted cell wall external layer, which may enhance the hydrolysis. Indeed, images of the pretreated reactor digestate showed how cells were more degraded than in the control reactor.

  19. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Seth, A.; Yan, Fang; Polk, D.Brent; Rao, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and β-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCβI and PKCε. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. PMID:18292183

  20. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seth, A; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Rao, R K

    2008-04-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCbetaI and PKCepsilon. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

  1. Manuel's asteroid disruption technique.

    PubMed

    John, Manuel; Ipe, Abraham; Jacob, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety.

  2. Enzymatic vitreous disruption.

    PubMed

    Gandorfer, A

    2008-10-01

    Enzymatic vitreous disruption refers to cleaving the vitreoretinal junction by enzymatic means, thereby inducing posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and liquefaction of the vitreous gel. Several enzymes have been proposed in this respect, including chondroitinase, hyaluronidase, dispase, and plasmin. In an experimental setting, chondroitinase induced PVD and was helpful in removing epiretinal membranes but no further data have been reported yet. Hyaluronidase liquefies the vitreous as demonstrated in a phase III trial in diabetic patients with vitreous haemorrhage. Dispase induces PVD but also causes inner retinal damage and is now used as an animal model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Plasmin has the capability of both PVD induction and liquefaction. However, plasmin is highly unstable and not available for clinical use. Microplasmin (ThromboGenics Ltd, Dublin, Ireland) is a truncated form of human plasmin sharing the same catalytic activity like plasmin. Recombinant microplasmin is under clinical investigation in patients with vitreomacular traction. This review article reports on the current knowledge of enzymatic vitreous disruption and discusses details of the enzyme candidates in basic and clinical research terms.

  3. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  4. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies.

  5. Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    functional carboxylic acid additives 52 Figure 37 Salt Spray Corrosion Resistance of zirconium Dried- In-Place treatment made from alternate sources...GMW14872 (40 cycles) Corrosion Performance of DIP formulations with metal salts and modified organic acids versus commercial controls on aluminum... corrosion , dried-in-place, depot, environment, hexafluorozirconic acid , hexavalent chromium, paint, pretreatment, primer, steel, TT-C-490E

  6. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass.

  7. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  8. A double mutation of Escherichia coli 2C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase disrupts six hydrogen bonds with, yet fails to prevent binding of, an isoprenoid diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Sgraja, Tanja; Kemp, Lauris E.; Ramsden, Nicola; Hunter, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The essential enzyme 2C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MECP) synthase, found in most eubacteria and the apicomplexan parasites, participates in isoprenoid-precursor biosynthesis and is a validated target for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. The structure and mechanism of the enzyme have been elucidated and the recent exciting finding that the enzyme actually binds diphosphate-containing isoprenoids at the interface formed by the three subunits that constitute the active protein suggests the possibility of feedback regulation of MECP synthase. To investigate such a possibility, a form of the enzyme was sought that did not bind these ligands but which would retain the quaternary structure necessary to create the active site. Two amino acids, Arg142 and Glu144, in Escherichia coli MECP synthase were identified as contributing to ligand binding. Glu144 interacts directly with Arg142 and positions the basic residue to form two hydrogen bonds with the terminal phosphate group of the isoprenoid diphosphate ligand. This association occurs at the trimer interface and three of these arginines interact with the ligand phosphate group. A dual mutation was designed (Arg142 to methionine and Glu144 to leucine) to disrupt the electrostatic attractions between the enzyme and the phosphate group to investigate whether an enzyme without isoprenoid diphosphate could be obtained. A low-resolution crystal structure of the mutated MECP synthase Met142/Leu144 revealed that geranyl diphosphate was retained despite the removal of six hydrogen bonds normally formed with the enzyme. This indicates that these two hydrophilic residues on the surface of the enzyme are not major determinants of isoprenoid binding at the trimer interface but rather that hydrophobic interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the core of the enzyme trimer dominate ligand binding. PMID:16511114

  9. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes.

  10. The characteristics of railway service disruption: implications for disruption management.

    PubMed

    Golightly, D; Dadashi, N

    2017-03-01

    Rail disruption management is central to operational continuity and customer satisfaction. Disruption is not a unitary phenomenon - it varies by time, cause, location and complexity of coordination. Effective, user-centred technology for rail disruption must reflect this variety. A repertory grid study was conducted to elicit disruption characteristics. Construct elicitation with a group of experts (n = 7) captured 26 characteristics relevant to rail disruption. A larger group of operational staff (n = 28) rated 10 types of rail incident against the 26 characteristics. The results revealed distinctions such as business impact and public perception, and the importance of management of the disruption over initial detection. There were clear differences between those events that stop the traffic, as opposed to those that only slow the traffic. The results also demonstrate the utility of repertory grid for capturing the characteristics of complex work domains. Practitioner Summary: The aim of the paper is to understand how variety in rail disruption influences socio-technical design. It uses repertory grid to identify and prioritise 26 constructs, and group 10 disruption types, identifying critical factors such as whether an incident stops or merely slows the service, and business reputation.

  11. Responding to disruptive patients. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-11-16

    This final rule amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulation that authorizes appropriate action when a patient engages in disruptive behavior at a VA medical facility. This amendment updates VA's current regulation to reflect modern medical care and ethical practices. The final rule authorizes VA to modify the time, place, and/or manner in which VA provides treatment to a patient, in order to ensure the safety of others at VA medical facilities, and to prevent any interference with the provision of medical care.

  12. Plasma disruption prediction using machine learning methods: DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupin-Jimenez, L.; Kolemen, E.; Eldon, D.; Eidietis, N.

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruption prediction is becoming more important with the development of larger tokamaks, due to the larger amount of thermal and magnetic energy that can be stored. By accurately predicting an impending disruption, the disruption's impact can be mitigated or, better, prevented. Recent approaches to disruption prediction have been through implementation of machine learning methods, which characterize raw and processed diagnostic data to develop accurate prediction models. Using disruption trials from the DIII-D database, the effectiveness of different machine learning methods are characterized. Developed real time disruption prediction approaches are focused on tearing and locking modes. Machine learning methods used include random forests, multilayer perceptrons, and traditional regression analysis. The algorithms are trained with data within short time frames, and whether or not a disruption occurs within the time window after the end of the frame. Initial results from the machine learning algorithms will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. The disruptive physician. A quality of professional life factor.

    PubMed

    Pfifferling, J H

    1999-01-01

    Medical leaders need to understand that attending to quality of professional life issues includes dealing with the insidious costs and stress associated with disruptive physician behavior. The disruptive physician or professional undermines practice morale, heightens turnover in the organization, steals from productive activities, increases the risks for ineffective or substandard practice, and causes distress among colleagues. Physician executives need to help reduce or prevent this behavior and develop accepted systems in which to manage, confront, and rehabilitate the person labeled "disruptive." Suggested strategies to consider in developing a system include: (1) Defining reasonable and competent interpersonal behavior; (2) educating in interpersonal skills; (3) evaluating interpersonal skills; (4) developing disruptive policy; and (5) assessing, confronting, and rehabilitating.

  14. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  15. Disruptive Youth Programs in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peggy G.

    This document describes the work of the Pupil Services Branch of the Maryland State Department of Education in its efforts to assist school districts and individual schools in the state in examining the causes of student disruption and in developing programs that are aimed at impacting disruptive students and creating more effective schools. A…

  16. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  17. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  18. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  19. Pretreatment of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity in the range of 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed carbon dioxide 2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H sub 2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commerically-available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above caused an initial dip in observed CO or O sub 2 loss or CO sub 2 formation in a test gas mixture of 1 percent CO and 0.5 percent O sub 2 in a He gas matrix before a steady-state yield was obtained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the surface of the catalyst and was readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the test gas mixture. It was also found that too much moisture resulted in a lower overall yield of CO sub 2. Under similar conditions, it is hypothesized that the effect of the humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the surface of the catalyst. The effect of having high concentration of CO sub 2 in the test gas mixture upon the loss of CO and O sub 2 as well as the effect of periods of relaxation of the catalyst under non-test gas conditions was studied. The purpose of these studies was to gain an insight into the mechanism of CO oxidation on this type of catalyst.

  20. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  1. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  2. School Violence and Disruption: Rhetoric, Reality, and Reasonable Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Peter E.; Mayer, Matthew J.; Malmgren, Kimber; Meisel, Sheri M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines issues related to school violence and disruption. It discusses the sociocultural context within which school violence occurs, balancing educational rights within an orderly school environment, and the role of students with disabilities in school suspensions. Violence prevention initiatives and guidelines for parents and…

  3. Disruptive behaviors and early sexual intercourse: The GAZEL Youth Study.

    PubMed

    Galéra, Cédric; Messiah, Antoine; Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Encrenaz, Gaelle; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gregory; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-05-30

    Sexual health-risk behaviors in disruptive children are poorly understood. In a longitudinal population-based sample, event-time analyses showed that subjects with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms, particularly in combination with simultaneously high levels of hyperactivity-inattention symptoms, exhibited the highest risk for earlier sexual activity compared to controls, suggesting the need for prevention.

  4. Persulfate based pretreatment to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Seo, Yeong Hwan; Terán-Hilares, Ruly; Rehman, Muhammad Saif U R; Han, Jong-In

    2016-12-01

    Oxidation induced by potassium persulfate was evaluated as an economic substitute for the Fenton-like reaction for the purpose of rice straw pretreatment in terms of temperature (80-140°C), potassium persulfate concentration (5-100mM) and process time (0.5-3h), an optimal pretreatment condition was identified: 120°C for 2 h with 75mM potassium persulfate concentration and yielded 91% enzymatic digestibility using 25.2FPU/g of biomass. Crystallinity index, SEM and SEM-EDS analyses revealed that biomass was indeed disrupted and components like silica were exposed. All this suggested that this persulfate-based pretreatment method, which is distinctively advantageous in terms of effectiveness and economics, can indeed be a competitive option.

  5. Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

    2014-10-13

    The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure.

  6. Disruption of Membranes of Extracellular Vesicles Is Necessary for ELISA Determination of Urine AQP2: Proof of Disruption and Epitopes of AQP2 Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nameta, Masaaki; Saijo, Yoko; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Katsuragi, Kiyonori; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Sasaki, Sei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is present in urine extracellular vesicles (EVs) and is a useful biomarker for water balance disorders. We previously found that pre-treatment of urine with alkali/detergent or storage at −25 °C is required for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement. We speculated that disruptions of EVs membranes are necessary to allow for the direct contact of antibodies with their epitopes. Human urine EVs were prepared using an ultracentrifugation method. Urine EV samples were stored at different temperatures for a week. Electron microscopy showed abundant EVs with diameters of 20–100 nm, consistent with those of exosomes, in normal urine, whereas samples from alkali/detergent pre-treated urine showed fewer EVs with large swollen shapes and frequent membrane disruptions. The abundance and structures of EVs were maintained during storage at −80 °C, but were severely damaged at −25 °C. Binding and competitive inhibition assays showed that epitopes of monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antibody were the hydrophilic Loop D and C-terminus of AQP2, respectively, both of which are present on the inner surface of EVs. Thus, urine storage at −25 °C or pre-treatment with alkali/detergent disrupt EVs membranes and allow AQP2 antibodies to bind to their epitopes located inside EVs. PMID:27681727

  7. Alkaline-assisted screw press pretreatment affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qingqi; Wang, Yumei; Rodiahwati, Wawat; Spiess, Antje; Modigell, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency. After alkaline soaking (at 0.1 M for 30 min) and sequential screw press pretreatment with various screw press configurations and modified screw barrel, the lignin content of pretreated wheat straw was quantified. In addition, the structure of pretreated wheat straw was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and measurement of specific surface area. It could be shown that removal of lignin is more important than increase of surface area of the biomass to reach a high sugar recovery. The rate constant of the enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 1.1 × 10(-3) 1/h for the non-treated material over 2.3 × 10(-3) 1/h for the alkaline-soaked material to 26.9 × 10(-3) 1/h for alkaline-assisted screw press pretreated material, indicating a nearly 25-fold improvement of the digestibility by the combined chemo-mechanical pretreatment. Finally, the screw configuration was found to be an important factor for improving the sugar recovery and for reducing the specific energy consumption of the screw press pretreatment.

  8. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  9. Tidal disruption event demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb < 10-1 yr (37 d), and 84 per cent having longer time-scales. Many residual rate discrepancies can be explained if surveys are biased against TDEs with these longer tfb, which seems very plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  10. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems.

  11. Pretreatment with polyamines alleviate the deleterious effects of diuron in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Nuran; Bekircan, Tuba

    2015-03-01

    The effects of diuron, a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide, on lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, proline contents and some antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves were studied and protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were investigated. Diuron significantly increased lipid peroxidation, suggesting oxidative damage in the plants and proline content, while it decreased total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein levels in the leaves during the experiments. Pretreatment with polyamines statistically decreased lipid peroxidation induced by diuron and spermine (SPM) proved to be the most effective polyamine. Also, pretreatment with polyamines significantly prevented the losses of total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein induced by diuron. On the other hand, pretreatment with polyamines significantly increased proline contents of the leaves in comparison with the leaves treated with diuron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased in the leaves treated with diuron while catalase (CAT ) activity decreased. Pretreatment with spermidine (SPD) did not change significantly SOD activity at 24 and 72 hrs of diuron treatment but prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h. However, pretreatment with SPD increased GPX activity at 24 h and GR activity at 48 and 72 hrs. CAT activity in the leaves pretreated with SPD was similar to that of the leaves treated with diuron. Pretreatment with SPM prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h but significantly increased it at 72 h of diuron treatment. However, pretreatment with SPM did not significantly change GPX and GR activities during the experiments but reversed the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h. Pretreatment with putrescine (PUT) prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 and 72 hrs while it increased GPX and GR activities at 48

  12. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    PubMed

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes.

  13. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  14. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  15. Tidal disruption of inviscid protoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    Roche showed that equilibrium is impossible for a small fluid body synchronously orbiting a primary within a critical radius now termed the Roche limit. Tidal disruption of orbitally unbound bodies is a potentially important process for planetary formation through collisional accumulation, because the area of the Roche limit is considerably larger then the physical cross section of a protoplanet. Several previous studies were made of dynamical tidal disruption and different models of disruption were proposed. Because of the limitation of these analytical models, we have used a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the tidal disruption process. The code is basically the same as the one used to model giant impacts; we simply choose impact parameters large enough to avoid collisions. The primary and secondary both have iron cores and silicate mantles, and are initially isothermal at a molten temperature. The conclusions based on the analytical and numerical models are summarized.

  16. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  17. Disruptive innovation: the demand side.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2008-01-01

    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  18. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    DOEpatents

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  19. Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.

  20. Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys AMS-SAE-M-3171, Type IV Replacement on AZ91D Glycolic Nitrate Pickle (GNP) (1 min) PT-60 (3 min) 0 hr SST 1 4 3 2...Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys Mr. Jules F. Senske and Mr. Daniel Schmidt Army Research Development and...SUBTITLE Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. New Drugs for Pretreatment of Organophosphonate Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-20

    COPY A D L£> SRI PROJECT PYU-4681 NEW DRUGS FOR PRETREATMENT OF ORGANOPHOSPHONATE INTOXICATION FINAL REPORT AD-B145 250 Daniel W. Parish, Allen...BB WORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 099 11. TITLE (indud* Security Oaofficattofl) New Drugs for Pretreatment of Organophosphonate Intoxication...undertaken for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC) under Contract DAMD17-88-C-8001, " New Drugs for Pretreatment of

  2. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts.

  3. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  4. Improving enzymatic saccharification of bamboo shoot shell by alkalic salt pretreatment with H2O2.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Zhou, Linlin; Huang, Meizi; Guo, Qi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Pretreatment of bamboo shoot shell (BSS) by a combination of alkalic salts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was evaluated for its delignification effect and for its ability to enhance enzymatic saccharification of pretreated solids. By comparing different alkalic salts, the combination of 9% Na3PO4·12H2O and 0.3g/g H2O2 (ASHP) was identified as an effective system that showed the highest delignification of 87.7% and the total reducing sugar yield of 97.1% when pretreated BSS at a solid to liquid ratio of 1/20 (w/w) at 80°C for 2h. The delignification effect and the disruption of the lignocelluloses structure by this novel pretreatment method were deduced to be the main reasons that led to enhanced enzymatic saccharification as supported by the chemical composition analysis and the results of SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses of the untreated and alkalic salt pretreated BSS.

  5. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose.

  6. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20161077

  7. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  8. A Dark Year for Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Main-sequence disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes result in the production of an extended, geometrically thin debris stream winding repeatedly around the black hole. In the absence of black hole spin, in-plane relativistic precession causes this stream to intersect with itself after a single winding. In this paper we show that relativistic precessions arising from black hole spin can induce deflections out of the original orbital plane that prevent the stream from self-intersecting even after many windings. This naturally leads to a “dark period” in which the flare is not observable for some time, persisting for up to a dozen orbital periods of the most bound material, which translates to years for disruptions around black holes with masses ˜ {10}7{M}⊙ . When the stream eventually self-intersects, the distance from the black hole and the angle at which this collision occurs determine the rate of energy dissipation. We find that more-massive black holes ({M}{{h}}≳ {10}7{M}⊙ ) tend to have more violent stream self-intersections, resulting in prompt accretion. For these tidal disruption events (TDEs), the accretion rate onto the black hole should still closely follow the original fallback rate after a fixed delay time {t}{delay}, {\\dot{M}}{acc}(t+{t}{delay})={\\dot{M}}{fb}(t). For lower black hole masses ({M}{{h}}≲ {10}6), we find that flares are typically slowed down by about an order of magnitude, resulting in the majority of TDEs being sub-Eddington at peak. This also implies that current searches for TDEs are biased toward prompt flares, with slowed flares likely having been unidentified.

  9. Online Education Cast as "Disruptive Innovation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based forces of "disruptive innovation" are gathering around public education and will overhaul the way K-12 students learn--with potentially dramatic consequences for established public schools, according to an upcoming book that draws parallels to disruptions in other industries. In his "Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation…

  10. A New ITPA Disruption Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, A. W.; Wesley, J. C.; Strait, E. J.; Schissel, D. P.

    2003-10-01

    A new multi-institutional database of tokamak disruption relevant information is being proposed. Its purpose is to allow a user at any participating institution access to a broad range of disruption and preceding equilibrium data of vetted discharges from each institution. The goal is a common set of data allowing scientific exploration and engineering extrapolation. The data for any given discharge can be in many forms. For example, each discharge may have identifying information (shot number, type of disruption, institution/device, etc.), equilibrium scalar parameters (β, I_p, B_tor, etc.), disruption scalar parameters (max dI/dt, thermal quench time, toroidal asymmetry, etc.), equilibrium radial profile data [j(r), p(r), v_rot(r), etc.], time sequenced data [I(t), β(t), precursor amplitude (t), etc.]. Scalar data will be stored in a SQL format and cross-linked with vector data stored in a MDSPLUS format. Institutions will populate and maintain their own disruption data. Data visualization and analysis tools will be developed. Data available to all is managed by a principal at each institution. Data structure, accessibility and security issues will be discussed, and participation solicited.

  11. Mutant Huntingtin Disrupts the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Grima, Jonathan C; Daigle, J Gavin; Arbez, Nicolas; Cunningham, Kathleen C; Zhang, Ke; Ochaba, Joseph; Geater, Charlene; Morozko, Eva; Stocksdale, Jennifer; Glatzer, Jenna C; Pham, Jacqueline T; Ahmed, Ishrat; Peng, Qi; Wadhwa, Harsh; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C; Duan, Wenzhen; Snyder, Solomon H; Ranum, Laura P W; Thompson, Leslie M; Lloyd, Thomas E; Ross, Christopher A; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2017-04-05

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mechanism(s) by which mutant HTT (mHTT) causes disease is unclear. Nucleocytoplasmic transport, the trafficking of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, is tightly regulated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) made up of nucleoporins (NUPs). Previous studies offered clues that mHTT may disrupt nucleocytoplasmic transport and a mutation of an NUP can cause HD-like pathology. Therefore, we evaluated the NPC and nucleocytoplasmic transport in multiple models of HD, including mouse and fly models, neurons transfected with mHTT, HD iPSC-derived neurons, and human HD brain regions. These studies revealed severe mislocalization and aggregation of NUPs and defective nucleocytoplasmic transport. HD repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation proteins also disrupted nucleocytoplasmic transport. Additionally, overexpression of NUPs and treatment with drugs that prevent aberrant NUP biology also mitigated this transport defect and neurotoxicity, providing future novel therapy targets.

  12. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  13. Pre-treatment of sperm reduces success of ICSI in the pig.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Michiko; Ito, Junya; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    In pigs, although ICSI is a feasible fertilization technique, its efficiency is low. In general, injected pig sperm are insufficient to induce oocyte activation and embryonic development. Pretreatments for disrupting sperm membranes have been applied to improve the fertility of ICSI oocytes; however, we hypothesize that such pretreatment(s) may reduce the ability of the sperm to induce oocyte activation. We first evaluated the effects of sperm pretreatments (sonication (SO) to isolate the sperm heads from the tails, Triton X-100 (TX), and three cycles of repeated freezing/thawing (3×-FT) for disrupting sperm membranes) on the rate of pronucleus (PN) formation after ICSI. We found that oocytes injected with control (whole) sperm had higher rates of PN formation than those obtained after subjecting the sperm to SO, TX, and 3×-FT. The amounts of phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ), which is thought to be the oocyte-activating factor in mammalian sperm, in sperm treated by each method was significantly lower than that in whole untreated sperm. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence, it was found that in pig sperm, PLCζ was localized to both the post-acrosomal region and the tail area. Thus we demonstrated for the first time that sperm pretreatment leads to a reduction of oocyte-activating capacity. Our data also show that in addition to its expected localization to the sperm head, PLCζ is also localized in the tail of pig sperm, thus raising the possibility that injection of whole sperm may be required to attain successful activation in pigs.

  14. Tidal disruption of inviscid planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In view of previous efforts' demonstration that strongly dissipative planetesimals are immune to tidal disruption, an examination is presently conducted of the complementary case of inviscid planetesimals arising from collisions that are sufficiently energetic to entirely melt the resulting planetesimal and debris. The tidal disruption is numerically simulated by means of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code of Cameron and Benz (1991), concentrating on the tidal disruption of 0.01 earth-mass planetesimals passing by the earth with variations in the impact parameter at perigee and velocity at infinity. The SPH models show that tidal forces during a close encounter can efficiently convert orbital angular momentum into spin angular momentum, thereby initiating equatorial mass-shedding to inviscid planetesimals that have been spun up beyond the limit of rotational stability.

  15. Endocrine disrupters and menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip; Rumsby, Paul; Harrison, Paul T C

    2004-06-01

    Chemicals known to disrupt the endocrine system of animal models are assessed for their potential impact on the health of menopausal and postmenopausal women. These "endocrine disrupters" consist of two groups of compounds - man-made and naturally occurring. There is some evidence to suggest that the naturally occurring phytoestrogens, derived from plant material, may have some beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms and the risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are required to confirm these possibilities. Some man-made environmental pollutants appear to increase the risk of breast cancer, although again the evidence is inconclusive. Mechanistic experiments indicate that these chemicals interact with oestrogen receptors and alter metabolism in a number of different ways, some of which may be important in postmenopausal women. Further investigation of the differences in mode of action between the man-made and the natural endocrine disrupters may lead to important insights into their effects on women's health.

  16. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  17. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  18. Cytokine Disruption to Prevent Radiation Related Breast Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    radiation exposure. Some of the results were very impressive. We then also examined these three agent for their effects on murine mammary cancers...improved not reduced for murine mammary cancers (MCa35) compared to radiation alone (Figure 5). To demonstrate that the effect was true, we studied other...specifically in murine mammary cancer tumors actually improves the tumor response. The therapeutic gain of these agents is thus substantial and

  19. Tidal disruption of dissipative planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, H.; Boss, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model is developed for the tidal disruption of a solid planetesimal. The planetesimal is treated as a highly viscous, slightly compressible fluid whose disturbed parts are an inviscid, pressureless fluid undergoing distortion and disruption. The distortions were constrained to being symmetrical above and below the equatorial plane. The tidal potential is expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, which eliminates the center of mass acceleration effects, permitting definition of equations of motion in a noninertial frame. Consideration is given to viscous dissipation and to characteristics of the solid-atmosphere boundary. The model is applied to sample cases in one, two and three dimensions.

  20. Tidal disruption of viscous bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Tremaine, S.

    1992-01-01

    Tidal disruptions are investigated in viscous-fluid planetesimals whose radius is small relative to the distance of closest (parabolic-orbit) approach to a planet. The planetesimal surface is in these conditions always ellipsoidal, facilitating treatment by coupled ODEs which are solvable with high accuracy. While the disrupted planetesimals evolve into needlelike ellipsoids, their density does not decrease. The validity of viscous fluid treatment holds for solid (ice or rock) planetesimals in cases where tidal stresses are greater than material strength, but integrity is maintained by self-gravity.

  1. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H2) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation.

  2. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs.

  3. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  4. 40 CFR 442.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars... paragraph (a) of this section, any new source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution... pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the pollution prevention allowable discharge...

  5. 40 CFR 442.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars... subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  6. 40 CFR 442.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars... paragraph (a) of this section, any new source subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution... pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the pollution prevention allowable discharge...

  7. 40 CFR 442.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars... subject to paragraph (a) of this section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  8. Alternative Programs for Disruptive Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Angele, Ed.; And Others

    The book addresses issues in meeting the educational needs of disruptive students. In the introduction, R. Sarri examines the rise of alternative schools and discusses common elements in their design and operation. D. Sabatino follows with "Issues and Concerns: Problems with Alternative Schools," in which he examines the particular difficulties…

  9. The Convergence of Environmental Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Marshall I.

    1970-01-01

    Considers reasons for water, air, and land pollution in the Soviet Union, incentives to pollute under socialism and the advantages socialism has for environmental management. Concludes that industrialization, not private enterprise, causes environmental disruption, and that strongly centralized planned economics do not necessarily avoid…

  10. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  11. Fisheries-induced disruptive selection.

    PubMed

    Landi, Pietro; Hui, Cang; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-21

    Commercial harvesting is recognized to induce adaptive responses of life-history traits in fish populations, in particular by shifting the age and size at maturation through directional selection. In addition to such evolution of a target stock, the corresponding fishery itself may adapt, in terms of fishing policy, technological progress, fleet dynamics, and adaptive harvest. The aim of this study is to assess how the interplay between natural and artificial selection, in the simplest setting in which a fishery and a target stock coevolve, can lead to disruptive selection, which in turn may cause trait diversification. To this end, we build an eco-evolutionary model for a size-structured population, in which both the stock׳s maturation schedule and the fishery׳s harvest rate are adaptive, while fishing may be subject to a selective policy based on fish size and/or maturity stage. Using numerical bifurcation analysis, we study how the potential for disruptive selection changes with fishing policy, fishing mortality, harvest specialization, life-history tradeoffs associated with early maturation, and other demographic and environmental parameters. We report the following findings. First, fisheries-induced disruptive selection is readily caused by commonly used fishing policies, and occurs even for policies that are not specific for fish size or maturity, provided that the harvest is sufficiently adaptive and large individuals are targeted intensively. Second, disruptive selection is more likely in stocks in which the selective pressure for early maturation is naturally strong, provided life-history tradeoffs are sufficiently consequential. Third, when a fish stock is overexploited, fisheries targeting only large individuals might slightly increase sustainable yield by causing trait diversification (even though the resultant yield always remains lower than the maximum sustainable yield that could be obtained under low fishing mortality, without causing disruptive

  12. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  13. Brushing abrasion of eroded bovine enamel pretreated with topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Lugtenborg, M; Ruben, J L; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-01-01

    Topical fluorides have been proposed for the prevention of erosive dental wear. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of a single professional application of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), 1% amine fluoride (AmF) and 0.1% difluorosilane varnish (FV) in preventing wear due to combined erosion and brushing abrasion. One hundred and eight bovine enamel samples were used. Control groups were not pretreated with any product (C), pretreated with a fluoride-free varnish (FV-bl) or pretreated with fluoride varnish and subsequently submitted to varnish removal (FV-r). Wear was modeled by submitting the fluoride-treated and control groups to 3 cycles of the following regimens: erosion/remineralization (er/remin), abrasion/remineralization (abr/remin) or erosion/abrasion/remineralization (er/abr/remin). Erosion was simulated by immersion of the samples for 10 min in citric acid 50 mM (pH 3). Abrasion was carried out for 1 min (200 strokes, load 150 g) in a wear device. Remineralization (2 h artificial saliva) took place between the cycles. Two-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction (p

  14. Inhibition of CEM calcification by the sequential pretreatment with ethanol and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anuj; Lee, Chi H

    2003-03-15

    The major object of the present study is to optimize the anticalcification activity of ethanol on bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) calcification. We hypothesize that the chelating agent, in combination with ethanol, will synergistically prevent aortic wall calcification. Collagen-elastin matrix (CEM) was developed as a calcifiable matrix for simulating the calcification process of implantable biomaterials. The efficacy of the combination effects of ethanol and EDTA on the calcification process of CEMs was investigated by implanting them after pretreatment with various conditions of ethanol and EDTA in the rat subdermal model. The relationship between calcium concentrations and pretreatment conditions (a series vs. simultaneous, i.e., first ethanol and then EDTA in water solution, the reverse, or EDTA in ethanol) was established and the optimal condition for prevention of BHV calcification was determined. The mechanistic studies on anticalcification effects exerted by particular pretreatment sequences were also conducted using FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sequential pretreatment of CEM first with ethanol and then EDTA in water solution significantly decreased the calcification rate of CEM compared the control. The percentage of prevention of calcification by the serial treatment of ethanol (80% v/v) and then EDTA in water solutions decreased, as the concentration of elastin in the CEM increased. The percentage of preventing calcification was 42%, 28.6%, and 22.9% for CEM containing collagen and elastin ratios of 90:10, 50:50, 20:80, respectively. These results indicate that elastin is the major regulatory component of BHV calcification, and preventive effects on calcification increased only when CEM were pretreated with first ethanol and then EDTA in water solution. Moreover, the sequential effect is more apparent in the matrix of less elastin content, which is close to the physiological range. The sequential inhibitory effects of ethanol and

  15. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  16. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC.

  17. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L.; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A.; Federici, Lauren M.; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT (a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5 days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ∼40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. PMID:26476009

  18. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT) pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar) and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum). Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum), and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan). Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly different, suggesting that

  19. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future.

  20. Powerful peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment process for the efficient chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Uju; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a new method for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) using a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment with ionic liquid (IL)-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of LBs with PAA disrupted the lignin fractions, enhanced the dissolution of LB and led to a significant increase in the initial rate of the IL-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of Bagasse with PAA prior to its 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis, led to an improvement in the cellulose conversion from 20% to 70% in 1.5h. Interestingly, the 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride ([Bmpy][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis of Bagasse gave a cellulose conversion greater than 80%, with or without the PAA pretreatment. For LB derived from seaweed waste, the cellulose conversion reached 98% in 1h. The strong hydrolysis power of [Bmpy][Cl] was attributed to its ability to transform cellulose I to II, and lowering the degree of polymerization of cellulose.

  1. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  2. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  3. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic) hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs. PMID:25334065

  4. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1992-07-07

    Pretreatment experiments were done with several samples of Illinois No. 6 coal in an attempt to determine the reasons for the variations in liquefaction behavior after hydrothermal pretreatment. Pretreatment experiments were begun with six polymers which included a range of bridging structures and functional groups. The data show that the coal evolves C0{sub 2} during both the pretreatment and liquefaction stages and that the C0{sub 2} evolution shows a maximum in time for both reaction stages. This means that the precursors for both must be an intermediate product of the reactions of coal with oxygen. Since we were able to see the decaying period starting with freshly opened ampoules the precursors were already present on the coal and the decomposition of the precursors must be facilitated by exposure to small amounts of oxygen. Consequently, it appears that each ampoule is at a slightly different point along this path, which probably explains the variability in the liquefaction results.

  5. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  6. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  7. Sideways Force Produced During Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.; Jardin, S.; Sugiyama, L.

    2012-10-01

    We extend previous studies [1] of vertical displacement events (VDE) which can produce disruptions. The emphasis is on the non axisymmetric ``sideways'' wall force Fx. Simulations are performed using the M3D [2] code. A VDE expels magnetic flux through the resistive wall until the last closed flux surface has q < 3. At this point the plasma is unstable to an (m,n) = (2,1) mode. A theory of sideways force produced by this mode in the presence of a VDE is presented. The wall force depends strongly on γτw, where γ is the mode growth rate and τw is the wall resistive penetration time. The force Fx is largest when γτw is a constant of order unity, which depends on the initial conditions. For large values of γτw, the wall force asymptotes to a relatively smaller value, well below the critical value ITER is designed to withstand. The principle of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection is to cause a disruption with large γτw. [4pt] [1] H. R. Strauss, R. Paccagnella, and J. Breslau,Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010) [2] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999).

  8. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.; Solomon, P.R.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain an understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. For the achievement of these goals, coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g., acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment.

  9. Perspective: delivering effective and engaging continuing medical education on physicians' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Kimberly; Lord, Julie; Murray, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Education about physicians' disruptive behavior is relevant for practicing physicians, who must demonstrate competence in professionalism for maintenance of certification. In addition, physicians need to know about newer regulatory standards that define disruptive behavior and mandated processes for dealing with such behavior, as health care organizations are now charged with having formal policies addressing this issue. There is a growing literature about dealing with disruptive behavior, but it has not addressed education, including continuing medical education (CME), aimed at reducing or preventing disruptive behavior. The authors suggest specific strategies for such CME educational programs, including knowing the audience before the presentation, avoiding potential pitfalls, defusing defensiveness, and increasing audience "buy-in." They present two viewpoints from which to approach the topic of disruptive behavior, depending on the audience: "rekindling of values" and "risk reduction." The authors also recommend interactive teaching methods designed to maximize audience participation and foster self-awareness and reflection.

  10. Revision Hope: Writing Disruption in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Uses Roland Barthes's metaphor of the "punctum" to explore the transformative potential of disruptions. Argues that writing teachers have been trained to read disruption in texts and classrooms as "evidence of poor taste or failed pedagogy," but that disruptions delay closure and thereby create spaces wherein theories and…

  11. Disruption and Distinctiveness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    "Disruption"--while an evocative word triggering feelings of anxiety and perhaps even fear--also signals renewal and growth. The Higher Education (HE) sector in England has experienced some profound disruption over the years, and yet has emerged stronger and renewed in many ways. The impact of recent disruptive forces, from fees to the…

  12. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  13. Comparative AMS radiocarbon dating of pretreated versus non-pretreated tropical wood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F.; Lowy, Daniel A.; Mayne, Diana H.; Elder, Kathryn E.; Roberts, Mark L.; McNichol, Ann P.

    2010-04-01

    Several wood samples collected from Dorslandboom, a large iconic African baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) from Namibia, were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating subsequent to pretreatment and, alternatively, without pretreatment. The comparative statistical evaluation of results showed that there were no significant differences between fraction modern values and radiocarbon dates of the samples analyzed after pretreatment and without pretreatment, respectively. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 993 ± 20 BP. Dating results also revealed that Dorslandboom is a multi-generation tree, with several stems showing different ages.

  14. Postnatal ethanol exposure disrupts signal detection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2005-01-01

    Human prenatal ethanol exposure that occurs during a period of increased synaptogenesis known as the "brain growth spurt" has been associated with significant impairments in attention, learning, and memory. The present experiment assessed whether administration of ethanol during the brain growth spurt in the rat, which occurs shortly after birth, disrupts attentional performance. Rats were administered 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol via intragastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, sham-intubation, or no intubation (naïve). Beginning at PD 90, animals were trained to asymptotic performance in a two-lever attention task that required discrimination of brief visual signals from trials with no signal presentation. Finally, manipulations of background noise and inter-trial interval duration were conducted. Early postnatal ethanol administration did not differentially affect acquisition of the attention task. However, after rats were trained to asymptotic performance levels, those previously exposed to ethanol demonstrated a deficit in detection of signals but not of non-signals compared to sham-intubated and naïve rats. The signal detection deficit persisted whenever these animals were re-trained in the standard task, but further task manipulations failed to interact with ethanol pretreatment. The present data support the hypothesis that early postnatal ethanol administration disrupts aspects of attentional processing in the rat.

  15. Preschool children's observed disruptive behavior: variations across sex, interactional context, and disruptive psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%), clinically at risk (26%), and disruptive (23%) using parent and teacher reports on developmentally validated measures of disruptive behavior and impairment. Observed disruptive behavior was measured with the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule, a developmentally sensitive observational paradigm characterizing variation in preschoolers' disruptive behavior across two interactional contexts (parent and examiner). Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a three-way interaction of child sex by diagnostic status by interactional context (F = 9.81, p < .001). Disruptive boys were the only subgroup whose behavior was not sensitive to interactional context: They displayed comparable levels of disruptive behavior with parents and examiners. In contrast, disruptive girls demonstrated the strongest context effect of any group. Specifically, with the examiner, disruptive girls' behavior was comparable to nondisruptive boys (though still more elevated than nondisruptive girls). However, in interactions with their mothers, disruptive girls displayed the highest rates of disruptive behavior of any subgroup in any context, although the difference between disruptive boys and disruptive girls in this context was not statistically significant. Findings suggest the importance of sex-specific conceptualizations of disruptive behavior in young children that take patterns across social contexts into account.

  16. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803.

  17. Hypoxic preconditioning decreases nuclear factor κB activity via Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ren; Liu, Qian; Khoury, Joseph; Li, Yue-Jin; Han, Xiao-Hui; Li, Jing; Ibla, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB is a key mediator of inflammation during conditions of hypoxia. Here, we used models of hypoxic pre-conditioning as mechanism to decrease nuclear factor κB activity induced by hypoxia. Our initial studies suggested that Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 may be induced by hypoxic pre-conditioning and possibly involved in the regulation of nuclear factor κB. In this study we used Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 exogenous over-expression and knock-down to determine its effect on ataxia telangiectasia mutated--nuclear factor κB activation cascade. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic pre-conditioning significantly increased the expression of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 at mRNA and protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. Over-expression of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 significantly attenuated the hypoxia-mediated ataxia telangiectasia mutated phosphorylation and prevented its cytoplasm translocation where it functions to activate nuclear factor κB. We further determined that Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 activated the protein phosphatase 2A, preventing the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine-1981, the main regulatory site of ataxia telangiectasia mutated activity. Cellular levels of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 protein significantly decreased nuclear factor κB activation profiles and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypoxic pre-conditioning decreases the activation of nuclear factor κB through the transcriptional induction of Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1.

  18. Disruptive innovations for designing and diffusing evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2012-09-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic and preventive intervention programs (EBIs) have been growing exponentially. Yet EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically reexamine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by reexamining the traditional biomedical model for validating, implementing, and diffusing EBI products and science. The model of disruptive innovations suggests that we reengineer EBIs on the basis of their most robust features in order to serve more people in less time and at lower cost. A disruptive innovation provides a simpler and less expensive alternative that meets the essential needs for the majority of consumers and is more accessible, scalable, replicable, and sustainable. Examples of disruptive innovations from other fields include minute clinics embedded in retail chain drug stores, $2 generic eyeglasses, automated teller machines, and telemedicine. Four new research approaches will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing monitoring data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles.

  19. Changing perspectives in medical practice: disruptive innovation.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Zachary R; Pradhan, Sala R; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive innovation represents a business model that identifies a market location and increases consumer options. Retail clinics may represent a disruptive healthcare innovation that identifies strategies to reduce the cost of healthcare at the primary care level. The future of healthcare demands disruptive innovation that will allow for the 50 million uninsured members of our society to receive medical care. Disruptive innovative solutions need to ensure access, quality, and reasonable cost. Retail clinics represent the tip of the iceberg in disruptive innovative thinking. The obstacles that retail clinics must solve will be lessons learned for those that identify future innovative techniques.

  20. Oral phosphatidylcholine pretreatment alleviates the signs of experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erős, Gabor; Ibrahim, Saleh; Siebert, Nikolai; Boros, Mihály; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine-derived metabolites exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in various stress conditions. We hypothesized that dietary phosphatidylcholine may potentially function as an anti-inflammatory substance and may decrease inflammatory activation in a chronic murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis). Methods The experiments were performed on male DBA1/J mice. In groups 1 to 3 (n = 10 each), collagen-induced arthritis was induced by administration of bovine collagen II. In group 2 the animals were fed ad libitum with phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet as a pretreatment, while the animals of group 3 received this nourishment as a therapy, after the onset of the disease. The severity of the disease and inflammation-linked hyperalgesia were evaluated with semiquantitative scoring systems, while the venular leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and functional capillary density were assessed by means of in vivo fluorescence microscopy of the synovial tissue. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, TNFα and endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase were determined, and classical histological analysis was performed. Results Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the collagen-induced arthritis-induced hypersensitivity, and decreased the number of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and the extent of functional capillary density as compared with those of group 1. It also ameliorated the tissue damage and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The expressions of the cannabinoid receptors and TNFα were not influenced by the phosphatidylcholine intake. Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food administrated as therapy failed to evoke the aforementioned changes, apart from the reduction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Conclusions Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food as pretreatment, but not as therapy, appears to exert beneficial effects

  1. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, Jacob I.

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  2. Environmental disruption or environmental improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    Paul Ehrich's concern for environmental disruption (Social Sci. Quarterly, 62, No. 1, 1981) are challenged here by Simon as unsubstantiated scare rhetoric. The refutation focuses on whether Ehrlich disregards history and oversimplifies the relationship between ecology and the social sciences. Simon notes that although historical data is shown to contradict Ehrlich's past predictions, his style of using soft data and identifying with the lay reader finds a receptive audience among those seeking understandable and value-free answers. 24 references, 6 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  3. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  4. Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Charles E; Dale, Bruce E; Elander, Richard T; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R; Lee, Y Y

    2005-12-01

    For the first time, a single source of cellulosic biomass was pretreated by leading technologies using identical analytical methods to provide comparative performance data. In particular, ammonia explosion, aqueous ammonia recycle, controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, and lime approaches were applied to prepare corn stover for subsequent biological conversion to sugars through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, and Texas A&M University. An Agricultural and Industrial Advisory Board provided guidance to the project. Pretreatment conditions were selected based on the extensive experience of the team with each of the technologies, and the resulting fluid and solid streams were characterized using standard methods. The data were used to close material balances, and energy balances were estimated for all processes. The digestibilities of the solids by a controlled supply of cellulase enzyme and the fermentability of the liquids were also assessed and used to guide selection of optimum pretreatment conditions. Economic assessments were applied based on the performance data to estimate each pretreatment cost on a consistent basis. Through this approach, comparative data were developed on sugar recovery from hemicellulose and cellulose by the combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations when applied to corn stover. This paper introduces the project and summarizes the shared methods for papers reporting results of this research in this special edition of Bioresource Technology.

  5. Oxidative lime pretreatment of Dacotah switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Falls, Matthew; Sierra-Ramirez, Rocio; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative lime pretreatment increases the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass primarily by removing lignin. In this study, recommended pretreatment conditions (reaction temperature, oxygen pressure, lime loading, and time) were determined for Dacotah switchgrass. Glucan and xylan overall hydrolysis yields (72 h, 15 FPU/g raw glucan) were measured for 105 different reaction conditions involving three different reactor configurations (very short term, short term, and long term). The short-term reactor was the most productive. At the recommended pretreatment condition (120 °C, 6.89 bar O(2), 240 min), it achieved an overall glucan hydrolysis yield of 85.2 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g raw glucan and an overall xylan yield of 50.1 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g raw xylan. At this condition, glucan oligomers (1.80 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass) and xylan oligomers (25.20 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass) were recovered from the pretreatment liquor, which compensate for low pretreatment yields.

  6. Oxidative lime pretreatment of Alamo switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Falls, Matthew; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxidative lime pretreatment is an effective delignification method that improves the enzymatic digestibility of many biomass feedstocks. The purpose of this work is to determine the recommended oxidative lime pretreatment conditions (reaction temperature, time, pressure, and lime loading) for Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucan and xylan was used to determine the performance of the 52 studied pretreatment conditions. The recommended condition (110°C, 6.89 bar O(2), 240 min, 0.248 g Ca(OH)(2)/g biomass) achieved glucan and xylan overall yields (grams of sugar hydrolyzed/100 g sugar in raw biomass, 15 filter paper units (FPU)/g raw glucan) of 85.9 and 52.2, respectively. In addition, some glucan oligomers (2.6 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass) and significant levels of xylan oligomers (26.0 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass) were recovered from the pretreatment liquor. Combining a decrystallization technique (ball milling) with oxidative lime pretreatment further improved the overall glucan yield to 90.0 (7 FPU/g raw glucan).

  7. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  8. Introduction: circadian rhythm and its disruption: impact on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F; Gladanac, Bojana

    2014-08-01

    Almost all forms of life have predictable daily or circadian rhythms in molecular, endocrine, and behavioral functions. In mammals, a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates the timing of these rhythms. Daily light exposure that affects the retina of the eye directly influences this area, which is required to align endogenous processes to the appropriate time of day. The present "Views and Reviews" articles discuss the influence of circadian rhythms, especially nightly secretion of melatonin, on reproductive function and parturition. In addition, an examination is made of problems that arise from recurrent circadian rhythm disruption associated with changes in light exposure patterns common to modern day society. Finally, a possible solution to prevent disruptions in circadian phase markers by filtering out short wavelengths from nocturnal light is reviewed.

  9. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  10. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated With Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster home predicts subsequent placement disruptions in foster preschoolers and (b) to determine whether a this association is mitigated by a treatment foster care intervention. Method Problem behavior and placement disruptions were examined in 60 children in regular foster care (age range = 3.10–5.91 years [M = 4.34, SD = 0.83], 58.3% male, 93.4% Caucasian) and 57 children in a treatment foster care program (age range = 3.01–6.78 years [M = 4.54, SD = 0.86], 49.1% male, 82.5% Caucasian). Using the Parent Daily Report Checklist, a brief telephone interview, foster caregivers reported problem behavior six times over 3 months. Placement disruptions were tracked over 12 months. Results The regular foster care children with 5 or fewer problem behaviors were at low risk for disruption, but their risk increased 10% for each additional behavior (p = .013). The intervention appeared to mitigate this “threshold effect”; number of problem behaviors did not predict risk of placement disruption in the treatment foster care group (p = .63). Conclusions These findings replicate previous evidence linking child problem behavior to placement disruptions and further highlight the need for early preventative interventions. PMID:21787051

  11. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buchta, William C; Riegel, Arthur C

    2015-12-02

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extrasynaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts.

  12. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Buchta, William C.; Riegel, Arthur C.

    2016-01-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extra-synaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts. PMID:25704202

  13. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  14. Addressing reverse osmosis fouling within water reclamation--a side-by-side comparison of low-pressure membrane pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Kent, Fraser C; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2011-06-01

    A tertiary membrane filtration (TMF) pilot operating on secondary effluent and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were setup in a side-by-side study as pretreatments for two identical reverse osmosis pilot systems. The water quality of the permeate from both low-pressure membrane pretreatment systems and the fouling rate of the reverse osmosis systems were compared to assess the capabilities of the two low-pressure membrane pretreatments to prevent organic fouling of the reverse osmosis systems. Both pretreatment pilots were setup using typical operating conditions (i.e., solids retention time and mixed-liquor suspended solids). A consistent difference in water quality and reverse osmosis performance was demonstrated during the 12-month study. The MBR permeate consistently had significantly lower total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, but higher color and specific UV absorbance compared with the permeate from the TMF pretreatment. The pretreatment with the MBR gave an average reverse osmosis fouling rate over the entire study (0.27 Lmh/bar.month) that was less than half of the value found for the reverse osmosis with TMF pretreatment (0.60 Lmh/bar.month). A correlation of reverse osmosis feed TOC concentration with average reverse osmosis fouling rate also was established, independent of the pretreatment method used. Results from a cleaning analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transformed infrared reflectometry confirmed that the foulants were primarily organic in nature. It is concluded that, for this type of application and setup, MBR systems present an advantage over tertiary membrane polishing of secondary effluent for reverse osmosis pretreatment.

  15. Addressing the phenomenon of disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2003-01-01

    This timely article provides current information on an age-old issue of disruptive physician behavior within the hospital setting. Documented in medical literature over 100 years ago, disruptive physician behavior has been an ongoing challenge to the hospital staff and the quality of patient care in the hospital. Covered in this article are the negative consequences of disruptive physician behavior and the call to respond. If allowed to go unchecked, a physician exhibiting disruptive behavior may threaten a hospital's image, staff morale, finance, and quality of care. Failure to respond undermines the leadership of the hospital and the trust of the community in the hospital's mission. Included in this article are suggestions obtained from the literature and from the author's experience in responding to disruptive physician behavior. Of emphasis is a methodology that includes supporting bylaws and policies to manage disruptive physician behavior.

  16. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  17. Influence of pretreatment condition on the fermentable sugar production and enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated mixed softwood.

    PubMed

    Lim, Woo-Seok; Lee, Jae-Won

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effects of different acid catalysts and pretreatment factors on the hydrolysis of mixed softwood were investigated over a range of thermochemical pretreatments. Maleic, oxalic, and sulfuric acids were each used, under different pretreatment conditions. The most influential factor for fermentable sugar production in the dicarboxylic acid pretreatment of softwood was the pH. Reaction temperature was the next significant factor. However, during sulfuric acid pretreatment, fermentable sugar production was more dependent on reaction temperature, than time or pH. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields differed, depending on acid catalyst and pretreatment factor, regardless of lignin content in pretreated biomass. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield was found following maleic acid pretreatment, which reached 61.23%. The trend in enzymatic hydrolysis yields that were detected concomitantly with pretreatment condition or type of acid catalyst was closely related to the fermentable sugar production in the hydrolysate.

  18. Catastrophic disruption experiments: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martelli, G.; Ryan, E. V.; Nakamura, A. M.; Giblin, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the progress in the field of catastrophic disruption experiments over the past 4 years, since the publication of the review paper by Fujiwara et al. (1989). We describe the development of new techniques to produce shattering impacts relevant to the study of the collisional evolution of the asteroids, and summarize the results from numerous experiments which have been performed to date, using a variety of materials for both the impactor and the targets. Some of these, such as ice-on-ice, loose aggregates and pressurized targets, are quite new and have provided novel and exciting results. Some of the gaps existing previously in the data on fragment ejection-angle distributions, as well as translational and rotational velocity fields (including fine fragments) have been filled, and these new results will be surveyed.

  19. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-11-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 μm dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (r h = 0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60″ (>105 km) in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 μm image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing ˜5.2 × 1010 kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  20. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  1. Resistance to disruption in a classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E; Neal, Carrie M; Ahearn, William H; Wheeler, Emily E; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B; Dube, William V

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 7-s VI 30-s schedule for 6 participants with developmental disabilities. Resistance to disruption was measured by presenting a distracting item. Response rates in the disruption components were compared to within-session response rates in prior baseline components. Results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory for 5 of 6 participants.

  2. Automatic location of disruption times in JET.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  3. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

    2014-05-01

    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method

  4. Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

  5. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  6. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  7. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  8. Electrolytic pretreatment unit gaseous effluent conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The electrolytic pretreatment of urine is an advanced process that eliminates the need for handling and storing the highly corrosive chemicals that are normally used in water reclamation systems. The electrolytic pretreatment process also converts the organic materials in urine to gases (N2 and O2) that can be used to replenish those lost to space by leakage, venting, and air lock operations. The electrolytic process is more than a pretreatment, since it decreases the urine solids content by approximately one third, thus reducing the load and eventual solids storage requirements of the urine processing system. The evolved gases from the pretreatment step cannot, however, be returned directly to the atmosphere of a spacecraft without first removing several impurities including hydrogen, chlorine, and certain organic compounds. A treatment concept was developed that would decrease the impurities in the gas stream that emanates from an electrolysis unit to levels sufficiently low to allow the conditioned gas stream to be safely discharged to a spacecraft atmosphere. Two methods were experimentally demonstrated that can accomplish the desired cleanup. The bases of the two methods are, repectively: (1) raw urine scrubbing and (2) silica gel sorption.

  9. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

  10. Microneedle pretreatment enhances the percutaneous permeation of hydrophilic compounds with high melting points

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two commercially available microneedle rollers with a needle length of 200 μm and 300 μm were selected to examine the influence of microneedle pretreatment on the percutaneous permeation of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, paracetamol) with different physicochemical drug characteristics in Franz-type diffusion cells. Samples of the receptor fluids were taken at predefined times over 6 hours and were analysed by UV–VIS high-performance liquid-chromatography. Histological examinations after methylene blue application were additionally performed to gather information about barrier disruption. Results Despite no visible pores in the stratum corneum, the microneedle pretreatment resulted in a twofold (200 μm) and threefold higher (300 μm) flux through the pretreated skin samples compared to untreated skin samples for ibuprofen and ketoprofen (LogKow > 3, melting point < 100°C). The flux of the hydrophilic compounds diclofenac and paracetamol (logKow < 1, melting point > 100°C) increased their amount by four (200 μm) to eight (300 μm), respectively. Conclusion Commercially available microneedle rollers with 200–300 μm long needles enhance the drug delivery of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and represent a valuable tool for percutaneous permeation enhancement particularly for substances with poor permeability due to a hydrophilic nature and high melting points. PMID:22947102

  11. Effect of [Emim]Ac pretreatment on the structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulose.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-01-16

    Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in terms of the changes in the chemical and physical structure of the preparation. In this case, original cellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse was subjected to ionic liquid ([Emim]Ac) dissolution at a mild temperature (90 °C) followed by regeneration in water and subsequently hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases. The original and regenerated cellulose were thoroughly characterized by XRD, FT-IR, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, and SEM. It was found that the original cellulose experienced an increase in glucose content from 80.0-83.3% to 91.6-92.8%, a decrease in the degree of polymerization from 974-1039 to 511-521, a crystal transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II, as well as an increase of surface area during the pretreatment. The results suggested that pretreatment led to effective disruption of cellulose for subsequent enzyme hydrolysis as evidenced by a high glucose conversion yield of 95.2%.

  12. Effect of physical pretreatment on dilute acid hydrolysis of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Harun, M Y; Dayang Radiah, A B; Zainal Abidin, Z; Yunus, R

    2011-04-01

    Effects of different physical pretreatments on water hyacinth for dilute acid hydrolysis process (121 ± 3 °C, 5% H(2)SO(4), 60 min) were comparatively investigated. Untreated sample had produced 24.69 mg sugar/g dry matter. Steaming (121 ± 3 °C) and boiling (100 ± 3 °C) for 30 min had provided 35.9% and 52.4% higher sugar yield than untreated sample, respectively. The highest sugar yield (132.96 mg sugar/g dry matter) in ultrasonication was obtained at 20 min irradiation using 100% power. The highest sugar production (155.13 mg sugar/g dry matter) was obtained from pulverized samples. Hydrolysis time was reduced when using samples pretreated by drying, mechanical comminution and ultrasonication. In most methods, prolonging the pretreatment period was ineffective and led to sugar degradations. Morphology inspection and thermal analysis had provided evidences of structure disruption that led to higher sugar recovery in hydrolysis process.

  13. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  14. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for high total sugar recovery in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Oxalic acid was evaluated as an alternative reagent to mineral inorganic acid in pretreatment of corncob to achieve high xylose yield in addition to highly digestible solid residue. A quadratic polynomial model of xylose formation was developed for optimization of pretreatment process by the response surface methodology based on the impact factors of pretreatment temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest xylose yield was 94.3 % that was obtained under the pretreatment condition of 140 °C for 40 min with 0.5 wt% oxalic acid at a solid loading of 7.5 %. Under these conditions, the xylose yield results of verification experiments were very close to the model prediction, which indicated that the model was applicable. The solid residue generated under this condition also demonstrated a satisfactory enzymatic digestibility and fermentability.

  15. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  16. 40 CFR 443.46 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.46 Pretreatment standard...

  17. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  18. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  19. 40 CFR 443.46 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.46 Pretreatment standard...

  20. 40 CFR 443.46 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.46 Pretreatment standard...

  1. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  2. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  3. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  4. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  5. 40 CFR 443.46 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.46 Pretreatment standard...

  6. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  7. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  8. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  9. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  10. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  11. 40 CFR 443.36 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.36 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  12. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  13. 40 CFR 443.46 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.46 Pretreatment standard...

  14. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PRETREATMENT STANDARDS FOR NEW SOURCES FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  15. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A T W M; Zeeman, G

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a goal to improve the digestibility of the lignocellulosic biomass. Each pretreatment has its own effect(s) on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; the three main components of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews the different effect(s) of several pretreatments on the three main parts of the lignocellulosic biomass to improve its digestibility. Steam pretreatment, lime pretreatment, liquid hot water pretreatments and ammonia based pretreatments are concluded to be pretreatments with high potentials. The main effects are dissolving hemicellulose and alteration of lignin structure, providing an improved accessibility of the cellulose for hydrolytic enzymes.

  16. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils.

  17. On the magnetized disruption of inertially-confined plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Rasmus, Alexander; Klein, Sallee; MacDonald, Michael; Trantham, Matt; Fein, Jeff; Belancourt, Patrick; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul; Pollock, Brad; Park, Jaebum; Hazi, Andrew; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui

    2016-10-01

    The creation and disruption of inertially-collimated plasma flows is investigated through experiment, simulation, and analytical modeling. Laser-generated plasma-jets are shown to be disrupted by an applied 5T B-field along the jet axis. An analytical model of the system describes the disruption mechanism through the competing effects of B-field advection and diffusion. These results indicate that for Rem 10-100, the ratio of inertial to magnetic pressures plays an important role in determining whether a jet is formed, but at high enough Rem , axial B-field amplification prevents inertial collimation altogether. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HED Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840 and in collaboration with LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support for this work was provided by NASA, under contract NAS8-03060, through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant Number PF3-140111. Software used in this work was developed in part by the DOE NNSA ASC- and DOE Office of Science ASCR-supported Flash Center.

  18. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  19. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  20. Disruptive event analysis: Volcanism and igneous intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, B. M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation was made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions were considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity were the geometry of the magma repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Simplified probability calculations were attempted for areas of past volcanic activity.

  1. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i) AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii) both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii) while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any) and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss. PMID:19961578

  2. Allosteric Inhibition Through Core Disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, James R.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-05

    Although inhibitors typically bind pre-formed sites on proteins, it is theoretically possible to inhibit by disrupting the folded structure of a protein or, in the limit, to bind preferentially to the unfolded state. Equilibria defining how such molecules act are well understood, but structural models for such binding are unknown. Two novel inhibitors of {beta}-lactamase were found to destabilize the enzyme at high temperatures, but at lower temperatures showed no preference for destabilized mutant enzymes versus stabilized mutants. X-ray crystal structures showed that both inhibitors bound to a cryptic site in {beta}-lactamase, which the inhibitors themselves created by forcing apart helixes 11 and 12. This opened up a portion of the hydrophobic core of the protein, into which these two inhibitors bind. Although this binding site is 16 {angstrom} from the center of the active site, the conformational changes were transmitted through a sequence of linked motions to a key catalytic residue, Arg244, which in the complex adopts conformations very different from those in catalytically competent enzyme conformations. These structures offer a detailed view of what has heretofore been a theoretical construct, and suggest the possibility for further design against this novel site.

  3. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  4. A Function-Based Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behavior and Increase Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Smither, Rachel; Huseman, Rachel; Guffey, Jennifer; Fox, James

    2007-01-01

    A range of interventions exist to prevent and respond to disruptive classroom behavior. This study documents the efficacy of a function-based intervention conducted using a multiple baseline across settings design. Despite moderately variable levels of treatment fidelity, results suggest a functional relation between the introduction of a package…

  5. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  6. Sono-thermal pre-treatment of waste activated sludge before anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Şahinkaya, Serkan; Sevimli, Mehmet Faik

    2013-01-01

    Sonication and thermalization can be applied successfully to disrupt the complex waste activated sludge (WAS) floc structure and to release extra and intra cellular polymeric substances into soluble phase along with solubilization of particulate organic matters, before sludge digestion. In this study, sonication has been combined with thermalization to improve its disintegration efficiency. It was aimed that rise in temperature occurring during the sonication of sludge was used to be as an advantage for the following thermalization in the combined pre-treatment. Thus, the effects of sonication, thermalization and sono-thermalization on physical and chemical properties of sludge were investigated separately under different pre-treatment conditions. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods were in the following descending order: sono-thermalization > sonication > thermalization. The optimum operating conditions for sono-thermalization were determined as the combination of 1-min sonication at 1.0 W/mL and thermalization at 80 °C for 1h. The influences of sludge pre-treatment on biodegradability of WAS were experienced with biochemical methane potential assay in batch anaerobic reactors. Relative to the control reactor, total methane production in the sono-thermalized reactor increased by 13.6% and it was more than the sum of relative increases achieved in the sonicated and thermalized reactors. Besides, the volatile solids and total chemical oxygen demand reductions in the sono-thermalized reactor were enhanced as well. However, it was determined that sludge pre-treatment techniques applied in this study was not feasible due to their high energy requirements.

  7. Fuel ethanol production from corn stover under optimized dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Generation of fermentable sugars from corn stover involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as nat...

  8. Observation of the loss of pre-disruptive runaway electrons in KSTAR ohmic plasma disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee; An, YoungHwa; Seo, Dongcheol; Kim, Hyunseok

    2016-12-01

    A newly-developed fast neutron detector revealed a close relationship between the loss of pre-disruptive runaway electrons and the plasma disruption in KSTAR ohmic plasmas. It is observed that a burst of photoneutrons is generated exactly before the start of thermal quenches, indicating a bunch of runaway electrons which had existed before the disruption impacts the first wall at the time. The loss of runaway electrons could be identified also as a decrease in the measured electron temperature, forming a typical two-stage thermal quench trace. From the MHD pattern in the neutron signal during a low-q disruption, it could be identified that pre-disruptive runaway electrons are localized in the plasma, especially on the q  =  2 drift surface. These new findings suggest the pre-disruptive runaway electrons might play an important role in the plasma disruption mechanism.

  9. Bcl-xL-mediated antioxidant function abrogates the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics induced by LRRK2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Saez-Atienzar, Sara; Bonet-Ponce, Luis; da Casa, Carmen; Perez-Dolz, Laura; Blesa, Jose R; Nava, Eduardo; Galindo, Maria F; Jordan, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    We have used the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y overexpressing Bcl-xL (SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL) to clarify the effects of this mitochondrial protein on the control of mitochondrial dynamics and the autophagic processes which occur after the inhibition of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) with GSK2578215A. In wild type (SH-SY5Y/Neo) cells, GSK2578215A (1nM) caused a disruption of mitochondrial morphology and an imbalance in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal. However, SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells under GSK2578215A treatment, unlike the wild type, preserved a high mitochondrial membrane potential and did not exhibit apoptotical chromatins. In contrast to wild type cells, in SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, GSK2578215A did not induce mitochondrial translocation of neither dynamin related protein-1 nor the proapoptotic protein, Bax. In SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, mitochondrial fragmentation elicited by GSK2578215A precedes an autophagic response. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bcl-xL protein restores the autophagic flux pathway disrupted by this inhibitor. SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, responded to LRRK2 inhibition by an increase in the levels of acetylated tubulin, indicating that this was abrogated by Bcl-xL overexpression. This hyperacetylation of tubulin took place earlier than any of the above-mentioned events suggesting that it is involved in the autophagic flux interruption. Pre-treatment with tempol prevented the GSK2578215A-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, autophagy and the rise in acetylated tubulin in SH-SY5Y/Neo cells. Thus, these data support the notion that ROS act as a second messenger connexion between LRRK2 inhibition and these deleterious responses, which are markedly alleviated by the Bcl-xL-mediated ROS generation blockade.

  10. Pretreatment with Lycopene Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yong; Lee, Jai-Sung; Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Bae, Inhyu; Yoon, Yeo Min; Kwon, Sang Mo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in cell-based therapy to promote revascularization after peripheral or myocardial ischemia. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the senescence and apoptosis of MSCs, causing defective neovascularization. Here, we examined the effect of the natural antioxidant lycopene on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MSCs. Although H2O2 (200 μM) increased intracellular ROS levels in human MSCs, lycopene (10 μM) pretreatment suppressed H2O2-induced ROS generation and increased survival. H2O2-induced ROS increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and p53, which were inhibited by lycopene pretreatment. Furthermore, lycopene pretreatment decreased the expression of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and caspase-3 and increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), which were induced by H2O2 treatment. Moreover, lycopene significantly increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression and decreased cellular ROS levels via the PI3K-Akt pathway. Our findings show that lycopene pretreatment prevents ischemic injury by suppressing apoptosis-associated signal pathway and enhancing anti-oxidant protein, suggesting that lycopene could be developed as a beneficial broad-spectrum agent for the successful MSC transplantation in ischemic diseases. PMID:26535076

  11. Reducing sugar loss in enzymatic hydrolysis of ethylenediamine pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Xia; Qin, Lei; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Han, Xiao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ethylenediamine (EDA) on enzymatic hydrolysis with different cellulosic substrates and the approaches to reduce sugar loss in enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. During enzymatic hydrolysis, xylose yield reduced 21.2%, 18.1% and 13.0% with 7.5mL/L EDA for AFEX pretreated corn stover (CS), washed EDA pretreated CS and CS cellulose. FTIR and GPC analysis demonstrated EDA reacted with sugar and produced high molecular weight (MW) compounds. EDA was prone to react with xylose other than glucose. H2O2 and Na2SO3 cannot prevent sugar loss in glucose/xylose-EDA mixture, although they inhibited the browning and high MW compounds formation. By decreasing temperature to 30°C, the loss of xylose yield reduced to only 3.8%, 3.6% and 4.2% with 7.5mL/L EDA in the enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX pretreated CS, washed EDA pretreated CS and CS cellulose.

  12. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E R

    1989-06-01

    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed.

  13. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  14. Disrupted Stars in Unusual Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes a little too close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Tidal forces from the black hole cause the passing star to be torn apart, resulting in a brief flare of radiation as the stars material accretes onto the black hole. A recent study asks the following question: do TDEs occur most frequently in an unusual type of galaxy?A Trend in DisruptionsSo far, we have data from eight candidate TDEs that peaked in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. The spectra from these observations have shown an intriguing trend: many of these TDEs host galaxies exhibit weak line emission (indicating little or no current star-formation activity), and yet they show strong Balmer absorption lines (indicating star formation activity occurred within the last Gyr). These quiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies likely underwent a period of intense star formation that recently ended.To determine if TDEs are overrepresented in such galaxies, a team of scientists led by Decker French (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) has quantified the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that exhibit similar properties to those of TDE hosts.Quantifying OverrepresentationSpectral characteristics of SDSS galaxies (gray) and TDE candidate host galaxies (colored points): line emission vs. Balmer absorption. The lower right-hand box identifies thequiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies which contain most TDE events, yet are uncommon among the galaxy sample as a whole. Click for a better look! [French et al. 2016]French and collaborators compare the optical spectra of the TDE host galaxies to those of nearly 600,000 SDSS galaxies, using two different cutoffs for the Balmer absorption the indicator of past star formation. Their strictest cut, filtering for very high Balmer absorption, selected only 0.2% of the SDSS galaxies, yet 38% of the TDEs are hosted in such galaxies. Using a more relaxed cutoff selects 2.3% of

  15. Pretreatment EEG in childhood absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Hu, Fengming; Moshé, Solomon; Mizrahi, Eli; Masur, David; Sogawa, Yoshi; Le Pichon, J.B.; Levine, Calley; Hirtz, Deborah; Clark, Peggy; Adamson, Peter C.; Glauser, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), determine pretreatment EEG features and their associations with baseline neuropsychological function and short-term treatment outcome. Methods: In a multicenter, randomized clinical trial, patients with CAE underwent a pretreatment, 1-hour video-EEG and neuropsychological testing with freedom-from-failure and seizure-freedom (SF) outcome assessed at the 16- to 20-week visit. Results: Detailed evaluation of the pretreatment EEG was possible for 99.8% of participants (445/446). Median time to first seizure was 6.0 minutes (range 0–59 minutes), median number of seizures was 5 (range 1–60), and median seizure duration was 10.8 seconds (range 3.3–77.6 seconds). Median duration of shortest seizure per EEG was 7.5 seconds (range 3.0–77.6 seconds). Seizure frequency was not associated with baseline measures of attention, executive function, or treatment outcome. Presence of a seizure lasting ≥20 seconds was noted in 29% of subjects (129/440); these children had higher median omissions T score on the Conners Continuous Performance Test (56.3 vs 51.6, p = 0.01). Patients with a shortest seizure of longer duration were more likely to demonstrate treatment success by both freedom-from-failure (p = 0.02) and SF (p = 0.005) criteria, even after controlling for age, treatment group, and number of seizures, with good predictive value (area under the curve 78% for SF). Conclusions: CAE is reliably and quickly confirmed by EEG. Occurrence of a seizure ≥20 seconds, but not overall seizure frequency, was associated with differential baseline measures of attention. Patients whose shortest pretreatment EEG seizure was longer in duration were more likely to achieve SF, regardless of treatment. PMID:23719147

  16. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities.

  17. Radiation and chemical pretreatment of cellulosic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chosdu, Rahayu; Hilmy, Nazly; Erizal; Erlinda, T. B.; Abbas, B.

    1993-10-01

    RADIATION AND CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT OF CELLULOSIC WASTE. Combination pretreatment of cellulosic wastes such as corn stalk, cassava bark and peanut husk were studied using chemical and irradiation of electron beam. The effect of 2 % NaOH and irradiation at the doses of 100, 300 and 500 kGy on the cellulosic wastes were evaluated by measurement of the glucose yield in enzymatic hydrolysis. Irradiation was carried out with an electron beam machine EPS-300 (Energy 300 kev, current 50 mA). The result shows that the glucose yield were higher by increasing of dose irradiation and treated with 2 % of NaOH especially in corn stalk. The glucose yield of corn stalk were 20 % in untreated samples and increases to 43 % after treated with electron beam irradiation at the dose of 500 kGy and 2 % NaOH. Cassava bark and peanut husk show the glucose yield are only 3.5, and 2.5% respectively. The effect of E-beam current in enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stalk, and preliminary studied E-beam radiation pretreatment of cassava bark are also reported.

  18. Sidenafil Pre-Treatment Promotes Decompression Sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Brubakk, Alf O.; Gempp, Emmanuel; Castagna, Olivier; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Vascular bubble formation after decompression contributes to endothelial injuries which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful vasodilator that contributes to vessel homeostasis. It has been shown that NO-releasing agent may reduce bubble formation and prevent serious decompression sickness. The use of sildenafil, a well-known, phosphodiesterase-5 blocker, which act by potentiating the vasodilatory effect on smooth muscle relaxation, has never been studied in DCS. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of sildenafil pre-treatment on DCS in a rat model. 67 rats were subjected to a simulated dive at 90 msw for 45 min before staged decompression. The experimental group received 10 mg/kg of sildenafil one hour before exposure (n = 35) while controls were not treated (n = 32). Clinical assessment took place over a period of 30 min after surfacing. At the end, blood samples were collected for blood cells counts and the level of circulating bubbles in the right cavities was quantified. There were significantly more manifestations of DCS in the sildenafil group than in the controls (34.3% vs 6.25%, respectively, p = 0.012). Platelet count was more reduced in treated rats than in controls (−21.7% vs −7%, respectively, p = 0.029), whereas bubble grades did not differ between groups. We concluded that pre-treatment with sildenafil promotes the onset and severity of neurological DCS. When considering the use of phosphodiesterase-5 blockers in the context of diving, careful discussion with physician should be recommended. PMID:23580342

  19. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  20. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  1. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  2. Synergetic effect of combined pretreatment for energy efficient biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Kannah, R Yukesh; Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Yeom, Ick Tae; Johnson, M

    2017-05-01

    Physiochemical disintegration of waste activated biosolids (WAB) through thermochemical (TC) pretreatment requires high energy and cost for efficient energy generation. Therefore in the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the biodegrdability and to minimize the operational cost of TC pretreatment by combining it with ozonation. A higher solubilization of about 30.4% was achieved at lesser energy input of about 141.02kJ/kgTS and a ozone dosage of about 0.0012mgO3/mgSS through this combined thermo chemo ozone (TCO3) pretreatment. The methane production potential (0.32gCOD/gCOD) of TCO3 pretreatment was comparatively higher than the (0.19gCOD/gCOD) TC pretreatment. The energetic analysis and economic assessment of the proposed method of pretreatment can possibly reduces the energy requirement of TC pretreatment with a positive net profit of about 35.49$/ton of biosolids.

  3. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases.

  4. Recyclability of an ionic liquid for biomass pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the possibility of reusing an ionic liquid for the pretreatment of biomass. The effects of lignin and water content in a pretreatment solvent on pretreatment products were examined, along with the recyclability of an ionic liquid for pretreatment. It was discovered that the presence of lignin and water within a pretreatment solvent resulted in a far less effective pretreatment process. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/ethanolamine (60/40 vol%) presents more promising properties than EMIM-AC, providing a small decrease in sugar conversion and also a small increase of lignin deposition with an increasing lignin amount in the pretreatment solvent. Deteriorations of the ionic liquid were observed from considerably low sugar conversions and lignin extraction after using the 5th and 7th batch, respectively. Furthermore, the changes of ionic liquid properties and lignin accumulation in ionic liquid were determined by analyzing their thermal decomposition behavior (TGA) and chemical functional groups (FTIR and (1)H NMR).

  5. Disruption forecasting at JET using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Marongiu, E.; Sonato, P.

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are trained to evaluate the risk of plasma disruptions in a tokamak experiment using several diagnostic signals as inputs. A saliency analysis confirms the goodness of the chosen inputs, all of which contribute to the network performance. Tests that were carried out refer to data collected from succesfully terminated and disruption terminated pulses performed during two years of JET tokamak experiments. Results show the possibility of developing a neural network predictor that intervenes well in advance in order to avoid plasma disruption or mitigate its effects.

  6. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.

  7. System and method for disrupting suspect objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, T. Scott; Garretson, Justin R; Hobart, Clinton G; Monda, Mark J

    2013-07-09

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system includes a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image therefrom, a weapon having a discharge deployable therefrom, and a targeting unit. The targeting unit displays the image(s) of the suspect object and aims the weapon at a disruption point on the displayed image such that the weapon may be positioned to deploy the discharge at the disruption point whereby the suspect object is disabled.

  8. Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion.

    PubMed

    Obama, Patrick; Ricochon, Guillaume; Muniglia, Lionel; Brosse, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis using the industrial enzymatic cocktail Cellulyve® was assessed as a first step in a pretreatment process of Miscanthus biomass involving an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment. (13)C and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and size exclusion chromatography were used to analyze the cellulose and lignin before and after treatment. It was demonstrated that despite a very low impact on the fibre structure (observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy) and composition (in terms of sugars and polyphenolics content), the enzymatic pre-treatment disrupted the lignocellulosic matrix to a considerable extend. This weakening permitted enhanced removal of lignin during organosolv pulping and increased hydrolysability of the residual cellulosic pulp for the production of monomeric glucose. Using this combined treatment, a delignification yield of 93% and an enzymatic cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 75% were obtained.

  9. The effect of surfactant-assisted ultrasound-ionic liquid pretreatment on the structure and fermentable sugar production of a water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Han, Ye-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Jing-Yong; Peng, Yen-Ping; Liao, Yu-Ling; Potprommanee, Laddawan

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the disruption of water hyacinth (WH) in an ultrasound-ionic liquid (US-IL) pretreatment assisted by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was used to dissolve the WH. The optimum concentration of SDS for the highest production of reducing sugar was also determined. Compared to the US-IL pretreatment, the production of reducing sugars, cellulose conversion and delignification were increased by 72.23%, 58.74% and 21.01%, respectively, upon addition of 0.5% SDS. Moreover, the enhancement of SDS in the US-IL pretreatment was confirmed by the analysis of structural features, which demonstrated that the SDS increased the removal of lignin and decreased the cellulose crystallinity.

  10. Low pressure steam expansion pretreatment as a competitive approach to improve diosgenin yield and the production of fermentable sugar from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mi; Tong, Yao; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Lihua; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-04-01

    Development of efficient pretreatment methods which can disrupt the peripheral lignocellulose and even the parenchyma cells is of great importance for production of diosgenin from turmeric rhizomes. It was found that low pressure steam expansion pretreatment (LSEP) could improve the diosgenin yield by more than 40% compared with the case without pretreatment, while simultaneously increasing the production of fermentable sugar by 27.37%. Furthermore, little inhibitory compounds were produced in LSEP process which was extremely favorable for the subsequent biotransformation of fermentable sugar to other valuable products such as ethanol. Preliminary study showed that the ethanol yield when using the fermentable sugar as carbon source was comparable to that using glucose. The liquid residue of LSEP treated turmeric tuber after diosgenin production can be utilized as a quality fermentable carbon source. Therefore, LSEP has great potential in industrial application in diosgenin clean production and comprehensive utilization of turmeric tuber.

  11. Bioflocculant from pre-treated sludge and its applications in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Potentials of alkaline-thermal (ALT) pre-treated sludge as a bioflocculant were studied in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. When incubated with this ALT pre-treated sludge, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 22.5% and 3.4×10(12)m/kg, respectively, which were much better than that obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously. Charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance in the case of the combined use. With swine wastewater, the bioflocculant could remove COD, ammonium and turbidity by 45.2%, 41.8% and 74.6% when incubated with 20mg/L at pH 8.0. This study suggested that the ALT pre-treated sludge has a great potential as an alternative bioflocculant to conventional flocculants in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

  12. Development of a Low Toxicity Urine Pretreatment for Water Recovery in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Alvarez, Giraldo; Mitchell, Julie; Pickering, Karen; Shull, Sarah; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Letty

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization was an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater was two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort was to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-mL volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper. Additionally, the pretreatment formulations were tested to determine if the pretreated urine could be distilled to remove 85% of the water, as would occur on the ISS. The goal of the pretreatment was to produce no solids in the resulting brine at 85% water recovery.

  13. Application of high throughput pretreatment and co-hydrolysis system to thermochemical pretreatment. Part 2: Dilute alkali.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjia; Gao, Xiadi; Demartini, Jaclyn D; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    High throughput pretreatment (HTPH) and enzymatic hydrolysis systems are now vital for screening large numbers of biomass samples to investigate biomass recalcitrance over various pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Although hydrothermal pretreatment is currently being employed in most high throughput applications, thermochemical pretreatment at low and high pH conditions can offer additional insights to better understand the roles of hemicellulose and lignin, respectively, in defining biomass recalcitrance. Thus, after successfully applying the HTPH approach to dilute acid pretreatment [Gao et al. (2012) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110(3): 754-762], extension to dilute alkali pretreatment was also achieved using a similar single-step neutralization and buffering concept. In the latter approach, poplar and switchgrass were pretreated with 1 wt% sodium hydroxide at 120°C for different reaction times. Following pretreatment, an H₂Cit⁻/HCit²⁻ buffer with a pH of 4.5 was used to condition the pretreatment slurry to a pH range of 4.69-4.89, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h of the entire mixture. Sugar yields showed different trends for poplar and switchgrass with increases in pretreatment times, demonstrating the method provided a clearly discernible screening tool at alkali conditions. This method was then applied to selected Populus tremuloides samples to follow ring-by-ring sugar release patterns. Observed variations were compared to results from hydrothermal pretreatments, providing new insights in understanding the influence of biomass structural differences on recalcitrance.

  14. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol--comparison of five pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Leipold, Frank; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Roslander, Christian; Lilholt, Hans; Bjerre, Anne Belinda

    2013-07-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44 g ethanol/100g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol yield of 57 g ethanol/100g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae, containing high amounts of glucan and cleaned from salts, enhanced the ethanol yield significantly.

  15. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Immunotherapy Treatment Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World Jun 16, 2014 This story is part of ... Research We Conduct Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  17. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  18. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  19. DOUBLE TIDAL DISRUPTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Ilya; Levin, Yuri E-mail: yuri.levin@monash.edu

    2015-05-20

    A star on a nearly radial trajectory approaching a massive black hole (MBH) gets tidally disrupted if it comes sufficiently close to the MBH. Here we explore what happens to binary stars whose centers of mass approach the MBH on nearly radial orbits. The interaction with the MBH often leads to both stars being disrupted in sequence. We argue that such events could produce light curves that are substantially different from those of the single disruptions, with possible features such as two local maxima. Tidal forces from the MBH can also lead the binary components to collide; these merger products can form highly magnetized stars, whose subsequent tidal disruption may enable prompt jet formation.

  20. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.

    2013-07-15

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses.

  1. Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets.

  2. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D.; Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  3. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  4. Anastomotic disruption after large bowel resection

    PubMed Central

    NasirKhan, Mohammad U; Abir, Farshad; Longo, Walter; Kozol, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Anastomotic disruption is a feared and serious complication of colon surgery. Decades of research have identified factors favoring successful healing of anastomoses as well as risk factors for anastomotic disruption. However, some factors, such as the role of mechanical bowel preparation, remain controversial. Despite proper caution and excellent surgical technique, some anastomotic leaks are inevitable. The rapid identification of anastomotic leaks and the timely treatment in these cases are paramount. PMID:16688793

  5. Fast Time Response Electromagnetic Disruption Mitigation Concept

    DOE PAGES

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; ...

    2015-09-28

    An important and urgent issue for ITER is predicting and controlling disruptions. Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks have the potential to disrupt. Methods to rapidly quench the discharge after an impending disruption is detected are essential to protect the vessel and internal components. The warning time for the onset of some disruptions in tokamaks could be <10 ms, which poses stringent requirements on the disruption mitigation system for reactor systems. In this proposed method, a cylindrical boron nitride projectile containing a radiative payload composed of boron, boron nitride, or beryllium particulate matter and weighing similar to 15 g is accelerated tomore » velocities on the order of 1 to 2 km/s in <2 ms in a linear rail gun accelerator. A partially fragmented capsule is then injected into the tokamak discharge in the 3- to 6-ms timescale, where the radiative payload is dispersed. The device referred to as an electromagnetic particle injector has the potential to meet the short warning timescales for which a reactor disruption mitigation system must be built. The system is fully electromagnetic, with no mechanical moving parts, which ensures high reliability after a period of long standby.« less

  6. Fast Time Response Electromagnetic Disruption Mitigation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.; Jernigan, Thomas C.; Menard, J.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Ono, M.; Baylor, Larry R.; Lay, W. S.

    2015-09-28

    An important and urgent issue for ITER is predicting and controlling disruptions. Tokamaks and spherical tokamaks have the potential to disrupt. Methods to rapidly quench the discharge after an impending disruption is detected are essential to protect the vessel and internal components. The warning time for the onset of some disruptions in tokamaks could be <10 ms, which poses stringent requirements on the disruption mitigation system for reactor systems. In this proposed method, a cylindrical boron nitride projectile containing a radiative payload composed of boron, boron nitride, or beryllium particulate matter and weighing similar to 15 g is accelerated to velocities on the order of 1 to 2 km/s in <2 ms in a linear rail gun accelerator. A partially fragmented capsule is then injected into the tokamak discharge in the 3- to 6-ms timescale, where the radiative payload is dispersed. The device referred to as an electromagnetic particle injector has the potential to meet the short warning timescales for which a reactor disruption mitigation system must be built. The system is fully electromagnetic, with no mechanical moving parts, which ensures high reliability after a period of long standby.

  7. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  8. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  9. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE PAGES

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; ...

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  10. Structural modifications of lignocellulosics by pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpuray, M.M.; Lee, Y.F.; Fan, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand the mechanism of the enhancement in the hyrolysis rate upon pretreatment. It has been found that, in general, multiple pretreatments were not promising, since the hydrolysis rates rarely exceeded those achieved by single pretreatments. Ball-milling pretreatment was found to be effective in increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the crystallinity index. Treatment with ethylene glycol was highly effective in increasing the specific surface area, in addition to a high degree of delignification. Peracetic acid pretreatment was highly effective in delignifying substrate. Among multiple pretreatments, those involving peracetic acid treatment generally had lower crystallinity indices and lignin content values. The relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the set of structural features indicated that an increase in surface area and a decrease in the crystallinity and lignin content enhance the hydrolysis; the specific surface area is the most influential of the structural features, followed by the lignin content. (Refs. 23).

  11. Disruption Analysis and Response Implicattions of Passive Plates for the NSTX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhu Zhai, Peter Titus, Art Brooks, and Ron Hatcher

    2012-08-27

    The NSTX upgrade project requires analysis qualifications of existing vacuum vessel and passive stabilizing plates for increased plasma performance. Vertical stability is critically dependent on the passive conducting structure that surrounds the plasma. In this paper, the passive conducting structure is analyzed for the upgrade condition during plasma disruption to ensure the level of stress in the stabilizing plates and the fastener is within its design limits. The counter-bore of the passive plates for bolting is evaluated in details and counter-bore bushing is redesigned to prevent shear failure during disruptions as a result of high pulling and pushing forces, particularly for support at the corner bolts

  12. Membrane pretreatment: A method for reducing fouling by natural organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Maartens, A.; Swart, P.; Jacobs, E.P.

    2000-01-15

    The prevention of fouling of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes, used for the purification of natural brown water, was investigated by pretreating the membranes prior to filtration. Polysulfone membranes were pretreated by commercial nonionic surfactants Triton X-100 and Pluronic F108. Specific characterization techniques, developed by Maartens et al. (1998) and Jucker and Clarke, (1994), were used to determine and compare the effects induced by the adsorption of natural organic matter on the permeability of untreated as well as surfactant treated capillary ultrafiltration membranes. The extent of foulant adsorption and the quality of the resultant permeate solutions were determined by ultraviolet visible-light spectroscopy. The findings of this investigation provides information of importance for the operation of future natural brown water ultrafiltration plants.

  13. Improvement in the productivity of xylooligosaccharides from waste medium after mushroom cultivation by hydrothermal treatment with suitable pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuaki; Shinji, Kazunori; Mizuno, Masahiro; Nozaki, Kouichi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Makishima, Satoshi; Shiroishi, Masahiro; Onoda, Takeru; Takahashi, Fumihiro; Kanda, Takahisa; Amano, Yoshihiko

    2010-08-01

    The effective xylooligosaccharides (XOs) production from the waste medium after mushroom cultivation (WM) was investigated. The WM contains rich nutrients (protein, etc.) which induce Maillard reaction with reducing sugars under hydrothermal conditions. To improve the productivity of XOs, the suitable pretreatment combined with washing and grinding was investigated, and subsequently hydrothermal treatment was demonstrated with batch type and continuous flow type reactor. The washing pretreatment with hot water of 60 degrees C was effective to remove nutrients from the WM, and it led to prevent brownish discoloration on the hydrothermal treatment. On the basis of experimental data, industrial XOs production processes consisting of the pretreatment, hydrothermal treatment and purification step was designed. During the designed process, 2.3 kg-dry of the purified XOs was produced from 30 kg-wet of the WM (15% yield as dry basis weight). Theoretical yield of XOs attained to 48% as xylan weight in the WM.

  14. A Rapid, Physiologic Protocol for Testing Transcriptional Effects of Thyroid-Disrupting Agents in Premetamorphic Xenopus Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Nathalie; Palmier, Karima; Le Mével, Sébastien; Alliot, Caroline; Demeneix, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of substances present in the environment are postulated to have endocrine-disrupting effects on vertebrate populations. However, data on disruption of thyroid signaling are fragmentary, particularly at the molecular level. Thyroid hormone (TH; triiodothyronine, T3) acts principally by modulating transcription from target genes; thus, thyroid signaling is particularly amenable to analysis with a transcriptional assay. Also, T3 orchestrates amphibian metamorphosis, thereby providing an exceptional model for identifying thyroid-disrupting chemicals. We combined these two advantages to develop a method for following and quantifying the transcriptional action of T3 in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. This technology provides a means of assessing thyroid activity at the molecular level in a physiologically relevant situation. Moreover, translucent tadpoles are amenable to “on-line” imaging with fluorescent reporter constructs that facilitate in vivo measurement of transcriptional activity. We adapted transgenesis with TH-responsive elements coupled to either luciferase or green fluorescent protein to follow T3-dependent transcription in vivo. To reduce time of exposure and to synchronize responses, we optimized a physiologic pre-treatment protocol that induced competence to respond to T3 and thus to assess T3 effects and T3 disruption within 48 hr. This pretreatment protocol was based on a short (24 hr), weak (10−12 M) pulse of T3 that induced TH receptors, facilitating and synchronizing the transcriptional responses. This protocol was successfully applied to somatic and germinal transgenesis with both reporter systems. Finally, we show that the transcriptional assay allows detection of the thyroid-disrupting activity of environmentally relevant concentrations (10−8 M) of acetochlor, a persistent herbicide. PMID:16263516

  15. Attenuation of acute d-amphetamine-induced disruption of conflict resolution by clozapine, but not α-flupenthixol in rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Good, Mark A; Killcross, Simon

    2013-11-01

    Previous research demonstrates that disruption of forebrain dopamine systems impairs the use of high-order information to guide goal-directed performance, and that this deficit may be related to impaired use of task-setting cues in patients with schizophrenia. Such deficits can be interrogated through conflict resolution, which has been demonstrated to be sensitive to prefrontal integrity in rodents. We sought to examine the effects of acute systemic d-amphetamine administration on the contextual control of response conflict in rats, and whether deficits were reversed through pre-treatment with clozapine or the D₁/D₂ antagonist α-flupenthixol. Acute d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) disrupted the utilisation of contextual cues; therefore rats were impaired during presentation of stimulus compounds that require conflict resolution. Evidence suggested that this effect was attenuated through pre-treatment with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (5.0 mg/kg), but not the typical antipsychotic α-flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg), at doses previously shown to attenuate d-amphetamine-induced cognitive deficits. These studies therefore demonstrate a potentially viable model of disrupted executive function such as that seen in schizophrenia.

  16. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Erli, Hans J; Marx, Rudolf; Paar, Othmar; Niethard, Fritz U; Weber, Michael; Wirtz, Dieter C

    2003-01-01

    Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties) usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m). This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body. PMID:14561228

  17. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid.

  18. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  19. Comprehensive utilization of glycerol from sugarcane bagasse pretreatment to fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of glycerol pretreatment on subsequent glycerol fermentation and biomass fast pyrolysis were investigated. The liquid fraction from the pretreatment process was evaluated to be feasible for fermentation by Paenibacillus polymyxa and could be an economic substrate. The pretreated biomass was further utilized to obtain levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited significantly higher levoglucosan yield (47.70%) than that of un-pretreated sample (11.25%). The promotion could likely be attributed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals by glycerol pretreatment. This research developed an economically viable manufacturing paradigm to utilize glycerol comprehensively and enhance the formation of levoglucosan effectively from lignocellulose.

  20. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  1. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of sunflower stalks for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Cara, Cristóbal; Vidal, Juan D; Castro, Eulogio

    2013-07-01

    In this work the pretreatment of sunflower stalks by dilute sulfuric acid is studied. Pretreatment temperature and the concentration of acid solution were selected as operation variables and modified according to a central rotatable composite experimental design. Based on previous studies pretreatment time was kept constant (5 min) while the variation range for temperature and acid concentration was centered at 175°C and 1.25% (w/v) respectively. Following pretreatment the insoluble solids were separated by filtration and further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis, while liquid fractions were analyzed for sugars and inhibitors. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze results based on the combined severity of pretreatment experiments. Optimized results show that up to 33 g of glucose and xylose per 100g raw material (65% of the glucose and xylose present in the raw material) may be available for fermentation after pretreatment at 167°C and 1.3% sulfuric acid concentration.

  2. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing.

  3. Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

  4. Light-at-night-induced circadian disruption, cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Vinogradova, Irina A; Panchenko, Andrei V; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that "shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis

  5. Mechanistic insights into solubilization of rice protein isolates by freeze-milling combined with alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2015-07-01

    The solubilization of rice protein isolates (RPIs) has been regarded as one of the critical and challenging processes affecting commercial availability. Simultaneous treatment with freezing and milling (freeze-milling) combined with alkali pretreatment can remarkably increase the maximum achievable amounts of soluble RPIs by up to 42 times. This study investigates the mechanism of solubilization of RPIs by freeze-milling (RPI(fm)). Structural analyses reveal that milling causes proteins to unfold with ice crystals formed inside protein bodies. Fluorescent and Fourier transform infrared spectra show that RPI(fm) possesses disrupted hydrophobic surface and exposed hydrophilic inner groups. Size exclusion chromatography results reveal that RPI(fm) exhibits disaggregation and strong water-protein interactions. These results indicate that freeze-milling may be a promising manufacturing technique in food industry.

  6. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyu; Kong, Wei; Miao, Guangxin; Zhao, Shumin; Chen, Meng; Zheng, Xiaoying; Bai, Jiangtao

    2014-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown that cerebral infarction can be effectively reduced following treatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid (SSTF). However, the mechanism of action of SSTF as a preventive drug to treat cerebral infarction remains unclear. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg SSTF via intragastric administration for 1 week prior to the establishment of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results showed that pretreatment with SSTF effectively improved neurological function, reduced brain water content and the permeability of blood vessels, ameliorated ischemia-induced morphology changes in hippocampal microvessels, down-regulated Fas and FasL protein expression, elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased malondialdehyde content. In contrast to low-dose SSTF pretreatment, the above changes were most obvious after pretreatment with moderate- and high-doses of SSTF. Experimental findings indicate that SSTF pretreatment can exert protective effects on the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms may involve reducing brain water content, increasing microvascular recanalization, inhibiting the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and attenuating free radical damage. PMID:25657723

  7. Growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on Alkali-Pretreated Hardwood Sawdust Solids and Pretreatment Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Pamment, N.; Moo-Young, M.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Robinson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of a hardwood sawdust with 1% NaOH solution at 121°C dissolved 19.7% of the dry matter, mainly hemicellulose and lignin. Fermentation of the treated solids by Chaetomium cellulolyticum for 48 h gave a product containing 12.5% crude protein (total N × 6.25) on a dry weight basis. The in vitro rumen digestibility of the 48-h fermentation product was 30%, compared to 24% for the alkali-treated but unfermented sawdust. Growth was independent of sawdust particle size in the range 40 to 100 mesh. Fermentation of the pretreatment liquor gave a product containing up to 50% crude protein (dry weight basis) with an in vitro rumen digestibility of 65 to 76%. Approximately 6.7 g of crude protein was obtained from the treated solids and 2.2 g from the pretreatment liquor per 100 g of sawdust treated. The product from the pretreatment liquor fermentation has potential as a high-protein animal feed supplement but could not be produced economically without an outlet for the relatively indigestible product from the solids fermentation. Growth on the pretreatment liquor was strongly pH dependent; there was a considerable increase in the lag phase when the pH was lowered from 7.5 to 5.2. This effect appears to be due to an inhibitor whose toxicity is reduced at high pH. PMID:16345308

  8. Ultrasound and ozone assisted biological degradation of thermally pretreated and anaerobically pretreated distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sangave, Preeti C; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2007-05-01

    The present work is aimed at increasing the overall efficiency of the treatment process of distillery spent wash using a combination of different treatment techniques. Initially the effluent samples were subjected to Thermal Pretreatment (TPT-DW) and anaerobic treatment (ANA-DW). Advanced oxidation techniques, viz., Ultrasound (US) and Ozone were then used for further COD reduction followed by the conventional aerobic oxidation using mixed microbial consortium. Pretreatment of TPT-DW with US and Ozone (as stand alone techniques) enhanced the subsequent aerobic oxidation rate. For US treated sample, a maximum of 13% COD reduction was attained at the end of 48 h of aerobic oxidation, while for the ozone treated effluent a maximum of 45.6% COD reduction was obtained as compared to mere 1.8% COD reduction for the control (TPT-DW directly subjected to aerobic oxidation) indicating a 25 times increase in the rate of aerobic biodegradation of ozonated sample. Anaerobically treated effluent sample (ANA-DW) could be successfully treated aerobically. In this case, however, the use of advanced oxidation techniques did not result in any synergistic effects. The rate of the aerobic oxidation was slightly higher for the control (ANA-DW directly subjected to aerobic oxidation) as compared to the sample pretreated using ultrasound or ozonation. TOC analysis revealed that between the two pretreatments studied, ozone was found to be superior over US as it led to both COD as well as TOC reduction during the aerobic oxidation step for ANA-DW effluent stream.

  9. Effects of L-arginine pre-treatment in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s diseases in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hami, Javad; Hosseini, Mehran; Shahi, Sekineh; Lotfi, Nassim; Talebi, Abolfazl; Afshar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease resulting from the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Increasing evidence demonstrated that mice treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in motor functions associated with disruption of DA neurons in SNc conceivably analogous to those observed in PD. L-arginine has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective agent that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of L-arginine on the numerical density of dark neurons (DNs) in the SNc of Balb/c mice subjected to MPTP administration. Methods: In the present study, we demonstrated that repeated treatment with L-arginine (300 mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 consecutive days attenuated the production of DNs in SNc of adult male Balb/c mice infused with a single intranasal administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril). Results: Pre-treatment with L-arginine significantly decreased the numerical density of DNs in SNc of mice 21 days after intranasal MPTP administration. Conclusion: This investigation provides new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that L-arginine represents a potential neuroprotective agent for the prevention of DA neuron degeneration in SNc observed in PD patients. PMID:26885338

  10. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-17

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste.

  11. Modeling of Panchromatic Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    The disruption of stars by SMBHs has been linked to more than a dozen flares in the cores of galaxies out to redshift z ~ 0.4. At the time of this writing, PS1-10jh is the only claimed tidal disruption event that captures the rise, peak, and decay of the flare. By capturing all three phases, and with the addition of spectroscopic information, this event provides significantly more information on the underlying mechanisms than the small number of poorly sampled flares: * The spectrum of PS1-10jh is well-modeled by a single blackbody whose temperature evolves weakly in time, and whose size is tens of times larger than the tidal radius, hinting at the presence of a reprocessing region.* The light curve is consistent with the bolometric luminosity closely following the rate of mass fallback, which suggests that the returning material must circularize by the first epoch of observation. * The fact that HeII emission lines are observed, but hydrogen lines are not, is consistent with the fact that material at the distance of the photosphere would be fully ionized, as suggested by broad-line regions found about steadily-accreting active galactic nuclei. Our group has been leading the effort to determine the behavior and appearance of tidal disruption events by both focusing on the hydrodynamics of the disruptions themselves, and on the hydrodynamics of the formation of the disk arising from the fallback of the bound debris. By assuming that circularization is effective and invoking the presence of a simple reprocessing mechanism, we were able to find a convincing match between our model and the data. In this proposal, we aim to understand why the simple assumptions that we made to explain the behavior of PS1-10jh work so well, and whether these conditions are generally applicable to a large fraction of tidal disruption events. While our simulations provided unprecedented detail on the fallback of the debris and the resulting structure, it is still incomplete in that it does

  12. Thermal pretreatment of algae for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Marsolek, Michael D; Kendall, Elizabeth; Thompson, Phillip L; Shuman, Teodora Rutar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the benefit of thermal pretreatment on biogas yield from microalgae-fed anaerobic digester mesocosms. Replicate Nanochloropsis oculata cultures were heated for 4h at 30, 60, and 90°C, as well as at a constant temperature of 90°C for 1, 3.5, and 12h. Net biogas production increased from 0.28L biogas/g volatile solids added (VSa) for the control to 0.39 L biogas/g VSa (p<0.01) when heated at 90°C, but there was no improvement at 30 or 60°C. Increased biogas production correlated with increased soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Net biogas production increased as a function of heating time, from 0.32 L biogas/g VSa for the control, to 0.41, 0.43, and 0.44 L biogas/g VSa (p<0.05 for all combinations vs. control) when preheated at 90°C for 1, 3.5, and 12h, respectively. However, despite enhanced biogas production the energy balance is negative for thermal pretreatment.

  13. Enzymic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Vallander, L; Eriksson, K E

    1985-05-01

    Studies of pretreatment of wheat and its subsequent saccharification by Trichoderma reesei cellulases are reported. Steam explosion was found to be the most effective of the pretreatment methods tested. Data are presented describing the effect of enzyme and substrate concentration on the rate and degree of hydrolysis. Significant inhibition of the cellulases was observed when sugar concentrations were 6% or higher. This inhibition increased when glucose and ethanol were present simultaneously. Adsorption of enzymes to the substrate was followed during a 24-h hydrolysis period. An initial rapid and extensive adsorption occurred, followed by a short desorption period that was followed in turn by a further increased adsorption peaking after 3 h. Intermediate removal of hydrolysate, particularly in combination with a second addition of enzyme, clearly improved the yield of saccharification compared to an uninterrupted hydrolysis over a 24-h period. Thus, a 74% yield of reducing sugars was obtained. Furthermore, an increase in the amount of recoverable enzymes was observed under these conditions. Evidence is presented that suggests that a countercurrent technique, whereby free enzymes in recovered hydrolysate are adsorbed onto new substrate, may provide a means of recirculating dissolved enzymes.

  14. Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Stopperich, P. S.; Moore, P. A.; Finder, R. L.; McGirl, B. E.; Weyant, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery. PMID:7943920

  15. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  16. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 405.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.84 Pretreatment standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  6. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  7. 40 CFR 408.204 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.204 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. The effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on the liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.; Hirschon, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of aqueous pretreatment on coal and the benefits that can develop for liquefaction or mild gasification are areas of current interest. Most of the work has been conducted with water vapor, and current accounts include that of Bienkowski et al, who found that water vapor pretreatment enhanced liquefaction. Their work has focused on the use of liquid water at elevated temperatures, both as a probe into coal structure, and as a pretreatment for coal liquefaction. In the work summarized here, the authors examined the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment at 250{degree}C on conversion of Illinois No. 6 coal (PSOC 1098, and Argonne Premium Coal Bank samples) in tetralin.

  9. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  11. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  12. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. Structural modification of lignocellulosics by pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gharpuray, M M; Lee, Y H; Fan, L T

    1983-01-01

    In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand the mechanism of the enhancement in the hydrolysis rate upon pretrement. It has been found that, in general, multiple pretreatments were not promising, since the hydrolysis rates rarely exceeded those achieved by single pretreatments. Ballmilling pretreatment was found to be effective in increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the crystallinity index. Treatment with ethylene glycol was highly effective in increasing the specific surface area, in addition to a high degree of delignification. Peracetic acid pretreatment was highly effective in delignifying substrate. Among multiple pretreatments, those involving peracetic acid treatment generally had lower crystallinity indices and lignin content values. The relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the set of structural features indicated that an increase in surface area and a decrease in the crystallinity and lignin content enhance the hydrolysis; the specific surface area is the most influential of the structural features, followed by the lignin content.

  14. 40 CFR 463.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.25 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  15. 40 CFR 463.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.25 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  16. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  17. Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants—Beyond the Dogma

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240

  18. Endocrine disrupting contaminants--beyond the dogma.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J

    2006-04-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p -DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms.

  19. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  20. Disrupting Mosquito Reproduction and Parasite Development for Malaria Control

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Buckee, Caroline O.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The control of mosquito populations with insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual sprays remains the cornerstone of malaria reduction and elimination programs. In light of widespread insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, however, alternative strategies for reducing transmission by the mosquito vector are urgently needed, including the identification of safe compounds that affect vectorial capacity via mechanisms that differ from fast-acting insecticides. Here, we show that compounds targeting steroid hormone signaling disrupt multiple biological processes that are key to the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. When an agonist of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is applied to Anopheles gambiae females, which are the dominant malaria mosquito vector in Sub Saharan Africa, it substantially shortens lifespan, prevents insemination and egg production, and significantly blocks Plasmodium falciparum development, three components that are crucial to malaria transmission. Modeling the impact of these effects on Anopheles population dynamics and Plasmodium transmission predicts that disrupting steroid hormone signaling using 20E agonists would affect malaria transmission to a similar extent as insecticides. Manipulating 20E pathways therefore provides a powerful new approach to tackle malaria transmission by the mosquito vector, particularly in areas affected by the spread of insecticide resistance. PMID:27977810

  1. Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been growing exponentially, both therapeutic and prevention programs. Yet, EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically re-examine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by re-examining the biomedical model for validating EBIs and the compartmentalization of EBIs as disease-specific, institutionally-based, counseling programs. The model of Disruptive Innovations suggests that we re-engineer EBIs based on their most robust features in order to reach more people in less time and at lower cost. Four new research agendas will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

  2. Effect of organic matter on phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge subjected to microwave hybrid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawei; Xiao, Qingcong; Zhong, Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Microwave (MW) hybrid processes are able to disrupt the flocculent structure of complex waste activated sludge, and help promote the recovery of phosphorus as struvite. In this study, to optimize struvite yield, (1) the characteristics of matter released in MW-hybrid treatments were compared, including MW, MW-acid, MW-alkali, MW-H2O2, and MW-H2O2-alkali. The results showed that selective release of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) achieved by sludge pretreatment using MW-hybrid processes. MW-H2O2 is the recommended sludge pretreatment process for phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite. The ratio of Mg(2+):NH4(+)-N:PO4(3-)-P was 1.2:2.9:1 in the supernatant. (2) To clarify the effects of organic matter on struvite recovery, the composition and molecular weight distribution of organic matters were analyzed. Low molecular weight COD was found to facilitate the removal rate of NH4(+)-N and PO4(3)-P via crystallization, and the amorphous struvite crystals (<1kDa) from the filtered solutions had high purity. Therefore, the present study reveals the necessity of taking into consideration the interference effect of high molecular weight organic matters during struvite crystallization from sewage sludge.

  3. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  4. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw.

  5. Comparative Study of Corn Stover Pretreated by Dilute Acid and Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Supramolecular Structure, and Substrate Accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Sathitsuksanoh, N.; Vinzant, T.; Schell, D. J.; McMillian, J. D.; Zhang, Y. H. P.

    2009-07-01

    Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only {approx}60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m{sup 2}/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m{sup 2}/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

  6. Comparative study of corn stover pretreated by dilute acid and cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation: Enzymatic hydrolysis, supramolecular structure, and substrate accessibility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Vinzant, Todd; Schell, Daniel J; McMillan, James D; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2009-07-01

    Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only approximately 60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m(2)/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m(2)/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

  7. Prevent Cyberbullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  8. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  9. Mermaid syndrome with amniotic band disruption.

    PubMed

    Managoli, Sanjeev; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Vilhekar, Krishna Y; Iyenger, Janaki

    2003-01-01

    An association of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence and Mermaid Syndrome in a newborn having multiple congenital anomalies is being reported. The newborn had aberrant string like tissues attached to the amputed fingers and toes. Adhesions of amniotic bands had disrupted the fetal parts especially anteriorly in the midline, causing multiple anomalies. Apart from these features of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence, the newborn had complete fusion of the lower limbs by cutaneous tissue, a characteristic of Mermaid Syndrome (Sirenomelia). Associated malformations were anal stenosis, rectal atresia, small horseshoe kidney, hypoplastic urinary bladder and a bicomuate uterus. The single umbilical artery had a high origin, arising directly from the aorta just distal to the celiac axis, which is unique to sirenomelia. Theories put forward regarding the etiopathogenesis of both the conditions are discussed.

  10. Complete Vesicourethral Anastomotic Disruption Following Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christopher M.; Oberlin, Daniel; Han, Justin S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vesicourethral anastomotic (VUA) disruption with bladder displacement into the abdominal cavity following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is an exceedingly rare complication. There have been no cited case reports after robotic surgery but case reports after open radical prostatectomy have been noted. Other complications related to VUA include bleeding with or without pelvic hematoma, bladder neck contracture, or severe stress urinary incontinence. Following radical prostatectomy, studies estimate the rate of VUA leakage to be 1.4% and no exact rate of complete disruption is known given its rarity. However, the majority of these cases are managed conservatively and rarely require reoperation. To date, there are no published studies that describe complete VUA and bladder displacement secondary to a large pelvic hematoma following prostatectomy. We report a rare case of VUA disruption after RALP successfully managed with conservative treatment. PMID:27579438

  11. Disruption, beamstrahlung, and beamstrahlung pair creation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1988-12-01

    The two major effects from the interaction of e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ beams---beamstrahlung and disruption---are reviewed, with emphasis on flat beam collisions. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations, and scaling laws based on these are deduced whenever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects, we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. In addition to the generic studies on the beam-beam effects, we also list the relevant beam-beam parameters obtained from simulations on two sample designs: the TLC and the ILC. As an addendum, the newly discovered phenomenon of coherent beamstrahlung pair creation, together with the incoherent process, are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Tokamak plasma current disruption infrared control system

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Ulrickson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    In a magnetic plasma confinment device having an inner toroidal limiter mounted on an inner wall of a plasma containment vessel, an arrangement is provided for monitoring vertical temperature profiles of the limiter. The temperature profiles are taken at brief time intervals, in a time scan fashion. The time scans of the vertical temperature profile are continuously monitored to detect the presence of a peaked temperature excursion, which, according to the present invention, is a precursor of a subsequent major plasma disruption. A fast scan of the temperature profile is made so as to provide a time interval in real time prior to the major plasma disruption, such that corrective action can be taken to reduce the harmful effects of the plasma disruption.

  13. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-09

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression.

  14. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  15. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly $80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

  16. Circadian Disruption Leads to Loss of Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Carolina; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Gonzalez-Guerra, Eduardo; Tapia Osorio, Araceli; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of a synchronized temporal order for adaptation and homeostasis is discussed in this review. We present evidence suggesting that an altered temporal order between the biological clock and external temporal signals leads to disease. Evidence mainly based on a rodent model of “night work” using forced activity during the sleep phase suggests that altered activity and feeding schedules, out of phase from the light/dark cycle, may be the main cause for the loss of circadian synchrony and disease. It is proposed that by avoiding food intake during sleep hours the circadian misalignment and adverse consequences can be prevented. This review does not attempt to present a thorough revision of the literature, but instead it aims to highlight the association between circadian disruption and disease with special emphasis on the contribution of feeding schedules in circadian synchrony. PMID:23471148

  17. Disruption of Microtubule Integrity Initiates Mitosis during CNS Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bossing, Torsten; Barros, Claudia S.; Fischer, Bettina; Russell, Steven; Shepherd, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mechanisms of CNS repair have vital medical implications. We show that traumatic injury to the ventral midline of the embryonic Drosophila CNS activates cell divisions to replace lost cells. A pilot screen analyzing transcriptomes of single cells during repair pointed to downregulation of the microtubule-stabilizing GTPase mitochondrial Rho (Miro) and upregulation of the Jun transcription factor Jun-related antigen (Jra). Ectopic Miro expression can prevent midline divisions after damage, whereas Miro depletion destabilizes cortical β-tubulin and increases divisions. Disruption of cortical microtubules, either by chemical depolymerization or by overexpression of monomeric tubulin, triggers ectopic mitosis in the midline and induces Jra expression. Conversely, loss of Jra renders midline cells unable to replace damaged siblings. Our data indicate that upon injury, the integrity of the microtubule cytoskeleton controls cell division in the CNS midline, triggering extra mitosis to replace lost cells. The conservation of the identified molecules suggests that similar mechanisms may operate in vertebrates. PMID:22841498

  18. Application of high throughput pretreatment and co-hydrolysis system to thermochemical pretreatment. Part 1: dilute acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiadi; Kumar, Rajeev; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-03-01

    Because conventional approaches for evaluating sugar release from the coupled operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are extremely time and material intensive, high throughput (HT) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis systems have become vital for screening large numbers of lignocellulosic biomass samples to identify feedstocks and/or processing conditions that significantly improve performance and lower costs. Because dilute acid pretreatment offers many important advantages in rendering biomass highly susceptible to subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a high throughput pretreatment and co-hydrolysis (HTPH) approach was extended to employ dilute acid as a tool to screen for enhanced performance. First, a single-step neutralization and buffering method was developed to allow effective enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole pretreated slurry. Switchgrass and poplar were then pretreated with 0.5% and 1% acid loadings at a 5% solids concentration, the resulting slurry conditioned with the buffering approach, and the entire mixture enzymatically hydrolyzed. The resulting sugar yields demonstrated that single-step neutralizing and buffering was capable of adjusting the pH as needed for enzymatic saccharification, as well as overcoming enzyme inhibition by compounds released in pretreatment. In addition, the effects of pretreatment conditions and biomass types on susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic conversion were clearly discernible, demonstrating the method to be a useful extension of HTPH systems.

  19. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity.

  20. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  1. Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-11-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H(2)O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H(2)O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95 degrees C for lime pretreatment and 55 degrees C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p < 0.001) on delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95 degrees C, but there was little effect observed at 55 degrees C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass.

  2. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor) and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass) have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline pretreatment technology

  3. Duct disruption, a new explanation of miliaria.

    PubMed

    Shuster, S

    1997-01-01

    From argument and a few personal observations, the hypothesis has crystallised that the miliaria commonly occurring in unacclimatised Caucasians visiting hot climates is caused by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, by an effect on the cells of the upper epidermis, which eventually allows a split to develop between them and the new stratum corneum that grows up beneath, into which sweat from the disrupted ducts can collect as microcysts. This dehiscence is the probable explanation of sunburn peeling and photo-onycholysis. It is concluded that duct disruption, not blockage or dysfunction, is the immediate cause of the miliarias.

  4. Tidal disruption of stars by SMBHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komossa, S.

    2016-06-01

    The tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of stars by supermassive black holes produces spectacular flares in the X-ray sky. First found with ROSAT, ongoing and upcoming sky surveys will find these events in the 1000s. In X-rays, tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide us with powerful new probes of accretion physics under extreme conditions, of the formation of disk winds, of relativistic effects near the SMBH, and of the presence of supermassive binary black holes. This talk reviews the status of observations, and discusses future prospects. XMM-Newton will continue to play an important role in identifying new events and carry out spectroscopic follow-ups.

  5. Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Neurologic Health.

    PubMed

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Circadian rhythms have a major role in physiology and behavior. Circadian disruption has negative consequences for physiologic homeostasis at molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-organism levels. The onset of many cerebrovascular insults shows circadian temporal trends. Impaired sleep-wake cycle, the most robust output rhythms of the circadian system, is significantly affected by neurodegenerative disorders, may precede them by decades, and may also affect their progression. Emerging evidence suggests that circadian disruption may be a risk factor for these neurologic disorders. This article discusses the implications of circadian rhythms in brain disorders, with an emphasis on cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Neurologic Health

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Phyllis C.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have a major role in physiology and behavior. Circadian disruption has negative consequences for physiological homeostasis at molecular, cellular, organ–system and whole-organism levels. The onset of many cerebrovascular insults exhibit circadian temporal trends. Impaired sleep-wake cycle, the most robust output rhythms of the circadian system is significantly affected by neurodegenerative disorders, may precede them by decades, and may also impact their progression. Emerging evidence suggest that circadian disruption may be a risk factor for these neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the implications of circadian rhythms in brain disorders, with an emphasis on cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26568123

  7. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  8. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.

  9. EVALUATION OF THE APICAL INFILTRATION AFTER ROOT CANAL DISRUPTION AND OBTURATION

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, João Eduardo; Hopp, Renato Nicolás; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni, José Arlindo; Dezan, Elói

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two root canal filling techniques used in teeth that had their apical foramen disrupted and compare the apical infiltration with an ideal clinical situation. Twenty-seven freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal. The crowns were removed at a mean distance of 11 mm from the apex. The teeth had the root canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9): ND group - root canals were filled using the lateral compaction technique and no disruption was performed; DRF group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original working length, the canals were reinstrumented to create an apical ledge at 1 mm from the apical foramen and were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone with same size as the last file used for reinstrumentation; DF group - the teeth had the apical constriction disrupted and the canals were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone that fit at 1 mm from the apex. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage test with Rhodamine B for 7 days, using vaccum on the initial 5 min. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the groups that had the apical foramen disrupted (DF, DRF), but significant difference was found between the disrupted groups and the non-disrupted one (p<0.01). In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully. PMID:19089232

  10. Cumulative effects of mothers' risk and promotive factors on daughters' disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls' development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls' disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls' disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls' disruptive behavior.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Mothers’ Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls’ disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls’ disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls’ ages 7–12 in an urban community sample (N=2043). Maternal risk and promotive factors were operative at different time points in girls’ development. Maternal warmth explained variance in girls’ disruptive behavior, even after controlling for maternal risk factors and relevant child and neighborhood factors. In addition, findings supported the cumulative hypothesis that the number of risk factors increased the chance on girls’ disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), while the number of promotive factors decreased this probability. Daughters of mothers with a history of Conduct Disorder (CD) were exposed to more risk factors and fewer promotive factors compared to daughters of mothers without prior CD. The identification of malleable maternal factors that can serve as targets for intervention has important implications for intergenerational intervention. Cumulative effects show that the focus of prevention efforts should not be on single factors, but on multiple factors associated with girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:22127641

  12. Pretreatment task persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Juliano, Laura M; Irvin, Jennifer E; Lazev, Amy B; Simmons, Vani Nath

    2003-08-01

    R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L. Copeland (1996) found that cigarette smokers were less persistent than nonsmokers, and R. A. Brown, C. W. Lejuez, C. W. Kahler, and D. R. Strong (2002) found that smokers who had previously abstained for 3 months were more persistent than those who had never quit. The present study extended these findings by using a prospective design. A pretreatment measure of task persistence (mirror tracing) completed by 144 smokers predicted sustained abstinence throughout 12 months of follow-up. Moreover, persistence predicted outcome independent of other significant predictors: gender, nicotine dependence, negative affect, and self-efficacy.

  13. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    emerging trend in membrane technology applications is the use of low-pressure membranes (ultrafiltration and microfiltration ) as pretreatment to reverse...3.2.7 Membrane Studies ……………………………………………….. 17 iii 3.2.7.1 Amicon Stirred Cell ……………………………………… 17 3.2.7.2 Membranes ...17 3.2.7.3 General Membrane Test Protocol ………………………. 18 3.2.7.4 Comment on the Protocol ………………………………. 18 3.2.7.5 Amicon Membrane

  14. Neuroprotective effects of pretreatment with minocycline on memory impairment following cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Yazdan; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Parvardeh, Siavash; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia leads to memory impairment that is associated with loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion damage. Minocycline has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and minocycline-pretreated group. Minocycline (40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately before surgery, and then ischemia was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20 min. Seven days after reperfusion, the Morris water-maze task was used to evaluate memory. Nissl staining was also performed to analyze pyramidal cell damage. We measured the contents of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus by the thiobarbituric acid method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Microglial activation was also investigated by Iba1 immunostaining. The results showed that pretreatment with minocycline prevented memory impairment induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Minocycline pretreatment also significantly attenuated ischemia-induced pyramidal cell death and microglial activation in the CA1 region and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the hippocampus of ischemic rats. Minocycline showed neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficit probably through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  15. Surface Pre-treatment for Thermally Sprayed ZnAl15 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Pre-treatment of substrates is an important step in thermal spraying. It is widely accepted that mechanical interlocking is the dominant adhesion mechanism for most substrate-coating combinations. To prevent premature failure, minimum coating adhesion strength, surface preparation grades, and roughness parameters are often specified. For corrosion-protection coatings for offshore wind turbines, an adhesion strength ≥ 5 MPa is commonly assumed to ensure adhesion over service lifetime. In order to fulfill this requirement, Rz > 80 µm and a preparation grade of Sa3 are common specifications. In this study, the necessity of these requirements is investigated using the widely used combination of twin-wire arc-sprayed ZnAl15 on S355J2 + N as a test case. By using different blasting media and parameters, the correlation between coating adhesion and roughness parameters is analyzed. The adhesion strength of these systems is measured using a test method allowing measurements on real parts. The results are compared to DIN EN 582:1993, the European equivalent of ASTM-C633. In another series of experiments, the influence of surface pre-treatment grades Sa2.5 and Sa3 is considered. By combining the results of these three sets of experiments, a guideline for surface pre-treatment and adhesion testing on real parts is proposed for the considered system.

  16. A novel method of sludge pretreatment using the combination of alkalis.

    PubMed

    Banu, J Rajesh; Khac, Uan Do; Kumar, S Adish; Ick-Tae, Yeom; Kaliappan, S

    2012-03-01

    The present study aims to utilise the advantage of higher sludge solubilisation potential of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sludge management properties of lime to achieve sludge pretreatment and its subsequent management. The optimum dosage and time required for sludge pretreatment using NaOH was found to be 1.6 g l(-1) and 3 hr, respectively. At the optimized condition, lime was added at varying concentration (0.3 to 1.6 g l(-1)) to study its effect on capillary suction time, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and total phosphorous (TP) removal. A lime dosage of 0.7g l(-1) was found to be beneficial for soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) release. When compared to control, the combination of alkalis (NaOH and lime) reduced the TP and capillary suction time (CST) in the supernatant of the sludge. The TP removal was from 100 to 40 mg l(-1) and CST reduction was from 1360 to 350 sec, respectively. The combined alkali pretreatment not only prevent the subsequent TP increase in the effluent, but also decreased the time to filter the sludge, thus makes the digested sludge easier to manage.

  17. Surface Pre-treatment for Thermally Sprayed ZnAl15 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pre-treatment of substrates is an important step in thermal spraying. It is widely accepted that mechanical interlocking is the dominant adhesion mechanism for most substrate-coating combinations. To prevent premature failure, minimum coating adhesion strength, surface preparation grades, and roughness parameters are often specified. For corrosion-protection coatings for offshore wind turbines, an adhesion strength ≥ 5 MPa is commonly assumed to ensure adhesion over service lifetime. In order to fulfill this requirement, Rz > 80 µm and a preparation grade of Sa3 are common specifications. In this study, the necessity of these requirements is investigated using the widely used combination of twin-wire arc-sprayed ZnAl15 on S355J2 + N as a test case. By using different blasting media and parameters, the correlation between coating adhesion and roughness parameters is analyzed. The adhesion strength of these systems is measured using a test method allowing measurements on real parts. The results are compared to DIN EN 582:1993, the European equivalent of ASTM-C633. In another series of experiments, the influence of surface pre-treatment grades Sa2.5 and Sa3 is considered. By combining the results of these three sets of experiments, a guideline for surface pre-treatment and adhesion testing on real parts is proposed for the considered system.

  18. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  19. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... POLLUTION § 403.2 Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. By establishing the responsibilities...

  20. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. 403.5 Section 403.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. (a)(1)...

  1. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  2. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  3. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  4. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  5. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  6. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  7. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  8. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  9. Enhancement in biodegradability of distillery wastewater using enzymatic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sangave, Preeti C; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2006-01-01

    A combined treatment technique consisting of enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by aerobic biological oxidation was investigated for the treatment of alcohol distillery spent wash. The enzyme cellulase was used for the pretreatment step with an intention of transforming the complex and large pollutant molecules into simpler biologically assimilable smaller molecules. Batch experiments were performed in order to analyze the influence of various parameters like pretreatment time, enzyme concentration and pH during the pretreatment step on the subsequent aerobic oxidation kinetics. The rate of aerobic oxidation was enhanced by 2.3 fold for the pretreated sample as compared to the untreated sample when the pH during the pretreatment step was maintained at a value of 4.8. Similarly, a two fold increase in the aerobic oxidation rate was found when the effluent was pretreated with the enzyme, without any pH control (i.e. effluent pH of 3,8). The study indicated that the enzymatic pretreatment of the effluent could be one of the successful pretreatments which can lead to enhancement of the rate of the subsequent aerobic oxidation.

  10. 40 CFR 445.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 445.3 Section 445.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LANDFILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 445.3 General pretreatment standards. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 445.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 445.3 Section 445.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) LANDFILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 445.3 General pretreatment standards....

  12. The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Paulsen, Kimberly; Bryant, Joan D.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of preventive 1st-grade tutoring in mathematics, estimated the prevalence and severity of mathematics disability, and explored pretreatment cognitive characteristics associated with mathematics development. Participants were 564 first graders, 127 of whom were designated at risk (AR) for mathematics difficulty and…

  13. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  14. The contribution of parenting practices and parent emotion factors in children at risk for disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were evaluated, involving parenting practices, emotion beliefs and behaviors, emotion expressiveness, and mental health. Outcome variables based on parent/teacher report were child disruptive behavior problems and emotion regulatory ability. When entered simultaneously in a multiple regression analysis, inconsistent discipline, negative parental emotional expressiveness, and parent mental health demonstrated the strongest relationship to disruptive behavior problems and problems with emotion regulation. The data presented here elucidate multiple risk pathways to disruptive behavior disorders and can inform the design of prevention and early intervention programs.

  15. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  16. Degradation and dissolution of hemicelluloses during bamboo hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, X J; Yang, X F; Zheng, X; Lin, L; Chen, L H; Huang, L L; Cao, S L

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the hemicelluloses degradation and dissolution during hydrothermal pretreatment, hemicelluloses separated from both hydrolysate and pretreated substrate were investigated. Along with the pretreatment proceeding, some hemicelluloses fractions dissolved and diffused into the bulk liquor; MW (molecular weight) of these hemicelluloses fractions increased first and then decreased as well as amount of the fractions. Based on the definition of MW of the soluble hemicellulose, it has been concluded that some insoluble hemicellulose fractions appeared in the hydrolysate. In contrast, the hemicellulose degradation occurred continually and had been observed by the gradual decrease of MW of the hemicellulose isolated from pretreated substrate. Lingering dissolution at the later stage might attribute to the facts that some soluble fractions were still entrapped in the substrate. 5-15% hemicellulose fractions remained in the pretreated substrate at the later stage were composed of soluble species.

  17. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangmin, HUANG; Zhouyang, LONG; Sa, LIU; Zhenglong, Qin

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  18. Conversion of lignocellulosics pretreated with liquid hot water to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Walsum, G.P. van; Laser, M.S.; Lynd, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Lignocellulosic materials pretreated using liquid hot water (LHW) (220{degrees}C, 5 MPa, 120 s) were fermented to ethanol by batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Trichoderma reesei cellulose. SSF of sugarcane bagasse (as received), aspen chips (smallest dimension 3 mm), and mixed hardwood flour (-60 +70 mesh) resulted in 90% conversion to ethanol in 2-5 d at enzyme loadings of 15-30 FPU/g. In most cases, 90% of the final conversion was achieved within 75 h of inoculation. Comminution of the pretreated substrates did not affect the conversion to ethanol. The hydrolysate produced from the LHW pretreatment showed slight inhibition of batch growth of S. cerevisiae. Solids pretreated at a concentration of 100 g/L were as reactive as those pretreated at a lower concentration, provided that the temperature was maintained at 220{degrees}C. 51 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  20. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become `stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort.