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Sample records for pretreatment protects myocardium

  1. Protective effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist anipamil on the ischemic-reperfused rat myocardium: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkels, J.H.; Ruigrok, T.J.; Van Echteld, C.J.; Meijler, F.L.

    1988-05-01

    To assess whether the prophylactic administration of anipamil, a new calcium antagonist, protects the heart against the effects of ischemia and reperfusion, rats were injected intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days with 5 mg/kg body weight of this drug. The heart was then isolated and perfused by the Langendorff technique. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor myocardial energy metabolism and intracellular pH during control perfusion and 30 min of total ischemia (37/sup 0/C), followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Pretreatment with anipamil altered neither left ventricular developed pressure under normoxic conditions nor the rate and extent of depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate during ischemia. Intracellular acidification, however, was attenuated. On reperfusion, hearts from anipamil-pretreated animals recovered significantly better than untreated hearts with respect to replenishment of ATP and creatine phosphate stores, restitution of low levels of intracellular inorganic phosphate and recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow. Intracellular pH recovered rapidly to preischemic levels, whereas in untreated hearts a complex intracellular inorganic phosphate peak indicated the existence of areas of different pH within the myocardium. It is concluded that anipamil pretreatment protects the heart against some of the deleterious effects of ischemia and reperfusion. Because this protection occurred in the absence of a negative inotropic effect during normoxia, it cannot be attributed to an energy-sparing effect during ischemia. Therefore, alternative mechanisms of action are to be considered.

  2. Aspirin upregulates αB-Crystallin to protect the myocardium against heat stress in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shu; Yin, Bin; Song, Erbao; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Bao, Endong; Hartung, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    We established in vivo and in vitro models to investigate the role of αB-Crystallin (CryAB) and assess the ability of aspirin (ASA) to protect the myocardium during prolonged heat stress. Thirty-day-old chickens were divided into three groups (n = 90): heat stress (HS, 40±1 °C); ASA(−)HS(+), 1 mg/kg ASA orally 2 h before heat stress; and ASA(+)HS(−), pretreated with aspirin, no heat stress (25 °C). Hearts were excised after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 24 h. Heat stress increased body temperature, though the ASA(−)HS(+) group had significantly higher temperatures than the ASA(+)HS(+) group at all time points. Compared to ASA(+)HS(+), the ASA(−)HS(+) group displayed increased sensitivity to heat stress. Pathological analysis revealed the ASA (+)HS(+) myocardium showed less severe changes (narrowed, chaotic fibers; fewer necrotic cells) than the ASA(−)HS(+) group (bleeding and extensive cell death). In vitro, ASA-pretreatment significantly increased primary chicken myocardial cell survival during heat stress. ELISAs indicated ASA induced CryAB in vivo to protect against heat stress-induced myocardial damage, but ASA did not induce CryAB in primary chicken myocardial cells. The mechanisms by which ASA induces the expression of CryAB in vivo and protects the myocardium during heat stress merit further research. PMID:27857180

  3. Liver X receptor activation protects against inflammation and enhances autophagy in myocardium of neonatal mouse challenged by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; He, Siyi; Gao, Junwei; Li, Jingwei; Fan, Xiaotang; Xiao, Ying-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) has been emerged as negative regulators of cardiomyocytic inflammation. The cellular process of autophagy is believed to play a protective role in myocardium during the inflammatory status. In this study, we investigated the role of LXRs agonist TO901317 (TO) on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced myocardial inflammation and autophagy. The results showed that TO pretreatment significantly reduced the LPS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells, elevation of NF-κB protein, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA levels in the myocardium. Moreover, LPS stimulated autophagy in neonatal mice heart, and this effect was further enhanced by TO pretreatment as evidenced by increased LC3-II/GAPDH ratio increment. Furthermore, TUNEL assay revealed LPS stimulation also increased the number of apoptotic cells in the myocardium, and the increment was inhibited by TO pretreatment. Our findings suggested that attenuation of inflammation and apoptosis, and enhancement of autophagy by TO may contribute to the protection of myocardium under inflammatory condition.

  4. Picroside II protects myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury through inhibition of the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Zhe; Xie, Mei-Qing; Mo, Dan; Zhao, Xiao-Fang; Yu, Shu-Yi; Liu, Li-Juan; Wu, Cheng; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory response is important in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Picroside II, the primary active constituent of Picrorhizae, has been reported to protect the myocardium from I/R-induced injury, however, the exact mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effects of picroside II on I/R-induced myocardial injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 1 h left coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h reperfusion. Picroside II was administered (10 mg/kg) via the tail vein 30 min prior to left coronary artery occlusion. The results revealed that pretreatment of picroside II could significantly alleviate I/R-induced myocardial injury concomitantly with a decrease in inflammatory factor production. In addition, picroside II was also able to decrease high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression, and release and downregulate the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4. Furthermore, picroside II was able to inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The results indicated that the protective effect of picroside II on I/R-induced myocardial injury was associated, at least partly, with inhibition of the inflammatory response by suppressing the HMGB1-RAGE/TLR-2/TLR-4-NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28105084

  5. Protective effect of methylprednisolone on ischaemic myocardium assessed by ventricular function.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, B L; Hassan, M A; McMilan, A B; Brown, A H

    1977-01-01

    Intracardiac surgical procedures are best carried out when the heart is still and bloodless. This condition, however, produces myocardial cellular damage with loss of contractility and compliance unless some protection can be provided. Myocardial contractility and compliance is best studied by isovolumic ventricular function tests, which were used to evaluate the protective effect of methylprednisolone on the isolated cross-perfused canine heart made ischaemic for 2 hours. Control experiments included 2 hours of ischaemia without methylprednisolone, and 2 hours of continuous normothermic cross-perfusion. The methylprednisolone-treated hearts had probably significantly better ventricular function after 2 hours of ischaemia than did hearts without the methylprednisolone, while the cross-perfused hearts were best overall. This work suggests that methylprednisolone may have a protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium of the intact canine heart. PMID:867332

  6. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Yingjie; Pan, Yaohua; Zhang, Lan; Shen, Chengxing; Qin, Gangjian; Ashraf, Muhammad; Weintraub, Neal; Ma, Genshan; Tang, Yaoliang

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.

  7. The protective effects of high-dose ascorbic acid on myocardium against reperfusion injury during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Dingchao, H; Zhiduan, Q; Liye, H; Xiaodong, F

    1994-10-01

    The protective effects of high-dose ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg) on the myocardium were observed in 85 patients undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB). The changes in serum Malonyldialdehyde (MDA). Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Creatine Phosphokinase isozyme (CPK-MB) and Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) in group B (n = 45, receiving ascorbic acid) were lower (p < 0.05) than in group A (n = 40, no ascorbic acid) during and after CPB. The MDA remained at a higher level two days postoperatively; CPK and CPK-MB, the sensitive and specific reflectors of myocardial injury, recovered very slowly in the control group (A) after the operation. The hearts in all the patients of group B resuscitated automatically intraoperatively while five cases (12.5%) needed defibrillation in group A. The cardiac index (CI) measured in ICU in group B was higher than in group A (p < 0.05). The patients needed shorter ICU and hospital stays in group B than in group A. The results indicate that ascorbic acid can act as a scavenger of free radicals to decrease the peroxidation of the lipids present in the cell membrane and remove the radicals to protect the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury effectively during and after open-heart operation.

  8. In vivo protein transduction: delivery of PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein into myocardium efficiently protects against ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-En; Wang, Jia-Ning; Tang, Jun-Ming; Guo, Ling-Yun; Yang, Jian-Ye; Huang, Yong-Zhang; Tan, Yan; Fu, Shou-Zhi; Kong, Xia; Zheng, Fei

    2009-02-28

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is a medical problem occurring as damage to the myocardium following blood flow restoration after a critical period of coronary occlusion. Oxygen free radicals (OFR) are implicated in reperfusion injury after myocardial ischemia. The antioxidant enzyme, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, also called SOD1) is one of the major means by which cells counteract the deleterious effects of OFR after ischemia. Recently, we reported that a PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein was efficiently delivered into cultured cells and isolated rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of the PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein after ischemic insult. Immunofluorescecnce analysis revealed that the expressed and purified PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein injected into rat tail veins was efficiently transduced into the myocardium with its native protein structure intact. When injected into Sprague-Dawley rat tail veins, the PEP-1- SOD1 fusion protein significantly attenuated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage; characterized by improving cardiac function of the left ventricle, decreasing infarct size, reducing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), decreasing the release of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and relieving cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that the biologically active intact forms of PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein will provide an efficient strategy for therapeutic delivery in various diseases related to SOD1 or to OFR.

  9. Involvement of Bcl-2 Signal Pathway in the Protective Effects of Apigenin on Anoxia/Reoxygenation-induced Myocardium Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanjun; He, Huan; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Min; Yin, Dong; He, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is a type of flavonoids, which has been demonstrated to protect myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism is still unclear. We hypothesized that the mechanism of cardioprotective action of apigenin on the I/R-induced injury might be caused via B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) signaling pathway. In this study, an in vitro I/R model was replicated on Langendorff-perfused heart and H9c2 cardiomyocytes by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) treatment. The recovery of cardiac contractile function, infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the perfusate, the expression and activity of Bcl-2 and caspase-3, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured in the Langendorff heart undergoing A/R injury. In addition, the cell viability, LDH release, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), expression of cytochrome c in the cytosol, and cell apoptosis were examined in the culture of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after the A/R. The results showed that apigenin significantly improved rat heart contractile function, reduced LDH release, infarct size and apoptotic rate, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3, and downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 after the A/R. Moreover, apigenin increased the cell viability and decreased the release of LDH, production of reactive oxygen species, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cell apoptosis in the culture of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after the A/R. In addition, inhibition of Bcl-2 activity by ABT-737 markedly attenuated the protective effect of apigenin on the A/R-induced myocardium injury. Taken together, we firstly demonstrated that the effect of apigenin against A/R injury in cardiomyocytes involves Bcl-2 signal pathway and at least partly depends on its effect of upregulating the expression of Bcl-2.

  10. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Anxin; Jie, Yamin; Sun, Liang; Zhao, Shuping; E, Mingyan; You, Qingshan

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  11. Improving the cardio protective effect of aFGF in ischemic myocardium with ultrasound-mediated cavitation of heparin modified microbubbles: preliminary experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao; Li, Xiao-Kun; Tang, Qin-Qin; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ji-Lai; Yang, Wei; Ge, Shuping; Nair, Chandra K; Shen, Xuedong

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound (US)-mediated cavitation of microbubbles has evolved into a new tool for organ-specific gene and drug delivery. This paper was to investigate the feasibility of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) intravenous delivery to the ischemic myocardium of rats by ultrasonic microbubbles modified with heparin. Heparin modified microbubbles (HMB) were prepared by the freeze-dried method. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established and the cardio protective effect of the aFGF combing with HMB (aFGF-HMB) under US-mediated cavitation technique was investigated. aFGF-HMB combined with US-mediated cavitation technique was examined by ECG. Ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and left ventricular diastolic diameter (LVDd) were measured to monitor the improvement of global myocardial contractile function. Myocardial tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosine (HE) to evaluate the elaborate general morphology of the ischemic myocardium. From morphologic observation and echocardiography in rat heart, aFGF-HMB had suitable size distribution, physical stability and good acoustic resonance function. From AMI rat experiments, aFGF-HMB under US-mediated cavitation technique exerted aFGF cardio protective effect in ischemic myocardium. From histological evaluation, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB showed improvement of myocardial ischemia. With the visual imaging and US-triggered drug release advantages, US-mediated cavitation of aFGF-HMB might be developed as a novel technique for targeting delivery of aFGF into ischemic myocardium.

  12. Mitochondrial ferritin protects the murine myocardium from acute exhaustive exercise injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenyue; Chang, Shiyang; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhifang; Wang, Peina; Li, Yaru; Yu, Peng; Gao, Guofen; Shi, Zhenhua; Duan, Xianglin; Chang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a mitochondrially localized protein possessing ferroxidase activity and the ability to store iron. FtMt overexpression in cultured cells protects against oxidative damage by sequestering redox-active, intracellular iron. Here, we found that acute exhaustive exercise significantly increases FtMt expression in the murine heart. FtMt gene disruption decreased the exhaustion exercise time and altered heart morphology with severe cardiac mitochondrial injury and fibril disorganization. The number of apoptotic cells as well as the levels of apoptosis-related proteins was increased in the FtMt−/− mice, though the ATP levels did not change significantly. Concomitant to the above was a high ‘uncommitted' iron level found in the FtMt−/− group when exposed to acute exhaustion exercise. As a result of the increase in catalytic metal, reactive oxygen species were generated, leading to oxidative damage of cellular components. Taken together, our results show that the absence of FtMt, which is highly expressed in the heart, increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to cardiac injury via oxidative stress. PMID:27853170

  13. Celastrol protects ischaemic myocardium through a heat shock response with up-regulation of haeme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, S; Cailhier, J-F; Borie, M; Stevens, L-M; Gaboury, L; Mansour, S; Hamet, P; Noiseux, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Celastrol, a triterpene from plants, has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat various diseases. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of celastrol against ischaemia. Experimental Approach Protective pathways induced by celastrol were investigated in hypoxic cultures of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts and in a rat model of myocardial infarction, assessed with echocardiographic and histological analysis. Key Results In H9c2 cells, celastrol triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation within minutes, induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) resulting in a heat shock response (HSR) leading to increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced expression of HSP70 and HSP32 (haeme oxygenase-1, HO-1). Celastrol improved H9c2 survival under hypoxic stress, and functional analysis revealed HSF1 and HO-1 as key effectors of the HSR, induced by celastrol, in promoting cytoprotection. In the rat ischaemic myocardium, celastrol treatment improved cardiac function and reduced adverse left ventricular remodelling at 14 days. Celastrol triggered expression of cardioprotective HO-1 and inhibited fibrosis and infarct size. In the peri-infarct area, celastrol reduced myofibroblast and macrophage infiltration, while attenuating up-regulation of TGF-β and collagen genes. Conclusions and Implications Celastrol treatment induced an HSR through activation of HSF1 with up-regulation of HO-1 as the key effector, promoting cardiomyocyte survival, reduction of injury and adverse remodelling with preservation of cardiac function. Celastrol may represent a novel potent pharmacological cardioprotective agent mimicking ischaemic conditioning that could have a valuable impact in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:25041185

  14. Improved myocardium transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culler, V. H.; Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Method of implanting myocardium transducer uses special indented pins that are caught and securely held by epicardial fibers. Pins are small enough to cause minimum of trauma to myocardium during implantation or removal.

  15. Growth differentiation factor 15 may protect the myocardium from no‑reflow by inhibiting the inflammatory‑like response that predominantly involves neutrophil infiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Pan, Kunying; Liu, Qianping; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tiemin; Li, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    times (6 h) resulting in significant no‑reflow in ischemic myocardium. GDF‑15 may protect the I/R myocardium from no‑reflow by inhibiting the inflammatory‑like response, which involves neutrophil infiltration and transendothelial migration.

  16. Growth differentiation factor 15 may protect the myocardium from no-reflow by inhibiting the inflammatory-like response that predominantly involves neutrophil infiltration

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MEI; PAN, KUNYING; LIU, QIANPING; ZHOU, XIN; JIANG, TIEMIN; LI, YUMING

    2016-01-01

    significant no-reflow in ischemic myocardium. GDF-15 may protect the I/R myocardium from no-reflow by inhibiting the inflammatory-like response, which involves neutrophil infiltration and transendothelial migration. PMID:26647773

  17. Elevated levels of activated NHE1 protect the myocardium and improve metabolism following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mraiche, Fatima; Wagg, Cory S; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Fliegel, Larry

    2011-01-01

    In the myocardium, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH. Inhibition of NHE1 activity has been shown to be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. However, recent reports have suggested that elevation of NHE1 levels has beneficial effects in hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. We determined if activated and non-activated NHE1 proteins have varying cardioprotective and metabolic effects with ischemia/reperfusion in the isolated perfused working mouse heart. We used transgenic mice hearts that specifically expressed wild type NHE1 (N-line) or activated NHE1 protein (K-line). Intact hearts 10-12 weeks of age were perfused under working conditions, with fatty acids and glucose present as substrates. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of aerobic perfusion, followed by 20 min of global no-flow ischemia and 40 min of aerobic reperfusion. We examined changes in contractility and substrate use and ATP levels. K-line hearts expressing activated NHE1, recovered to a much greater extent than N-line and control hearts recovering almost 75% of their preischemic function. In addition, K-line hearts had elevated fatty acid oxidation, increased glycolysis rates and elevated ATP levels relative to N-line mice or controls. An examination of kinase activation showed that there were no differences between controls and transgenics in ERK, p38, p90(rsk) or pGSK3β levels. The results demonstrate that elevated levels of NHE1 induce cardioprotection and alter cardiac metabolism. However, in the working heart model, with glucose and fatty acid as substrates, this required an activated NHE1 protein.

  18. Attempted protection of spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-irradiation in the androgen pretreated rat.

    PubMed

    Schlappack, O K; Delic, J I; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenic stem-cell survival after gamma-irradiation has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Single doses of 4.5 and 9 Gy gamma-rays were administered to the testes of rats who received arachis oil (0.1 ml/100 g body weight) or testosterone enanthate (240 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously three times weekly for 6 weeks prior to radiation and during the week in which the radiations were given. A mean percentage of regenerating seminiferous tubule cross-sections of 32.45% and 7.26% was found in the testes of androgen-pretreated rats at 8 weeks after 4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Similar values (33.4% and 6.2%) were obtained in arachis oil-pretreated controls. We therefore conclude that protection of rat spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-rays cannot be achieved by androgen pretreatment.

  19. Dinitrophenol pretreatment of rat ventricular myocytes protects against damage by metabolic inhibition and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, G C; Lawrence, C L; Standen, N B

    2002-05-01

    We have investigated the protective effects of pretreatment with the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol on the cellular damage induced by metabolic inhibition (with cyanide and iodoacetic acid) and reperfusion in freshly isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. Damage was assessed from changes in cell length and morphology measured using video microscopy. Intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial membrane potential, and NADH were measured using fura-2, tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester and autofluorescence, respectively. During metabolic inhibition myocytes developed rigor, and on reperfusion 73.6+/-8.1% hypercontracted and 10.8+/-6.7% recovered contractile function in response to electrical stimulation. Intracellular Ca(2+) increased substantially, indicated by a rise in the fura-2 ratio (340/380 nm) on reperfusion from 0.86+/-0.04 to 1.93+/-0.18. Myocytes pretreated with substrate-free Tyrode containing 50 microm dinitrophenol showed reduced reperfusion injury: 29.0+/-7.4% of cells hypercontracted and 65.3+/-7.3% recovered contractile function (P<0.001 vs control). The fura-2 ratio on reperfusion was also lower at 1.01+/-0.08. Fluorescence measurements showed that dinitrophenol caused mitochondrial depolarisation, and decreased NADH. The presence of the substrates glucose and pyruvate reduced these effects, and abolished the protection against damage by metabolic inhibition and reperfusion. However protection was unaffected by block of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Thus the protective effects of pretreatment with dinitrophenol may result from a reduction in NADH in response to mitochondrial depolarisation.

  20. Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis in the androgen pretreated rat.

    PubMed

    Schlappack, O K; Delic, J I; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1988-07-01

    Protection of spermatogenesis from radiation-induced damage has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Silastic tubing containing either cholesterol or testosterone was implanted subcutaneously 7 weeks before 4 equal daily fractions of either 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 Gy of 230 kVp X-rays locally to the testes. Implants were removed on the day following the last fraction and 8 weeks after irradiation 88.6%, 83.8%, 63.6% and 28.9% tubule cross-sections respectively were found regenerating in rats pretreated with testosterone. In contrast, 68.45%, 58.6%, 38.2% and 17.3% tubule cross-sections regenerating were obtained in rats pretreated with cholesterol. Changes in testis weight however were found to show the reverse trend (i.e. a greater weight loss was observed following androgen pretreatment). These results show that protection of spermatogenesis from fractionated irradiation may be achieved in rat testis by androgen pretreatment.

  1. Assessment of membrane protection by /sup 31/P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the /sup 31/P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine.

  2. Protective Effect of Pretreatment with Acenocoumarol in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Olszanecki, Rafał; Tomaszewska, Romana; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein. Methods: AP was induced in rats by cerulein administered intraperitoneally. Acenocoumarol (50, 100 or 150 µg/kg/dose/day) or saline were given once daily for seven days before AP induction. Results: In rats with AP, pretreatment with acenocoumarol administered at the dose of 50 or 100 µg/kg/dose/day improved pancreatic histology, reducing the degree of edema and inflammatory infiltration, and vacuolization of acinar cells. Moreover, pretreatment with acenocoumarol given at the dose of 50 or 100 µg/kg/dose/day reduced the AP-evoked increase in pancreatic weight, serum activity of amylase and lipase, and serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β, as well as ameliorated pancreatic DNA synthesis and pancreatic blood flow. In contrast, acenocoumarol given at the dose of 150 μg/kg/dose did not exhibit any protective effect against cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Conclusion: Low doses of acenocoumarol, given before induction of AP by cerulein, inhibit the development of that inflammation. PMID:27754317

  3. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  4. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment protects canine esophageal mucosa during acute experimental biliary reflux

    PubMed Central

    Eros, Gabor; Kaszaki, Jozsef; Czobel, Miklos; Boros, Mihaly

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the consequences of short-term exposure to luminal bile on mucosal mast cell reactions in a canine model, and to determine the effects of systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment in this condition. METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs were used for experiments. Group 1 (n  = 5) served as a saline-treated control, while in group 2 (n = 5) the esophagus was exposed to bile for 3 h. In group 3 (n  = 5) the animals were pretreated with 7-nitroindazole to inhibit the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In group 4 (n  = 5) phosphatidylcholine solution (50 mg/kg) was administered iv before the biliary challenge. Mucosal microcirculation was observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activities, the degrees of mast cell degranulation and mucosal damage were evaluated via tissue biopsies. RESULTS: Exposure to bile evoked significant mast cell degranulation and leukocyte accumulation. The red blood cell velocity and the diameter of the postcapillary venules increased significantly. The tissue ATP content and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity decreased, while the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity increased significantly as compared to the control values. 7-nitroindazole treatment significantly exacerbated the mucosal mast cell degranulation and tissue damage. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine pretreatment prevented the bile-induced ATP depletion, the inducible nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity and the mast cell degranulation increased. CONCLUSION: The neuronal nitric oxide synthase - mast cell axis plays an important role in the esophageal mucosal defense system. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment affords effective protection through ameliorating the bile-induced ATP depletion and secondary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16482629

  5. Pretreatment of Ferulic Acid Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Ultraviolet A Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ki Bbeum; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Byung Gon; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 90%~99% of ultraviolet A (UVA) ray reaches the Earth's surface. The deeply penetrating UVA rays induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress such as photoproducts, senescence, and cell death. Thus, UVA is considered a primary factor that promotes skin aging. Objective Researchers investigated whether pretreatment with ferulic acid protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UVA-induced cell damages. Methods HDF proliferation was analyzed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. Cell cycle distribution and intracellular ROS levels were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Senescence was evaluated using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while Gadd45α promoter activity was analyzed through a luciferase assay. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and C, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3, as well as p21 and p16 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle arrest were detected in cells that were irradiated with UVA only. Pretreatment with ferulic acid significantly increased the proliferation and cell cycle progression in HDFs. Moreover, ferulic acid pretreatment produced antioxidant effects such as reduced DCF intensity, and affected SOD1 and CAT mRNA expression. These effects were also demonstrated in the analysis of cell senescence, promoter activity, expression of senescent markers, and DNA repair. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts protective effects on UVA-induced cell damages via anti-oxidant and stress-inducible cellular mechanisms in HDFs. PMID:27904274

  6. Waterborne chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid pretreatments for corrosion protection of zinc.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solis, Christian; Erbe, Andreas

    2016-06-23

    Biopolymer-based systems are extensively studied as green alternatives for traditional polymer coatings, e.g., in corrosion protection. Chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid films are presented in this work as a chitosan-based protective system, which could, e.g., be applied in a pretreatment step. For the preparation of the chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid systems, a sol-gel procedure was applied. The function of the silane is to ensure adhesion to the substrate. On zinc substrates, homogeneous thin films with thickness of 50-70 nm were obtained after thermal curing. The hybrid-coated zinc substrates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As model corrosion experiments, linear polarization resistance was measured, and cathodic delamination of the weak polymer coating poly(vinylbutyral) (PVB) was studied using scanning Kelvin probe. Overall, chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid pretreated samples showed lower delamination rates than unmodified chitosan coatings and pure PVB. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed a reduced ion permeability and water uptake by chitosan-epoxysilane films compared to that of a nonmodified chitosan coating. Even though the coatings are hydrophobic and contain water, they slow down cathodic delamination by limiting ion transport.

  7. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate protects rat myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury via activation of PI3K/Akt/FOXO3A/Bim pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei-qi; Zheng, Yue-liang; Chen, Huan; Tu, Jian-feng; Shen, Ye; Guo, Jun-ping; Yang, Xiang-hong; Yuan, Shu-ren; Chen, Liang-zhong; Chai, Jing-jie; Lu, Jian-hong; Zhai, Chang-lin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced rat myocardial injury model. Methods: Male SD rats were iv injected with STS, STS+LY294002 or saline (NS) for 15 d. Then the hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarction size and area at risk were assessed. Cell apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL staining, DNA laddering and measuring caspase-3 activity. In addition, isolated cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were pretreated with the above drugs, then exposed to H2O2 (200 mol/L) for 1 h. Cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometric assay. The levels of p-Akt, p-FOXO3A and Bim were examined with immunoblotting. Results: Compared to NS group, administration of STS (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced myocardial infarct size (40.28%±5.36% in STS group vs 59.52%±7.28% in NS group), and improved the myocardial function as demonstrated by the increased values of dp/dtmax, LVDP and coronary flow at different reperfusion time stages. Furthermore, STS significantly decreased the rate of apoptotic cells (15.11%±3.71% in STS group vs 38.21%±7.83% in NS group), and reduced caspase-3 activity to nearly a quarter of that in NS group. Moreover, STS significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream target FOXO3A, and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bim. Co-treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (40 mg/kg) partially countered the protective effects induced by STS treatment. In isolated cardiomyocytes, STS exerted similar protective effects as shown in the ex vivo I/R model. Conclusion: STS pretreatment reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function in an I/R-induced rat myocardial injury model via activation of Akt/FOXO3A/Bim-mediated signal pathway. PMID:24077633

  8. Pretreatment with apoaequorin protects hippocampal CA1 neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Detert, Julia A; Adams, Erin L; Lescher, Jacob D; Lyons, Jeri-Anne; Moyer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke affects ∼795,000 people each year in the U.S., which results in an estimated annual cost of $73.7 billion. Calcium is pivotal in a variety of neuronal signaling cascades, however, during ischemia, excess calcium influx can trigger excitotoxic cell death. Calcium binding proteins help neurons regulate/buffer intracellular calcium levels during ischemia. Aequorin is a calcium binding protein isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, and has been used for years as a calcium indicator, but little is known about its neuroprotective properties. The present study used an in vitro rat brain slice preparation to test the hypothesis that an intra-hippocampal infusion of apoaequorin (the calcium binding component of aequorin) protects neurons from ischemic cell death. Bilaterally cannulated rats received an apoaequorin infusion in one hemisphere and vehicle control in the other. Hippocampal slices were then prepared and subjected to 5 minutes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and cell death was assayed by trypan blue exclusion. Apoaequorin dose-dependently protected neurons from OGD--doses of 1% and 4% (but not 0.4%) significantly decreased the number of trypan blue-labeled neurons. This effect was also time dependent, lasting up to 48 hours. This time dependent effect was paralleled by changes in cytokine and chemokine expression, indicating that apoaequorin may protect neurons via a neuroimmunomodulatory mechanism. These data support the hypothesis that pretreatment with apoaequorin protects neurons against ischemic cell death, and may be an effective neurotherapeutic.

  9. Pretreatment with glycomacropeptide reduces allergen sensitization, alleviates immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity and protects from anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, M; Chávez, N A; Salinas, E

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders are characterized by the involvement of allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. The search for new therapies for allergic diseases has been the primary focus of interest for many investigators in recent years. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a biologically active component of milk that exhibits a range of immunomodulatory functions. We examined whether oral administration of GMP could affect the development of allergic sensitization and the severity of immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions and of anaphylaxis. Rats treated with or without GMP were ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and several indicators of allergy were evaluated. Pretreatment with GMP resulted in reduction of antigen-specific IgE titre in rats when sensitized with OVA. GMP administration also markedly suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to antigen and the production of interleukin (IL)-13 by splenocytes of sensitized animals. In addition, GMP pretreatment attenuated the intensity of the immediate cutaneous reaction induced by antigen and protected the sensitized rats from severe anaphylaxis. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the administration of GMP prevents allergen sensitization and reduces the severity of the early-phase reaction induced by antigen in cutaneous hypersensitivity and in anaphylaxis. GMP may be used as a novel prophylactic agent for the control of allergic diseases. PMID:22943197

  10. Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Methods Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. Results In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited

  11. Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Ahmed, Romana; Tanvir, E. M.; Afroz, Rizwana; Paul, Sudip; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats. PMID:26539517

  12. Cobalt protoporphyrin pretreatment protects human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro and increases graft size and vascularization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Weaver, Matthew S; Cao, Baohong; Dennis, James E; Van Biber, Benjamin; Laflamme, Michael A; Allen, Margaret D

    2014-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can regenerate infarcted myocardium. However, when implanted into acutely infarcted hearts, few cells survive the first week postimplant. To improve early graft survival, hESC-CMs were pretreated with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a transcriptional activator of cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). When hESC-CMs were challenged with an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, mimicking cell transplantation into an ischemic site, survival was significantly greater among cells pretreated with CoPP versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-pretreated controls. Compared with PBS-pretreated cells, CoPP-pretreated hESC-CM preparations exhibited higher levels of HO-1 expression, Akt phosphorylation, and vascular endothelial growth factor production, with reduced apoptosis, and a 30% decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species. For in vivo translation, 1 × 10(7) hESC-CMs were pretreated ex vivo with CoPP or PBS and then injected intramyocardially into rat hearts immediately following acute infarction (permanent coronary ligation). At 1 week, hESC-CM content, assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for human Alu sequences, was 17-fold higher in hearts receiving CoPP- than PBS-pretreated cells. On histomorphometry, cardiomyocyte graft size was 2.6-fold larger in hearts receiving CoPP- than PBS-pretreated cells, occupying up to 12% of the ventricular area. Vascular density of host-perfused human-derived capillaries was significantly greater in grafts composed of CoPP- than PBS-pretreated cells. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that ex vivo pretreatment of hESC-CMs with a single dose of CoPP before intramyocardial implantation more than doubled resulting graft size and improved early graft vascularization in acutely infarcted hearts. These findings open the door for delivery of these, or other, stem cells during acute interventional therapy following myocardial infarction or ischemia.

  13. Fracture resistance behaviour of gamma-irradiation sterilized cortical bone protected with a ribose pre-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodside, Carman Mitchell

    Structural bone allograft reconstructions are often implemented to repair large skeletal defects. To ensure the biological safety of the patient, allograft material is routinely sterilized with gamma-irradiation prior to implantation. The sterilization process damages the tissue, specifically the collagen protein network, leading to severe losses in the mechanical properties of the bone. Our lab has begun developing a ribose pre-treatment that can protect bone from these harmful effects. The goals of the present study were to develop a method to measure the fracture toughness of bone, an important clinical failure mode, and implement it to determine the effectiveness of the ribose pre-treatment on fracture toughness. We have shown that the ribose pre-treatment is successful at protecting some of the original fracture toughness of sterilized bone, and that the connectivity of the collagen network is an important contributor to the fracture resistance of bone.

  14. L-carnitine pretreatment protects slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Mert; Kaya, Burak; Cerkez, Cem; Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim

    2013-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury negatively affects the outcome of surgical interventions for amputated or severely traumatized extremities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of l-carnitine on the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) skeletal muscles following I/R-induced injury in a rat model. Rats were divided into 4 groups (1) saline pretreatment, (2) l-carnitine pretreatment, (3) saline pretreatment and I/R, and (4) l-carnitine pretreatment and I/R. Twitch and tetanic contractions in the EDL and SOL muscles in each group were recorded. Additionally, a fatigue protocol was performed in these muscles. Twitch and tetanic contraction amplitudes were lower in the EDL and SOL muscles in which I/R was induced (P < .01). l-Carnitine pretreatment significantly increased tetanic contraction amplitude in the SOL muscles following I/R (P < .01) but not in the EDL muscles. l-Carnitine pretreatment did not alter the fatigue response in any of the muscles.

  15. DNA damage in leukocytes from pretreatment mucopolysaccharidosis type II patients; protective effect of enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Filippon, Letícia; Wayhs, Carlos A Y; Atik, Diana M; Manfredini, Vanusa; Herber, Silvani; Carvalho, Clarissa G; Schwartz, Ida V D; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen R

    2011-04-03

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked recessive disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase, leading to progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in nearly all cell types, tissues and organs. Enzyme replacement therapy reduces the storage of these substances in the lysosomes. Oxidative stress is related to the pathophysiology of many disorders, including inborn errors of metabolism. Oxidative damage to protein and lipid has been described in MPS types I and III. The aim of this study was to analyze DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay using silver staining, in peripheral leukocytes from MPS II patients before treatment and during the first six months of enzyme replacement therapy. We also correlated DNA damage with lipid and protein oxidative damages, analyzed by plasma malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl group content, respectively. We found a significant increase in lipid and protein damage in MPS II patients before treatment when compared to controls. Also, our results showed greater DNA damage in terms of damage index (DI) in pretreatment MPS II patients (DI=18.0 ± 2.4) when compared to controls (DI=66.0 ± 2.0). Enzyme replacement therapy led to a significant decrease in levels of malondialdehyde and DNA damage when compared to pretreatment, but did not reach control values. Significant positive correlations between DNA damage and malondialdehyde levels, as well as carbonyl group content, were observed. Our findings indicate that MPS II patients are subject to DNA damage and that enzyme replacement therapy is able to protect against this process.

  16. Carnosine pretreatment protects against hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in the neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Song, Lili; Cheng, Xiuyong; Yang, Yi; Luan, Bin; Jia, Liting; Xu, Falin; Zhang, Zhan

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates and lacks an effective treatment thus far. Carnosine has been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role in the adult brain injuries. However, there is no information available concerning its neuroprotective role in the immature brains after hypoxia-ischemia insults. Therefore, we investigated whether carnosine could also confer neuroprotective effects in a neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia model. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal day 7 (P7). Carnosine (250 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 30 min prior to hypoxia-ischemia induction. Morphological brain injury and biochemical markers of apoptosis and oxidative stress were evaluated 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia induction. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris Water Maze test on P28-P33. We found that pretreatment with carnosine significantly reduced the infarct volume and the number of terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the hypoxia-ischemia brain. Carnosine also inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-inducing factor(AIF) and caspase-3, which was accompanied by an increase in superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and a decrease in the malondialdehyde(MDA)level in carnosine-treated rats. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats declined due to hypoxia-ischemia. These results demonstrate that carnosine can protect rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by antioxidation.

  17. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyu; Kong, Wei; Miao, Guangxin; Zhao, Shumin; Chen, Meng; Zheng, Xiaoying; Bai, Jiangtao

    2014-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown that cerebral infarction can be effectively reduced following treatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid (SSTF). However, the mechanism of action of SSTF as a preventive drug to treat cerebral infarction remains unclear. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg SSTF via intragastric administration for 1 week prior to the establishment of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results showed that pretreatment with SSTF effectively improved neurological function, reduced brain water content and the permeability of blood vessels, ameliorated ischemia-induced morphology changes in hippocampal microvessels, down-regulated Fas and FasL protein expression, elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased malondialdehyde content. In contrast to low-dose SSTF pretreatment, the above changes were most obvious after pretreatment with moderate- and high-doses of SSTF. Experimental findings indicate that SSTF pretreatment can exert protective effects on the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms may involve reducing brain water content, increasing microvascular recanalization, inhibiting the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and attenuating free radical damage. PMID:25657723

  18. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  19. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  20. [Neurogenic stunned myocardium].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Rucabado Aguilar, L; López Martínez, A

    2006-01-01

    The existence of stunned myocardium and reversible myocardial dysfunction is widely described and accepted in patients suffering ischemic heart disease. However, it cannot be exclusive to coronary disease. Classically, the appearance of electrocardiographic changes in the critical neurological disease has been described. However, at present, it seems to be observed that some of these patients with critical neurological disease could have variable grades of myocardial dysfunction, which is generally reversible in the surviving patients. This myocardial dysfunction, which could affect critically ill neurological patients, has traits similar to stunned myocardium generated in coronary patients since: a) it is generally associated to electrocardiographic changes, b) it can be accompanied by segmental contractility disorders and even c) it may be accompanied by a certain increase of cardiac biomarkers. Although its etiopathogeny is unknown, it could be related with the severity of the primary neurological disease. Its prophylaxis and prognosis are also unknown. It could be related with neurogenic edema, with hemodynamic instability, and could also play a very important role in brain death and in organ donation.

  1. Protective Effect of Pretreatment with Acenocoumarol in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Olszanecki, Rafał; Tomaszewska, Romana; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-10-12

    Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein.

  2. Partial Protection of PC12 Cells from Cellular Stress by Low-Dose Sodium Nitroprusside Pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Varga, Judit; Bátor, Judit; Nádasdi, Gergő; Árvai, Zita; Schipp, Renáta; Szeberényi, József

    2016-10-01

    The PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line is an in vitro model system widely used for the investigation of intracellular signaling events contributing to neuronal differentiation and cell death. We found earlier that the nitric oxide donor compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced apoptosis of PC12 cells if it was applied in high concentration (400 µM). Yoshioka et al. (J Pharmacol Sci 101:126-134, 2006) reported that cell death evoked by cytotoxic concentrations of SNP could be prevented by a 100 µM SNP pre-treatment in a murine macrophage cell line. The apoptosis caused by toxic-dose SNP treatment (400 µM) could be partially overcome in PC12 cells as well by the low-dose SNP pre-treatment. The partial inhibition of apoptosis was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of certain proteins (such as stress-activated protein kinases, the p53, and the eIF2α proteins), decreased caspase activation, and less intense internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. The 100 µM SNP pre-treatment reduced the pro-apoptotic potential of certain other stress stimuli (serum withdrawal, cisplatin and tunicamycin treatments) as well, although the underlying biochemical changes were not entirely uniform. On the contrary, the 100 µM SNP pre-treatment was unable to prevent cell death caused by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Further clarification of the above-mentioned processes may be important in understanding the mechanisms by which mild nitrosative stress protects cells against certain forms of cellular stress conditions.

  3. p27 kip1 haplo-insufficiency improves cardiac function in early-stages of myocardial infarction by protecting myocardium and increasing angiogenesis by promoting IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ningtian; Fu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yunle; Chen, Pengsheng; Meng, Haoyu; Guo, Shouyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhijian; Ge, Yingbin

    2014-08-07

    p27(kip1) (p27) is widely known as a potent cell cycle inhibitor in several organs, especially in the heart. However, its role has not been fully defined during the early phase of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the relationships between p27, vascular endothelial growth factor/hepatocyte growth factor (VEGF/HGF) and NF-κB in post-MI cardiac function repair both in vivo and in the hypoxia/ischemia-induced rat myocardiocyte model. In vivo, haplo-insufficiency of p27 improved cardiac function, diminished the infarct zone, protected myocardiocytes and increased angiogenesis by enhancing the production of VEGF/HGF. In vitro, the presence of conditioned medium from hypoxia/ischemia-induced p27 knockdown myocardiocytes reduced the injury caused by hypoxia/ischemia in myocardiocytes, and this effect was reversed by VEGF/HGF neutralizing antibodies, consistent with the cardioprotection being due to VEGF/HGF secretion. We also observed that p27 bound to IKK and that p27 haplo-insufficiency promoted IKK/p65 activation both in vivo and in vitro, thereby inducing the NF-κB downstream regulator, VEGF/HGF. Furthermore, IKKi and IKK inhibitor negated the effect of VEGF/HGF. Therefore, we conclude that p27 haplo-insufficiency protects against heart injury by VEGF/HGF mediated cardioprotection and increased angiogenesis through promoting IKK activation.

  4. Impact of Sn/F Pre-Treatments on the Durability of Protective Coatings against Dentine Erosion/Abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Ganss, Carolina; Lussi, Adrian; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Naguib Attia, Nader; Schlueter, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    For preventing erosive wear in dentine, coating with adhesives has been suggested as an alternative to fluoridation. However, clinical studies have revealed limited efficacy. As there is first evidence that Sn2+ increases bond strength of the adhesive Clearfil SE (Kuraray), the aim of the present study was to investigate whether pre-treatment with different Sn2+/F− solutions improves the durability of Clearfil SE coatings. Dentine samples (eight groups, n=16/group) were freed of smear layer (0.5% citric acid, 10 s), treated (15 s) either with no solution (control), aminefluoride (AmF, 500 ppm F−, pH 4.5), SnCl2 (800/1600 ppm Sn2+; pH 1.5), SnCl2/AmF (500 ppm F−, 800 ppm Sn2+, pH 1.5/3.0/4.5), or Elmex Erosion Protection Rinse (EP, 500 ppm F−, 800 ppm Sn2+, pH 4.5; GABA International), then rinsed with water (15 s) and individually covered with Clearfil SE. Subsequently the specimens were subjected to an erosion/abrasion protocol consisting of 1320 cycles of immersion in 0.5% citric acid (5°C/55°C; 2 min) and automated brushing (15 s, 200 g, NaF-toothpaste, RDA 80). As the coatings proved stable up to 1320 cycles, 60 modified cycles (brushing time 30 min/cycle) were added. Wear was measured profilometrically. After SnCl2/AmF, pH 4.5 or EP pre-treatment all except one coating survived. In the other groups, almost all coatings were lost and there was no significant difference to the control group. Pre-treatment with a Sn2+/F− solution at pH 4.5 seems able to improve the durability of adhesive coatings, rendering these an attractive option in preventing erosive wear in dentine. PMID:26075906

  5. Protective Effect of Low-dose Sevoflurane Inhalation and Propofol Anesthesia on the Myocardium after Carotid Endarterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Li, Yan-Hong; Wang, Tian-Long; Feng, Hua; Cai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is an important cause of mortality after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sevoflurane provides myocardial protection to patients undergoing coronary surgery, but whether it also reduces the incidence of myocardial injury in CEA patients is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effect of low-dose sevoflurane with propofol in patients undergoing CEA. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, randomized study conducted between November 2011 and December 2013. The study population of 122 patients who underwent CEA were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A (n = 62) received propofol for anesthetic maintenance, and Group B (n = 60) additionally received 0.8% end-tidal sevoflurane. The bispectral index was kept at 40–60. Myocardial injury, defined as cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels >0.04 ng/ml, was the primary end-point. Levels of cTnI were measured before anesthesia, and at 4, 24, and 72 h after surgery. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and adverse cardiovascular events after surgery were also recorded. Results: Myocardial injury was detected in 18 patients in Group A and 7 in Group B. The difference was statistically significant (29.0% vs. 11.7%, P = 0.018). The hemodynamic parameters were comparable between the groups, as were adverse cardiovascular events (P = 0.619). Conclusions: Low-dose sevoflurane inhalation along with propofol reduces the incidence of myocardial injury in symptomatic patients after CEA. PMID:26168823

  6. Effect of glutathion pretreatment on hypothermic ischemic cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Amano, J; Sunamori, M; Okamura, T; Suzuki, A

    1982-01-01

    Glutathion (GSH) plays an important role in maintenance of the redox state of the myocardium and acts as the membrane stabilizer. Seventeen patients who underwent cardiac surgery were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and ischemic cardioplegia. The effect of GSH on ischemic myocardium was evaluated by serum lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase), isoenzymes of creatine phosphokinase (MB-CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (m-GOT). standard CPB was instituted and systemic hypothermia was employed. GSH was administered to 8 patients in a dose of 200 mg/kg i.v. prior to institution of CPB. Mixed venous blood was sampled before administration of GSH, 10 min after institution of CPB and 0, 1, 6, 24 and 48 hr of reperfusion period following cardioplegia. Activity of acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase were significantly suppressed in the GSH-treated group compared to the non-treated group at 24 hours of reperfusion and immediately after aortic unclamping, respectively. Serum MB-CPK levels remained stable during reperfusion, but in the non-treated group, the level increased significantly at 6 hours of reperfusion. Increment of serum m-GOT levels was significantly suppressed at 1, 6 and 24 hours of reperfusion, compared to the non-treated group. These data suggest that pretreatment of GSH can protect the myocardium subjected to CPB from ischemic insult.

  7. Pretreatment of Adipose Derived Stem Cells with Curcumin Facilitates Myocardial Recovery via Antiapoptosis and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Ping; Song, Peng; Xiong, Weiping; Chen, Haixu; Peng, Wenhui; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Shan; Fu, Zhiqing; Wang, Yutang; Wang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    The poor survival rate of transplanted stem cells in ischemic myocardium has limited their therapeutic efficacy. Curcumin has potent antioxidant property. This study investigates whether prior curcumin treatment protects stem cells from oxidative stress injury and improves myocardial recovery following cells transplantation. Autologous Sprague-Dawley rat adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) were pretreated with or without curcumin. The hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation (H2O2/SD) medium was used to mimic the ischemic condition in vitro. Cytoprotective effects of curcumin on ADSCs were evaluated. Curcumin pretreatment significantly increased cell viability and VEGF secretion, and decreased cell injury and apoptosis via regulation of PTEN/Akt/p53 and HO-1 signal proteins expression. The therapeutic potential of ADSCs implantation was investigated in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model. Transplantation of curcumin pretreated ADSCs not only resulted in better heart function, higher cells retention, and smaller infarct size, but also decreased myocardial apoptosis, promoted neovascularization, and increased VEGF level in ischemic myocardium. Together, priming of ADSCs with curcumin improved tolerance to oxidative stress injury and resulted in enhancement of their therapeutic potential of ADSCs for myocardial repair. Curcumin pretreatment is a promising adjuvant strategy for stem cells transplantation in myocardial restoration.

  8. [Protective effects of d-chlorpheniramine maleate pre-treatment against acute side effects of Irinotecan(CPT- 11)].

    PubMed

    Misumi, Nobuhiro; Hiraike, Mikako; Nawata, Fusako; Hashimoto, Mirai; Tanigawa, Kayoko; Takase, Izumi; Nabeshima, Aya; Honda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    It is wellknown that cholinomimetic side effects, such as sedation, abdominal pain, nasal flow and watery eyes, may develop in patients in the early stage of Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration; however, there have been no investigations concerning methods for preventing the development of these side effects. To assess the protective effects of pre-treatment with d-CM on cholinomimetic side effects in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration, we prescribed d- Chlorpheniramine maleate (d-CM) to a group of patients prior to Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration. Twenty members from the group of non-d-CM-treated patients (n=39) and 4 members from the group of treated patients (n=20) complained of side effects. The pre-administration of d-CM significantly reduced the number of patients with side effects (p<0.05). The relative risk (RR) for the frequency of side effects was 0.39 (95% CI; 0.15-0.98), demonstrating that the frequency of side effects was significantly reduced. Based on theses findings, we concluded that the pre-administration of d-CM had protective effects against side effects that might develop in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration.

  9. Protection of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and nigrostriatal neuronal death by chronic Coenzyme Q{sub 10} pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Binukumar, BK; Gupta, Nidhi; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative stress generated as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we reported that chronic dichlorvos exposure causes mitochondrial impairments and nigrostriatal neuronal death in rats. The present study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) administration has any neuroprotective effect against dichlorvos mediated nigrostriatal neuronal death, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, and motor dysfunction. Male albino rats were administered dichlorvos by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight over a period of 12 weeks. Results obtained there after showed that dichlorvos exposure leads to enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, decreased dopamine and its metabolite levels resulting in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Pretreatment by Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (4.5 mg/kg ip for 12 weeks) to dichlorvos treated animals significantly attenuated the extent of nigrostriatal neuronal damage, in terms of decreased ROS production, increased dopamine and its metabolite levels, and restoration of motor dysfunction when compared to dichlorvos treated animals. Thus, the present study shows that Coenzyme Q{sub 10} administration may attenuate dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation and motor dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant action. - Highlights: > CoQ{sub 10} administration attenuates dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegenaration. > CoQ{sub 10} pre treatment leads to preservation of TH-IR neurons. > CoQ{sub 10} may decrease oxidative damage and {alpha}-synuclin aggregation. > CoQ{sub 10} treatment enhances motor function and protects rats from catalepsy.

  10. Microleakage in Resin Composite Restoration following Antimicrobial Pre-treatments with 2% Chlorhexidine and Clearfil Protect Bond

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Hisham; Babu, Biju P; Sagir, V M Mohammed; Chiriyath, Kennet J; Mathias, Jones; Shaji, A P

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate microleakage in resin composite restorations after antimicrobial pre – treatments Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted non carious human premolars were procured. In all forty premolar specimens, class V preparation of standard dimension were prepared and were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group. In all control and experimental groups the class V preparations were restored with FILTEK Z350 composite restorative material. The experimental groups included different self etching primers and 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate. The control group included Xeno III and no antimicrobial pre-treatment was done for the control group. Thereafter these specimens were thermocycled, dried and sealed with nail varnish, leaving 1mm around the restoration and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then the specimens were subjected for microleakage evaluation. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann Whitney ‘U’ test. Results: Results indicate that group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate group) had the minimum mean value (15.05) and group III(Clearfil protect Bond group) and IV(control group) had the maximum mean microleakage at the enamel margin (23.00). At the gingival margin the lowest mean microleakage values were obtained with group I (Clearfil SE bond group) and group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate) (20.25) and highest with group III and group IV (20.85). The difference was not statistically significant both at the enamel margin and the dentin margin (p>0.05). Interpretation & Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, we conclude that: None of the materials tested in this study completely eliminated microleakage at the enamel and at the gingival margin.All of the tested materials provided better sealing at the enamel margin than at the gingival margin. PMID:26229374

  11. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPAR{alpha} deterioration

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Kamijo, Yuji; Hora, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Higuchi, Makoto; Nakajima, Takero; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2011-05-01

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}), suggesting the benefit of PPAR{alpha} activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPAR{alpha} agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPAR{alpha} agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPAR{alpha} deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NF{kappa}B activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPAR{alpha} function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities in PPAR{alpha}-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPAR{alpha}-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPAR{alpha}-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPAR

  12. Pretreated quercetin protects gerbil hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient cerebral ischemic injury by increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kang, Il Jun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, Yang Hee; Lee, Yun Lyul; Park, Seung Min

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin (QE; 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone), a well-known flavonoid, has been shown to prevent against neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic insults. However, few studies are reported regarding the neuroprotective mechanisms of QE after ischemic insults. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of QE on ischemic injury and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia. QE was pre-treated once daily for 15 days before ischemia. Pretreatment with QE protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic injury, which was confirmed by neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. In addition, pretreatment with QE significantly increased the expression levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of animals with ischemic injury. These findings demonstrate that pretreated QE displayed strong neuroprotective effects against transient cerebral ischemia by increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Examination of Spray-Applied Oxsilan 9810/2 Steel Pretreatment on a Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    completion of all laboratory tests, ARL initiated a demonstration of the pretreatments on Stryker combat vehicles. The demonstration took place at Anniston ...Abbreviations, and Acronyms ANAD Anniston Army Depot ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory CARC Chemical Agent Resistant Coating DI deionized DOD

  14. Captopril pretreatment protects the lung against severe acute pancreatitis induced injury via inhibiting angiotensin II production and suppressing Rho/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qi-Hong; Guo, Jie-Fang; Chen, Yan; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Du, Yi-Qi; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) usually causes acute lung injury, which is also known as acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI). This study aimed to investigate whether captopril pretreatment was able to protect lung against APALI via inhibiting angiotensin II (Ang II) production and suppressing Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway in rats. Severe AP (SAP) was introduced to rats by bile-pancreatic duct retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the sham group, sham operation was performed; in the SAP group, SAP was introduced; in the pre-cpl + SAP group, rats were intragastrically injected with 5 mg/kg captopril 1 hour prior to SAP induction. Pathological examination of the lung and pancreas, evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability by wet/dry ratio and Evans Blue staining, detection of serum amylase, Western blot assay for Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1), RhoA, ROCK (Rho kinase), and MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) were performed after the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours. After the surgery, characteristic findings of pancreatitis were observed, accompanied by lung injury. The serum amylase, Ang II, and lung expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK increased dramatically in SAP rats. However, captopril pretreatment improved the histological changes, reduced the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, inhibited serum amylase and Ang II production, and decreased expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK in the lung. These findings suggest that captopril pretreatment is able to protect the lung against APALI, which is, at least partially, related to the inhibition of Ang II production and the suppression of the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  15. Prophylactic pretreatment of mice with hematopoietic growth factors induces expansion of primitive cell compartments and results in protection against 5-fluorouracil-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    de Haan, G; Donte, B; Engel, C; Loeffler, M; Nijhof, W

    1996-06-01

    second dose of 5-FU given respectively after 7 or 10 days. To assess whether chemoprotection in this setting could be ascribed to protection of the hematopoietic system, we transplanted a high number of normal bone marrow cells (sufficient to compensate for any hematopoietic deficiency) to normal and pretreated mice after they had been administered 2 doses of 5-FU, given 7 days apart. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could only rescue 50% of mice not pretreated, showing that a significant part of the mortality was because of nonhematologic toxicity. However, a BMT given to growth factor pretreated mice saved all mice, indicating that in this setting SCF + IL-11 had additional protective effects on cell systems other than hematopoiesis. In conclusion, our study showed fundamental knowledge about the behavior of primitive cells in vivo and has shown that manipulation of these and other cell compartments with appropriate growth factors may confer resistance against cytotoxic drugs.

  16. Biomass pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  17. Hypoxia pretreatment and EPO-modification enhance the protective effects of MSC on neuron-like PC12 cells in a similar way.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinli; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-08

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) based cell transplantation therapy is proved to be an attractive strategy with great potential for improvement of hypoxia induced neural damage. In the present study, MSCs were co-culture with PC12 to investigate its protective effects against hypoxia pretreatment, and the Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, MTT and Anexin V staining were performed to analysis the cellular damage or apoptotic. RT-PCR and Western blotting were further used to investigate the underlying mechanism. The results indicate that hypoxia treatment results in the decrease of PC12 cell viability, yet co-culture with MSC could protect the PC12 from hypoxia induced damage. Hypoxia pre-activated or EPO transduced MSC with up-regulated erythropoietin (EPO) expression could further enhance MSC's protective effect against hypoxia induced cell damage, which was associated with high level of anti-apoptotic p-Akt and ration Bcl-2/Bax, and decreased Caspase 3 in PC12. Taken together, these data suggests high levels of MSC-mediated cyto-protection is closely tied to high gene expression levels of EPO. The up-regulation of EPO for enhanced MSC-mediated cyto-protection may has great potential for the MSC cellular therapy of neural or neuronal injuries induced by hypoxia.

  18. Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Cochain, Clement; Channon, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Proangiogenic therapy appeared a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as de novo formation of microvessels, has the potential to salvage ischemic myocardium at early stages after MI, and is also essential to prevent the transition to heart failure through the control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility. Recent Advances: Exciting preclinical studies evaluating proangiogenic therapies for MI have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on protein or gene transfer delivery of growth factors and administration of stem/progenitor cells, mainly from bone marrow origin. Nonetheless, these clinical trials showed mixed results in patients with acute MI. Critical Issues: Even though methodological caveats, such as way of delivery for angiogenic growth factors (e.g., protein vs. gene transfer) and stem/progenitor cells or isolation/culture procedure for regenerative cells might partially explain the failure of such trials, it appears that delivery of a single growth factor or cell type does not support angiogenesis sufficiently to promote cardiac repair. Future Directions: Optimization of proangiogenic therapies might include stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation and/or the use of additional sources of stem/progenitor cells, such as cardiac progenitor cells. Experimental unraveling of the mechanisms of angiogenesis, vessel maturation, and endothelial cell/cardiomyocyte cross talk in the ischemic heart, analysis of emerging pathways, as well as a better understanding of how cardiovascular risk factors impact endogenous and therapeutically stimulated angiogenesis, would undoubtedly pave the way for the development of novel and hopefully efficient angiogenesis targeting therapeutics for the treatment of acute MI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1100–1113. PMID:22870932

  19. Cardioprotective Effect of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Antiapoptotic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sheng-feng; Huang, Yan; Wang, Ning; Shen, Wei-xing; Fu, Shu-ping; Li, Qian; Yu, Mei-ling; Liu, Wan-xin; Chen, Xia; Jing, Xin-yue; Zhu, Bing-mei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Our previous study has used RNA-seq technology to show that apoptotic molecules were involved in the myocardial protection of electroacupuncture pretreatment (EAP) on the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal model. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate how EAP protects myocardium against myocardial I/R injury through antiapoptotic mechanism. Methods. By using rats with myocardial I/R, we ligated the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 minutes followed by 4 hr of reperfusion after EAP at the Neiguan (PC6) acupoint for 12 days; we employed arrhythmia scores, serum myocardial enzymes, and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) to evaluate the cardioprotective effect. Heart tissues were harvested for western blot analyses for the expressions of pro- and antiapoptotic signaling molecules. Results. Our preliminary findings showed that EAP increased the survival of the animals along with declined arrhythmia scores and decreased CK, LDH, CK-Mb, and cTnT levels. Further analyses with the heart tissues detected reduced myocardial fiber damage, decreased number of apoptotic cells and the protein expressions of Cyt c and cleaved caspase 3, and the elevated level of Endo G and AIF after EAP intervention. At the same time, the protein expressions of antiapoptotic molecules, including Xiap, BclxL, and Bcl2, were obviously increased. Conclusions. The present study suggested that EAP protected the myocardium from I/R injury at least partially through the activation of endogenous antiapoptotic signaling. PMID:27313648

  20. Spirulina maxima pretreatment partially protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Germán; Pérez-Albiter, Mónica; Serrano-García, Norma; Mares-Sámano, José J; Rojas, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina is an alga that has a high nutritional value and some of its biological activities are attributed to the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress is involved in Parkinson's disease. This study aims at evaluating the neuroprotective role of Spirulina maxima (Sp.) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity, used as a model of Parkinson's disease. Ninety-six male C-57 black mice were pretreated with Spirulina for 14 days (25, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg, oral), followed by three MPTP administrations (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Animals were given Sp. for 8 additional days. After the treatment, the striatal dopamine (DA) content was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and lipid peroxidation was studied as an index of oxidative stress. Sp. pretreatment at 150 mg/kg partially prevented (51%) the DA-depleting effect of MPTP and blocked oxidative stress. Spirulina partially prevents MPTP neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, suggesting it could be a possible alternative in experimental therapy.

  1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    El-Naga, Reem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  2. Gypenosides pre-treatment protects the brain against cerebral ischemia and increases neural stem cells/progenitors in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Sun, Tao; Kong, Liang; Shang, Zhen-Hua; Yang, Kun-Qi; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Jing, Fang-Miao; Dong, Lun; Xu, Xu-Feng; Liu, Jia-Xin; Xin, Hua; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Gypenosides (GPs) have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in addition to other bioactivities. The protective activity of GPs during stroke and their effects on neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ischemic brain have not been fully elucidated. Here, we test the effects of GPs during stroke and on the NSCs within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Our results show that pre-treatment with GPs can reduce infarct volume and improve motor function following MCAO. Pre-treatment with GPs significantly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ of MCAO rats. The proliferating cells in both sides of the SVZ were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/nestin-positive type B cells and doublecortin (DCX)/nestin-positive type A cells. Our data indicate that GPs have neuroprotective effects during stroke which might be mediated through the enhancement of neurogenesis within the SVZ. These findings provide new evidence for a potential therapy involving GPs for the treatment of stroke.

  3. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  4. Lime Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160°C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure ~200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65°C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below ~18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above ~18% lignin).

  5. Lime pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rocio; Granda, Cesar Benigno; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Lime pretreatment has proven to be a useful method for selectively reducing the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass without significant loss in carbohydrates, thus realizing an important increase in biodigestibility. In lime pretreatment, the biomass is pretreated with calcium hydroxide and water under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It can be accomplished in one of three fashions: (1) short-term pretreatment that lasts up to 6 h, requires temperatures of 100-160 degrees C, and can be applied with or without oxygen (pressure approximately 200 psig); (2) long-term pretreatment taking up to 8 weeks, requiring only 55-65 degrees C, and capable of running with or without air (atmospheric pressure); and (3) simple pretreatment requiring 1 h in boiling water, without air or oxygen. Nonoxidative conditions are effective at low lignin contents (below approximately 18% lignin), whereas oxidative conditions are required for high lignin contents (above approximately 18% lignin).

  6. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  7. Association of high expression in rat gastric mucosal heat shock protein 70 induced by moxibustion pretreatment with protection against stress injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiao-Rong; Peng, La; Yi, Shou-Xiang; Peng, Yan; Yan, Jie

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point on gastric mucosa injury in stress-induced ulcer rats and its correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). METHODS: Sixty healthy SD rats (30 males, 30 females) were divided into control group, injury model group, Zushanli point group, Liangmeng point group. Stress gastric ulcer model was induced by binding cold stress method. Gastric mucosa ulcer injury (UI) index was calculated by Guth method. Gastric mucosa blood flow (GMBF) was recorded with a biological signal analyzer. Protein content and gene expression in gastric mucosal HSP70 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thiobarbital method was used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Gastric mucosal endothelin (ET) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: High gastric mucosal UI index, high HSP70 expression, low GMBF and PGF2, elevated MDA and ET were observed in gastric mucosa of rats subjected to cold stress. Moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point decreased rat gastric mucosal UI index, MDA and ET. Conversely, the expression of HSP70, GMBF, and PGE2 was elevated in gastric mucosa after pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point. The observed parameters were significantly different between Zusanli and Liangmeng points. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with moxibustion on Zusanli or Liangmeng point protects gastric mucosa against stress injury. This protection is associated with the higher expression of HSP70 mRNA and protein, leading to release of PGE2 and inhibition of MDA and ET, impairment of gastric mucosal index. PMID:17708611

  8. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product) Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Chen, Jihang; Chan, Wing Man; Leung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Lincoln; Ko, Kam Ming

    2017-04-10

    8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product) is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5-3% (v/v)) was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days) was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  9. Neurogenic stunned myocardium in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kerro, Ali; Woods, Timothy; Chang, Jason J

    2017-04-01

    "Stunned myocardium," characterized by reversible left ventricular dysfunction, was first described via animal models using transient coronary artery occlusion. However, this phenomenon has also been noted with neurologic pathologies and collectively been labeled "neurogenic stunned myocardium" (NSM). Neurogenic stunned myocardium resulting from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a challenging pathology due to its diagnostic uncertainty. Traditional diagnostic criteria for NSM after SAH focus on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities and troponemia. However, tremendous heterogeneity still exists. Traditional pathophysiological mechanisms for NSM encompassed hypothalamic and myocardial perivascular lesions. More recently, research on pathophysiology has centered on myocardial microvascular dysfunction and genetic polymorphisms. Catecholamine surging as a mechanism has also gained attention with particular focus placed on the role of adrenergic blockade in both the prehospital and acute settings. Management remains largely supportive with case reports acknowledging the utility of inotropes such as dobutamine and milrinone and intra-aortic balloon pump when NSM is accompanied by cardiogenic shock. Neurogenic stunned myocardium that follows SAH can result in many complications such as arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, and prolonged intubation, which can negatively impact long-term recovery from SAH and increase morbidity and mortality. This necessitates the need to accurately diagnose and treat NSM.

  10. Myocardium wall thickness transducer and measuring method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A miniature transducer for measuring changes of thickness of the myocardium is described. The device is easily implantable without traumatizing the subject, without affecting the normal muscle behavior, and is removable and implantable at a different muscle location. Operating features of the device are described.

  11. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  12. Simvastatin pretreatment protects cerebrum from neuronal injury by decreasing the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4 in ischemic stroke rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min-xia; Lu, Chao; Xia, Chun-mei; Qiao, Zhong-wei; Zhu, Da-nian

    2014-12-01

    Excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema are the two major factors resulting in neuronal injury during brain ischemia and reperfusion. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), the downstream signal molecular of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), is a mediator in the excitotoxicity. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), expressed mainly in the brain, is an important aquaporin to control the flux of water. In a previous study, we had reported that pretreatment of simvastatin protected the cerebrum from ischemia and reperfusion injury by decreasing neurological deficit score and infarct area (Zhu et al. PLoS One 7:e51552, 2012). The present study used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to further explore the pleiotropic effect of simvastatin via CaMK II and AQP4. The results showed that simvastatin reduced degenerated cells and brain edema while decreasing the protein expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and increasing the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax, which was independent of cholesterol-lowering effect. Immunocomplexes formed between the subunit of NMDARs-NR3A and AQP4 were detected for the first time. It was concluded that simvastatin could protect the cerebrum from neuronal excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema by downregulating the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and that the interaction between NR3A and AQP4 might provide the base for AQP4 involving in the signaling pathways mediated by NMDARs.

  13. Periodic 17β-Estradiol Pretreatment Protects Rat Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Damage via Estrogen Receptor-β

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Ami P.; Borges-Garcia, Raquel; Javier Moreno, William; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.; Bramlett, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic 17β-estradiol (E2) has been shown to be a cognition-preserving and neuroprotective agent in animal brain injury models, concern regarding its safety was raised by the failed translation of this phenomenon to the clinic. Previously, we demonstrated that a single bolus of E2 48 hr prior to ischemia protected the hippocampus from damage in ovariectomized rats via phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, which requires activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). The current study tests the hypothesis that long-term periodic E2-treatment improves cognition and reduces post-ischemic hippocampal injury by means of ER-β activation. Ovariectomized rats were given ten injections of E2 at 48 hr intervals for 21 days. Hippocampal-dependent learning, memory and ischemic neuronal loss were monitored. Results demonstrated that periodic E2 treatments improved spatial learning, memory and ischemic neuronal survival in ovariectomized rats. Additionally, periodic ER-β agonist treatments every 48 hr improved post-ischemic cognition. Silencing of hippocampal ER-β attenuated E2-mediated ischemic protection suggesting that ER-β plays a key role in mediating the beneficial effects of periodic E2 treatments. This study emphasizes the need to investigate a periodic estrogen replacement regimen to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women. PMID:23593292

  14. Protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin pretreatment against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Aksoy, Melih; Küçük, Niyazi; Serin, İlker; Ceylan, Ahmet; Boyacıoğlu, Murat; Kum, Cavit

    2015-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cryo-induced damage in ram sperm. In Experiment 1, the fresh ejaculates were either treated with CLC or remained untreated. Both CLC treated and untreated samples were then incubated with 0, 250 or 500 μM H2O2 at 35°C for 12 h. After incubation period of 12 h, the motility, viability and membrane integrity remained higher in CLC treated sperm even in the presence of 250 or 500 μM H2O2. The H2O2 treatment affected all the sperm parameters adversely (P<0.05). However, compared to CLC untreated counterpart, the motility, viability and membrane integrity remained higher (P<0.05) in treated sperm, even in the presence of 250 or 500 μM H2O2 during 12 h of incubation. In Experiment 2, semen was cryopreserved in the presence or absence of CLC. The post-thaw results revealed that CLC treated sperm has higher (P<0.05) motility, viability and membrane integrity compared to the control. In Experiment 3, lipid peroxidation levels were assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations during the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in CLC treated and untreated sperm. However, no difference (P>0.05) in MDA level was observed among the groups at any stage of incubation. In conclusion, the CLC incorporation in ram sperm membrane may protects it against H2O2 or cryo-induced oxidative damage. The cryoprotective influence of CLC on ram sperm might be resulted from, at least partly, its antioxidative property.

  15. Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Diqi; Fang, Yabo; Gao, Kun; Shen, Jie; Zhong, Tao P.; Li, Fen

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium–endocardium crosstalk. PMID:28230770

  16. Automatic cardiac MRI myocardium segmentation using graphcut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedenburg, Gunnar; Cocosco, Chris A.; Köthe, Ullrich; Niessen, Wiro J.; Vonken, Evert-jan P. A.; Viergever, Max A.

    2006-03-01

    Segmentation of the left myocardium in four-dimensional (space-time) cardiac MRI data sets is a prerequisite of many diagnostic tasks. We propose a fully automatic method based on global minimization of an energy functional by means of the graphcut algorithm. Starting from automatically obtained segmentations of the left and right ventricles and a cardiac region of interest, a spatial model is constructed using simple and plausible assumptions. This model is used to learn the appearance of different tissue types by non parametric robust estimation. Our method does not require previously trained shape or appearance models. Processing takes 30-40s on current hardware. We evaluated our method on 11 clinical cardiac MRI data sets acquired using cine balanced fast field echo. Linear regression of the automatically segmented myocardium volume against manual segmentations (performed by a radiologist) showed an RMS error of about 12ml.

  17. Mechanisms of myocardium-coronary vessel interaction

    PubMed Central

    Algranati, Dotan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the contracting myocardium exerts extravascular forces (intramyocardial pressure, IMP) on coronary blood vessels and by which it affects the coronary flow remain incompletely understood. Several myocardium-vessel interaction (MVI) mechanisms have been proposed, but none can account for all the major flow features. In the present study, we hypothesized that only a specific combination of MVI mechanisms can account for all observed coronary flow features. Three basic interaction mechanisms (time-varying elasticity, myocardial shortening-induced intracellular pressure, and ventricular cavity-induced extracellular pressure) and their combinations were analyzed based on physical principles (conservation of mass and force equilibrium) in a realistic data-based vascular network. Mechanical properties of both vessel wall and myocardium were coupled through stress analysis to simulate the response of vessels to internal blood pressure and external (myocardial) mechanical loading. Predictions of transmural dynamic vascular pressure, diameter, and flow velocity were determined under each MVI mechanism and compared with reported data. The results show that none of the three basic mechanisms alone can account for the measured data. Only the combined effect of the cavity-induced extracellular pressure and the shortening-induced intramyocyte pressure provides good agreement with the majority of measurements. These findings have important implications for elucidating the physical basis of IMP and for understanding coronary phasic flow and coronary artery and microcirculatory disease. PMID:19966048

  18. Pretreatment with transforming growth factor beta-3 protects small intestinal stem cells against radiation damage in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C. S.; Booth, D.; Haley, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, with its rapid cell replacement, is sensitive to cytotoxic damage and can be a site of dose-limiting toxicity in cancer therapy. Here, we have investigated the use of one growth modulator to manipulate the cell cycle status of gastrointestinal stem cells before cytotoxic exposure to minimize damage to this normal tissue. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), a known inhibitor of cell cycle progression through G1, was used to alter intestinal crypt stem cell sensitivity before 12-16 Gy of gamma irradiation, which was used as a model cytotoxic agent. Using a crypt microcolony assay as a measure of functional competence of gastrointestinal stem cells, it was shown that the administration of TGF-beta3 over a 24-h period before irradiation increased the number of surviving crypts by four- to six-fold. To test whether changes in crypt survival are reflected in the well-being of the animal, survival time analyses were performed. After 14.5 Gy of radiation, only 35% of the animals survived within a period of about 12 days, while prior treatment with TGF-beta3 provided significant protection against this early gastrointestinal animal death, with 95% of the treated animals surviving for greater than 30 days. PMID:9166937

  19. Backscatter and attenuation characterization of ventricular myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Allyson Ann

    2009-12-01

    This Dissertation presents quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the myocardium in fetal hearts and adult human hearts with the goal of studying the physics of sound waves incident upon anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials. Ultrasound has been used as a clinical tool to assess heart structure and function for several decades. The clinical usefulness of this noninvasive approach has grown with our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the myocardium. In this Dissertation, integrated backscatter and attenuation analyses were performed on midgestational fetal hearts to assess potential differences in the left and right ventricular myocardium. The hearts were interrogated using a 50 MHz transducer that enabled finer spatial resolution than could be achieved at more typical clinical frequencies. Ultrasonic data analyses demonstrated different patterns and relative levels of backscatter and attenuation from the myocardium of the left ventricle and the right ventricle. Ultrasonic data of adult human hearts were acquired with a clinical imaging system and quantified by their magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter. The results were analyzing using Bayes Classification and ROC analysis to quantify potential advantages of using a combination of two features of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter over using only one or the other feature to distinguish between groups of subjects. When the subjects were classified based on hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, differences in the magnitude and normalized time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter were observed. The cyclic variation results also suggested a trend toward a larger area under the ROC curve when information from magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation is combined using Bayes classification than when

  20. Pretreatment with antibody to eosinophil major basic protein prevents hyperresponsiveness by protecting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C M; Fryer, A D; Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Costello, R W

    1997-01-01

    In antigen-challenged guinea pigs there is recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs and to airway nerves, decreased function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic autoreceptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness. A rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein was used to determine whether M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction, and the subsequent hyperresponsiveness, are due to antagonism of the M2 receptor by eosinophil major basic protein. Guinea pigs were sensitized, challenged with ovalbumin and hyperresponsiveness, and M2 receptor function tested 24 h later with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Antigen-challenged guinea pigs were hyperresponsive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves compared with controls. Likewise, loss of M2 receptor function was demonstrated since the agonist pilocarpine inhibited vagally-induced bronchoconstriction in control but not challenged animals. Pretreatment with rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein prevented hyperresponsiveness, and protected M2 receptor function in the antigen-challenged animals without inhibiting eosinophil accumulation in the lungs or around the nerves. Thus, hyperresponsiveness is a result of inhibition of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function by eosinophil major basic protein in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. PMID:9410903

  1. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis. PMID:27035150

  2. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  3. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  4. Prolonged Cardiac Dysfunction After Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage and Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Wilson, Thomas; Sharma, Deepak; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction occurring secondary to neurologic disease, termed neurogenic stunned myocardium, is an incompletely understood phenomenon that has been described after several distinct neurologic processes. We present a case of neurogenic stunned myocardium, discovered intraoperatively after anesthetic induction, in a patient who presented to our operating room with a recent intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We discuss the longitudinal cardiac functional course after neurogenic stunned myocardium. Lastly, we discuss the pathophysiology of neurogenic stunned myocardium, as well as its implications for anesthesiologists caring for neurosurgical patients. PMID:26462162

  5. Metastatic Midgut Carcinoid in the Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Lois, Konstantinos B; Skinner, Jane; Petrides, George; James, Robert Andrew; Perros, Petros

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor to the myocardium is rare. We present a case of 64-year-old woman, who presented initially with abdominal pain and large adnexal mass. The image-guided biopsy showed low-grade neuroendocrine tumor with Ki67 less than 2% within the ovarian tissue. CT staging revealed bilateral adnexal masses, liver metastases, and primary lesion in the terminal ileum. Octreoscan showed marked tracer uptake within the lower esophagus not related to obvious mass on CT scan; the echocardiography confirmed the presence of a 2.7 cm LV/LA mass. In this case, close correlation between ECHO and the octreoscan obviated need for myocardial biopsy.

  6. Inhibition of anti-apoptotic signals by Wortmannin induces apoptosis in the remote myocardium after LAD ligation: evidence for a protein kinase C-δ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Stephan; Wessela, Teresa; Schwarz, Kerstin; Joachim, Dirk; Jercke, Marcel; Strasser, Ruth H; Ebner, Bernd; Simonis, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that, in the remote myocardium after infarction (MI), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition reduces apoptosis both by blocking proapoptotic pathways and by activating antiapoptotic signals including the Akt pathway. However, it was open if vice versa, blockade of antiapoptotic pathways may influence proapoptotic signals. To clarify this, the present study tested the effects of the PI3-kinase blocker Wortmannin on proapoptotic signals and on apoptosis execution in the remote myocardium after infarction. Rats were subjected to MI by LAD ligation in situ. Some were pre-treated with Wortmannin alone or in combination with the PKC inhibitor Chelerythrine. After 24 h, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals (caspase-3, PKC isoforms, p38-MAPK, p42/44-MAPK, Akt, Bad), and marker of apoptosis execution (TUNEL) were quantified in the myocardium remote from the infarction. Wortmannin treatment increased apoptosis in the remote myocardium both at baseline and after MI, together with an activation of the PKC-δ/p38-MAPK-pathway. PKC-ε and p42/44-MAPK were unaffected. Combined treatment with Wortmannin and Chelerythrine fully reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of Wortmannin both at baseline and after MI. The PKC-δ-p38-MAPK-pathway as a strong signal for apoptosis in the non-infarcted myocardium can be influenced by targeting the anti-apoptotic PI3-kinase pathway. This gives evidence of a bi-directional crosstalk of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals after infarction.

  7. Non-excitatory electrical stimulation attenuates myocardial infarction via homeostasis of calcitonin gene-related peptide in myocardium.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Jia; Guo, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown protection of brain, retina, optic nerves and pancreatic β-cells but the effect on cardio-protection is still unknown. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) participates in the pathology of injury and protection of myocardium but whether or not electrical stimulation modulates endogenous CGRP is not clear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control group, without any treatment. (2) I/R group, animals were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 60 min reperfusion. (3) NES+I/R group, non-excitatory electrical stimulation (NES) was commenced from 15 min before coronary artery occlusion till the end of reperfusion. (4) I/R+CGRP8-37 group, animals were given with CGRP8-37 (an antagonist of CGRP receptor, 10(-7) mol/L, 0.3 ml, i.v.) at 5 min before reperfusion without any electrical stimulation. The hemodynamics and electrocardiogram were monitored and recorded. Infarct size and troponin I were examined and CGRP expression in the myocardium and serum was analyzed. It was found that the infarct size and TnI were significantly reduced in NES+I/R group, by 45% and 58% respectively, accompanied by an obvious fall back of CGRP in myocardium, compared to I/R group (all p<0.05). Treatment with CGRP8-37 resulted in the same protection on myocardium as NES did. No significant difference in hemodynamics or ventricular tachycardia was detected among the groups (all p>0.05). It can be concluded that NES reduced the infarction size after acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, for which the underlying mechanism may be associated with modulation of endogenous CGRP in myocardium.

  8. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  9. Heat shock proteins, end effectors of myocardium ischemic preconditioning?

    PubMed Central

    Guisasola, María Concepcion; Desco, Maria del Mar; Gonzalez, Fernanda Silvana; Asensio, Fernando; Dulin, Elena; Suarez, Antonio; Garcia Barreno, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether ischemia-reperfusion increased the content of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) transcripts and (2) whether myocardial content of Hsp72 is increased by ischemic preconditioning so that they can be considered as end effectors of preconditioning. Twelve male minipigs (8 protocol, 4 sham) were used, with the following ischemic preconditioning protocol: 3 ischemia and reperfusion 5-minute alternative cycles and last reperfusion cycle of 3 hours. Initial and final transmural biopsies (both in healthy and ischemic areas) were taken in all animals. Heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was measured by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using complementary DNA normalized against the housekeeping gene cyclophilin. The identification of heat shock protein 72 was performed by immunoblot. In our “classic” preconditioning model, we found no changes in mRNA hsp72 levels or heat shock protein 72 content in the myocardium after 3 hours of reperfusion. Our experimental model is valid and the experimental techniques are appropriate, but the induction of heat shock proteins 72 as end effectors of cardioprotection in ischemic preconditioning does not occur in the first hours after ischemia, but probably at least 24 hours after it, in the so-called “second protection window.” PMID:17009598

  10. Temperature measurement within myocardium during in vitro RF catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Cao, H; Vorperian, V R; Tsai, J Z; Tungjitkusolmun, S; Woo, E J; Webster, J G

    2000-11-01

    While most commercial ablation units and research systems can provide catheter tip temperature during ablation, they do not provide information about the temperature change inside the myocardium, which determines the lesion size. We present the details of a flow simulation and temperature measurement system, which allows the monitoring of the temperature change inside the myocardium during in vitro radio frequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation at different blood flow rates to which the catheter site may be exposed. We set up a circulation system that simulated different blood flow rates of 0 to 5 L/min at 37 degrees C. We continuously measured the temperature at the catheter tip using the built-in thermistor and inside the myocardium using a three-thermocouple probe. The system provides a means for further study of the temperature inside myocardium during RF catheter ablation under different flow conditions and at different penetration depths.

  11. Cardiac Telocytes in Regeneration of Myocardium After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhaofu, Liao; Dongqing, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Recent research progress has revealed that a novel type of interstitial cells termed cardiac telocytes (CTs) is found in the interstitium of the heart. We demonstrated that CTs are distributed both longitudinally and within the cross network in the myocardium and that the density of CTs in the atrium-atria and base of the myocardium is higher than that in the middle of the myocardium, while the density of CTs in the epicardium is higher than that in the endocardium. In addition, we documented, for the first time, that the network of CTs in the infarct zone of the myocardium is destroyed during myocardial infarction (MI). This fact shows that, in addition to the death of cardiac myocytes, the previously unrecognized death of CTs is an important mechanism that contributes to the structural damage and poor healing and regeneration observed in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, that transplantation of CTs in cases of MI decreases the infarct size and improves myocardial function. The mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of CT transplantation are increased angiogenesis at the infarct site and the border zone, decreased fibrosis in the infarct and non-infarct zones, improved pathological reconstruction of the left ventricle, and increased regeneration of CTs in the infarct zone. Our findings reveal that CTs can be specifically identified by the following characteristics: very small cell bodies, extreme prolongation with some dilation, predisposition to cell death under ischemia, and expression of molecular markers such as c-Kit, CD34, vimentin, and PDGFR-β. CTs act as a structural and functional niche microenvironment in the myocardium and play an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the myocardium and in the regeneration of damaged myocardium.

  12. [Neurogenic stunned myocardium in Pediatrics. A case report].

    PubMed

    Alados Arboledas, F J; Millán-Miralles, L; Millán-Bueno, M P; Expósito-Montes, J F; Santiago-Gutierrez, C; Martínez Padilla, M C

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is an unusual clinical entity. It mimics an acute coronary syndrome with electrocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac dysfunction and elevated cardiac enzymes with absence of obstructive coronary disease. It may occur after a neurosurgical procedure. A case is presented of neurogenic stunned myocardium occurring in a child after removal of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma. The patient developed nodal tachycardia with hemodynamic impairment. The clinical course was satisfactory due to antiarrhythmic therapy, with biochemical, echocardiographic, and clinical improvement within a week.

  13. Shock-induced arrhythmogenesis in the myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayanova, Natalia; Eason, James

    2002-09-01

    The focus of this article is the investigation of the electrical behavior of the normal myocardium following the delivery of high-strength defibrillation shocks. To achieve its goal, the study employs a complex three-dimensional defibrillation model of a slice of the canine heart characterized with realistic geometry and fiber architecture. Defibrillation shocks of various strengths and electrode configurations are delivered to the model preparation in which a sustained ventricular tachycardia is induced. Instead of analyzing the post-shock electrical events as progressions of transmembrane potential maps, the study examines the evolution of the postshock phase singularities (PSs) which represent the organizing centers of reentry. The simulation results demonstrate that the shock induces numerous PSs the majority of which vanish before the reentrant wavefronts associated with them complete half of a single rotation. Failed shocks are characterized with one or more PSs that survive the initial period of PS annihilation to establish a new postshock arrhythmia. The increase in shock strength results in an overall decrease of the number of PSs that survive over 200 ms after the end of the shock; however, the exact behavior of the PSs is strongly dependent on the shock electrode configuration.

  14. Spiral waves in a model of myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, John J.; Keener, James P.

    1987-11-01

    Myocardial tissue is an excitable medium through which propagate waves of electrical stimulation and muscular contraction. In addition to radially expanding waves of neuromuscular activity characterizing the normal heartbeat, myocardial tissue may also support high frequency, rotating spiral waves of activity which are associated with cardiac pathologies (flutter and fibrillation). Recently Pertsov, Ermakova and Panfilov have presented a numerical study of rotating spiral waves in a two-dimensional excitable medium modeled on the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations, suitably modified to reflect the electrical properties of myocardium. We show that some of their principal numerical results can be reproduced in quantitative detail by a general theory of rotating spiral waves in excitable media. The critical ingredients of our theory are the dispersion of nonlinear plane waves and the effects of curvature on the propagation of wave fronts in two-dimensional media. The close comparison of our analytical results with numerical simulations of the full reaction-diffusion equations lends credence to our theoretical description of spiral waves in excitable media.

  15. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... POLLUTION § 403.2 Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. By establishing the responsibilities...

  16. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. 403.5 Section 403.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. (a)(1)...

  17. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  18. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  19. 40 CFR 403.2 - Objectives of general pretreatment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Objectives of general pretreatment regulations. 403.2 Section 403.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  20. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES...

  1. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  2. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  3. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Modification of POTW pretreatment programs. 403.18 Section 403.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING AND NEW SOURCES...

  4. 40 CFR 445.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 445.3 Section 445.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LANDFILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 445.3 General pretreatment standards. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 445.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 445.3 Section 445.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) LANDFILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 445.3 General pretreatment standards....

  6. [Antihypoxic effects of various derivatives of 3-hydroxypyridine on isolated rat myocardium].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianova, L D; Atabaeva, R E; Shepeleva, S Iu

    1993-04-01

    Antihypoxic effect of a succinate-containing derivative of hydroxypyridine = --mexidol and its analog--emoxipin on contractile function and energy exchange of rats' myocard was investigated. It was shown reliably that mexidole have more expressed protective properties in myocardium of low-resistant (but not high-resistant) rats. In case of antihypoxant emoxipin prohypoxic properties prevail. It have been proposed that antihypoxic activity of mexidol was linked with presence of succinate in composition of the substance, which can be oxidated in this conditions.

  7. Diffusion of water in cat ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The rates of diffusion of tritiated water (THO) and [14C]sucrose across cat right ventricular myocardium were studied at 23 degrees C in an Ussing-type diffusion cell, recording the time-course of increase in concentration of tracer in one chamber over 4--6 h after adding tracers to the other. Sucrose data were fitted with a model for a homogeneous sheet of uneven thickness in which the tissue is considered to be an array of parallel independent pathways (parallel pathway model) of varying length. The volume of the sucrose diffusion space, presumably a wholly extracellular pathway, was 23% of the tissue or 27.4 +/-1.7% (mean +/- SEM; n=11) of the tissue water. The effective intramyocardial sucrose diffusion coefficient, D8, was 1.51 +/- 0.19 X 10(-6)cm2.s-1 (n=11). Combining these data with earlier data, D8 was 22.6 +/- 1.1% (n=95) of the free diffusion coefficient in aqueous solution D degrees 8. The parallel pathway model and a dead-end pore model, which might have accounted for intracellular sequestration of water, gave estimates of DW/D degrees W (observed/free) of 15%. Because hindrance to water diffusion must be less than for sucrose (where D8/D degrees 8=22.6%), this showed the inadequacy of these models to account simultaneously for the diffusional resistance and the tissue water content. The third or cell-matrix model, a heterogeneous system of permeable cells arrayed in the extracellular matrix, allowed logical and geometrically reasonable interpretations of the steady-state data and implied estimates of DW in the cellular and extracellular fluid of approximately 25% of the aqueous diffusion coefficient. PMID:722277

  8. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  9. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, markers of sympathetic nerve function and nerve sprouting were assessed in subendocardial tissue collected from chronically instrumented pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 18) as well as sham-instrumented controls (n = 7). Hibernating myocardium exhibited evidence of partial sympathetic denervation compared with the normally perfused region and sham controls, with corresponding regional reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase protein (−32%, P < 0.001), norepinephrine uptake transport protein (−25%, P = 0.01), and tissue norepinephrine content (−45%, P < 0.001). Partial denervation induced nerve sprouting with regional increases in nerve growth factor precursor protein (31%, P = 0.01) and growth associated protein-43 (38%, P < 0.05). All of the changes in sympathetic nerve markers were similar in animals that developed sudden death (n = 9) compared with electively terminated pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 9). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve dysfunction in hibernating myocardium is most consistent with partial sympathetic denervation and is associated with regional nerve sprouting. The extent of sympathetic remodeling is similar in animals that develop sudden death compared with survivors; this suggests that sympathetic remodeling in hibernating myocardium is not an independent trigger for sudden death. Nevertheless, sympathetic remodeling likely contributes to electrical instability in combination with other factors. PMID:23125211

  10. Long-term pretreatment with desethylamiodarone (DEA) or amiodarone (AMIO) protects against coronary artery occlusion induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Morvay, Nikolett; Baczkó, István; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Falkay, György; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Leprán, István

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of long-term pretreatment with amiodarone (AMIO) and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) on arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by pulling a previously inserted loose silk loop around the left main coronary artery. Long-term oral pretreatment with AMIO (30 or 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days) or DEA (15 or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days), was applied for 1 month before the coronary artery occlusion. Chronic oral treatment with DEA (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) resulted in a similar myocardial DEA concentration as chronic AMIO treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in rats (7.4 ± 0.7 μg·g(-1) and 8.9 ± 2.2 μg·g(-1)). Both pretreatments in the larger doses significantly improved the survival rate during the acute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (82% and 64% by AMIO and DEA, respectively, vs. 31% in controls). Our results demonstrate that chronic oral treatment with DEA resulted in similar cardiac tissue levels to that of chronic AMIO treatment, and offered an equivalent degree of antiarrhythmic effect against acute coronary artery ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

  11. Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-06-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is an Amazonian plant. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated to be due to the high polyphenol concentration. On the other hand, one of the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced cellular damage is free radical mediated, resulting in increased oxidative processes. This study investigated P. cupana's potential to attenuate cadmium-induced damages in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats were either pre-treated with 2 mg/g body weight (BW) of powdered P. cupana seed during 56 days and/or injected with cadmium chloride at a dose of 1.15 mg/kg BW. After cadmium exposition (48 h), testes samples were evaluated by histological and stereological analyses. Both groups exposed to cadmium presented evident morphological alterations relative to control animals. A few rodents showed massive cell death in the seminiferous epithelium and intertubular space, indicating that some animals are more sensitive to cadmium. Despite the alterations observed in both groups, pre-treatment with P. cupana was effective in attenuating morphological changes in Leydig cells, as well as reducing inflammatory response, relative to animals exclusively exposed to the metal. Animals treated only with P. cupana presented a significant increase in plasma testosterone levels and a significant increase in volumetric proportions of seminiferous tubules, which are indicative of spermatogenic stimulation.

  12. Pretreatment Technology Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A.; Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

  13. Noncompaction myocardium in association with type Ib glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Benjamin; Lindner, Martin; Vogel, Monika Nadja; Warth, Arne; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Renner, Marcus; Schnabel, Philipp; Schirmacher, Peter; Autschbach, Frank; Weichert, Wilko

    2012-10-15

    Noncompaction myocardium is a rare disorder assumed to occur as an arrest of the compaction process during the normal development of the heart. Left ventricular noncompaction has been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiac and extracardiac, especially neuromuscular abnormalities. Moreover, it has been suggested that metabolic alterations could be responsible for the noncompaction. However, no association of noncompaction myocardium with type Ib glycogen storage disease (GSD) has been reported so far. Type Ib GSD is due to a defect of a transmembrane protein which results, similar to type Ia GSD, in hypoglycemia, a markedly enlarged liver and, additionally, in neutropenia, recurrent infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Until now, no muscular or cardiac involvement has been described in type Ib GSD patients. The present case represents the first report of a noncompaction myocardium in a child with type Ib GSD who died of sudden clinical deterioration at the age of four.

  14. Maternal obesity induces fibrosis in fetal myocardium of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Jun X.; Zhu, Mei J.; McCormick, Richard J.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) has harmful effects on both fetal development and subsequent offspring health. The impact of MO on fetal myocardium development has received little attention. Fibrogenesis is regulated by the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/p38 signaling pathway. Using the well-established model of MO in pregnant sheep, we evaluated the effect of MO on TGF-β/p38 and collagen accumulation in fetal myocardium. Nonpregnant ewes were assigned to a control diet [Con, fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient recommendations] or obesogenic diet (OB, fed 150% of NRC recommendations) from 60 days before conception. Fetal ventricular muscle was sampled at 75 and 135 days of gestation (dG). At 75 dG, the expression of precursor TGF-β was 39.9 ± 9.9% higher (P < 0.05) in OB than Con fetal myocardium, consistent with the higher content of phosphorylated Smad3 in OB myocardium. The phosphorylation of p38 tended to be higher in OB myocardium (P = 0.08). In addition, enhanced Smad complexes were bound to Smad-binding elements in 75 dG OB fetal myocardium measured by DNA mobility shift assay (130.2 ± 26.0% higher, P < 0.05). Similar elevation of TGF-β signaling was observed in OB fetal myocardium at 135 dG. Total collagen concentration in OB was greater than Con fetal myocardium (2.42 ± 0.16 vs. 1.87 ± 0.04%, P < 0.05). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 were higher in the Con group compared with OB sheep (43.86 ± 16.01 and 37.23 ± 7.97% respectively, P < 0.05). In summary, MO results in greater fetal heart connective tissue accumulation associated with an upregulated TGF-β/p38 signaling pathway at late gestation; such changes would be expected to negatively impact offspring heart function. PMID:20876759

  15. System of scale-selective tomography of myocardium birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Boichuk, T. M.; Bachinskiy, V. T.; Vanchuliak, O. Ya.; Minzer, O. P.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Savich, V. O.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents the results of investigation of laser polarization fluorescence of biological layers (histological sections of the myocardium). The polarized structure of autofluorescence imaging layers of biological tissues was detected and investigated. Proposed the model of describing the formation of polarization inhomogeneous of autofluorescence imaging biological optically anisotropic layers. On this basis, analytically and experimentally tested to justify the method of laser polarimetry autofluorescent. Analyzed the effectiveness of this method in the postmortem diagnosis of infarction. The objective criteria (statistical moments) of differentiation of autofluorescent images of histological sections myocardium were defined. The operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) of these technique were determined.

  16. [Effect of biologically active food supplement coenzyme Q10 on metabolic processes in the myocardium of rats kept in different temperature conditions].

    PubMed

    Mikashinovich, Z I; Novoderzhkina, Iu G; Belousova, E S

    2007-01-01

    In present research the action of coenzyme Q10 on energetic metabolism and antioxidant system at different temperature conditions has been studied. It was established that the addition of coenzyme Q10 caused inadequate stimulation of main metabolic systems that could lead to running out of functional reserves of cardiomyocytes. The use of coenzyme Q10 helped to optimize intracellular compensating mechanisms supplying the defense of myocardium. Introduction in a diet coenzyme Q10 in conditions of a temperature's comfort threshold excess and development of a histic hypoxia can promote the decrease of gravity of hypoxic myocardium's lesions and to glycogenolysis' amplification that promotes maintenance of an energy homeostasis of a myocardium in posthypoxia term. It is possible to assume, that the augmentation of duration of reception coenzyme Q10 or its dosages can render more expressed protective effect.

  17. N-acetyl-L-cysteine pre-treatment protects cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa from reactive oxygen species without compromising the in vitro developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection embryos.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L; Arias, M E; Sánchez, R; Felmer, R

    2015-12-01

    Excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on in vitro embryo production systems negatively affects the quality and developmental potential of embryos, as result of a decreased sperm quality and increased DNA fragmentation. This issue is of major importance in assisted fertilisation procedures such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), because this technique does not allow the natural selection of competent spermatozoa, and therefore, DNA-damaged spermatozoa might be used to fertilise an egg. The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy to prevent the potential deleterious effect of ROS on cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. We evaluated the effect of a sperm pre-treatment with different concentrations of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on ROS production, viability and DNA fragmentation and assessed the effect of this treatment on the in vitro developmental potential and quality of embryos generated by ICSI. The results show a strong scavenging effect of 1 and 10 mm NAC after exposure of spermatozoa to a ROS inducer, without compromising the viability and DNA integrity. Importantly, in vitro developmental potential and quality of embryos generated by ICSI with spermatozoa treated with NAC were not affected, confirming the feasibility of using this treatment before an ICSI cycle.

  18. Engineering and Visualization of Bacteria for Targeting Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Le, Uyenchi N; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kwon, Jin-Sook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Nguyen, Vu H; Jiang, Sheng Nan; Lee, Byeong-Il; Hong, Yeongjin; Shin, Myung Geun; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Bom, Hee-Seung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the specific affinity of cardiac delivery vector could significantly improve the efficiency of gene/protein delivery, yet no cardiac vectors to date have sufficient target specificity for myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we explored bacterial tropism for infarcted myocardium based on our previous observations that certain bacteria are capable of targeting the hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Out of several Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium strains, the S. typhimurium defective in the synthesis of ppGpp (ΔppGpp S. typhimurium) revealed accumulation and selective proliferation in the infarcted myocardium without spillover to noncardiac tissue. The Salmonellae that were engineered to express a variant of Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc8), under the control of the E. coli arabinose operon promoter (PBAD), selectively targeted and delivered RLuc8 in the infarcted myocardium only upon injection of -arabinose. An examination of the infarct size before and after infection, and estimations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin indicated that intravenous injection of ΔppGpp S. typhimurium did not induce serious local or systemic immune reactions. This current proof-of-principle study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of Salmonellae to target infarcted myocardium and to serve as a vehicle for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents in MI. PMID:21364539

  19. Three-dimensional imaging of the myocardium with isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    Three methods of imaging the three-dimensional distribution of isotopes in the myocardium are discussed. Three-dimensional imaging was examined using multiple Anger-camera views. Longitudinal tomographic images with compensation for blurring were studied. Transverse-section reconstruction using coincidence detection of annihilation gammas from positron emitting isotopes was investigated.

  20. Engineering and visualization of bacteria for targeting infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Le, Uyenchi N; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kwon, Jin-Sook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Nguyen, Vu H; Jiang, Sheng Nan; Lee, Byeong-Il; Hong, Yeongjin; Shin, Myung Geun; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Bom, Hee-Seung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2011-05-01

    Optimization of the specific affinity of cardiac delivery vector could significantly improve the efficiency of gene/protein delivery, yet no cardiac vectors to date have sufficient target specificity for myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we explored bacterial tropism for infarcted myocardium based on our previous observations that certain bacteria are capable of targeting the hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Out of several Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium strains, the S. typhimurium defective in the synthesis of ppGpp (ΔppGpp S. typhimurium) revealed accumulation and selective proliferation in the infarcted myocardium without spillover to noncardiac tissue. The Salmonellae that were engineered to express a variant of Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc8), under the control of the E. coli arabinose operon promoter (P(BAD)), selectively targeted and delivered RLuc8 in the infarcted myocardium only upon injection of L-arabinose. An examination of the infarct size before and after infection, and estimations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin indicated that intravenous injection of ΔppGpp S. typhimurium did not induce serious local or systemic immune reactions. This current proof-of-principle study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of Salmonellae to target infarcted myocardium and to serve as a vehicle for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents in MI.

  1. [Morphological signs of impaired excitation conduction in the myocardium].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V

    2005-01-01

    The article describes morphological changes in cardiac muscular fibers and cardiomyocytes secondary to disorders in conduction of excitation in the myocardium. These changes may indicate cardiac arrest as a result of reflex impacts including cases of damage which is not lethal.

  2. Melatonin-induced glycosaminoglycans augmentation in myocardium remote to infarction.

    PubMed

    Drobnik, J; Tosik, D; Piera, L; Szczepanowska, A; Olczak, S; Zielinska, A; Liberski, P P; Ciosek, J

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of collagen as well as transient increases of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) have been shown in the myocardium remote to the infarction. The aim of the study is to observe the effect of melatonin on the accumulation of collagen and GAG in the left ventricle wall, remote to the infarction. A second aim is to determine whether the effect of the pineal indole is mediated by the membrane melatonin receptors of heart fibroblasts. Rats with myocardial infarction induced by ligation of the left coronary artery were treated with melatonin at a dose of 60 μg/100 g b.w. or vehicle (2% ethanol in 0.9% NaCl). The results were compared with an untreated control. In the second part of the study, the fibroblasts from the non-infarcted part of myocardium were isolated and cultured. Melatonin at a range of concentrations from 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M was applied to the fibroblast cultures. In the final part of the study, the influence of luzindole (10(-6) M), the melatonin membrane receptor inhibitor, on melatonin-induced GAG augmentation was investigated. Both collagen and GAG content were measured in the experiment. Melatonin elevated GAG content in the myocardium remote to the infarcted heart. Collagen level was not changed by pineal indoleamine. Fibroblasts isolated from the myocardium varied in shape from fusiform to spindle-shaped. Moreover, the pineal hormone (10(-7)M and 10(-6)M) increased GAG accumulation in the fibroblast culture. Luzindole inhibited melatonin-induced elevation of GAG content at 10(-6)M. Melatonin increased GAG content in the myocardium remote to infarction. This effect was dependent on the direct influence of the pineal indole on the heart fibroblasts. The melatonin-induced GAG elevation is blocked by luzindole, the melatonin membrane receptors inhibitor, indicating a direct effect of this indole.

  3. Functional antagonism of β-adrenoceptor subtypes in the catecholamine-induced automatism in rat myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Boer, DC; Bassani, JWM; Bassani, RA

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Myocardial automatism and arrhythmias may ensue during strong sympathetic stimulation. We sought to investigate the relevant types of adrenoceptor, as well as the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, in the production of catecholaminergic automatism in atrial and ventricular rat myocardium. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of adrenoceptor agonists on the rate of spontaneous contractions (automatic response) and the amplitude of electrically evoked contractions (inotropic response) were determined in left atria and ventricular myocytes isolated from Wistar rats. KEY RESULTS Catecholaminergic automatism was Ca2+-dependent, as it required a functional sarcoplasmic reticulum to be exhibited. Although both α- and β-adrenoceptor activation caused inotropic stimulation, only β1-adrenoceptors seemed to mediate the induction of spontaneous activity. Catecholaminergic automatism was enhanced and suppressed by β2-adrenoceptor blockade and stimulation respectively. Inhibition of either PDE3 or PDE4 (by milrinone and rolipram, respectively) potentiated the automatic response of myocytes to catecholamines. However, only rolipram abolished the attenuation of automatism produced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS α- and β2-adrenoceptors do not seem to be involved in the mediation of catecholaminergic stimulation of spontaneous activity in atrial and ventricular myocardium. However, a functional antagonism of β1- and β2-adrenoceptor activation was identified, the former mediating catecholaminergic myocardial automatism and the latter attenuating this effect. Results suggest that hydrolysis of cAMP by PDE4 is involved in the protective effect mediated by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation. PMID:21091648

  4. Myocardial protection after monophosphoryl lipid A: studies of delayed anti-ischaemic properties in rabbit heart.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, G. F.; Goodwin, R. W.; Wright, M. J.; Kerac, M.; Heads, R. J.; Yellon, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA) is a non-pyrogenic derivative of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide. Administration of this agent at high doses to rats and at low doses to dogs was previously shown to confer marked protection against ischaemia-reperfusion 24 h later, although the cellular mechanisms of this delayed protection are obscure. We hypothesized that MLA pretreatment causes the induction of the 70 kDa cytoprotective stress protein HSP70i in the myocardium. If this were the case, protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury would be observed both in vitro and in vivo. 2. Rabbits were pretreated with MLA 0.035 mg kg-1, i.v. or vehicle solution. For the in vitro study, hearts were isolated 24 h later and Langendorff-perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. Global ischaemia was induced for 20 min followed by 120 min reperfusion. Recovery of post-ischaemic left ventricular function and lactate dehydrogenase efflux was similar in MLA and vehicle pretreated hearts and there was no significant difference in the percentage of infarction of the left ventricle determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining (MLA 22.4 +/- 5.2%, vehicle 24.8 +/- 5.1%). 3. When 30 min regional ischaemia and 120 min reperfusion was instituted in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits 24 h after pretreatment with MLA or vehicle, the percentage infarction within the risk zone was reduced from 42.6 +/- 5.7% in vehicle pretreated animals to 19.6 +/- 4.4% in MLA pretreated animals (P < 0.01). 4. Determination of myocardial HSP70i content by Western blot analysis showed that MLA treatment did not increase HSP70i immunoreactivity. 5. We conclude that MLA at this dose confers protection only against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vivo and that this protection is not related to induction of HSP70i. Because protection was observed only in vivo it seems possible that the delayed protection conferred by MLA is mediated by effects on humoral or blood-borne factors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

  5. Remote ischemic postconditioning enhances cell retention in the myocardium after intravenous administration of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qin; Song, Peng; Wang, Enshi; Li, Jun; Hu, Shengshou; Zhang, Hao

    2013-03-01

    Efficacy of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for myocardial infarction (MI) is limited by low cell retention in the damaged myocardium. Previous studies indicated that remote ischemic conditioning could protect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury by release of various cytokines including stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α). However, whether remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) can also enhance the retention of infused cells in the myocardium by activating MSC homing is unclear. In this study, RIPostC was induced with 4cycles of 5min occlusion and reperfusion of the abdominal aorta in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats which underwent ligation of the coronary artery 1week previously. Cytokine levels in serum and myocardium were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 6, 24 and 48h after RIPostC. Then, a total of 4×10(6) male MSCs were infused intravenously at 24h after RIPostC. The number of survived cells in the myocardium was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis for Y chromosome and the heart function was evaluated by echocardiography at 1month after cell infusion. Furthermore, 10μg/kg rabbit anti-rat CXCR4 polyclonal antibody was injected intraperitoneally to prove the role of SDF-1α for RIPostC. RIPostC induced an increase in SDF-1α in serum at 1h and enhanced SDF-1α transcription and protein synthesis in the myocardium at 24h after the procedure. 1month after cell transplantation, RIPostC significantly increased MSC myocardial retention by 79.1±12.3% and thereby contributed to enhanced cardiac function in comparison with cell transplantation without RIPostC. Furthermore, blockade with a CXCR4-specific antibody after RIPostC markedly attenuated the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy. We conclude that RIPostC activated SDF-1α expression and enhanced retention of the infused MSCs in the injured myocardium. Priming of the heart with RIPostC might be a novel

  6. MiR-22/Sp-1 Links Estrogens With the Up-Regulation of Cystathionine γ-Lyase in Myocardium, Which Contributes to Estrogenic Cardioprotection Against Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Tang, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Cong, Bing-Hai; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, generated in the myocardium predominantly via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), is cardioprotective. Our previous study has shown that estrogens enhance CSE expression in myocardium of female rats. The present study aims to explore the mechanisms by which estrogens regulate CSE expression, in particular to clarify the role of estrogen receptor subtypes and the transcriptional factor responsible for the estrogenic effects. We found that either the CSE inhibitor or the CSE small interfering RNA attenuated the protective effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) against H2O2- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in primary cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. E2 stimulates CSE expression via estrogen receptor (ER)-α both in cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro and in the myocardium of female mice in vivo. A specificity protein-1 (Sp-1) consensus site was identified in the rat CSE promoter and was found to mediate the E2-induced CSE expression. E2 increases ERα and Sp-1 and inhibits microRNA (miR)-22 expression in myocardium of ovariectomized rats. In primary cardiomyocytes, E2 stimulates Sp-1 expression through the ERα-mediated down-regulation of miR-22. It was confirmed that both ERα and Sp-1 were targeted by miR-22. In the myocardium of ovariectomized rats, the level of miR-22 inversely correlated to CSE, ERα, Sp-1, and antioxidant biomarkers and positively correlated to oxidative biomarkers. In summary, this study demonstrates that estrogens stimulate Sp-1 through the ERα-mediated down-regulation of miR-22 in cardiomyocytes, leading to the up-regulation of CSE, which in turn results in an increase of antioxidative defense. Interaction of ERα, miR-22, and Sp-1 may play a critical role in the control of oxidative stress status in the myocardium of female rats.

  7. The iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin is upregulated in the ischemic and in the remote myocardium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Gregor; Mueller, Katrin; Schwarz, Peggy; Wiedemann, Stephan; Adler, Guido; Strasser, Ruth H; Kulaksiz, Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that iron metabolism contributes to the ischemic damage after myocardial infarction. Hepcidin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, regulates iron uptake and metabolism, protecting the body from iron overload. In this study we analyzed the regulation of hepcidin in the heart and blood of rats after myocardial infarction. To induce a myocardial infarction in the rats, left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was performed. After 1-24h, biopsies from the ischemic and the non-ischemic myocardium were taken. In these biopsies, the mRNA levels and the protein expression of hepcidin were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. In parallel, the serum levels of prohepcidin were measured by ELISA. Six hours after myocardial infarction, the hepcidin mRNA expression was temporally upregulated in the ischemic and in the non-ischemic myocardium. The upregulation was specific for hepcidin, since other iron-related genes (hemojuvelin, IREG-1) remained unchanged. Furthermore, the alteration of the hepcidin protein expression in the ischemic area was connected to the level of hepcidin in the serum of the infarcted rats, where hepcidin also raised up. Angiotensin receptor blockade with candesartan did not influence the mRNA regulation of hepcidin. Together, these data show a particular upregulation of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin in the ischemic and the non-ischemic myocardium after myocardial infarction. It is speculated that upregulation of hepcidin may reduce iron toxicity and thus infarct size expansion in an infarcted heart.

  8. Myocardium and BMP signaling are required for endocardial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Palencia-Desai, Sharina; Rost, Megan S; Schumacher, Jennifer A; Ton, Quynh V; Craig, Michael P; Baltrunaite, Kristina; Koenig, Andrew L; Wang, Jinhu; Poss, Kenneth D; Chi, Neil C; Stainier, Didier Y R; Sumanas, Saulius

    2015-07-01

    Endocardial and myocardial progenitors originate in distinct regions of the anterior lateral plate mesoderm and migrate to the midline where they coalesce to form the cardiac tube. Endocardial progenitors acquire a molecular identity distinct from other vascular endothelial cells and initiate expression of specific genes such as nfatc1. Yet the molecular pathways and tissue interactions involved in establishing endocardial identity are poorly understood. The endocardium develops in tight association with cardiomyocytes. To test for a potential role of the myocardium in endocardial morphogenesis, we used two different zebrafish models deficient in cardiomyocytes: the hand2 mutant and a myocardial-specific genetic ablation method. We show that in hand2 mutants endocardial progenitors migrate to the midline but fail to assemble into a cardiac cone and do not express markers of differentiated endocardium. Endocardial differentiation defects were rescued by myocardial but not endocardial-specific expression of hand2. In metronidazole-treated myl7:nitroreductase embryos, myocardial cells were targeted for apoptosis, which resulted in the loss of endocardial nfatc1 expression. However, endocardial cells were present and retained expression of general vascular endothelial markers. We further identified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) as a candidate myocardium-derived signal required for endocardial differentiation. Chemical and genetic inhibition of BMP signaling at the tailbud stage resulted in severe inhibition of endocardial differentiation while there was little effect on myocardial development. Heat-shock-induced bmp2b expression rescued endocardial nfatc1 expression in hand2 mutants and in myocardium-depleted embryos. Our results indicate that the myocardium is crucial for endocardial morphogenesis and differentiation, and identify BMP as a signal involved in endocardial differentiation.

  9. Ultrastructural and functional effects of lead poisoning on adult canine myocardium: assessment of thiamin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of lead (Pb) poisoning on the adult canine myocardium were assessed quantitatively using stereological techniques, functional testing, and blood analyses as well as qualitatively by morphological investigation. Relative measurements using stereological techniques compared the volume fractions of cellular components of the three groups. Blood was analyzed for lead, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total erythrocytes, total leukocytes, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The major finding of the stereological analysis was the statistically significant increase of 3.2% in myofilament volume in the Pb treated group and the significant decrease in mitochondrial volume in both the Pb treated and Pb + B/sub 1/ treated groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mitochondria/myofilament volume ratio was found in the Pb treated, but no Pb + B/sub 1/ treated group. This may indicate either a protective effect of thiamin on mitochondria or a reduced compensatory need of the myocyte to increase myofilament volume.

  10. Efficacy of coronary angioplasty for the treatment of hibernating myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Fath-Ordoubadi, F; Beatt, K; Spyrou, N; Camici, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the efficacy of coronary angioplasty as the sole method of revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease and chronically dysfunctional but viable myocardium (hibernating myocardium), and to assess the effect of restenosis on functional outcome.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS—24 consecutive patients with hibernating myocardium were studied. Positron emission tomography was used to assess myocardial viability, blood flow, and flow reserve. One patient refused angioplasty, one had bypass surgery, and one died while waiting for an elective procedure. The procedure failed in three patients. The remaining 18 patients had repeat echocardiography, 15 had repeat coronary angiography, and nine had repeat assessments of blood flow and flow reserve at mean (SD) 17 (2) weeks after angioplasty. In three patients restenosis was documented.
RESULTS—The wall motion score index in the revascularised territories improved from 1.71 (0.37) to 1.34 (0.47) (p = 0.008). Thirty of 51 dysfunctional segments improved in territories without restenosis compared with three of 14 in restenosed territories (p = 0.001). Hibernating and normal segments had comparable flows (0.82 (0.26) v 0.89 (0.24) ml/min/g; NS) while flow reserve was lower in hibernating segments (1.55 (0.68) v 2.07 (1.08); p = 0.03). In segments without restenosis flow reserve improved from 2.03 (1.25) to 2.33 (1.4) (p = 0.03). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive accuracy of the viability study were 97%, 77%, 82%, and 96%, respectively. After excluding patients with restenosis, specificity and positive predictive accuracy improved to 90% and 93%.
CONCLUSIONS—Angioplasty improves function in hibernating myocardium, and restenosis prevents recovery; hibernating myocardium is characterised by an impairment of flow reserve; restenosis affects the diagnostic accuracy of viability studies.


Keywords: coronary artery disease; percutaneous

  11. Erythropoietin pretreatment suppresses inflammation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    RONG, REN; XIJUN, XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein originally known for its important role in the stimulation of erythropoiesis, has recently been shown to have significant protective effects in animal models of kidney and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of EPO on myocardial IRI and to investigate the mechanism underlying these effects. A total of 18 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the sham, IRI-saline and IRI-EPO groups. Rats in the IRI-EPO group were administered 5,000 U/kg EPO intraperitoneally 24 h prior to the induction of IRI. IRI was induced by ligating the left descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue were observed and scored. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were evaluated in the serum and myocardial tissue. Furthermore, the effects of EPO on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling and EPO receptor (EPOR) phosphorylation were measured. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue, increased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the myocardium, and increased serum levels of these mediators, as a result of IRI, were significantly decreased by EPO pretreatment. The effects of EPO were found to be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, which suppressed the inflammatory responses, following the initiation of EPOR activation by EPO. Therefore, EPO pretreatment was demonstrated to decrease myocardial IRI, which was associated with activation of EPOR, subsequently increasing PI3K/Akt signaling to inhibit the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that EPO may be useful for preventing myocardial IRI. PMID:26622330

  12. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  13. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  14. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  15. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  16. 40 CFR 403.20 - Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL. 403.20 Section 403.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OF POLLUTION § 403.20 Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL. The...

  17. 40 CFR 430.117 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 430.117 Section 430.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... and Lightweight Papers from Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.117 Pretreatment standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...

  19. 40 CFR 403.20 - Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL. 403.20 Section 403.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND...

  20. 40 CFR 403.20 - Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment Program Reinvention Pilot Projects Under Project XL. 403.20 Section 403.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND...

  1. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...

  2. 40 CFR 403.13 - Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for fundamentally different factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for fundamentally different factors. 403.13 Section 403.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR...

  3. 40 CFR 430.87 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 430.87 Section 430.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.87 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS)....

  4. 40 CFR 430.87 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 430.87 Section 430.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.87 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS)....

  5. 40 CFR 430.87 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 430.87 Section 430.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.87 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS)....

  6. 40 CFR 430.86 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 430.86 Section 430.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.86 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES)....

  7. 40 CFR 430.86 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 430.86 Section 430.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.86 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES)....

  8. 40 CFR 430.86 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 430.86 Section 430.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.86 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES)....

  9. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING...

  10. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING...

  11. 40 CFR 437.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 437.15 Section 437.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... subject to this subpart must achieve the following pretreatment standards: Standards for antimony,...

  12. 40 CFR 444.18 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 444.18 Section 444.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Standards for arsenic, cadmium,...

  13. Transplantation of genetically engineered cardiac fibroblasts producing recombinant human erythropoietin to repair the infarcted myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ruvinov, Emil; Sharabani-Yosef, Orna; Nagler, Arnon; Einbinder, Tom; Feinberg, Micha S; Holbova, Radka; Douvdevani, Amos; Leor, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin possesses cellular protection properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that in situ expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) would improve tissue repair in rat after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results RhEPO-producing cardiac fibroblasts were generated ex vivo by transduction with retroviral vector. The anti-apoptotic effect of rhEPO-producing fibroblasts was evaluated by co-culture with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/PI assay and DAPI staining showed that compared with control, rhEPO forced expression markedly attenuated apoptosis and improved survival of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the effect of rhEPO on the infarcted myocardium, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent coronary artery occlusion, and rhEPO-producing fibroblasts, non-transduced fibroblasts, or saline, were injected into the scar tissue seven days after infarction. One month later, immunostaining identified rhEPO expression in the implanted engineered cells but not in controls. Compared with non-transduced fibroblasts or saline injection, implanted rhEPO-producing fibroblasts promoted vascularization in the scar, and prevented cell apoptosis. By two-dimensional echocardiography and postmortem morphometry, transplanted EPO-engineered fibroblasts did not prevent left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and adverse LV remodeling 5 and 9 weeks after MI. Conclusion In situ expression of rhEPO enhances vascularization and reduces cell apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. However, local EPO therapy is insufficient for functional improvement after MI in rat. PMID:19014419

  14. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  15. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  16. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  17. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  18. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  1. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  3. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  4. 40 CFR 405.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.46 Section 405.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 405.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 405.44 Section 405.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 427.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.36 Section 427.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch...

  7. 40 CFR 427.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.54 Section 427.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  8. 40 CFR 427.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.64 Section 427.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  9. 40 CFR 427.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.64 Section 427.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  10. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.34 Section 427.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  11. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.24 Section 427.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  12. 40 CFR 427.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.56 Section 427.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory §...

  13. 40 CFR 427.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.74 Section 427.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  14. 40 CFR 427.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.54 Section 427.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  15. 40 CFR 427.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.74 Section 427.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor...

  16. 40 CFR 427.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.56 Section 427.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  17. 40 CFR 427.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.16 Section 427.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  18. 40 CFR 427.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.26 Section 427.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  19. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.24 Section 427.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 427.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.56 Section 427.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  1. 40 CFR 427.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.76 Section 427.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 427.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.36 Section 427.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  3. 40 CFR 427.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.54 Section 427.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  4. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.24 Section 427.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  5. 40 CFR 427.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.56 Section 427.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  6. 40 CFR 427.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.16 Section 427.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  7. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.34 Section 427.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  8. 40 CFR 427.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.46 Section 427.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  9. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.34 Section 427.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  10. 40 CFR 427.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.16 Section 427.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  11. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  12. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.44 Section 427.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 427.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.54 Section 427.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  14. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.44 Section 427.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  15. 40 CFR 427.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.16 Section 427.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory §...

  16. 40 CFR 427.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.64 Section 427.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing...

  17. 40 CFR 427.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.36 Section 427.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  18. 40 CFR 427.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.36 Section 427.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch...

  19. 40 CFR 427.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.76 Section 427.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor...

  20. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  1. 40 CFR 427.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.16 Section 427.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 427.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.56 Section 427.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory §...

  3. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.14 Section 427.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  4. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.34 Section 427.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  5. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.24 Section 427.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  6. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.44 Section 427.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  7. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.14 Section 427.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  8. 40 CFR 427.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.74 Section 427.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  9. 40 CFR 427.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.26 Section 427.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  10. 40 CFR 427.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.86 Section 427.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of...

  11. 40 CFR 427.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.64 Section 427.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing...

  12. 40 CFR 427.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.64 Section 427.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 427.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.26 Section 427.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  14. 40 CFR 427.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.36 Section 427.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  15. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.44 Section 427.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  16. 40 CFR 427.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.46 Section 427.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric...

  17. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory §...

  18. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.24 Section 427.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 427.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.76 Section 427.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor...

  20. 40 CFR 427.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.54 Section 427.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  1. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.44 Section 427.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  2. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.14 Section 427.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  3. 40 CFR 427.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.26 Section 427.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.34 Section 427.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  5. 40 CFR 427.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.46 Section 427.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  6. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory §...

  7. 40 CFR 427.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.76 Section 427.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor...

  8. 40 CFR 427.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.46 Section 427.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper...

  9. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.14 Section 427.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement...

  10. 40 CFR 427.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.66 Section 427.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  11. 40 CFR 427.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.26 Section 427.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory §...

  12. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.14 Section 427.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 427.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.46 Section 427.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric...

  14. 40 CFR 427.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 427.74 Section 427.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos...

  15. 40 CFR 447.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 447.16 Section 447.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory §...

  16. 40 CFR 447.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 447.16 Section 447.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26...

  18. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26...

  19. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory §...

  20. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory §...

  3. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26...

  7. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory §...

  8. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26...

  11. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26...

  12. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing...

  13. 40 CFR 406.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.54 Section 406.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  14. 40 CFR 406.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.54 Section 406.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  15. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory §...

  16. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 406.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.54 Section 406.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  18. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory §...

  19. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory §...

  20. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing...

  2. 40 CFR 406.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.66 Section 406.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory §...

  3. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 406.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.54 Section 406.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing...

  6. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing...

  7. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  8. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing...

  9. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 406.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.54 Section 406.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  11. 40 CFR 406.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.56 Section 406.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory §...

  12. 40 CFR 426.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.36 Section 426.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass...

  13. 40 CFR 426.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.106 Section 426.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glass Tubing...

  14. 40 CFR 426.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.46 Section 426.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  15. 40 CFR 426.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.76 Section 426.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  16. 40 CFR 426.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.64 Section 426.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive...

  17. 40 CFR 426.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.36 Section 426.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing...

  18. 40 CFR 426.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.56 Section 426.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing...

  19. 40 CFR 426.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.106 Section 426.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glass Tubing...

  20. 40 CFR 426.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.136 Section 426.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass...

  1. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.44 Section 426.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  2. 40 CFR 426.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.136 Section 426.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown...

  3. 40 CFR 426.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.106 Section 426.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glass Tubing...

  4. 40 CFR 426.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.46 Section 426.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing...

  5. 40 CFR 426.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.136 Section 426.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown...

  6. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.44 Section 426.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  7. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.44 Section 426.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  8. 40 CFR 426.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.26 Section 426.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass...

  9. 40 CFR 426.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.34 Section 426.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass...

  10. 40 CFR 426.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.24 Section 426.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet...

  11. 40 CFR 426.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.36 Section 426.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass...

  12. 40 CFR 426.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.34 Section 426.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled...

  13. 40 CFR 426.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.46 Section 426.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  14. 40 CFR 426.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.64 Section 426.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive...

  15. 40 CFR 426.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.76 Section 426.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating...

  16. 40 CFR 426.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.26 Section 426.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass...

  17. 40 CFR 426.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.56 Section 426.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass...

  18. 40 CFR 426.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.24 Section 426.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet...

  19. 40 CFR 426.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.76 Section 426.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  20. 40 CFR 426.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.106 Section 426.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glass Tubing (Danner)...

  1. 40 CFR 426.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.36 Section 426.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass...

  2. 40 CFR 426.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.26 Section 426.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing...

  3. 40 CFR 426.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.24 Section 426.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet...

  4. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.44 Section 426.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  5. 40 CFR 426.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.56 Section 426.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass...

  6. 40 CFR 426.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.76 Section 426.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  7. 40 CFR 426.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.46 Section 426.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  8. 40 CFR 426.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.26 Section 426.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass...

  9. 40 CFR 426.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.64 Section 426.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive...

  10. 40 CFR 426.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.34 Section 426.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled...

  11. 40 CFR 426.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.34 Section 426.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled...

  12. 40 CFR 426.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.56 Section 426.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass...

  13. 40 CFR 426.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.136 Section 426.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown...

  14. 40 CFR 426.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.24 Section 426.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass...

  15. 40 CFR 439.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 439.3 Section 439.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General § 439.3...

  16. 40 CFR 439.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 439.3 Section 439.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General § 439.3...

  17. 40 CFR 439.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 439.3 Section 439.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General § 439.3 General...

  18. 40 CFR 439.3 - General pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General pretreatment standards. 439.3 Section 439.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General § 439.3...

  19. 40 CFR 411.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.14 Section 411.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  20. 40 CFR 411.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.16 Section 411.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 411.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.16 Section 411.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 411.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.14 Section 411.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  3. 40 CFR 411.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.36 Section 411.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  4. 40 CFR 411.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.26 Section 411.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 411.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.16 Section 411.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 411.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.36 Section 411.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  7. 40 CFR 411.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.36 Section 411.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  8. 40 CFR 411.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.16 Section 411.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 411.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.24 Section 411.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 411.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.14 Section 411.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  11. 40 CFR 411.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.34 Section 411.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  12. 40 CFR 411.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.34 Section 411.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  13. 40 CFR 411.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.34 Section 411.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  14. 40 CFR 411.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.26 Section 411.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  15. 40 CFR 411.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.14 Section 411.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  16. 40 CFR 411.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.24 Section 411.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 411.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.24 Section 411.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  18. 40 CFR 411.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.36 Section 411.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  19. 40 CFR 411.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.26 Section 411.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  20. 40 CFR 411.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.24 Section 411.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 411.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.26 Section 411.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 411.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.34 Section 411.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  3. 40 CFR 417.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.144 Section 417.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization...

  4. 40 CFR 417.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 417.146 Section 417.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of...

  5. 40 CFR 417.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 417.146 Section 417.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of...

  6. 40 CFR 417.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.144 Section 417.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization...

  7. 40 CFR 417.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.144 Section 417.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization...

  8. 40 CFR 417.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.144 Section 417.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization...

  9. 40 CFR 417.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 417.146 Section 417.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of...

  10. 40 CFR 417.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 417.146 Section 417.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of...

  11. 40 CFR 417.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.144 Section 417.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization...

  12. 40 CFR 417.146 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 417.146 Section 417.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of...

  13. 40 CFR 413.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 413.54 Section 413.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coatings Subcategory §...

  14. 40 CFR 413.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 413.44 Section 413.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Anodizing Subcategory §...

  15. 40 CFR 407.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.36 Section 407.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  16. 40 CFR 407.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.36 Section 407.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  17. 40 CFR 407.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.36 Section 407.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  18. 40 CFR 407.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.36 Section 407.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 407.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.36 Section 407.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 420.28 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.28 Section 420.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 408.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.16 Section 408.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised...

  2. 40 CFR 408.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.16 Section 408.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised...

  3. 40 CFR 408.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.16 Section 408.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised...

  4. 40 CFR 408.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.16 Section 408.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised...

  5. 40 CFR 408.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.16 Section 408.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised...

  6. 40 CFR 409.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.16 Section 409.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  7. 40 CFR 409.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.14 Section 409.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing...

  8. 40 CFR 409.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.16 Section 409.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 409.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.16 Section 409.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 409.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.14 Section 409.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing...

  11. 40 CFR 409.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.16 Section 409.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  12. 40 CFR 409.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.16 Section 409.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  13. 40 CFR 409.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.14 Section 409.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing...

  14. 40 CFR 409.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.14 Section 409.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing...

  15. 40 CFR 409.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.14 Section 409.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing...

  16. 40 CFR 421.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.16 Section 421.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bauxite Refining...

  17. 40 CFR 421.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.16 Section 421.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bauxite Refining...

  18. 40 CFR 421.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.16 Section 421.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bauxite Refining...

  19. 40 CFR 421.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.16 Section 421.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bauxite Refining...

  20. 40 CFR 421.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 421.16 Section 421.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bauxite Refining...

  1. 40 CFR 427.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.106 Section 427.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor...

  2. 40 CFR 427.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.106 Section 427.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor Absorption Subcategory §...

  3. 40 CFR 427.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.106 Section 427.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor...

  4. 40 CFR 427.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.106 Section 427.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor Absorption Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 427.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.106 Section 427.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor...

  6. 40 CFR 408.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.56 Section 408.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan...

  7. 40 CFR 408.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.56 Section 408.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan...

  8. 40 CFR 408.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.56 Section 408.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan...

  9. 40 CFR 428.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.16 Section 428.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants...

  10. 40 CFR 426.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.26 Section 426.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing...

  11. 40 CFR 426.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.56 Section 426.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing...

  12. 40 CFR 426.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.46 Section 426.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing...

  13. 40 CFR 426.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.34 Section 426.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass...

  14. 40 CFR 426.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.64 Section 426.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  15. 40 CFR 426.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.76 Section 426.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating...

  16. 40 CFR 426.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.66 Section 426.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering...

  17. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.44 Section 426.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  18. 40 CFR 426.136 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.136 Section 426.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass...

  19. 40 CFR 426.106 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.106 Section 426.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glass Tubing (Danner)...

  20. 40 CFR 426.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.36 Section 426.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing...

  1. 40 CFR 426.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.24 Section 426.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass...

  2. 40 CFR 426.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 426.64 Section 426.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  3. 40 CFR 426.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.66 Section 426.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  4. 40 CFR 426.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.66 Section 426.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering...

  5. 40 CFR 426.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.66 Section 426.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  6. 40 CFR 426.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 426.66 Section 426.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass...

  7. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.246 Section 408.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized...

  8. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.246 Section 408.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized...

  9. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.246 Section 408.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized...

  10. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.236 Section 408.236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked...

  11. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.246 Section 408.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized...

  12. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.236 Section 408.236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked...

  13. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.236 Section 408.236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked...

  14. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.236 Section 408.236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked...

  15. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.236 Section 408.236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked...

  16. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 408.246 Section 408.246 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized...

  17. 40 CFR 428.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.16 Section 428.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube...

  18. 40 CFR 428.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.16 Section 428.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube...

  19. 40 CFR 428.116 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.116 Section 428.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Foam Subcategory §...

  20. 40 CFR 428.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.46 Section 428.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber...

  1. 40 CFR 428.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.46 Section 428.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber...

  2. 40 CFR 428.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.16 Section 428.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants...

  3. 40 CFR 428.116 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.116 Section 428.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Foam Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 428.116 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.116 Section 428.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Foam Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 428.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.46 Section 428.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 428.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.46 Section 428.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory §...

  7. 40 CFR 428.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.46 Section 428.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber...

  8. 40 CFR 428.116 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.116 Section 428.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Foam Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 428.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.16 Section 428.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube...

  10. 40 CFR 428.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.86 Section 428.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion...

  11. 40 CFR 428.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.86 Section 428.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed...

  12. 40 CFR 428.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.86 Section 428.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion...

  13. 40 CFR 428.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.86 Section 428.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed...

  14. 40 CFR 428.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.86 Section 428.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion...

  15. 40 CFR 463.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.15 Section 463.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling...

  16. 40 CFR 463.26 - Pretreatment for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment for new sources. 463.26 Section 463.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 463.26 - Pretreatment for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment for new sources. 463.26 Section 463.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning...

  18. 40 CFR 463.26 - Pretreatment for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment for new sources. 463.26 Section 463.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory §...

  19. 40 CFR 463.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.16 Section 463.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling...

  20. 40 CFR 463.35 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.35 Section 463.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing...

  1. 40 CFR 463.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.36 Section 463.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory §...

  2. 40 CFR 463.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.15 Section 463.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  3. 40 CFR 463.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.16 Section 463.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating...

  4. 40 CFR 463.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.25 Section 463.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  5. 40 CFR 463.35 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.35 Section 463.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing...

  6. 40 CFR 463.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.36 Section 463.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing...

  7. 40 CFR 463.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.16 Section 463.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating...

  8. 40 CFR 463.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.15 Section 463.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling...

  9. 40 CFR 463.35 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.35 Section 463.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  10. 40 CFR 463.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.25 Section 463.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning...

  11. 40 CFR 463.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 463.25 Section 463.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning...

  12. 40 CFR 463.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 463.36 Section 463.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing Water Subcategory §...

  13. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 458.16 Section 458.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  14. 40 CFR 424.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.16 Section 424.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet...

  15. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 458.16 Section 458.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace...

  16. 40 CFR 424.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.16 Section 424.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet...

  17. 40 CFR 424.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.26 Section 424.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Electric Furnaces and...

  18. 40 CFR 424.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.16 Section 424.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet...

  19. 40 CFR 424.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.26 Section 424.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Electric Furnaces and...

  20. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 458.16 Section 458.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  1. 40 CFR 424.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.26 Section 424.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Electric Furnaces and...

  2. 40 CFR 424.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.26 Section 424.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Electric Furnaces and...

  3. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 458.16 Section 458.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black...

  4. 40 CFR 424.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.26 Section 424.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Electric Furnaces and...

  5. 40 CFR 424.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.16 Section 424.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet...

  6. 40 CFR 424.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 424.16 Section 424.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet...

  7. 40 CFR 458.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 458.16 Section 458.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace...

  8. 40 CFR 411.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.26 Section 411.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 411.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.34 Section 411.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  10. 40 CFR 411.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.16 Section 411.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  11. 40 CFR 411.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.14 Section 411.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonleaching Subcategory §...

  12. 40 CFR 411.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 411.36 Section 411.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles...

  13. 40 CFR 411.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 411.24 Section 411.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory §...

  14. 40 CFR 446.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 446.16 Section 446.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash...

  15. 40 CFR 446.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 446.16 Section 446.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint...

  16. 40 CFR 446.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 446.16 Section 446.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash...

  17. 40 CFR 446.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 446.16 Section 446.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash...

  18. 40 CFR 446.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 446.16 Section 446.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint...

  19. 40 CFR 420.05 - Pretreatment standards compliance date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance date. 420.05 Section 420.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  20. 40 CFR 420.18 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.18 Section 420.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking Subcategory §...

  1. 40 CFR 420.48 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.48 Section 420.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. 40 CFR 420.05 - Pretreatment standards compliance date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance date. 420.05 Section 420.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  3. 40 CFR 420.28 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.28 Section 420.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering...

  4. 40 CFR 420.04 - Calculation of pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of pretreatment standards. 420.04 Section 420.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  5. 40 CFR 420.18 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.18 Section 420.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 420.05 - Pretreatment standards compliance date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards compliance date. 420.05 Section 420.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  7. 40 CFR 420.04 - Calculation of pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Calculation of pretreatment standards. 420.04 Section 420.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  8. 40 CFR 420.48 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.48 Section 420.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory §...

  9. 40 CFR 420.28 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.28 Section 420.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 420.28 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.28 Section 420.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering Subcategory §...

  11. 40 CFR 420.05 - Pretreatment standards compliance date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance date. 420.05 Section 420.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  12. 40 CFR 420.18 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.18 Section 420.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking...

  13. 40 CFR 420.18 - Pretreatment standards compliance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards compliance dates. 420.18 Section 420.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking Subcategory §...

  14. 40 CFR 420.04 - Calculation of pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Calculation of pretreatment standards. 420.04 Section 420.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions §...

  15. 40 CFR 409.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.24 Section 409.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar...

  16. 40 CFR 409.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.36 Section 409.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 409.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.26 Section 409.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining...

  18. 40 CFR 409.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.34 Section 409.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar...

  19. 40 CFR 409.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 409.26 Section 409.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining...

  20. 40 CFR 409.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 409.24 Section 409.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar...